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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

B – REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS (part1)

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 1


MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Course Content:

A – INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW


Numerical method and Computer-Aided Engineering; Physical
problems; Mathematical models; Finite element method;.

B – REVIEW OF 1-D FORMULATIONS


Elements and nodes, natural coordinates, interpolation function, bar
elements, constitutive equations, stiffness matrix, boundary
conditions, applied loads, theory of minimum potential energy; Plane
truss elements; Examples.

C – PLANE ELASTICITY PROBLEM FORMULATIONS


Constant-strain triangular (CST) elements; Plane stress, plane
strain; Axisymmetric elements; Stress calculations; Programming
structure; Numerical examples.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
We wish to use FEM for solving the following problems:
(It is more efficient to solve these problems analytically)

x
Calculate displacement of bar
ABC, take E = 200GPa

10 kN x

δ = 2 x 10-2 mm

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

ELEMENTS and NODES


Element features: Bar element
 shape.
 number of nodes
 number and type of nodal
variables (dof)

Triangular
element

Tetrahedral
element

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

ELEMENTS and NODES


Number of nodes assigned to an element depends on:
 Types of nodal variables
 Types of interpolation function
 Degree of continuity required

Hexahedral
element

Quadrilateral
element

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

NATURAL COORDINATES IN 1-D


To describe location of a point inside an element in terms of nodal coordinates.

 A local coordinate system


 Coordinates ranges from zero to unity
 A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2
1− ξ  1+ ξ 
=  x1 +   x2
 2   2 
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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

NATURAL COORDINATES (2-D)

4 (x4 ,y4) η
y 3 (x3 ,y3) (-1,1) 4 3 (1,1)
1
ζ
(x1 ,y1)
2 (x2 ,y2) (-1,-1) 1 2 (1,-1)
x

Global Cartesian coordinate (x , y) Natural coordinate (ζ , η)

 Relies on the element geometry for its definition


 Coordinates ranges from zero to unity
 A function of the global Cartesian coordinate

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

A prescribed function to represent the variation of unknown field


variables within the element in terms of known nodal variables.

Linear shape functions are defined:


1− ξ 1+ ξ
N1 (ξ ) = and N 2 (ξ ) =
2 2

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION

Functions used to represent the behavior of a field variable within an element.


 Also called shape functions or approximating functions.
 Polynomials are widely used because they are relatively easy to manipulate.

φ = ∑ N i φi = N {φ }

Ni = interpolation functions

 Interpolation functions chosen must meet certain continuity requirements to


ensure:
- Continuity of field variables
- Convergence to correct solution as element size decreases.
 Interpolation functions must have geometric isotropy.

The expansion remains unchanged under linear transformation from one Cartesian
coordinate system to another.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

INTERPOLATION FUNCTION
A shape function is used to interpolate values of displacement, q(ξ)
along the bar element between the two nodal displacements, q1 and q2

For linear interpolation function:

N1=1 1− ξ N2=1
N1 (ξ ) = 1+ ξ
2 N 2 (ξ ) =
2
1̂ 2̂

u ( x ) = N1q1 + N 2 q2

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

LINEAR DISPLACEMENT FIELD

uˆ ( x) = N1q1 + N 2 q2
1−ξ  1+ ξ 
= q +
 1   q2 When the same shape functions N1
 2   2  and N2 are used to establish
=[N ]{q} interpolation function for coordinate
of a point within an element and the
displacement of that point, the
where [N ] = [N1 N2 ] formulation is referred to as an
isoparametric formulation.
 q1 
{q} =   x = N1 x1 + N 2 x2
q 2 
1−ξ  1+ ξ 
=  x1 +   x2
 2   2 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE

(a) Evaluate ξ, N1, and N2 at point P.


(b) If q1 = 0.003 in and q2 = -0.005 in, determine the value of
displacement u at point P.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Properties of individual elements can be formulated in several ways:

 Direct approach.
This approach is traceable to the direct stiffness method of
structural analysis.

 Variational approach
This approach relies on the calculus of variation and involve
optimizing a functional.

 Method of weighted residual


This approach begins with the governing equations of the problem
and proceed without relying on a functional.

 Energy balance approach


This approach is based on mechanical energy of a system.
It does not require a variational statement.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

DERIVATION OF FE EQUATION

Tasks

To develop finite element equations for 1-D problem


-Stiffness matrix
-Load vector

Consider a non-uniform bar subjected to


a general loading condition

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Discretization

Discretize the solution domain into


finite number of elements
-Label the global axis (ref.)
-Label each element
-Label each node

Each element has a constant cross-


section

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Numbering Scheme
Global nodal displacements

{Q}T = Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 

Global nodal forces

{F }T = F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Element Connectivity
To establish unique connection
between local and global nodes for
each element

Global numbering

1̂ 2̂

1̂ 2̂

Local numbering

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Strain-Displacement Relations

du du dξ  1− ξ   1+ ξ  du ( −q1 + q2 )
ε= = × u= q +
 1   q2 ⇒ =
dx dξ dx  2   2  dξ 2
2 dξ 2
ξ= ( x − x1 ) − 1 ⇒ =
( x2 − x1 ) dx ( x2 − x1 )
1
ε= [ −q1 + q2 ]
( x2 − x1 )

 q1  ,
ε = [B ]  Where [B] is the strain-displacement matrix:
q2  1 1
[ B] = [ −1 1] = [ −1 1]
( x2 − x1 ) le
REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 18
MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Constitutive Equation

Linear elastic behavior:  q1 


σ = E [ B]  
800
q2 

600
STRESS, σ (MPa)

Non-linear 200

400
σ = K(εp)n
150
STRESS, σ (MPa)

200

Linear 100

σ = Eε
0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
50
0.5 0.6
σ = Eε
STRAIN, ε(%)
0
0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010

STRAIN, ε(%)
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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Types of load

Body force, f
Distributed force per unit volume or
weight density (N/m3)
Example: self-weight due to gravity

Traction force, T
Force per unit area (N/m2)
(For a 1-D problem, force/length)
Examples: Frictional forces, viscous
drag, and surface shear

Point load, Pi
Concentrated force (N) acting at any point i.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Minimum Potential Energy Principle


Potential Energy = strain energy – work by external force
Π (u ) = U (u ) − W (u )
 Strain energy of linear elastic body
1
U=
2Ω∫ σ ε dV

1 T 
= {q}  ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}
T

2 Ω 
 Work done by external forces

W = ∫ u f b dV + ∫ uT dS
Ω S
 Potential energy functional
1 T 
Π = {q}  ∫ [B ] E [B ]Adx {q}− ∫ {N } {q} f b Adx − ∫ {N } {q}T dS
T T T

2 Ω  Ω S
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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Theory of Minimum Potential Energy


The displacement field (u) which satisfies the equilibrium, and
the conditions at the boundary surface is the one that
minimizes the potential energy

Μ (e )
r
∂Π
δΠ (q ) = ∑ δΠ (e ) (q ) = ∑ δqi = 0
e =1 i =1 ∂qi

Finite element equation:

 
 ∫ [B ]T E [B ]Adx {q} = ∫ {N }T f b Adx + ∫ {N }T T dS
 
Ω  Ω S

[K ]{q} = { f }

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Stiffness Matrix

[k ](e) = [B]T E[B]A∫ dx Recall that:


le
1 1
EA − 1 le +1 [ B] = [ −1 1] [ −1 1]
=
= 2  [− 1 1] ∫ dξ ( x2 − x1 ) le
le  1  2 −1
dξ 2 le
EA  1 − 1 = ⇒ dx = dξ
=
le − 1 1 
dx le 2

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Force Terms

Body force
 +1 le   +11 − ξ  
[ N ]
 ∫−1 1 2  Af ble
d ξ ∫−1  2  dξ  Af l 1
 
∫ [N ] f b Adx = Af b  +1 = =
T b e
le   +1 
 ∫ [ N 2 ] dξ  2  1 + ξ  dξ  2 1
∫−1  2  
le
 −1 2 
Traction

Tle 1
∫l [N ] T
Tdx = 
e
2 1

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Finite Element Equations

At element level

EA  1 − 1  q1  Af ble 1 Tle 1  P1 


   =  +  + 
l e  − 1 1  q 2  2 1 2 1  P2 

[k ]{q}= { f }

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

Assembled global FE equations

 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15   Q1   F1 


 K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25  Q2   F2 
    
 K 33 K 34 K 35  Q3  =  F3 
    
 sym K 44 K 45  Q4 F
   4
 K 55  Q5   F5 

Subjected to boundary condition: Q1 = 0

Solve for unknown nodal displacements

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM


MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A thin steel plate has a uniform
thickness t = 1 in., as shown. Its
elastic modulus, E = 30 x 106 psi, and
weight density, ρ = 0.2836 lb/in3.
The plate is subjected to a point load
P = 100 lb at its midpoint and a
traction force T = 36 lb/ft.
Determine:
a)Displacements at the mid-point
and at the free end,
b) Normal stresses in the plate, and
c) Reaction force at the support.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
Suggested solution
1. Transform the given plate into 2 sections, each having
uniform cross-sectional area.
Note:
Area at midpoint is
Amid = 4.5 in2.
Average area of section 1 is
A1 = (6 + 4.5)/2 = 5.25 in2.
Average area of section 2 is
A2 = (4.5 + 3)/2 = 3.75 in2.

2. Model each section using 1-D


(line) element.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
3. Write the element stiffness matrix for each element

5.25 × 30 × 106  1 −1


[k ]
(1)
element 1: =  −1 1 
12  

3.75 × 30 ×106  1 −1


[k ]
(2)
element 2: =  −1 1 
12  

4. Assemble global stiffness matrix,

 5.25 −5.25 0 
30 × 10 6

[ ]
K = −5.25 9.00 −3.75
12  
 0 −3.75 3.75 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

5. Write the element force vector for each element

a) Due to body force, fb = 0.2836 lb/in3

5.25 ×12 × 0.2836 1


{ fb }
(1)
element 1 = 
2 1
3.75 ×12 × 0.2836 1
{ fb }
(2)
element 2 = 
2 1
Assemble global force vector due to body force,

5.25  8.9 
12 × 0.2836    
{Fb } = 9.00  = 15.3
2 3.75  6.4 
   

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

b) Due to traction force, T = 36 lb/ft

 36 
  × 12 1 1
 12 
{T }
(1)
element 1 =   = 18  
2 1 1

 36 
  × 12 1 1
 12 
{T }
(2)
element 2 =   = 18  
2 1 1

Assemble global force vector due to traction force,

1  18 
   
{ T } 2 = 36
F = 18
1  18 
   

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

c) Due to concentrated load, P = 100 lb at node 2

 0 
 
{ P } 100
F =
 0 
 
6. Assemble all element force vectors to form the global force
vector for the entire structure.

 8.9 + 18 + 0   26.9 
   
{ } 
F = 15.3 + 36 + 100 =
 151.3  lb
 6.4 + 18 + 0   24.4 
   

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

7. Write system of linear equations (SLEs) for entire model


The SLEs can be written in condensed matrix form as

[ K ]{Q} = {F }
Expanding all terms and substituting values, we get

 5.25 −5.25 0   Q1   26.9 


30 ×10 
6
 Q  = 151.3
−5.25 9.00 −3.75  2  
12 
 0 −3.75 3.75  Q3   24.4 
Note:
1. The global force term includes the unknown reaction force R1 at the
support. But it is ignored for now.
2. The SLEs have no solutions since the determinant of [K] = 0; Physically,
the structure moves around as a rigid body.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

8. Impose boundary conditions (BCs) on the global SLEs

There are 2 types of BCs:


a) Homogeneous = specified zero displacement;
b) Non-homogeneous = specified non-zero displacement.

In this example, homogeneous BC exists at node 1. How to


impose this BC on the global SLEs?

DELETE ROW AND COLUMN #1 OF THE SLEs!

 5.25 −5.25 0   Q1   26.9 


30 × 10 6
    
 −5.25 9.00 −3.75 Q2  = 151.3
12
 0 −3.75 3.75  Q3   24.4 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

9. Solve the reduced SLEs for the unknown nodal


displacements
The reduced SLEs are,

30 ×106  9.00 −3.75 Q2  151.3


 −3.75 3.75  Q  =  24.4 
12   3  

Solve using Gaussian elimination method, yields

Q2  1.339 ×10−5 


 = −5 
in
Q3  1.599 ×10 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

10. Estimate stresses in each elements

1  q1 
Recall, σ (e)
= E [ B ]{q} = E ⋅ [ −1 1]  
le q2 
element 1

1  0 
σ (1)
= 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1] 
6
−5 
= 33.48 psi
12 1.339 ×10 

element 2
−5
1 1.339 × 10 
σ ( 2) = 30 ×10 ⋅ [ −1 1] 
6
−5 
= 6.5 psi
12 1.599 ×10 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

11. Compute the reaction force R1 at node 1

We now include the reaction force term in the global SLEs. From
the 1st. equation we get,

 5.25 −5.25 0  0  26.9 + R1 


30 × 10  6
 1.339 × 10−5  =  151.3 
−5.25 9.00 −3.75    
12 
 0 −3.75 3.75  1.599 × 10−5   24.4 

We have,
 0 
30 ×10
[5.25 −5.25 0] 1.339 ×10−5  − 26.9334
6
R1 =
12 1.599 ×10−5 
 
R1 = −202.68 lb

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A concentrated load P = 60 kN is
applied at the midpoint of a uniform
bar as shown.
Initially, a gap of 1.2 mm exists
between the right end of the bar and 1.2 mm
the support there.
250 mm2
If the elastic modulus E = 20 x 103
P
N/mm2, determine the:
x
a) displacements field,
b) stresses in the bar, and
150 mm 150 mm
c) reaction force at the support.

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
Solution
1. Write the element stiffness matrices and assemble the global
stiffness matrix.
 1 −1 0 
20 × 10 × 250 
3

[K ] =  − 1 2 −1 
150
 0 −1 1 
2. Write the element force vectors and assemble the global force vector.

{F } = 0,
T
60 ×10 , 0 
3

3. Write the global system of linear equations.

 500 −500 0   Q1  0


 Q  = 103 60 
3
10 
−500 1000 −500  2  
15 
 0 −500 500  Q3  0
 

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MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
4. Impose the boundary conditions.
We have; Q1 = 0; Q3 = 1.2 mm. Using Gaussian elimination method:
a) Delete 1st row and column.
b) Delete 3rd row and column and modify the force term.

 500 −500 0   Q1  0


  3 
3
10  
 −500 1000 −500   Q2  = 10 60 
15
 0 −500 500  1.2  0
 
The reduced SLE becomes, Modification to
force term
103  500 (1.2 ) 
[1000]{Q2 } = 10 60 +
3

15  15 

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 40


MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS
7. Solve the reduced SLE, we get

Q2 = 1.5 mm
8. Compute stresses in the bar,
1 0
σ 1 = 20 ×10 ×
3
[ −1 1] 1.5
150  
σ 1 = 200 MPa
1 1.5 
σ 2 = 20 × 10 ×
3
[ −1 1] 1.2
150  
σ 2 = −40 MPa
9. Compute reaction forces at supports
Using the 1st and 3rd equations, we obtain,
R1 = -50 x 103 N; R3 = -10 x 103 N.

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 41


MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
A composite bar ABC is subjected to axial forces as shown. Given,
the elastic moduli, E1 = 200 GPa and E2 = 70 GPa. Estimate:
a) Displacement of end C; [Answer: δC = 6.62x10-2 mm]
b) Stress in section 2, and
c) Reaction force at support A.
Verify your results with analytical solution.

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 42


MMJ1153 – COMPUTATIONAL METHOD IN SOLID MECHANICS

EXAMPLE
Reconsider Exercise 2-1. Suppose a gap of δ = 2 x 10-2 mm
exists between end C and a fixed support there. Estimate:
a) Displacement of point B;
b) Stress in section 1, and
c) Reaction forces at both supports.

10 kN

2 x 10-2 mm

REVIEW OF 1-D PROBLEMS M.N. Tamin, CSMLab, UTM 43