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CITY UNIVRSITY OF MOGADISHU

A CAPSTONE RESEARCH PROJECT


ON
(FACTORS AFFECTING WORKABILITY OF FRESH CONCRETE THAT IS USED IN
MOGADISHU CONSTRUCTION SITES)

PRESENTED TO: ENG AHMED BARRE MOHAMUD

THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING


COLLEGE OF (NGINEERING AND ICT
CITY UNIVERSITY OF MOGADISHU

BY

OSMAN ABDI KULANE


S1129

IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR


THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE OF CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE
ENGINEERING
JUNE, 2019
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DECLARATION

I, (Osman Abdi Kulane), solemnly declare that this research is not a reproduction of another
person’s work. I did this entire research project and I duly acknowledged the sources of
information.

________________________________ _________________________________
STUDENT’S FULL NAME DATE
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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this capstone research project meets the partial requirement for the award of
the degree of Bachelor of Science of civil and infrastructure engineering by City University of
Mogadishu.

________________________________ _________________________________
(Ahmed Barre Mohamud) DATE
Supervisor

________________________________ _________________________________
Prof. AbdulRahman Sh. Ali Sufi DATE
Head of Department
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to examine the factors affecting the workability of fresh
concrete in Mogadishu construction sites, during the period of November 2018 to may 2019.
This research used in ordinary least square(OLS) method to measure factors affecting
workability of fresh concrete that is used in Mogadishu construction sites, water content,
temperature variance, aggregate and workability of concrete were used as study variables in
which workability is dependent variable while water content , temperature variance and

aggregates are independent variable s. The cross-sectional collective data through an interview
and experiments were used the research. The study found that the water content and
temperature variance have a positive relation with workability of fresh concrete that is used in
Mogadishu construction sites, while the aggregates have negative relation with workability of
fresh concrete. And generally the impact of the three variables on the response variables are
measured by R-square (0.38) meaning that 38% of the variation in workability caused by
temperature variance ,water content and aggregate and remaining 62% of variation in
workability caused by unknown factors that are outside our research .

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1.0: Background of the study


Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement or other hydraulic cement, water, fine aggregate, and

coarse aggregate, with or without additional materials (admixture)” (Relly Andayani and

Syarifudin Madenda , 2016). Concrete being the most important and widely used material

possess very high strength and sufficient workability properties. Nowadays, due to urbanization

concrete serve a good purpose for high strength shelter and is also suitable for any architectural

shape and design Concrete contains two main stages which are fresh and harden states. Fresh

concrete is a stage of concrete in which it can be molded and it is in plastic stage while hardened

state is a stage which the concrete must strong enough with stand the structural and service loads

which will be applied to it.

This research is about factors that effect the workability of fresh concrete in Mogadishu, so

according to The American Concrete Institute (ACI 116R-00, 73) describes workability as “that

property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar that determines the ease with which it can be

mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished to a homogenous condition” cited in (Eric P. Koehler

and David W. Fowler, 2003). While The Japanese Association of Concrete Engineers defines

workability as that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar that determines the ease and

homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, and compacted due to its consistency, cited in

(Eric P. Koehler and David W. Fowler, 2003).

In Mogadishu, Somalia there are mainly two major sources of production of concrete which are

ready, mix concrete method like Buruuj and Kulmiye companies, and the manual mix concrete
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method which are the most and extension methods in Mogadishu in the last two decades and

half, because the Buruud and Kulmiye companies which are the two biggest construction

companies in Mogadishu were established after 2010.

The fresh concrete has lots of test methods which can declare the workability of the concrete in

stage of the freshness, the test methods range from easy tests that can be performed in less than a

minute to more complex tests that require expensive equipment and knowledgeable operators.

The flowing tests are the most common types of tests for fresh concrete, according to (Eric P.

Koehler and David W. Fowler, 2017), fresh concrete can be tested by many different ways in

different instruments which most of them has one common objective that is level of workability

of the fresh concrete and those tests are Confined Flow Test Methods, Compaction Factor Test

(Compacting Factor Test, Glanville Compaction Test), Free Orifice Test (Orimet Test), K-Slump

Tester, Free Flow Test Methods Modified Slump Test,Slump Rate Machine (SLRM), Kelly Ball

Test, Ring Penetration Test, Cone Penetration Test, Moving Sphere Viscometer, Flow Trough

Test, Delivery-Chute Torque Meter, Delivery-Chute Depth Meter, Surface Settlement Test,

Vibration Test Methods and the last is about slump test.

For this research project, it is going to be using the slump and compaction factor tests, because

they are easier and widely more used than all others. More over that, they are most well-known

and widely used test instruments that measure the workability of fresh concrete. They can

measure the workability of fresh concrete in both job site and laboratory to determine easily

whether a concrete batch should be accepted or rejected. Slump and compaction factor test

methods are widely standardized throughout the world, including in ASTM (American society
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testing and materials) C143 in the United States and EN 12350-2 in Europe (Relly Andayani and

Syarifudin Madenda , 2016, p. 11)

1.2.0: Problem statement

Workability is defined in ASTM (American society testing and materials) C 125 as the property

of determining the effort required to manipulate a freshly mixed quantity of concrete with

minimum loss of homogeneity. The term manipulate includes the operations of placing,

compacting and finishing the concrete, (Kamran M. Nemati, 2015). The durability and strength

of concrete depend on a high quality control of its freshness state. Without doing the tests on

fresh concrete, particularly its workability, it will affect the future safety of the concrete such as

its strengths and durability, also workability of concrete sometimes goes up while sometimes

goes down, and what makes changes is the material components of concrete.

In Mogadishu, most of the construction sites don’t have material laboratory to check the quality

assurance of all materials, particularly concrete, the reason they leave may be financial issues,

shortage of knowledge of material lab or any other reason. Since the workability means to know

whether the concrete can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished to a homogenous

condition, so without knowing these properties the concreting process doesn’t make sense; even

no one can recognize the exact grade of concrete such as M5, M10 up to the end. In this research

I want to fill this gab and know what changes if I do the required fresh concrete tests in the site

of constructions and exactly factors that contribute degree of workability.


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1.3.0 Research objectives

1.3.1: General research objective

The general objective and the purpose of this research is to ascertain factors that affect the

workability of fresh concrete that is used in Mogadishu construction sites.

1.3.2: Specific objectives of this research

Specific objectives of this research are as flowing.

1) To determine the effect of water content on workability of fresh concrete.

2) To establish the role of shape and size of aggregates on workability of concrete.

3) To investigate the effect of temperature variance on workability of fresh concrete.

1.4.0: Research questions

1) What is the relationship between water content and workability of fresh concrete?

2) What is the role of shape and size of aggregates on workability and of fresh concrete?

3) How does the temperature variance affect the workability of fresh concrete?

1.5.0: Significance of the research

1.5.1. Practical benefit

To researcher: The researcher expects that this research can be used as problem solving

reference for answering the level of accuracy of workability of fresh concrete in Mogadishu-

Somalia. And also gaining holistic knowledge and skills on investigating concrete slump test by

flowing the processes, procedures, and techniques of research and it instruments.

To societies: Benefiting from the result of the research in order to do permanent controlling and

improve the concrete quality which is durability and workability.

1.5.2. Theoretical benefit


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The researcher expects that this research can be used as theory contribution for

Especially the huge concept about the reality of workability of fresh concrete in Mogadishu

building sites.

To academia: By formulating of working principles, guidelines, directions,

Analysis skills, etc, the academia would be equipped with valuable knowledge. Also this will be

very valuable for later researches as reference. In addition the public and private engineering

institutions can also benefit from this research.

1.6.0: Research scope

1.6.1: Geographical scope

This research will be done and limited only in Mogadishu-Somalia

1.6.2: content scope:

This research is about the workability of fresh concrete in Mogadishu construction sites.

1.6.3: time scope:

This research will be conducted the interval between November 2018 to may 2019.

1.7.0: Key terms

Concrete: is a mixture of Portland cement or other hydraulic cement, water, fine aggregate and

coarse aggregate, with or without additional materials (admixture) [SNI 2013] cited in (Relly

Andayani and Syarifudin Madenda , 2016).

Workability: is about “that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar that determines the

ease with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished to a homogenous condition”

cited in (Eric P. Koehler and David W. Fowler, 2003) .


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Slump: is apparatus consists of a mold in the shape of a frustum of a cone with a base diameter

of 8 inches, a top diameter of 4 inches, and a height of 12 inches (Eric P. Koehler and David W.

Fowler, 2003, p. 11).

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.0 Introduction
This chapter is the second chapter of the investigation of workability of fresh concrete that is

used in Mogadishu construction sites, it contains different sections with consideration of

organized previous objectives in chapter one. The first objective concerns the impact of water

content on the workability of fresh concrete, the second one is about the role of shape and size of

aggregates on the workability of concrete, and the third one is the effect of temperature of

workability of fresh concrete. And it will be concluded in summary of literature at the end of the

chapter

2.2.0 The effect of water content on the workability of fresh concrete.

The concept of water-cement ratio was developed by Abrams and first published in 1918. The

strength of concrete primarily depends upon the strength of cement paste. The strength of cement

paste depends upon the dilution of paste or in other words, the strength of paste increases with

cement content and decreases with air and water content. In 1918 Abrams presented his classic

law in the form (Vama, 2015) Abrams water/cement ratio law states that the strength of concrete

is only dependent upon the water/cement ratio provided the mix is workable. In the past, many

theories have been propounded by many research workers. Some of them held valid for some

time and then undergo some changes while others did not stand the test of time and hence slowly
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disappeared. But Abrams water/cement ratio law stood the test of time and is held valid even

today as a fundamental truth in concrete-making practices (Vama, 2015, p. 10). Workability of

concrete increases with an increase in water content. Higher the water content per cubic meter of

concrete, the higher will be the fluidity of concrete, which is one of the important factors

affecting workability. Adding more water to concrete also has some disadvantages as given

below.

• Increased quantity of water may cause bleeding in concrete.

• Cement slurry also escapes through the joints of formwork (Komal Rawarkar, Dr.Swati

Ambadkar, 2018).

Table2.1: Comparison of different water-cement ratio with the slump and compaction factor test
of fresh concrete mixes

So this table shows, if water contents change, the degree of workability also changes and the

water contents and workability of concrete have appositive relation (Vama, 2015, p. 14), the

water content is the most important factor of workability. Workability increases with the increase

of water content (measured in kg or liter per cubic meter of concrete). We can express the

relation in terms of the water-cement ratio. If the water-cement ratio is small, it indicates high

amount of cement which is helpful for good strength. But the small water-cement ratio is
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responsible for lower workability. If proper compaction cannot be achieved, concrete will not be

enough strong as desired. On the other hand, if the water-cement ratio is increased, workability

and compaction problem will be solved but there may occur some other problems like bleeding

and compressive strength. Hence an optimum water-cement ratio has to be maintained to balance

workability and strength of concrete

Figure 2.1: Comparison of a slump of concrete with the water-cement ratio, (Varma Mahavir,

2015).

Nan Su et al (2001) say the function of water is also to lubricate the concrete so that the concrete

can be compacted with specified effort forthcoming at the site work. the lubrication required for

handling concrete without segregation, for placing without loss of homogeneity, for compacting

with the amount of efforts forthcoming and to finish it sufficiently easily the presence of a

certain quantity of water is vital importance .many research worker tried to define the world

workability. But as it signifies much wider properties and qualities of concrete and does not

project any one particular meaning (Varma Mahavir 2015).

2.3.0 The role of shape and shape of aggregates on the workability of concrete.
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Classification of aggregate .various aggregate being used for the manufacture of concrete is

classified.

• According to size.

• According to shape

According to size- According to size aggregate are classified

• Coarse aggregate.

• Fine aggregate.

According to shape- According to shape aggregate are classified

• Rounded aggregates.

• Irregular aggregates.

• Angular aggregates.

• Flaky aggregates (Sanjeev Gill and Dr.Rajiv Kumar, 2015).

2.3.1. Size of Course aggregate and fine aggregates

According to table 3.2, 25% laterite content in the mix, using coarse aggregate sizes of 19.5mm

and 12.5mm, medium workability (with a slump of 80mm and 65mm) was achieved but its

values were low for other remaining coarse aggregate sizes. This also implies that more water is

needed for smaller coarse aggregate particle sizes to achieve medium workability because of

large surface area. However, for a 2.36mm coarse aggregate particle size at 25% laterite content

and for both 5.0mm and 2.36mm coarse aggregate sizes at 50% laterite content values of slump

were zero, showing a stiff consistency. This may be due to the affinity of laterite for water and

also large surface area caused by the small particle sizes of coarse aggregates. The compaction

factor test results for controls (all granite particle sizes inclusive) and with different coarse

aggregate sizes (19.5mm, 12.5mm, 9.5mm, 5.0mm and 2.36mm sieve sizes) at 25% and 50%
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laterite contents show that the degree of workability ranges from medium at 25% laterite content

to a very low degree at 50% laterite content for controls (all granite particle sizes inclusive) (M

A Salau and A O Busari, 2015)

Table3.2 Slump value for laterized concrete with different coarse aggregate sizes at 25% and
50% laterite contents. Particle Size (mm) 25% Replacement of Sand with Laterite 50%
Replacement of Sand with Laterite

Source of the table (M A Salau and A O Busari, 2015)

The maximum size of aggregate (MSA), influences workability, strength, shrinkage,

and permeability. Mixtures with the large maximum size of coarse aggregate tend to produce

Concrete with better workability, probably because of the decrease in the specific surface. For

example, in high-performance concrete (HPC) with low water-cement ratio and high cement

content, a high value of MSA tends to reduce strength. This can be explained by the observation

that bond with large particles tends to be weaker than with small particles due to smaller surface

area-to-volume ratios. Mixtures with coarse aggregate with large maximum size tend to have

reduced shrinkage and creep [Washa,1998] cited in (Vama, 2015, p. 15)

2.3.2 The shape of aggregates (coarse and fine).

Aggregates mostly derived from naturally occurring rocks by blasting or crushing, etc., so, it is

difficult to attain the required shape of aggregate. But, the shape of the aggregate will affect the

workability of concrete. So, we should take care of the shape of the aggregate. This car is not

only applicable to parent rock, but also to the crushing machine used. As a generalization, it may
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be said that the more nearly spherical are the particles of the aggregate, the more workable

concrete will be the mix in which they are incorporated, other things being equal. This effect is

due to two properties of spheres. First of all, there is what may be called the ball-bearing effect

that is simply that it is clearly easier for packed spheres to move relative to each other than it is

for particles of an angular or awkward shape, even in the dry state. Secondly, for a given mass,

the sphere is the shape that has the smallest surface area, so a closer approximation of coarse

aggregate particles to sphericity means that less mortar is needed for citing them, and also less is

needed to fill the voids between them (A.H.Allen, 2005).

2.3.2.1 Rounded aggregates.

The rounded aggregates are completely shaped by attrition and available in the form of seashore

gravel. Rounded aggregates result the minimum percentage of voids (32 – 33%) hence gives

more workability. They require a lesser amount of water-cement ratio. They are not considered

for high strength concrete because of poor interlocking behavior and weak bond strength

2.3.2.2 Angular aggregates

The angular aggregates consists well-defined edges formed at the intersection of roughly planar

surfaces and these are obtained by crushing the rocks. Angular aggregates result the maximum

percentage of voids (38-45%) hence gives less workability. They give 10-20% more compressive

strength due to development of stronger aggregate-mortar bond. So, these are useful in high

strength concrete manufacturing.

2.3.2.3 Irregular aggregates.

The irregular or partly rounded aggregates are partly shaped by attrition and these are available

in the form of pit sands and gravel. Irregular aggregates may result from 35- 37% of voids. These
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will give lesser workability when compared to rounded aggregates. The bond strength is slightly

higher than rounded aggregates but not as required for high strength concrete.

2.3.2.4 Flaky aggregates

When the aggregate length is larger than its width and width is larger than its thickness then it is

said to be flaky and elongated aggregates. Those three types of course aggregates which are

angular, irregular and flaky are not suitable for concrete mixing. These are generally obtained

from the poorly crushed rocks (Jamal, 2017)

2.4.0 The effect of temperature variance on the workability of concrete

When fresh concrete is laid at the site, then proper curing of concrete is required, because

structures are exposed to the environment and in these conditions, if there is no such an

arrangement against the environment, then there are many factors that affect the workability of

concrete and temperature is one of them. Temperature, almost in every aspect has negative

effects on the properties of concrete and the same is the case with the workability of fresh

concrete. Fresh concrete gets stiffened as the time flows. This is because some of the water used

to mix the concrete gets evaporated and some get absorbed by the aggregates. Thus the

workability of concrete reduces with time. This loss of workability with time is known as slump

loss. The effect of temperature on the workability of concrete is noteworthy. As the temperature

increases, the workability of the mix reduces. (Nepal, 2016)

With constant w/c ratio and variable temperature, it was found that workability of concrete mix

decreases as the temperature of the concrete increases i.e., slump and the compacting factor

values decreases as the temperature increases. But when the surrounding and concrete

temperature is low there is no such effect on the workability. (Manzoor, 2017).


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When temperature increases, then in the same proportion workability of fresh concrete decreases.

The reason that stands behind is “ when temperature increases then evaporation rate also

increases due to that hydration rate decreases and hence, concrete will gain strength earlier “.

Due to fast hydration of concrete, a hardening comes in concrete and that decreases the

workability of fresh concrete. Therefore, In return manipulation of concrete becomes very

difficult.

When temperature increases then fluid viscosity increases too and that phenomenon affects the

flowability of fresh concrete. Flowability of concrete starts to decrease and hence, as a result,

concrete workability decrease. And when workability of concrete decreases, then due to the less

flowability of a fluid, voids within the mass of concrete develops more. This is because deeper

air voids in concrete only fills if the freshly mixed fluid has the ability to move deeper inside the

small opening in the concrete. As in the present case due to a higher temperature, a viscosity of

fluid increases and that vicious of fluid resists the movement of fluid. Now In the case when

empty voids left in the concrete, the number of weak points rise in concrete and that became the

reason for a reduction in the strength of concrete.

According to figure 2.1 the temperature effect on slump of concrete, a concrete mix which is

having same proportioning shows that the slump test slowdowns from 110mm to 38 mm with

range of temperature variance from 50C to 400C and also shows that the temperature has a

negative effect on the workability of concrete as well as strength up to some extent. Temperature

decreases the setting time by increasing hydration rate and that increase the early age strength of

the concrete. This is an advantage that less time will be required before removing of form works

on site, but this decrease the use of proper placement of concrete in the initial stages. If concrete
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is not properly laid, then strength distribution will not remain the same throughout the cross-

section (Afsar, 2012)

Figure 2.1: the relationship between temperature and workability of concrete

Source of the figure (Jamal, 2017)

2.5.0 Summary of literature reviews

According to the above-mentioned authors they talked extensively about the workability of fresh

concrete, particularly factors that have great impacts on the workability of fresh concrete. Most

of them they agreed that the water content is most functional unit control of workability of fresh

concrete and it has appositive relation to the workability of the fresh concrete. Also, they talked

that aggregates (coarse and fine) and temperature variance also have tangible effects on the

workability of fresh concrete. The methods or instruments that they have used are mostly Slump,

compaction factor and Vee Bee (VB) tests instruments. Although the instruments are different,

they got average results of workability of concrete. In this research, it is very required and

necessary to figure out the effects of the water-cement ratio impact of aggregates (coarse and
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fine) and the relationship between of temperature and workability of concrete in Mogadishu

Somalia.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the research method. It focuses the method used in conducting this research

which covers research design, population and sample size, sample procedure, research

instrument, data collecting method and data analysis. This chapter gives a detailed description of

the experimental system and procedures used in data acquisition and data processing throughout

this experiment.

3.2.0. Research design

This study is cross-sectional, descriptive method because the researcher intends to collect data at

a given point in given time from a cross-section of respondents forms in certain districts in

Mogadishu, and also it will use methods of both qualitative and quantitative in design because

the research wants to collect Soft data (i.e., words, sentences, photos, symbols) and hard data (in

the form of numbers).

3.3.0. Target population.

This research will be conducted in Mogadishu construction sites which include the seventeen

(17) districts of the city.


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3.4.0. Sample size

Since there is no exact data which shows the average construction sites in

Mogadishu in given time like one month, one week, 6months and so on, this

research will take 10 samples in construction sites to collect relevant data interview from

the selected sites then applying in University lab.

3.5.0. Sampling procedure.

This research will use non probability sampling, particularly, convenient sampling because of

shortage of accessibility for example to do one sample of testing workability of fresh concrete, it

needs high cost and much time in addition to the interview is an other big work that should be

collected before the test start.

3.6.0. Research instruments

This study will use in mix methods, which are experiment and interview methods, these two

methods are suitable to approach and conduct factors that affect the workability of fresh concrete

in Mogadishu. The interview will be collected from site engineers which focus on the over all

body of the research such as the their demography, overview of their construction sites and

research objectives. And then taking that collected data will be done in experiment in the civil

engineering lab of City University by changing the interview theory into real practical

experiments. This experiment will use slump and compaction factor tests, these instruments are

very fit and suitable to conduct and measure the factors that affect workability of fresh concrete

in Mogadishu construction sites. The details and deep information about the two instruments are

flwing:

3.6.1. Slump test methodology according to British standard.


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3.6.1.1. Definition

“The slump test is the most well-known and widely used test method to characterize the

Workability of fresh concrete. The inexpensive test, which measures consistency, is used on job

Sites to determine rapidly whether a concrete batch should be accepted or rejected. The test

Method is widely standardized throughout the world, including in ASTM C143 in the United

States and EN 12350-2 in Europe. And the slump contains four types which zero lump, shear

slump, true slump and collapse slump (Eric P. Koehler and David W. Fowler, 2003, p. 11) .

3.6.1.2. Procedures and results.

1. The mold for the slump testis a frustum of a cone, 300 mm (12 in) of height. The base is

200 mm (8in) in diameter and it has a smaller opening at the top of 100 mm (4 in).

2. The base is placed on a smooth surface and the container is filled with concrete in three

layers, whose workability is to be tested.

3. Each layer is temped 25 times with a standard 16 mm (5/8 in) diameter steel rod, rounded

at the end. When the mold is completely filled with concrete, the top surface is struck off

(leveled with mould top opening) by means of screening and rolling motion of the

temping rod.

4. The mould must be firmly held against its base during the entire operation so that it could

not move due to the pouring of concrete and this can be done by means of handles or foot

- rests brazed to the mold.

5. Immediately after filling is completed and the concrete is leveled, the cone is slowly and

carefully lifted vertically, an unsupported concrete will now slump.

6. The decrease in the height of the center of the slumped concrete is called slump.
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7. The slump is measured by placing the cone just besides the slump concrete and the

temping rod is placed over the cone so that it should also come over the area of slumped

concrete.

8. The decrease in height of concrete to that of mold is noted with scale. (Usually measured

to the nearest 5 mm (1/4 in) (Jamal, 2017).

3.6.2.0: Compaction factor test according to British standard


3.6.2.1: Definition
The Compacting Factor Apparatus is used to determine the compaction factor of concrete
with low, medium and high workability. Comprising two conical hoppers having a hinged
trap door attached to the lower end of each hopper, allowing the concrete sample to flow
freely into the cylindrical mould. The hoppers and the mould are mounted onto a rigid steel
frame and are easily removable for cleaning. Compaction factor apparatus consists of
trowels, hand scoop (15.2cm long), a rod of steel or other suitable material (1.6 cm diameter,
61 cm long rounded at one end) and a balance.
3.6.2.2. Procedure and results
1. Place the concrete sample gently in the upper hopper to its brim using the hand scoop and
Level it.
2. Cover the cylinder.
3. Open the trapdoor at the bottom of the upper hopper so that concrete fall into the lower
hopper. Push the concrete sticking on its sides gently with the road.
4. Open the trapdoor of the lower hopper and allow the concrete to fall into the cylinder
below.
5. Cut of the excess of concrete above the top level of cylinder using trowels and level it.
6. Clean the outside of the cylinder.
7. Weight the cylinder with concrete to the nearest 10 g. This weight is known as the weight
of partially compacted concrete (W1).
8. Empty the cylinder and then refill it with the same concrete mix in layers approximately
5 cm deep, each layer being heavily rammed to obtain full compaction.
9. Level the top surface.
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10. Weigh the cylinder with fully compacted. This weight is known as the weight of fully
compacted concrete (W2).
11. Find the weight of empty cylinder (W).
3.6.2.3: Calculations:
Let weight of the empty cylinder = W1
Let weight of the cylinder with the partially compacted concrete = W2
Let weight of the fully compacted (Using mechanical vibrator) concrete with cylinder = W3
Compaction Factor = Weight of the partially compacted concrete/ Weight of the fully
compacted concrete i.e., Compaction factor = (W2-W1)/ (W3-W1)
Result: The compaction factor of the given fresh concrete mix is.....
(Note: Relation between the compaction factor and work-ability is that higher the compaction
factor higher is the work-ability. Theoretical maximum value of the compaction factor can be
0.96 to 1.0). (Eric P. Koehler and David W. Fowler, 2003).
3.7.0. Data analysis

Since this study is an experiment it will categorized and formed into quantitative way that

lead to be analyzed in easy way. The data will be organized, stored and analyzed by using

SPPS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) and excel. And then the result will be

interpreted and standardized by graphs (pie chart) and tables. The data will contain three

sections, demography, overview of construction site and main objectives of the research, so

the first two sections will use descriptive analysis, while the main objective section will use

regression analysis to determine the exact relation between the objectives and workability of

fresh concrete.

3.8.0. Ethical consideration.

Since this research uses mix methods of interview and experiments that means, it is primary

source, so the ethical consideration is highly reliable. And researcher will keep the
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confidentiality and privacy of all interviewees about their site of construction and their

companies.

3.9.0. Limitations.

The limitations of this study are different, the interviewee may not give the exactly what they do

in their site of construction, such as the exactly of concrete grades or ratio. And also some

companies have suspect to the capstone students, because they may think if an error comes, it

will have consequences to their company so, they can easily reject to give information. Also

material components of concrete are cost and needs transport from the shop to the lab of the

university. And also there are series road blocks in Mogadishu that can be obstacle and interrupt

the work.

CHAPTER FOUR

Chapter four
Data analysis and interpretations
4.0 This chapter represents the analysis of data collected (interviews and experiments) and its
interpretations about factors affecting the workability of fresh concrete that is used in Mogadishu
construction sites. It contains three sections which are demographic section, overview about the
construction sites and the analysis of the main objectives. The first two sections have been
analyzed in descriptive analysis while the last section was analyzed by using regression analysis.
4.1: Demographic section
26

Table 4.1.1, gender of respondents.


GENDER Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
Table 4.1.2.Marital status of respondents.
Percent Percent
MALE 10 100.0 100.0 100.0

Chart 4.1.1, gender of respondents

The table and chart 4.1.1 describe that all respondents 10.0(100.0) are all male. While there are
not any female respondents.
27

MARITAL STATUS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

SINGLE 7 70.0 70.0 70.0

MARRIED 3 30.0 30.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0

Chart 4.1.2: Marital status of respondents

The table and chart 4.1.2. Shows that the 7(70%) are singles, while the 3(30%) of the responders
are married.
28

Table 4.1.3, level of education of responders.

LEVEL OF EDUCATION Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

BACHELOR 8 80.0 80.0 80.0

MASTER 1 10.0 10.0 90.0

THROUGH EXPERIENCE 1 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0

Chart 4.1.3, level of education of responders.

The table and chart of 4.1.3 shows that the 8(80%) of the responders are level of bachelor degree,
while 1(10%) of the responders is master degree level and 1(10%) is through experienced
person.
Table 4.1.4, age of the responders

Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

24----30 YEARS 3 30.0 30.0 30.0

30----36 YEARS 6 60.0 60.0 90.0

42----48 YEARS 1 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


29

Chart of 4.1.4, age of the responders.

The table and chart 4.1.4 describes that the age of 6(60%) responders lie the interval between
30----36 years, while the age of 3(30%) of the responders lie 24---- 30 years and 1(10%) is
above 42 years old.

Table 4.1.5, experience of responders

EXPERIENCE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

1----2 YEARS 2 20.0 20.0 20.0

2----3 YEARS 4 40.0 40.0 60.0

3----4 YEARS 3 30.0 30.0 90.0


5 YEARS+ 1 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


30

Chart 4.1.5, experience of responders.

Table 4.1.5 and chart 4.1.5 explains that the majority of the responders 4(40%) have experience
that is between 2----3 years, and also 3(30%) of the responders have experience which is
between 3 to 4 years, while 1(10%) of the responders has a experience which is more than 5
years.
4.2.0. Overview of the construction site

Table 4.2.1 source of the concrete that is used in the construction sites.

SOURCE OF CONCRETE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

READY MIX CONCRETE 1 10.0 10.0 10.0

SITE MIX CONCRETE 9 90.0 90.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


31

Chart 4.2.2, source of the concrete that is used in Mogadishu construction sites.

The table and chart 4.2.2 describes that 9(90%) use their own concrete in the site of their
construction, while 1(10%) uses ready mix concrete from factory plant of concrete.

Table 4.2.3 purpose of usages of the concrete.

PURPOSE OF USAGE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent
SLAB 1 10.0 10.0 10.0

BEAMS 2 20.0 20.0 30.0

COLUMS 1 10.0 10.0 40.0

FOUNDATIONS 4 40.0 40.0 80.0

OTHERS 2 20.0 20.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


32

Chart 4.2.3, purpose of usage of the concrete.

The table and chart 4.2.3, describes that 4(40%) of the responders use majority of the concrete in
foundation, while the column uses 1(10%) a responders said.

Table 4.2.4, mix design of the concrete in the construction site.

TYPE OF MIX DESIGN Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

BATCHING BY VOLUME 6 60.0 60.0 60.0

BATCHING BY WEIGHT 4 40.0 40.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


33

Chart 4.2.4, mix design of the concrete in the construction site.

The table and chart 4.2.4 show that 6(60%) of the responders use the mix design of batching by
volume, while 4(40%) of the responders use mix design of batching by weight.

Table 4.2.5, districts that the data have been collected.

DITRICT Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

WARTA-NABADA 1 10.0 10.0 10.0

HODAN DISTRICT 3 30.0 30.0 40.0

HOWLWADAG DISTRICT 3 30.0 30.0 70.0

WABERI DISTRICT 1 10.0 10.0 80.0

BONDHERE 1 10.0 10.0 90.0

ABDI AZIZ 1 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0


34

Chart 4.2.5, districts that the data have been collected.

The table and chart 4.2.5 show that the districts of Hodan and Howl-wadag were mostly
conducted the research and each one has been collected 3(30%) of the whole data. While the
districts of Abdi Aziz, Bonhere and Warta nabada were collected from them 1(10%) for each
one.
Table 4.2.6, grade of concrete.

GRADE OF Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


CONCRETE Percent

M20 2 20.0 20.0 20.0

M25 6 60.0 60.0 80.0

M30 2 20.0 20.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0

Chart 4.2.6, grade of concrete that is used in Mogadishu.


35

Table and chart 4.2.6, show us, that most of the responders 6(60%) selected M25 for concrete in
Mogadishu, while M20 and m30 are second class for concrete grades.

Table 4.2.7, degree of workability of fresh workability

DEGREE OF Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Workability Percent

MEDIUM 5 50.0 50.0 50.0

LOW 2 20.0 20.0 70.0

VERY LOW 3 30.0 30.0 100.0

Total 10 100.0 100.0

Chart 4.2.7, degree of workability of fresh concrete.

The table and chart 4.2.7, describes that 5(50%) of experiments became medium degree, while
three of them became very low degree of workability.

Table 4.2.8, coarse aggregate used in the concrete.

COARSE AGGREGATES USED Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative


Percent

IRREGULAR SHAPED 8 80.0 80.0 80.0

ANGULAR SHAPED 2 20.0 20.0 100.0


Total 10 100.0 100.0
36

Chart 4.2.8, coarse aggregate used in the concrete.

Table and chart 4.2.8, show that the 8(80%) of responders use irregular shaped aggregate for
concrete mixture. While 2(20%) of the responders said that they use angular shaped aggregate in
concrete.

4.3.0: main objectives


The main objectives of this research are, to measure effect of water content, temperature variance

and aggregates to the workability of the fresh concrete in Mogadishu. So we use the regression

method to analyze the impacts of the independent variables to the dependent variable. But before

that the result of the experiments that have been done are collected in flowing table.
37

4.3.1. The results of experiments that have been done.

Mix ratio Slump test results Compaction factor test


results
cement sand Coarse Water Sample 1 Sample averag Sample Sampl avera
Aggregat content 2 e 1 e2 ge
e
1
1.5 3 1.5 6.9 7 6.95 0.78 0.85 0.815

1 1 1.5 1.2 40 45 42.5 0.7 1 0.85

1 1.5 3 1 7 6.9 6.95 0.63 0.5 0.565

1 2 4 1 65 65 65 1.38 1.3 1.34

1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1.81 1.87 1.84


10
1 1.5 3 1.5 9 9.5 0.89 0.87 0.88

1 1 2 1 60 65 62.5 0.31 0.32 0.315

1 2 4 1 30 35 32.5 0.9 1 0.95

1 2 4 1.2 10 10 10 2.25 2.25 2.25


1 3 1.5 60 65 62.5 0.31 0.32 0.315
1
38

4.3.2. Research objectives and concrete workability.


Water content Aggregate(fine Temperature Workability of
+coarse) concrete

Slump Compaction
test factor
1.5 4.5 30 6.95 0.815
1.2 2.5 30 42.5 0.85
1 4.5 30 6.95 0.656
1 6 31 65 1.34
1 5 31 1 1.84
1.5 4.5 31 9.5 1.88
1 3 31 62.5 0.315
1 6 30 32.5 0.95
1.2 6 30 10 2.25
1.5 4 32 62.5 0.315

4.3.1: comparison of compaction factor test result with slump test result.
To test whether there is signicant statistical difference between two test results (i.e.: slump test
result and compaction factor test result) we use paired T –test. The result of paired T –test is
shown table (4.3.1) below.
Construction of hypothesis:-

H0: there is no signicant statistical difference between two test results (i.e: slump test result and
compaction factor test result.
Ha: there is signicant statistical difference between two test results (i.e: slump test result and
compaction factor test result
39

Table 4.3.3: Paired T –test Result comparison of compaction factor with slump test
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences t d Sig. (2-
f tailed)
Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence
Deviation Mean Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper
Pai SLUMP TEST 40.4285 29.53720 9.34048 19.2988 61.5581 4.32 9 .002
r1 RESULT - 0 6 4 8
COMPACTIO
N FACTOR
TEST
RESULT

Table (4.3.1) of the result of the paired T –test shows that there is significant statistical difference
between two tests t(df=9)=4.328 ,p.value <5%(0.002<0.05).since , the p.value is less than the 5%
significant level we reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis.
4.3.2: Ordinary least square (OLS) regression output
This section is about analysis of the research objectives which are water content, temperature
variance and aggregates on workability of fresh concrete. Regression analysis can be deeply
analyze this kind of relation particularly ordinary least square (OLS).
Dependent variable: Slump test
Table 4.3.4:Model estimation

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized t Sig.


Coefficients

B Std. Error Beta


(Constant) -316.546 791.817 -.400 .703

WATER CONTENT 97.868 62.244 -.698 -1.572 .167

AGGREGATE -30.589 23.680 -.540 -1.292 .244

TEMPERATURE
17.767 26.309 .317 .675 .525
VARIANCE

R2 =0.38

As table (4.3.2 ) of the result of the Regression Output indicates that the coefficient of water
content has positive impact on the workability and insignificant through 5% level .Meaning
that there is positive relationship between workability and water content .For every one unit
40

increase in water content the workability is increased by 97.868 units .However the coefficient
of temperature variance has positive impact on workability and insignificant through 5% level
.Meaning that there is positive relationship between workability and temperature variance .For
every one unit increase in temperature variance the workability is increased by 17.767 units .
Finally the coefficient of aggregate has a negative impact on workability and insignificant
through 5% level .Meaning that there is negative relationship between workability and
aggregate .For every one unit increase in aggregate the workability is decreased by 30.589
units .
The overall the impact of the three variables on the response variable is measured by R-square
(0.38) meaning that 38% of the variation in workability caused by temperature variance ,water
content and aggregate and remaining 62% of variation in workability caused by unknown
factors that are outside our research .

4.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0: Introduction
This chapter concludes this report of a summary or conclusion and recommendations
of the study about factors affecting the workability of fresh concrete that is used in
Mogadishu construction sites. The summary and recommendations are limited to the
findings and discussions in previous chapter four.

5.1.0: Summary of research


The purpose of this research is to examine the factors affecting the workability of fresh
concrete in Mogadishu construction sites, during the period of November 2018 to may 2019.
This research used in ordinary least square(OLS) method to measure factors affecting
workability of fresh concrete that is used in Mogadishu construction sites, water content,
temperature variance, aggregate and workability of concrete were used as study variables in
which workability is dependent variable while water content temperature variance and
41

aggregates are independent variable. The cross-sectional collective data through an interview
and experiments were used the research. The study found that the water content and
temperature variance have a positive relation with workability of fresh concrete that is used in
Mogadishu construction sites, while the aggregates have negative relation with workability of
fresh concrete. The overall the impact of the three variables on the response variable is measured
by R-square (0.38) meaning that 38% of the variation in workability caused by temperature
variance ,water content and aggregate and remaining 62% of variation in workability caused by
unknown factors that are outside our research .
5.2.0: Recommendation and comments
Generally, with respect of study findings, the workability of concrete is normal in other words
60% lays the medium degree of workability which means the water content is a normal it is not
more or less. So order the fresh concrete should has its all properties which can be mixed, placed,
consolidated, and finished to a homogenous condition.
1) It should be cared the water cement ratio which is the backbone of the concrete,

2) Aggregates and time of mixing should thought because the temperature variance has impacts
on workability of the concrete.

3) More over that as researcher recommends that engineers and team of concrete should make
series and permanent tests of the concrete in both fresh and hard stages of concrete, minimum
of slump and cube test is possible.

4) This experiment depends on the way of responders answered and the researcher applied in
the university lab, so I would recommend later students to go to the site of the construction
and do test if possible, apart from their views.

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APPENDIXES