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Tugas 2 Pembuatan Bahan Ajar Bahasa Inggris

CHAPTER 8
EXPLANATION TEXT
Tujuan Pembelajaran :

Setelah mempelajari chapter ini, siswa diharapkan mampu :

1. Membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks
explanation lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait gejala alam
atau sosial sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

2. Menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur
kebahasaan teks explanation lisan dan tulis, terkait gejala alam atau sosial

Explanation Text

What is Explanation?

1. Definition and purposes of Explanation


Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and
cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the
phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.
2. Generic structure of Explanation
 General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
 Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
3. Language Feature
 Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
 Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
 Using passive voice pattern
 Using simple present tense
4. Examples and structures of the text
Making Paper from Woodchips
A general Wood chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper
statement products from forest trees.
The wood chipping process begins when the trees are cut
down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then
explanation of the logs are taken to the mill.

why or how At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are
something taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called
occurs woodchips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other
impurities.
At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed
into pulp by chemicals and heat.
The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.
Closing Finally, the pulp is rolled out to make paper.
Information
Explanation Text Example of Explanation Text
Ciri Umum: A. Tsunami
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: The term of “tsunami”
 Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi comes from the Japanese which
dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang
means harbor ("tsu") and wave
terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia
ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang ("nami"). A tsunami is a series
bertujuan menjelaskan. of waves generated when water
Struktur Teks/Generic structure in a lake or the sea is rapidly
 A general statement; Penjelasan umum displaced on a massive scale.
 A sequenced explanation of why or how A tsunami can be
something occurs; Penjelasan proses generated when the sea floor
 Penutup. abruptly deforms and vertically
Ciri Kebahasaan: displaces the overlying water.
Menggunakan; Such large vertical movements
 general dan abstract nouns, misalnya of the earth's crust can occur at
word chopping, earthquakes; plate boundaries.
 action verbs; Subduction of
 simple present tense; earthquakes are particularly
 passive voice; effective in generating tsunamis, and occur where
 conjunctions of time dan cause;
denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.
As the displaced water mass moves under the
 noun phrase, misalnya the large cloud;
influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it
 abstract nouns, misalnya the
temperature;
radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.
Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of
 adverbial phrases;
the damage is caused by the huge mass of water
 complex sentences;
behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea
keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.
(simplified from www.panda.org)

B. How The Rain Happen


How Rain is the essential wellspring of new water for most zones of the world, giving suitable
conditions to assorted biological systems, and in addition water for hydroelectric force plants and
harvest watering system.
The marvel of downpour is really a water circle. The idea of the water cycle includes the sun
warming the Earth’s surface water and bringing about the surface water to vanish. The water vapor
ascends into the Earth’s environment. The water in the climate cools and gathers into fluid beads.
The beads develop until they are substantial and tumble to the earth as precipitation which can be
as downpour or snow.
On the other hand, not all downpour achieves the surface. Some dissipates while falling through dry air.
This is called virga, a marvel which is regularly seen in hot, dry desert areas.

C. How the earthquake happen


Earthquake is one of the most destroying natural disasters. Unluckily it often happens in several
regions. Recently a horrible earthquake has shaken West Sumatra. It has brought great damages.
Why did it occur? Do you know how an earthquake happens? Earthquakes are usually caused when
rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic
waves. It makes the ground shake.
When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They
don't just slide smoothly. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a
while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the
earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving,
and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is
called the focus of the earthquake.
The place right above the focus is called the epicenter of the earthquake.

Generic Structure Analysis


General statement; stating the phenomenon which daylight in summer is longer than
in winter.
Explanation; it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the
distance of the earth from the sun.
Language Feature Analysis
Focusing generic participant; daylight.
Using chronological connection; then, so, but.
Using passive voice; you would be forgiven.
Using present tense; the earth is actually closer to the sun.

 The Differences of Explanation Text with Procedural Text


Explanation text

Procedure Text
1. Describe how certain 1. Describe how to make
phenomenon or event something which is close to
happens our daily activity

2. Formed in the mode 2. Formed in the mode


instruction
of description

Grammar Focus
Simple Present review
Explanation text in general uses Simple Present Tense as its main tense. Here is the summary.

A.General pattern

Pattern Time reference


a. Verb pattern Every….

(+) S + V1(-s/-es) Always never

(-) S + do/does not V1 Often occasionally

(?) Do/does + S + V Sometimes seldom

B. To be pattern Rarely

(+) S + is/am/are + adjective/adverb/nouns Ever

(-) S+ is/am/are not + adjective/adverb/nouns

(?) Is/Am/Are S + adjective/adverb/nouns

B. Function
1. Expressing habitual actions or customs
2. Expressing general truth
C. Examples

1. The marvel of downpour is really a water circle.


2. Earthquake is one of the most destroying natural disasters
3. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.
4. We aren’t Arabian but Indonesian.
5. They don’t go to Mecca every year
6. Are you hungry?
7. Does Shinta walk to school everyday.

D. Special Note

If the subject is third singular person (e.g) he, she, it John, Smith, Karen, the earth), we must

add a final –s pr –es to the verb.

1. Add –es if the verb ends in ss, sh, ch, x or z

 cross – crosses
 crush - crushes
 catch - catches
 mix - mixes
 buzz - buzzes

2. If the verb ends in –y preceded by a consonant, change the –y into I and add -es

 cry - cries
 fry - fries

Passive Sentence
When Ais explain how to make paper, she used the following expressions:

1. The trees are cut down…


2. The logs are taken…
3. The woodchipped are then screened…
4. The pulp is then bleached..
5. The water contents is removed…
6. They are exported …
The sentences uses a “passive constriction” here are the patterns.

ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE

1. Simple present The letter is written by me


I write a letter
S + is/am/are + V3
2. Simple Past Tense
She read the book The book was read by her

S + was/were + V3

3. Present Continuous The card is being played by him


He is playing card
S + is/am/are/ being + V3
4. Past Continues
We were learning match when he come Match was being learnt when he came

S + was/were being + V3

5. Present Future Grandma will be visited by them


They will visit grandma
S + modal be +V3

6. Future Continuous Cloths will be being washed by us


They will be washing cloths
S + Will be + V3
7. Present Perfect
She has passed the exam The exam has been passed by her

S + has/have been + V3
8. Present Perfect Continuous The radio has been listened by us
We have been listening to the radio
S + has/have been being + V3
9. Past Perfect
she had done the test The test had been done by her

S + had been + V3

10. Past future Continuous English had been being studied by you
You had been studying English
S + had been being + V3
11. Future Perfect
I will have passed the exams The exam will have been passed by me

S + Will have been + V3

12. Future Perfect Continuous The test will have been being done by her
She will have been doing the test
S + Will have been being + V3

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