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EXPERIMENT 7: ISENTROPIC EXPANSION PROCESS

OBJECTIVE:
 To demonstrate the isentropic expansion process.
 To determine the relationship between the temperature and pressure of the gas.
 To determine the temperature and pressure of the gas after expansion.

PROBLEM STATEMENT: How does the pressure change in respond to the change of
temperature.

INTRODUCTION:
An isentropic process is a process takes place from initiation to completion without an
increase or decrease in the entropy of the system. Isentropic (reversible adiabatic) processes
are often desired and are often the processes on which device efficiencies are based. One
example of a process that approaches being isentropic is the rapid depressurization of gas in a
cylinder. The entropy of the system remains in constant. The type of energy entropy is like heat,
work and enthalpy which is lost in a process which is characterized by:
ΔS = 0
or
S1= S2
If a process is both reversible and adiabatic, then it is an isentropic process. An
isentropic process is an idealization of an actual process and serves as a limiting case for
an actual process. For adiabatic, there is no transfer of heat energy. During the adiabatic
expansion process:
𝒅𝑼 = 𝒅𝑾 = −𝑷𝒅𝒗 -- 1
The internal energy can be expressed as:
𝒅𝑼 = 𝒏𝑪𝒗𝒅𝒗 -- 2
Substituting equation (2) into equation (1):
𝒏𝑪𝒗𝒅𝑻 = −𝑷𝒅𝒗
From ideal gas law
dT 𝑑𝑉
𝑪𝒗 = −𝑹
T 𝑉

Integrating between two different set of conditions:


𝑇2 𝑉1
𝑪𝒗 ln( 𝑇1
) = R ln( 𝑉2 )
1
𝑇2 𝑅 𝑉1
ln( 𝑇1 ) = 𝐶𝑣 ln( )
𝑉2
𝑅𝑣 𝐶𝑝−𝐶𝑣
= =𝑘−1
𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑣
𝑇2 𝑉1
( 𝑇1 ) = ( 𝑉2 )𝑘−1
𝑇2 𝑃1 𝑘−1
( 𝑇1 ) = ( 𝑃2 ) 𝑘

HYPOTHESIS: The pressure of an ideal gas increases when the temperature increases.

MATERIAL AND APPARATUS

The Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus and the components are: pressure transmitter, pressure
relief valve, temperature sensor, big glass, small glass, vacuum pump and electrode.

PROCEDURE
1. The general start up procedures was performed. All valves are fully closed.
2. The hose was connected from compressive pump to pressurized chamber.
3. The compressive pump was switched on and the pressure was allowed inside chamber
to increase up to about 160kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was
removed from the chamber.
4. The pressure reading inside the chamber was monitored until it stabilized. The pressure
reading PT1 and the temperature TT1 were recorded.
5. Then, valve V01 was slightly opened and the air was allowed flow out slowly until it
reaches atmospheric pressure.
6. The pressure reading and temperature reading after the expansion process were
recorded.
7. The isentropic expansion process was discussed.

RESULTS
Before Expansion After Expansion
Pressure (kPa) 155.5 99.5
Temperature (℃) 29.1 26.0

2
CALCULATION
𝑻𝟐 𝐏𝟏 𝒌−𝟏
= ( 𝐏𝟐 ) 𝒌
𝑻𝟏

(𝟐𝟔+𝟐𝟕𝟑) 𝟏𝟓𝟓.𝟓 𝒌−𝟏


=( ) 𝒌
(𝟐𝟗.𝟏+𝟐𝟕𝟑) 𝟗𝟗.𝟓

K=0.9774

DISCUSSION
Isentropic expansion process is the process that can only occur when the system is
adiabatic and reversible. It also means that no heat will be transferred in or out. The pressure
and temperature before expansion are 155.5 kPa and 29.1℃ while the pressure and temperature
after expansion are 99.5 kPa and 26.0℃. From the calculation above, the value constant k is
calculated to be 0.9774. With the result gained, it seems that both the temperature and pressure
of the gas before expansion were higher compared to after expansion. However, to be discussed
is really the mechanism behind the process. The process is claimed to be isentropic, which
means there was no change in entropy throughout the process.
There are some limitations when carry out the experiment. For an example, the gas
inside the chamber might flow out from the system which can cause inaccuracy in the results.
Besides, the reading recorded was not accurate as the pressure inside the chamber is not yet
stable when taking the reading. So, always keep eyes on the sensor while monitoring the board
because the temperature or pressure could increase or decrease very fast.

CONCLUSION
In the conclusion, the hypothesis of this experiment was achieved which is the pressure
of an ideal gas increases when the temperature increases.

REFERENCES
 Knopf, F. C. (2012). Modeling, analysis, and optimization of process and energy
systems. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 Lieberman, N. P., & Hebert, A. (2017). Process Engineering Facts, Fiction and Fables.
Somerset: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.
 Rathakrishnan, E. (2010). Applied gas dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.