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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Course Content:

Numerical method and Computer-Aided Engineering; Physical

problems; Mathematical models; Finite element method;.

Elements and nodes, natural coordinates, interpolation function, bar

elements, constitutive equations, stiffness matrix, boundary

conditions, applied loads, theory of minimum potential energy; Plane

truss elements; Examples.

Constant-strain triangular (CST) elements; Plane stress, plane

strain; Axisymmetric elements; Stress calculations; Programming

structure; Numerical examples.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

We wish to use FEM for solving the following problems:

(It is more efficient to solve these problems analytically)

x

Calculate displacement of bar

ABC, take E = 200GPa

10 kN x

δ = 2 x 10-2 mm

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element features: Bar element

shape.

number of nodes

number and type of nodal

variables (dof)

Triangular

element

Tetrahedral

element

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Number of nodes assigned to an element depends on:

Types of nodal variables

Types of interpolation function

Degree of continuity required

Hexahedral

element

Quadrilateral

element

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

To describe location of a point inside an element in terms of nodal coordinates.

Coordinates ranges from zero to unity

A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2

1− ξ 1+ ξ

= x1 + x2

2 2

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 6

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

4 (x4 ,y4) η

y 3 (x3 ,y3) (-1,1) 4 3 (1,1)

1

ζ

(x1 ,y1)

2 (x2 ,y2) (-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1)

x

Coordinates ranges from zero to unity

A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

variables within the element in terms of known nodal variables.

1− ξ 1+ ξ

N1 (ξ ) = and N 2 (ξ ) =

2 2

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

Also called shape functions or approximating functions.

Polynomials are widely used because they are relatively easy to manipulate.

φ = ∑ N i φi = N {φ }

Ni = interpolation functions

ensure:

- Continuity of field variables

- Convergence to correct solution as element size decreases.

Interpolation functions must have geometric isotropy.

The expansion remains unchanged under linear transformation from one Cartesian

coordinate system to another.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

A shape function is used to interpolate values of displacement, q(ξ)

along the bar element between the two nodal displacements, q1 and q2

N1=1 1− ξ N2=1

N1 (ξ ) = 1+ ξ

2 N 2 (ξ ) =

2

1̂ 2̂

u ( x ) = N1q1 + N 2 q2

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

uˆ ( x) = N1q1 + N 2 q2

1−ξ 1+ ξ

= q +

1 q2 When the same shape functions N1

2 2 and N2 are used to establish

=[N ]{q} interpolation function for coordinate

of a point within an element and the

displacement of that point, the

where [N ] = [N1 N2 ] formulation is referred to as an

isoparametric formulation.

q1

{q} = x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2

q 2

1−ξ 1+ ξ

= x1 + x2

2 2

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

(b) If q1 = 0.003 in and q2 = -0.005 in, determine the value of

displacement u at point P.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Direct approach.

This approach is traceable to the direct stiffness method of

structural analysis.

Variational approach

This approach relies on the calculus of variation and involve

optimizing a functional.

This approach begins with the governing equations of the problem

and proceed without relying on a functional.

This approach is based on mechanical energy of a system.

It does not require a variational statement.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

DERIVATION OF FE EQUATION

Tasks

-Stiffness matrix

-Load vector

a general loading condition

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Discretization

finite number of elements

-Label the global axis (ref.)

-Label each element

-Label each node

section

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Numbering Scheme

Global nodal displacements

{Q}T = Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5

{F }T = F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Connectivity

To establish unique connection

between local and global nodes for

each element

Global numbering

1̂ 2̂

1̂ 2̂

Local numbering

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Strain-Displacement Relations

du du dξ 1− ξ 1+ ξ du ( −q1 + q2 )

ε= = × u= q +

1 q2 ⇒ =

dx dξ dx 2 2 dξ 2

2 dξ 2

ξ= ( x − x1 ) − 1 ⇒ =

( x2 − x1 ) dx ( x2 − x1 )

1

ε= [ −q1 + q2 ]

( x2 − x1 )

q1 ,

ε = [B ] Where [B] is the strain-displacement matrix:

q2 1 1

[ B] = [ −1 1] = [ −1 1]

( x2 − x1 ) le

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 18

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Constitutive Equation

σ = E [ B]

800

q2

600

STRESS, σ (MPa)

Non-linear 200

400

σ = K(εp)n

150

STRESS, σ (MPa)

200

Linear 100

σ = Eε

0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

50

0.5 0.6

σ = Eε

STRAIN, ε(%)

0

0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010

STRAIN, ε(%)

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 19

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Types of load

Body force, f

Distributed force per unit volume or

weight density (N/m3)

Example: self-weight due to gravity

Traction force, T

Force per unit area (N/m2)

(For a 1-D problem, force/length)

Examples: Frictional forces, viscous

drag, and surface shear

Point load, Pi

Concentrated force (N) acting at any point i.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Potential Energy = strain energy – work by external force

Π (u ) = U (u ) − W (u )

Strain energy of linear elastic body

1

U=

2Ω∫ σ ε dV

1 T

= {q} ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}

T

2 Ω

Work done by external forces

W = ∫ u f b dV + ∫ uT dS

Ω S

Potential energy functional

1 T

Π = {q} ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}− ∫ {N } {q} f b Adx − ∫ {N } {q}T dS

T T T

2 Ω Ω S

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 21

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

The displacement field (u) which satisfies the equilibrium, and

the conditions at the boundary surface is the one that

minimizes the potential energy

Μ (e )

r

∂Π

δΠ (q ) = ∑ δΠ (e ) (q ) = ∑ δqi = 0

e =1 i =1 ∂qi

∫ [B ]T E [B ]Adx {q} = ∫ {N }T f b Adx + ∫ {N }T T dS

Ω Ω S

[K ]{q} = { f }

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Stiffness Matrix

le

1 1

EA − 1 le +1 [ B] = [ −1 1] [ −1 1]

=

= 2 [− 1 1] ∫ dξ ( x2 − x1 ) le

le 1 2 −1

dξ 2 le

EA 1 − 1 = ⇒ dx = dξ

=

le − 1 1

dx le 2

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Force Terms

Body force

+1 le +11 − ξ

[ N ]

∫−1 1 2 Af ble

d ξ ∫−1 2 dξ Af l 1

∫ [N ] f b Adx = Af b +1 = =

T b e

le +1

∫ [ N 2 ] dξ 2 1 + ξ dξ 2 1

∫−1 2

le

−1 2

Traction

Tle 1

∫l [N ] T

Tdx =

e

2 1

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

At element level

= + +

l e − 1 1 q 2 2 1 2 1 P2

[k ]{q}= { f }

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 Q2 F2

K 33 K 34 K 35 Q3 = F3

sym K 44 K 45 Q4 F

4

K 55 Q5 F5

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

A thin steel plate has a uniform

thickness t = 1 in., as shown. Its

elastic modulus, E = 30 x 106 psi, and

weight density, ρ = 0.2836 lb/in3.

The plate is subjected to a point load

P = 100 lb at its midpoint and a

traction force T = 36 lb/ft.

Determine:

a)Displacements at the mid-point

and at the free end,

b) Normal stresses in the plate, and

c) Reaction force at the support.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Suggested solution

1. Transform the given plate into 2 sections, each having

uniform cross-sectional area.

Note:

Area at midpoint is

Amid = 4.5 in2.

Average area of section 1 is

A1 = (6 + 4.5)/2 = 5.25 in2.

Average area of section 2 is

A2 = (4.5 + 3)/2 = 3.75 in2.

(line) element.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

3. Write the element stiffness matrix for each element

[k ]

(1)

element 1: = −1 1

12

[k ]

(2)

element 2: = −1 1

12

5.25 −5.25 0

30 × 10 6

[ ]

K = −5.25 9.00 −3.75

12

0 −3.75 3.75

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

{ fb }

(1)

element 1 =

2 1

3.75 ×12 × 0.2836 1

{ fb }

(2)

element 2 =

2 1

Assemble global force vector due to body force,

5.25 8.9

12 × 0.2836

{Fb } = 9.00 = 15.3

2 3.75 6.4

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

36

× 12 1 1

12

{T }

(1)

element 1 = = 18

2 1 1

36

× 12 1 1

12

{T }

(2)

element 2 = = 18

2 1 1

1 18

{ T } 2 = 36

F = 18

1 18

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

0

{ P } 100

F =

0

6. Assemble all element force vectors to form the global force

vector for the entire structure.

8.9 + 18 + 0 26.9

{ }

F = 15.3 + 36 + 100 =

151.3 lb

6.4 + 18 + 0 24.4

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

The SLEs can be written in condensed matrix form as

[ K ]{Q} = {F }

Expanding all terms and substituting values, we get

30 ×10

6

Q = 151.3

−5.25 9.00 −3.75 2

12

0 −3.75 3.75 Q3 24.4

Note:

1. The global force term includes the unknown reaction force R1 at the

support. But it is ignored for now.

2. The SLEs have no solutions since the determinant of [K] = 0; Physically,

the structure moves around as a rigid body.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

a) Homogeneous = specified zero displacement;

b) Non-homogeneous = specified non-zero displacement.

impose this BC on the global SLEs?

30 × 10 6

−5.25 9.00 −3.75 Q2 = 151.3

12

0 −3.75 3.75 Q3 24.4

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

displacements

The reduced SLEs are,

−3.75 3.75 Q = 24.4

12 3

= −5

in

Q3 1.599 ×10

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

1 q1

Recall, σ (e)

= E [ B ]{q} = E ⋅ [ −1 1]

le q2

element 1

1 0

σ (1)

= 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1]

6

−5

= 33.48 psi

12 1.339 ×10

element 2

−5

1 1.339 × 10

σ ( 2) = 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1]

6

−5

= 6.5 psi

12 1.599 ×10

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

We now include the reaction force term in the global SLEs. From

the 1st. equation we get,

30 × 10 6

1.339 × 10−5 = 151.3

−5.25 9.00 −3.75

12

0 −3.75 3.75 1.599 × 10−5 24.4

We have,

0

30 ×10

[5.25 −5.25 0] 1.339 ×10−5 − 26.9334

6

R1 =

12 1.599 ×10−5

R1 = −202.68 lb

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

A concentrated load P = 60 kN is

applied at the midpoint of a uniform

bar as shown.

Initially, a gap of 1.2 mm exists

between the right end of the bar and 1.2 mm

the support there.

250 mm2

If the elastic modulus E = 20 x 103

P

N/mm2, determine the:

x

a) displacements field,

b) stresses in the bar, and

150 mm 150 mm

c) reaction force at the support.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Solution

1. Write the element stiffness matrices and assemble the global

stiffness matrix.

1 −1 0

20 × 10 × 250

3

[K ] = − 1 2 −1

150

0 −1 1

2. Write the element force vectors and assemble the global force vector.

{F } = 0,

T

60 ×10 , 0

3

Q = 103 60

3

10

−500 1000 −500 2

15

0 −500 500 Q3 0

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

4. Impose the boundary conditions.

We have; Q1 = 0; Q3 = 1.2 mm. Using Gaussian elimination method:

a) Delete 1st row and column.

b) Delete 3rd row and column and modify the force term.

3

3

10

−500 1000 −500 Q2 = 10 60

15

0 −500 500 1.2 0

The reduced SLE becomes, Modification to

force term

103 500 (1.2 )

[1000]{Q2 } = 10 60 +

3

15 15

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

7. Solve the reduced SLE, we get

Q2 = 1.5 mm

8. Compute stresses in the bar,

1 0

σ 1 = 20 ×10 ×

3

[ −1 1] 1.5

150

σ 1 = 200 MPa

1 1.5

σ 2 = 20 × 10 ×

3

[ −1 1] 1.2

150

σ 2 = −40 MPa

9. Compute reaction forces at supports

Using the 1st and 3rd equations, we obtain,

R1 = -50 x 103 N; R3 = -10 x 103 N.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

A composite bar ABC is subjected to axial forces as shown. Given,

the elastic moduli, E1 = 200 GPa and E2 = 70 GPa. Estimate:

a) Displacement of end C; [Answer: δC = 6.62x10-2 mm]

b) Stress in section 2, and

c) Reaction force at support A.

Verify your results with analytical solution.

MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

Reconsider Exercise 2-1. Suppose a gap of δ = 2 x 10-2 mm

exists between end C and a fixed support there. Estimate:

a) Displacement of point B;

b) Stress in section 1, and

c) Reaction forces at both supports.

10 kN

2 x 10-2 mm

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