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The Implementation of Science in K to 12 Curriculum: An Evaluation Research Using CIPP Model

Researchers:
Daisy Rose C. Perez Angel Hope S. Lopez Caryl Aya B. Miranda

Abstract
This paper evaluates the process of implementing the Science curriculum in Malixi Integrated
School, Malixi, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur using CIPP Model. This study is descriptive in nature
involving five (5) secondary science teachers who are currently teaching in the mentioned school
and one hundred- three Junior/Senior high school students. They are evaluated in terms of the
Instructional Materials Used, Teaching Methods used by the Teacher, Assessment Tools Used and
the problems that the teachers encountered using a survey questionnaire. The students’ perceived
that the instructional materials used by the teachers are not sufficient for their teaching and
learning process. The students viewed that teachers do not frequently used one teaching method
in teaching Science; exams are the best way to assess their learning. The teachers viewed that their
instructional materials used in teaching and learning process is sufficient and most of them are
more comfortable on using lecture method than the other teaching methods that they may
consider. They also perceived that the assessment tools they used are aligned with the teaching-
learning process. Lacking of Science Laboratory in school is the biggest problem of the Science
teachers in Malixi Integrated School that has been encountered. There is also a need for a support
from the administration in terms of technological avenues, Learning materials and equipment for
a better teaching and learning process. This study recommends that the Department of Education
should review the implementation of Science curriculum to improve the whole process of the
subject.

Keywords: CIPP Model, Process, Instructional Materials, Teaching Methods, Assessment Tools.

1.0 Introduction
Over the past several years, many reputable educational researchers have highlighted the
need for studies of curricula (Jones, 1991). The curriculum shows the destinations of the teaching
and learning process. The teacher, who is the most significant figure in interaction with students
in educational settings, is directly responsible for attaining the general aims of the curriculum,
their perceptions of what they are supposed to do in the class and what their role is in teaching
and learning process are of utmost importance. Clark and Elmore (1981) reported that teachers
adapt curricula to fit their knowledge, priorities, and unique classroom settings while Brophy and
Good (1974) reported that teachers influence curriculum implementation by deciding which
topics and activities are appropriate for their students. The teacher perceptions play a critical role
in the curriculum implementation process.
Given the fact that teacher perceptions do indeed influence the success of curriculum
implementation, curriculum theorists such as Orpwood (1985) have suggested that more detailed
case studies are needed in order to find out exactly how teacher beliefs and perceptions influence
the process.
The curriculum and the students determine to a large extent the teaching strategies used
by the teachers assigned to teach these courses. Based on these requirements, one may assume
that most, if not all, of the teachers assigned to teach these courses are well versed, educationally
prepared and capable of handling the curriculum materials and classroom management. Most of
these teachers have good rapport with the students and strive diligently to meet their needs. Even
though plans are carefully made and followed as closely as possible, it is suspected that the
teacher's perception of what is actually taking place in the classroom may be altogether different
from that of the students.
In a science classroom, especially on with the more advanced students, it is not unusual for
one to observe a conglomeration of different, but meaningful, activities taking place
simultaneously; invariably the same or a similar objective is being met by all of these activities.
The tone of the class, often determined by bulletin boards, models, charts, and specimens, has been
set by the teacher in accordance with the objectives to be mastered by the students.
Every teaching episode has both a curriculum and a delivery system. The delivery system
is the process-how the curriculum is taught. Curriculum and process are mutually dependent key
elements in effective instruction.
Current research had focused on student and teacher’s perception on Science in K to 12
Curriculum to the exclusion of any direct focus on actual classroom practice and or teacher
methods, assessment and instructional materials used.

2.0 Objective of the Study

This study was designed to describe the perception of both teachers and students on the
curriculum implementation process in science classrooms. Specifically, the methods used,
instructional materials, assessment used to students.
3.0 Research Questions

This study was guided by three major research questions in Process which are listed below:
1. Process
a) What are the students’ perceptions on instructional materials, teaching methods, and
assessment tools of the Science subject used in Grade 7 to Grade 11 with Science Teachers in K to
12 Curriculum?
b) What are the teachers’ perceptions on the effectiveness of the instructional materials, teaching
methods and assessment tools used in teaching Science in K to 12 Curriculum?
c) What are the teachers’ perceptions on the commonly encountered problems during the
implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum?

4.0 Methodology

This chapter presents overall design of the study, research questions, description of the
variables, participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedure and data analysis.

Research Design
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Science Curriculum specifically the
perception of both teachers and students on methods, instructional materials and assessment
being used by the teachers, and as well as the problems encountered in teaching teachers. In order
to attain this evaluation, the CIPP (context, input, process, and product) evaluation model was used
specifically the process developed by Stufflebeam (1971).
In this evaluation research, quantitative data were collected. Quantitative data, a self-
reported questionnaire consisting of in five sections was used to collect data from the students.
Descriptive statistics used to analyze the data collected through the questionnaire.

Research Locale
The study was conducted in Malixi Integrated School which is located in Malixi, Tagbina,
Surigao del Sur.
Sampling Design
This study used the universal sampling technique which included all the five (5) Science
teachers and Junior/Senior High School student who took up Science subjects with the total
population of 103 as respondents of the study.
Research Instruments
Questionnaires which adapted from the study of Tunc, Ferda (20110) were used to collect
data in this study. The questionnaires were divided into four (4) parts: Teachers’/Students’
Demographic Information, Teachers’/Students’ Perception On Instructional Materials Used,
Teachers’/Students’ Perception on Teaching Methods Used, Teachers/Students’ Perception On
Assessment and Problems Encountered by Science Teachers in Teaching Science.
Data Gathering Procedure
Before conducting the questionnaire, permission was taken from the principal. Afterwards,
the researcher explained the details of the study to the administration of the institution so as to
get necessary permission for conducting the study. Afterwards, the classes were determined for
each level and the researcher informed the teachers of the study.
The questionnaire was administered to a total of 103 students in the 2nd week of November,
2018. The students were provided with information about the study and how to fill in the
instrument. According to the principles Dörnyei (2003) maintains, the oral and written
instructions included what the study is about, why it is important or socially useful, the
organization responsible for administering the study, emphasizing that there are not right or
wrong answers, requesting sincere answers, promising confidentiality and saying thank you.
There appeared no problem during the administration of the study. The students were told that
there was no time limit for filling out the questionnaire. However, it took approximately 30
minutes for the students to complete it.

5.0 Results and Discussion


This chapter presents the result with its discussion to suffice the findings of this study.
Results are being presented according to the statement of the problem as follows:
Problem 1: What are the students’ perceptions on instructional materials, teaching methods, and
assessment tools of the Science subject used in Grade 7 to Grade 11 with Science Teachers in K to
12 Curriculum?

Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation


1. Textbooks 2.28 Sufficient

2.1 Workbooks 1.89 Not Sufficient


2.2 Magazines/ newspaper 1.55 Not Sufficient
2.3 Reference book 2.63 Sufficient
2.4 Teachers prepared study guides 2.29 Not Sufficient
3.Visual aids
3.1 Chalk board 2.83 Sufficient
3.2 Graphic materials 2.48 Not Sufficient
3.3Objects (specimens,real,models) 2.60 Sufficient
4. Audio visual aids
4.1.Multimedia presentations 1.58 Not Sufficient
4.2 CD materials 1.20 Completely Not Sufficient
4.3 Video clips 1.58 Not Sufficient
Average Mean Score 2.08 Not Sufficient
1.0-1.50-Completely Not Sufficient; 1.51- 2.50-Not Sufficient;2.51- 3.50-Sufficient;3.51 – 4.0-Quite
Sufficient
Table 1.a. Students’ Perception on Instructional Materials
The findings imply that the students perceived that the instructional materials used in their
teaching and learning process is not sufficient as indicated by the average mean score of 2.08. The
results also imply that the use of chalkboard as an instructional material is sufficient and
newspapers and magazines are not sufficiently utilized.

Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation


1. Experimentation 2.47 Seldom
2. Collaborative/ Group work 2.73 Sometimes
3. Field activity 1.53 Seldom
4. Lecture/ Interactive
discussion 3.73 Often
5. Pair work 2.34 Seldom
6. Outdoor activity 1.47 Never
7. Reporting 1.96 Seldom
8. Inquiry -Based Learning
(IBL) 2.96 Sometimes
9. Problem- Based Learning
(PBL) 2.71 Sometimes
10. Project-Based Learning 2.69 Sometimes
11. Role Play 1.51 Seldom
12. Multimedia Approach 2.06 Seldom
Average Mean Score 2.35 Seldom
1.0-1.50-Never;1.51- 2.50-Seldom;2.51- 3.50-Sometimes;3.51 – 4.50-Often;4.51-5.0-Always
Table 1.b Student’s Perception on Teaching Method Used
The table showed that the students perceived that the teachers were not totally equipped
with varied teaching methods. As indicated by the Average mean score 2.35, verbally interpreted
as seldom. This displays that teachers do not frequently used one teaching method in teaching
Science.
Verbal
Mean
Indicators Interpretation
1. Exams reflect the content. 2.93 Agree

2. Class reports are beneficial. 2.50 Disagree

3. Portfolio helps me learn better. 2.57 Agree

4. Number of exams is enough. 2.55 Agree

5. Exams help me learn better. 2.61 Agree

6. Exams are consistent. 2.36 Disagree

7. Science activities are efficient for my learnings. 2.61 Agree

8. Reflection helps me to realize what I’ve learned. 2.17 Disagree

9. Short quizzes assess my understanding during


2.66 Agree
discussion.

10. Assignments are related to the topic. 2.69 Agree

11. Summative test reflect all my learnings. 2.62 Agree

Average Mean Score 2.57 Agree

1.0-1.50-Strongly Disagree;1.51- 2.50-Disagree;2.51- 3.50-Agree;3.51 – 4.0-Strongly Agree

Table 1.c. Student’s Perception on Assessment Tool Used

This table showed that assessment tool used by the Science teachers reflected on the
Science content as indicated on the Average mean score of 2.57, verbally interpreted as agree.
Students agreed that discussions were reflected on the different assessment given to them
Problem 2. What are the teachers’ perceptions on the effectiveness of the instructional
materials, teaching methods and assessment tools used in teaching Science in K to 12 Curriculum?

Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation


1.0-
1. Textbooks 2.6 Sufficient 1.50-
2.Supplemental materials

2.1 Workbooks 2.2 Not Sufficient


2.2 Magazines/ newspaper 2 Not Sufficient
2.3 Reference book 3.2 Sufficient
2.4Teachers prepared study guides 2.4 Not Sufficient
3.Visual aids

3.1 Chalk board 3.4 Quite Sufficient


3.2 Graphic materials 3.2 Quite Sufficient
3.3Objects (specimens,real,models) 2.8 Sufficient
4. Audio visual aids

4.1.Multimedia presentations 2.6 Sufficient


4.2 CD materials 2.8 Sufficient
4.3 Video clips 2.2 Not Sufficient
Average Mean Score 2.67 Sufficient
Completely Not Sufficient; 1.51- 2.50-Not Sufficient;2.51- 3.50-Sufficient;3.51 – 4.0-Quite
Sufficient
Table 2.a. Teachers perception in Instructional Materials used.

The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions on instructional materials used are
sufficient for their teaching process, as indicated by the average mean score of 2.67. This shows
that the teacher sufficiently used variety of instructional materials in teaching Science. The
traditional way of using chalkboard was commonly utilized and was found to be quite sufficient in
the teaching process, the use of newspapers and magazines are not much utilized by the teachers.
Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation
1. Experimentation 3.6 Often
2. Collaborative/ Group
work 4 Often
3. Field activity 2.4 Seldom
4. Lecture/ Interactive
discussion 4.8 Always
5. Pair work 4.2 Often
6. Outdoor activity 2.6 Sometimes
7. Reporting 2.6 Sometimes
8. Inquiry -Based Learning
(IBL) 3.8 Often
9. Problem- Based Learning
(PBL)
3.6 Often
10. Project-Based Learning 3.2 Sometimes
11. Role Play 3 Sometimes
12. Multimedia Approach 3.4 Sometimes
Average Mean Score 3.43 Sometimes

1.0-1.50-Never;1.51- 2.50-Seldom;2.51- 3.50-Sometimes;3.51 – 4.50-Often;4.51-5.0-Always


Table 2.b. The Teachers Perception on the effectiveness of the teaching methods used in teaching
Science in K to 12 Curriculum.

The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions on teaching methods used were
sometimes with varied teaching methods. As indicated by the Average mean score 3.43, verbally
interpreted as sometimes. This shows that teachers know the different methods yet they used the
most preferred in their teaching Science which is the lecture method and the least preferred
method is the field activity.
Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation
1. Exams reflect the content.
3.8 Strongly Agree

2. Class reports are beneficial.


2.8 Agree
3. Portfolio helps me learn
better. 3.4 Agree

4. Number of exams is enough.


3.6 Strongly Agree

5. Exams help me learn better.


3.6 Strongly Agree

6.Exams are consistent.


3.4 Agree
7. Science activities are efficient
for my learnings.
4 Strongly Agree
8. Reflection helps me to realize
what I’ve learned. 3.8 Strongly Agree
9. Short quizzes assess my
understanding during discussion. 3.6 Strongly Agree
10. Assignments are related to
the topic. 3.8 Strongly Agree
11. Summative test reflect all my
learnings. 3.6 Strongly Agree
Average Mean Score 3.58 Strongly Agree

1.0-1.50-Strongly Disagree;1.51- 2.50-Disagree;2.51- 3.50-Agree;3.51 – 4.0-Strongly Agree


Table 2.c. The Teachers Perception on the effectiveness of the assessment used in teaching Science
in K to 12 Curriculum

The findings revealed that the teachers perceived strongly agree as indicated in the average
mean score which is 3.58. This result implies that the assessment tool used by the Science teachers
reflected on the Science content. This emphasizes that the assessment used is aligned to the
teaching-learning process.
Problem 3. What are the teachers’ perceptions on the commonly encountered problems during the
implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum?

Indicators Mean Verbal Interpretation


1. Facilities like Science
laboratory 3.8 Strongly Agree
2. Science equipment and
apparatus are not sufficient. 2.8 Agree
3. Insufficient learner’s materials 3.4 Agree
4. Insufficient references 2.8 Agree
5. Lack of seminars and trainings
2.6 Agree
6. Number of students per class in
a classroom 2.2 Disagree
7. Attitude of students towards
Science 2.6 Agree
8. Instructional materials 2.6 Agree
9. Teaching strategy used
2.4 Disagree

10. Content mastery


2.2 Disagree
11. Time management
2 Disagree
12. Availability of ICT equipment 2.8 Agree
Average Mean Score 2.68 Agree
1.0-1.50-Strongly Disagree;1.51- 2.50-Disagree;2.51- 3.50-Agree;3.51 – 4.0-Strongly Agree
Table 3. Teachers’ perceptions on the commonly encountered problems during the
implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum.
This table shows the teachers encountered problems during the implementation of the K to
12 Curriculum. Based on the average mean score,2.68, verbally interpreted as agree, it reveals that
there is lack of facilities like science laboratory which could help the students to enhance their
learning and also the learning resources which will contribute to the mastery Science concepts.
Science teachers do no view time management as a problem as well the content mastery.
6.0 Conclusion

Based on the foregoing summary of results:

1.)The students’ perceived that the instructional materials used by the teachers are not sufficient
for their teaching and learning process

2.)The students viewed that teachers do not frequently used one teaching method in teaching
Science

3.)The perceived that exam are the best way to assess their learning.

4.) The teachers viewed that their instructional materials used in teaching and learning process
is sufficient and most of them are more comfortable on using lecture method than the other
teaching methods that they may consider.

5.) They also perceived that the assessment tools they used are aligned with the teaching-
learning process.

6.) Lacking of Science Laboratory in school is the biggest problem of the Science teachers in
Malixi Integrated School that has been encountered.

7.) There is a need for a support from the administration in terms of technological avenues,
Learning materials and equipment for a better teaching and learning process.

7.0 Recommendation

Given the results of the evaluation, following recommendations are proposed:


1. More evaluation to be conducted on the school especially on the usage of their instructional
materials and teaching methods.
2. Teacher should adopt innovative teaching strategies and approaches that suit the spiral
progression in Science curriculum to boost the learning interest of the students.
3. The Department of Education should review the implementation of Science curriculum to
improve the whole process of the subject.
4. The Government should strictly monitor the distribution of learning materials and
equipment; construction of buildings such as classroom, science laboratories and teacher’s
faculty.
8.0 References

Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad and Norman G. Lederman. 2000. “Improving science teachers' conceptions
of nature of science: a critical review of the literature”. Int. J. Sci. educ. vol. 22, no. 7
665-701
Hart, Evelyn C. 1979. “A Comparative Study of Student Perceptions and Teacher Perceptions of
Classroom Practices in Advanced Ninth-Grade Biology” University of North Florida.

Jones, Linda L. 1991.” Science teacher Beliefs and their Influence of Curriculum Implementation;
Two Case Studies. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching. vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 235-250
Lumpe, et. al. 2000.“Assessing Teachers’ Beliefs about Their Science Teaching Context”. Vol. 37. no.
3, pp. 275–292.
Norman G. Lederman.1992.” Students’ and Teachers’ Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A
Review of the Research Science and Mathematics Education, Oregon State University.
Journal of research in Science Teaching. vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 331-359
Osborne, Jonathan and Sue Collins.” Pupils’ Views of the Role and Value of the
Science Curriculum: A focus-group study: School of Education,
King’s College London

Tunc, Ferda.2010.” Evaluation of an English Language Teaching program at a Public University


Using CIPP Model”
Appendix I

QUESTIONNAIRE
Part I. Student’s Profile
Name of Respondent:___________________________ Grade Level &
Section:______________
Science Teacher:_______________________ Age:______
Sex:______________

Part II. Students’ Perceptions on Instructional Materials Used


Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.
4- Quite sufficient 3- Sufficient 2- Not sufficient 1-Completely not
sufficient
Instructional Materials Quite Sufficient Not Completely Not
Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient
1. Textbooks
2.Supplemental materials
2.1 Workbooks
2.2 Magazines/ newspaper
2.3 Reference book
2.4 Teachers prepared study
guides
3.Visual aids
3.1 Chalk board
3.2 Graphic materials
3.3Objects
(specimens,real,models)

4. Audio visual aids


4.1.Multimedia presentations
4.2 CD materials
4.3 Video clips
Part III. Students’ Perceptions on Teaching Methods Used
Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.
Always- 5 Often- 4 Sometimes- 3 Seldom- 2 Never-1

Methods Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never


1. Experimentation
2. Collaborative/ Group
work
3. Field activity
4. Lecture/ Interactive
discussion
5. Pair work
6. Outdoor activity
7. Reporting
8. Inquiry -Based Learning
(IBL)
9. Problem- Based
Learning (PBL)
10. Project-Based Learning
11. Role Play
12. Multimedia Approach

Part IV. Students’ Perceptions on Assessment


Direction: Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which
corresponds to the number of your choice based on the description specified.
Strongly Agree-4 Agree-3 Disagree-2 Strongly disagree-1
Assessment Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
1. Exams reflect the
content.
2. Class reports are
beneficial.
3. Portfolio helps me
learn better.
4. Number of exams is
enough.
5. Exams help me learn
better.
6. Exams are consistent.
7. Science activities are
efficient for my
learnings.
8. Reflection helps me to
realize what I’ve
learned.
9. Short quizzes assess
my understanding
during discussion.

10. Assignments are


related to the topic.
11. Summative test reflect
all my learnings.

The survey questions are over. Thank you for giving a time.
QUESTIONNAIRE
Part I. Teacher’s Profile
Name of Respondent: ______________________________ Grade level taught:_________
Age: ________________ Sex:_______ Length of Service:_____________
Degree& field of specialization:_______________________________________________

Part II. Teacher’s Perceptions on Instructional Materials Used


Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.
4- Quite sufficient 3- Sufficient 2- Not sufficient 1-Completely not sufficient
Instructional Materials Quite Sufficient Not Completely Not
Sufficient Sufficient Sufficient
1. Textbooks
2.Supplemental materials
2.1 Workbooks
2.2 Magazines/ newspaper
2.3 Reference book
2.4Teachers prepared study
guides
3.Visual aids
3.1 Chalk board
3.2 Graphic materials
3.3Objects
(specimens,real,models)
4. Audio visual aids
4.1.Multimedia presentations
4.2 CD materials
4.3 Video clips

Part III. Teacher’s Perceptions on Teaching Methods Used


Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.
Always- 5 Often- 4 Sometimes- 3 Seldom- 2 Never-1
Methods Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never

1. Experimentation
2. Collaborative/ Group work
3. Field activity
4. Lecture/ Interactive
discussion
5. Pair work
6. Outdoor activity
7. Reporting
8. Inquiry -Based Learning
(IBL)
9. Problem- Based Learning
(PBL)
10. Project-Based Learning
11. Role Play
12. Multimedia Approach

Part IV. Teacher’s Perceptions on Assessment


Direction: Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which
corresponds to the number of your choice based on the description specified.
Strongly agree-4 Agree-3 Disagree-2 Strongly disagree-1
Assessment Strongly Agree Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
1. I make exams that reflect on the
content.
2. Class reports are beneficial in
my discussion.
3. Making of Portfolio helps my
student to learn better.
4. The number of exams that I
made is enough.
5. My exams help my students
learn better.
6. I make exams that are
consistent.
7. Science activities are efficient
for students’ learning.
8. Making of reflection helps my
students to realize what they’ve
learned.
9. I give short/long quizzes to
assess my students
understanding during and after
discussion.
10. I give assignments that are
related to the topic.
11. Summative test reflect all
student’s learnings.

Part V. Problems Encountered by Science Teachers in Teaching Science.


Direction: Read each statement/item and write the appropriate number which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.
Strongly agree- 4 Agree- 3 Disagree- 2 Strongly Disagree-1
Problems Encountered of Science Teachers Strong Agree Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

1. Facilities like Science laboratory


2. Science equipment and apparatus are not
sufficient.

3. Insufficient learner’s materials


4. Insufficient references
5. Lack of seminars and trainings
6. Number of students per class in a
classroom
7. Attitude of students towards Science
8. Instructional materials
9. Teaching strategy used
10. Content mastery
11. Time management
12. Availability of ICT equipment

Others, pls. specify:


_________________________________________________________________________
The survey questions are over. Thank you for giving a time.