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Geometric Sequences

Lesson Objectives:

 Review Exponent Laws


 You should be able to identify if a sequence is geometric
 Given a geometric sequence, you should be able to determine “a” and “r’.
 You should be able to determine the “nth term” of a geometric sequence
 You should be able to apply the “nth term” formula to various problem solving situations

A) Exponent Law Review

36  315  a 3  a 24  m7n 5  mn8  3m8  7m 9 

416  48  x12  x 4  a16b9  a 4b3  24m 26  6m3 

2 6 3
 m 
8 6
 a b 
6 2 4
  3x 
7 4

B) Definition of a Geometric Sequence


You have just classified many different sequences. Select two from the group we called Geometric.

Sequence Calculations What do I see?


U5 U4
 
U4 U3
U3 U2
 
U2 U1

U5 U4
 
U4 U3
U3 U2
 
U2 U1
U5 U4
 
U4 U3
U3 U2
 
U2 U1

A GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE is a sequence of numbers…


Geometric Sequences

C) The General Term of Nth Term of a Geometric Sequence

Consider the Geometric sequence


Position 1 2 3 4 8….. 15….. 75…..
of term n
“n”
Term Un a ar ar2 ar3

The General term (nth Term) of an Geometric Sequence is: What does the nth term mean? What can
we use it for?
Un = ____________ where n is _______________
a is _____________

r is _____________

D) Using the nth Term – In your home groups of 4, select a number 1-4.

Problem 1 Problem 2

Show this Geometric arithmetic? For the geometric sequence: 5, -10, 20, -40, 80,…..

3, 3.6, 4.32, 5.184,…… Determine a and r, and hence an equation for Un

Determine the common ration ‘r’.

Problem 3 Problem 4

Determine the first 5 terms of the sequence: For the geometric sequence: 3, 3.6, 4.32, 5.184,……

Un = -2 . 3n Determine U13
Geometric Sequences

E) Practice – Select a mixture of 6 problems

Haese and Harris - Math Studies – Exercise 5D.1 page 136 (Questions 1c, 2c, 3c, d, 5, 6, 8b, 9a, d, 10a)
Problems - Exercise 5D.2 page 139 – Questions; 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

OXFORD Unit.pdf - Exercise 7D Exam Style Questions

Cirrito unit.pdf – Exercise 12.2.1 Questions 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10

F) Applications of Geometric Sequences – Compound Interest

Scenario: If the $5000 is invested for 5 years at 6% interest, compounded yearly. How much will this investment
compound to at the end of this period?

Use any math you are familiar with to determine the worth of the principal after 5 years.

Let’s look at it from a sequence perspective.

Mathematics Why did I do that?

The value at the beginning of 2nd year = 5000 x 1.06

= ______________

The value at the end of 3rd year = Year 2 x 1.06

= 5000 x 1.062

= ______________

The value at the end of 4th year = Year 3 x 1.06

= 5000 x 1.06

= ______________
Geometric Sequences

Let’s look at the sequence

Beginning 1 2 3 4 5 12 25 n
of Year
Money 5000

How did I get that? What does this show me?

Compound Interest forms a Geometric Sequence. List the sequence from above.

a = _____________________________

r = ______________________________

Value of investment (P) after ‘n’ years is given by: P = ________________________________

a) From this scenario, determine the value of the investment after 18 years.

b) How many years will it take for the investment to be worth more than $16 200?

Alternative Method: Use the Formula


Lets Try

a)
Geometric Sequences

Use geometric sequences to determine this question (think clearly and carefully first)

$400 is invested for 25 years at the rate of 8% p.a. Interest is compounded yearly. Determine the value of the
investment at the end of the investment period.

What is the interest earned on the money over that period?

References: Haese and Harris - Math Studies – Exercise 5F.1 page 148 – Questions; 2, 3, 5

G) Challenge - Use your understanding of nth term to help with these problems.

1. The terms m + 4, 5m + 4, m + 20 are in geometric sequence. Find the value(s) of ‘m’

2. For a given geometric sequence U1  U 3  40 , and U 2  U 4  96