# Maths Study Sheet Term 4 What s going to be on the Test: K&P E & D Standard 1.

Integration Using calculator and trapezoid rule. 2. Normal distribution Using the calculator, finding x values. 3. Normal distribution finding Z scores. D & C Standard 4. PDF: Graph, area, comment. Eg. Is a PDF because it is equal to 1 5. Cumulative Standard Norm table: Given Z, find probability scores. 6. Cumulative Standard Norm table: Given probability, find Z score. C & B Standard 7. PDF: Finding unknowns, simple function. 8. Area between two curves. (Speed, Velocity and Displacement) 9. Normal approximation to Binomial. (Use three tests) B & A Standard 10. Harder cumulative standard norm table finding probabilities and Z scores. 11. Application of normal distribution. 12. Application of normal distribution. 13. PDF: Finding unknowns, reciprocal functions. MAPS 14. Integration substitution. (Finding the + c, maybe?) 15. Normal distribution using tables. 16. Application of normal dist, complex. Q1 - Trapezoid and Rectangle Area by Approximation Ex. 7A (pp217); Plus worksheet. (ONLY ONE QUESTION ON THIS ON THE TEST WOO) Rules: Rectangle: LxW Trapezoid: x h (a+b) Just need to know this one Triangle: x b x h Step 1: Sketch the graph. If number of trapeziums to use is not specified, four or five is a good number to use. Six if you re feeling energetic on an M&P question. Step 2: Work out the area of each trapezoid, then total the area. The totalling can be done by the FML rule, where: A = (First + 2(Middle) + Last) Here is a worked example from the book:

Test is on Wednesday 8.35 10.35

Q8. This will be a Speed Velocity Displacement question, so make sure you know their relationships :D

Remember that the more trapezoids you use, the more accurate it will be. It is also best to learn the trapezoid rule because it works for rectangles too.

(Possibly Q14?) M&P Example of Integrating between curves: WE 13 from 8D These mother functions have the two curves crossing over one another, so that half is above the lower, and half the lower is above the higher. This means that you ll have to work each area out separately and add them together. WOOT

Q8; Integration between Curves: Ex. 8D (We have already done this; but just if you want to practice one or two) Step 1: Find points of intersection (Algebraically or using calc. See calc tutorial on last page for how to do this) Step 2: Integrate both functions between the intersections; Step 3: Minus the top function from the bottom. See example below: Note that a graph is drawn with Xintercepts labelled, and the area shaded. To find the X-intercepts manually, make each function equal each other, solving for X. Don t forget that area below the X-axis is negative.

Q7 Example for PDF Functions. Working backwards to find k : Step 1: Write down the formula given in integration form, making it equal to 1. (Because it s a PDF) Step 2: Integrate; replacing the x s with the domain numbers, and solve to find k .

Q4, 7, 13, 17. PDF Functions. This is just what we ve been doing with integration between two points. It becomes a PDF when the area is equal to one. Step 1: Graph the function given and shade the area wanted. Make a table of the domain. Step 2: Integrate between the domain, and write a sentence to say whether it is a PDF or not. This example would be for Q4. Note there are only practices for this in the worksheet 1, nothing in the textbookie. .

Hard PDF Questions 13 and 17. Q13 is a Reciprocal PDF function, meaning that you ll need to know how to integrate different sorts of fractions. I m betting that Q17 will also be a trigonometry PDF featuring sine or cos. So here are integration examples of how to tackle them, and you just have to use these techniques in conjunction with integration between two points. So, if the x is on the denominator and is to the power of something, you can just re-arrange the function and bring it to a negative exponent. If it doesn t on the other hand, this doesn t work and you end up bringing it to the power of zero which doesn t work. SO WEMUST TURN TO LOGS... See textbookie examples below. Page 226 if you re interested.

Q2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15,16. Cumulative Standard Norm Table (Over half the exam!) Q2: See calc tutorials on last page; Q3: Finding Z scores: Just use this rule Easy Peasy.

STUDY TIP: Don t get distracted by your CUTE WIDDLE PUPPY WUPPY that s underneath your desk. I mean, I wouldn t get distracted.

Z= 

Q5: This could be any of the simple distributions. You really need to master the set of techniques like taking it from one, flipping it making it negative if you need to. I ll put a few examples down of some of the basics, but I d recommend that if you re not completely satisfied with your skills in this are you go through a few of them in the textbook, Chapter 10.

Q6: Working backwards to find the Z score

Q9 Normal Approximation to Binomial. This one takes a few steps. See the example below too: 1. Do the three tests, and learn them. 2. Work out your mean and standard deviation using the information provided. Remember the rules to get them :D 3. From there, convert your x score to a z score, and work out the probability using the table. This process is easy, you just need to remember all the steps. Practices can be found in Exercise 10C. Also, Q10, 11, 12, 15 & 16 I m guessing are all worded questions of this type. For this, I d recommend having a look at that extra worksheet we were given. It s quite good.

Rules that you need to remember:

X~N( Z=

2

)

1. n 30 2. np 10 3. nq 10 Also, remember that: Expected value = np Variation = npq Standard Deviation =

Q14 Substitution. This could be finding the +c or another variable. Either way, here s an example of how you do this. You re going to need another point on the graph and just sub in the x and y values.

ITS TIME TO ROCK OUT WITH YOUR GRAPHICS CALCULATOR OUT Here s a summary of the things you ll need to be able to do:

Integration between Curves: Finding X-Intercepts: GRAPH MODE G-SOLV ISECT Arrow up and down to see both points of intersection. *Use this method to check your algebraic working. Finding Area below the curve: GRAPH MODE G-SOLV ARROW ACROSS OPTIONS DESPAIR.DX ( Select your boundaries, and cross reference with your original answer.

*This will not work between curves, as per my stupid example picture above.

Finding the Probability of Normal Distributions:

This is what needs to be done in Q2 Note that X values don t need to be translated into Z scores when using the GC.