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# MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 1

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Course Content:

## A – INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

Numerical method and Computer-Aided Engineering; Physical
problems; Mathematical models; Finite element method;.

## B – REVIEW OF 1-D FORMULATIONS

Elements and nodes, natural coordinates, interpolation function, bar
elements, constitutive equations, stiffness matrix, boundary
conditions, applied loads, theory of minimum potential energy; Plane
truss elements; Examples.

## C – PLANE ELASTICITY PROBLEM FORMULATIONS

Constant-strain triangular (CST) elements; Plane stress, plane
strain; Axisymmetric elements; Stress calculations; Programming
structure; Numerical examples.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 2

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
We wish to use FEM for solving the following problems:
(It is more efficient to solve these problems analytically)

x
Calculate displacement of bar
ABC, take E = 200GPa

10 kN x

δ = 2 x 10-2 mm

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 3

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## ELEMENTS and NODES

Element features: Bar element
 shape.
 number of nodes
 number and type of nodal
variables (dof)

Triangular
element

Tetrahedral
element

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 4

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## ELEMENTS and NODES

Number of nodes assigned to an element depends on:
 Types of nodal variables
 Types of interpolation function
 Degree of continuity required

Hexahedral
element

element

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 5

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## NATURAL COORDINATES IN 1-D

To describe location of a point inside an element in terms of nodal coordinates.

##  A local coordinate system

 Coordinates ranges from zero to unity
 A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2
1− ξ  1+ ξ 
=  x1 +   x2
 2   2 
REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 6
MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## NATURAL COORDINATES (2-D)

4 (x4 ,y4) η
y 3 (x3 ,y3) (-1,1) 4 3 (1,1)
1
ζ
(x1 ,y1)
2 (x2 ,y2) (-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1)
x

##  Relies on the element geometry for its definition

 Coordinates ranges from zero to unity
 A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 7

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

## A prescribed function to represent the variation of unknown field

variables within the element in terms of known nodal variables.

## Linear shape functions are defined:

1− ξ 1+ ξ
N1 (ξ ) = and N 2 (ξ ) =
2 2

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 8

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

## Functions used to represent the behavior of a field variable within an element.

 Also called shape functions or approximating functions.
 Polynomials are widely used because they are relatively easy to manipulate.

φ = ∑ N i φi = N {φ }

Ni = interpolation functions

##  Interpolation functions chosen must meet certain continuity requirements to

ensure:
- Continuity of field variables
- Convergence to correct solution as element size decreases.
 Interpolation functions must have geometric isotropy.

The expansion remains unchanged under linear transformation from one Cartesian
coordinate system to another.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 9

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION
A shape function is used to interpolate values of displacement, q(ξ)
along the bar element between the two nodal displacements, q1 and q2

## For linear interpolation function:

N1=1 1− ξ N2=1
N1 (ξ ) = 1+ ξ
2 N 2 (ξ ) =
2
1̂ 2̂

u ( x ) = N1q1 + N 2 q2

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 10

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## LINEAR DISPLACEMENT FIELD

uˆ ( x) = N1q1 + N 2 q2
1−ξ  1+ ξ 
= q +
 1   q2 When the same shape functions N1
 2   2  and N2 are used to establish
=[N ]{q} interpolation function for coordinate
of a point within an element and the
displacement of that point, the
where [N ] = [N1 N2 ] formulation is referred to as an
isoparametric formulation.
 q1 
{q} =   x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2
q 2 
1−ξ  1+ ξ 
=  x1 +   x2
 2   2 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 11

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

## (a) Evaluate ξ, N1, and N2 at point P.

(b) If q1 = 0.003 in and q2 = -0.005 in, determine the value of
displacement u at point P.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 12

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## Properties of individual elements can be formulated in several ways:

 Direct approach.
This approach is traceable to the direct stiffness method of
structural analysis.

 Variational approach
This approach relies on the calculus of variation and involve
optimizing a functional.

##  Method of weighted residual

This approach begins with the governing equations of the problem
and proceed without relying on a functional.

##  Energy balance approach

This approach is based on mechanical energy of a system.
It does not require a variational statement.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 13

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

DERIVATION OF FE EQUATION

## To develop finite element equations for 1-D problem

-Stiffness matrix

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 14

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Discretization

## Discretize the solution domain into

finite number of elements
-Label the global axis (ref.)
-Label each element
-Label each node

section

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 15

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Numbering Scheme
Global nodal displacements

{Q}T = Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 

## Global nodal forces

{F }T = F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 16

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Connectivity
To establish unique connection
between local and global nodes for
each element

Global numbering

1̂ 2̂

1̂ 2̂

Local numbering

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 17

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Strain-Displacement Relations

du du dξ  1− ξ   1+ ξ  du ( −q1 + q2 )
ε= = × u= q +
 1   q2 ⇒ =
dx dξ dx  2   2  dξ 2
2 dξ 2
ξ= ( x − x1 ) − 1 ⇒ =
( x2 − x1 ) dx ( x2 − x1 )
1
ε= [ −q1 + q2 ]
( x2 − x1 )

 q1  ,
ε = [B ]  Where [B] is the strain-displacement matrix:
q2  1 1
[ B] = [ −1 1] = [ −1 1]
( x2 − x1 ) le
REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 18
MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Constitutive Equation

## Linear elastic behavior:  q1 

σ = E [ B]  
800
q2 

600
STRESS, σ (MPa)

Non-linear 200

400
σ = K(εp)n
150
STRESS, σ (MPa)

200

Linear 100

σ = Eε
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
50
0.5 0.6
σ = Eε
STRAIN, ε(%)
0
0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010

STRAIN, ε(%)
REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 19
MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Body force, f
Distributed force per unit volume or
weight density (N/m3)
Example: self-weight due to gravity

Traction force, T
Force per unit area (N/m2)
(For a 1-D problem, force/length)
Examples: Frictional forces, viscous
drag, and surface shear

Concentrated force (N) acting at any point i.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 20

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## Minimum Potential Energy Principle

Potential Energy = strain energy – work by external force
Π (u ) = U (u ) − W (u )
 Strain energy of linear elastic body
1
U=
2Ω∫ σ ε dV

1 T 
= {q}  ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}
T

2 Ω 
 Work done by external forces

W = ∫ u f b dV + ∫ uT dS
Ω S
 Potential energy functional
1 T 
Π = {q}  ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}− ∫ {N } {q} f b Adx − ∫ {N } {q}T dS
T T T

2 Ω  Ω S
REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 21
MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## Theory of Minimum Potential Energy

The displacement field (u) which satisfies the equilibrium, and
the conditions at the boundary surface is the one that
minimizes the potential energy

Μ (e )
r
∂Π
δΠ (q ) = ∑ δΠ (e ) (q ) = ∑ δqi = 0
e =1 i =1 ∂qi

## Finite element equation:

 
 ∫ [B ]T E [B ]Adx {q} = ∫ {N }T f b Adx + ∫ {N }T T dS
 
Ω  Ω S

[K ]{q} = { f }

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 22

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Stiffness Matrix

## [k ](e) = [B]T E[B]A∫ dx Recall that:

le
1 1
EA − 1 le +1 [ B] = [ −1 1] [ −1 1]
=
= 2  [− 1 1] ∫ dξ ( x2 − x1 ) le
le  1  2 −1
dξ 2 le
EA  1 − 1 = ⇒ dx = dξ
=
le − 1 1 
dx le 2

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 23

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Force Terms

Body force
 +1 le   +11 − ξ  
[ N ]
 ∫−1 1 2  Af ble
d ξ ∫−1  2  dξ  Af l 1
 
∫ [N ] f b Adx = Af b  +1 = =
T b e
le   +1 
 ∫ [ N 2 ] dξ  2  1 + ξ  dξ  2 1
∫−1  2  
le
 −1 2 
Traction

Tle 1
∫l [N ] T
Tdx = 
e
2 1

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 24

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

At element level

## EA  1 − 1  q1  Af ble 1 Tle 1  P1 

   =  +  + 
l e  − 1 1  q 2  2 1 2 1  P2 

[k ]{q}= { f }

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 25

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

##  K11 K12 K13 K14 K15   Q1   F1 

 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25  Q2   F2 
    
 K 33 K 34 K 35  Q3  =  F3 
    
 sym K 44 K 45  Q4 F
   4
 K 55  Q5   F5 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A thin steel plate has a uniform
thickness t = 1 in., as shown. Its
elastic modulus, E = 30 x 106 psi, and
weight density, ρ = 0.2836 lb/in3.
The plate is subjected to a point load
P = 100 lb at its midpoint and a
traction force T = 36 lb/ft.
Determine:
a)Displacements at the mid-point
and at the free end,
b) Normal stresses in the plate, and
c) Reaction force at the support.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 27

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
Suggested solution
1. Transform the given plate into 2 sections, each having
uniform cross-sectional area.
Note:
Area at midpoint is
Amid = 4.5 in2.
Average area of section 1 is
A1 = (6 + 4.5)/2 = 5.25 in2.
Average area of section 2 is
A2 = (4.5 + 3)/2 = 3.75 in2.

(line) element.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 28

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
3. Write the element stiffness matrix for each element

## 5.25 × 30 × 106  1 −1

[k ]
(1)
element 1: =  −1 1 
12  

## 3.75 × 30 ×106  1 −1

[k ]
(2)
element 2: =  −1 1 
12  

## 4. Assemble global stiffness matrix,

 5.25 −5.25 0 
30 × 10 6

[ ]
K = −5.25 9.00 −3.75
12  
 0 −3.75 3.75 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 29

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## 5.25 ×12 × 0.2836 1

{ fb }
(1)
element 1 = 
2 1
3.75 ×12 × 0.2836 1
{ fb }
(2)
element 2 = 
2 1
Assemble global force vector due to body force,

5.25  8.9 
12 × 0.2836    
{Fb } = 9.00  = 15.3
2 3.75  6.4 
   

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 30

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## b) Due to traction force, T = 36 lb/ft

 36 
  × 12 1 1
 12 
{T }
(1)
element 1 =   = 18  
2 1 1

 36 
  × 12 1 1
 12 
{T }
(2)
element 2 =   = 18  
2 1 1

1  18 
   
{ T } 2 = 36
F = 18
1  18 
   

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 31

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## c) Due to concentrated load, P = 100 lb at node 2

 0 
 
{ P } 100
F =
 0 
 
6. Assemble all element force vectors to form the global force
vector for the entire structure.

 8.9 + 18 + 0   26.9 
   
{ } 
F = 15.3 + 36 + 100 =
 151.3  lb
 6.4 + 18 + 0   24.4 
   

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 32

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## 7. Write system of linear equations (SLEs) for entire model

The SLEs can be written in condensed matrix form as

[ K ]{Q} = {F }
Expanding all terms and substituting values, we get

##  5.25 −5.25 0   Q1   26.9 

30 ×10 
6
 Q  = 151.3
−5.25 9.00 −3.75  2  
12 
 0 −3.75 3.75  Q3   24.4 
Note:
1. The global force term includes the unknown reaction force R1 at the
support. But it is ignored for now.
2. The SLEs have no solutions since the determinant of [K] = 0; Physically,
the structure moves around as a rigid body.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 33

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## There are 2 types of BCs:

a) Homogeneous = specified zero displacement;
b) Non-homogeneous = specified non-zero displacement.

## In this example, homogeneous BC exists at node 1. How to

impose this BC on the global SLEs?

##  5.25 −5.25 0   Q1   26.9 

30 × 10 6
    
 −5.25 9.00 −3.75 Q2  = 151.3
12
 0 −3.75 3.75  Q3   24.4 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 34

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## 9. Solve the reduced SLEs for the unknown nodal

displacements
The reduced SLEs are,

## 30 ×106  9.00 −3.75 Q2  151.3

 −3.75 3.75  Q  =  24.4 
12   3  

## Q2  1.339 ×10−5 

 = −5 
in
Q3  1.599 ×10 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 35

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## 10. Estimate stresses in each elements

1  q1 
Recall, σ (e)
= E [ B ]{q} = E ⋅ [ −1 1]  
le q2 
element 1

1  0 
σ (1)
= 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1] 
6
−5 
= 33.48 psi
12 1.339 ×10 

element 2
−5
1 1.339 × 10 
σ ( 2) = 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1] 
6
−5 
= 6.5 psi
12 1.599 ×10 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 36

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

## 11. Compute the reaction force R1 at node 1

We now include the reaction force term in the global SLEs. From
the 1st. equation we get,

##  5.25 −5.25 0  0  26.9 + R1 

30 × 10  6
 1.339 × 10−5  =  151.3 
−5.25 9.00 −3.75    
12 
 0 −3.75 3.75  1.599 × 10−5   24.4 

We have,
 0 
30 ×10
[5.25 −5.25 0] 1.339 ×10−5  − 26.9334
6
R1 =
12 1.599 ×10−5 
 
R1 = −202.68 lb

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 37

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A concentrated load P = 60 kN is
applied at the midpoint of a uniform
bar as shown.
Initially, a gap of 1.2 mm exists
between the right end of the bar and 1.2 mm
the support there.
250 mm2
If the elastic modulus E = 20 x 103
P
N/mm2, determine the:
x
a) displacements field,
b) stresses in the bar, and
150 mm 150 mm
c) reaction force at the support.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 38

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
Solution
1. Write the element stiffness matrices and assemble the global
stiffness matrix.
 1 −1 0 
20 × 10 × 250 
3

[K ] =  − 1 2 −1 
150
 0 −1 1 
2. Write the element force vectors and assemble the global force vector.

{F } = 0,
T
60 ×10 , 0 
3

##  500 −500 0   Q1  0

 Q  = 103 60 
3
10 
−500 1000 −500  2  
15 
 0 −500 500  Q3  0
 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 39

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
4. Impose the boundary conditions.
We have; Q1 = 0; Q3 = 1.2 mm. Using Gaussian elimination method:
a) Delete 1st row and column.
b) Delete 3rd row and column and modify the force term.

##  500 −500 0   Q1  0

  3 
3
10  
 −500 1000 −500   Q2  = 10 60 
15
 0 −500 500  1.2  0
 
The reduced SLE becomes, Modification to
force term
103  500 (1.2 ) 
[1000]{Q2 } = 10 60 +
3

15  15 

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 40

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
7. Solve the reduced SLE, we get

Q2 = 1.5 mm
8. Compute stresses in the bar,
1 0
σ 1 = 20 ×10 ×
3
[ −1 1] 1.5
150  
σ 1 = 200 MPa
1 1.5 
σ 2 = 20 × 10 ×
3
[ −1 1] 1.2
150  
σ 2 = −40 MPa
9. Compute reaction forces at supports
Using the 1st and 3rd equations, we obtain,
R1 = -50 x 103 N; R3 = -10 x 103 N.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 41

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A composite bar ABC is subjected to axial forces as shown. Given,
the elastic moduli, E1 = 200 GPa and E2 = 70 GPa. Estimate:
a) Displacement of end C; [Answer: δC = 6.62x10-2 mm]
b) Stress in section 2, and
c) Reaction force at support A.
Verify your results with analytical solution.

## REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 42

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
Reconsider Exercise 2-1. Suppose a gap of δ = 2 x 10-2 mm
exists between end C and a fixed support there. Estimate:
a) Displacement of point B;
b) Stress in section 1, and
c) Reaction forces at both supports.

10 kN

2 x 10-2 mm