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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills,

and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through

teaching, training, or research. It has always been considered a vital factor in achieving

the general objectives of national development and progress. Quality of education has

been the major thrust of the Philippine education. For quality education, it means upgrade

educational standard that would lead to the attainment of excellence in education and in

life.

In Philippine scenario, the quality of education is at stake. According to Basic

Education Curriculum Primer 2002, to become globally competitive, we have to educate

our Filipino learners to filter information critically, seek credible sources of knowledge,

and use data and facts creatively so that they can survive, overcome poverty, raise their

personal and national self-esteem, and realize a gracious life in this risky new world. And

to realize a productive life in our present world, Filipino learners must acquire an

educational system that empowers them from lifelong learning and global competition.

The Trends in Mathematics and Science Survey alone which was conducted five

years ago revealed unsatisfactory results, the Philippines ranked 41st in Math and 42nd

in Science out of 45 countries that were tested (Manila Times 2004). This proved that

vast majority of Filipino students have performed way below par in all national
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achievement tests, and below the levels of most students from other countries in the

international tests.

As stated by Quismundo (2010), the Philippines is the only country with a 10-year

cycle. This 10-year cycle does not follow the prescribed number of years for basic

education for as a requirement for globalization. Also, the Washington Accord prescribes

12 years basic as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals and the Bologna

Accord requires 12 years of education for university admission and practice of profession

in European countries. Because of this demands of education, our educators proposed

for curriculum shift from Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) to K+12 Curriculum.

Through the Republic Act 10533 and the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013,

the Philippines committed to introduce a new K-12 school curriculum, involving raising

the school leaving age by two years, and to introduce a new science curriculum to

enhance teaching and learning. These reforms are being led by the Department of

Education (DepEd), the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and the Technical

Education Skills and Development Authority (TESDA). The additional two years will see

the introduction of Senior High Schools (SHS) which engage learners at grades 11 (last

started 2016) and 12 (started 2017). The curriculum will also provide specializations in

the following: science and technology, music and arts, agriculture and fisheries, sports,

business and entrepreneurship, etc, depending on the occupation or career that they

intend to pursue. These two years will build on skills that are essential to their chosen

field through spiral approach (DepEd discussion paper, 2010).


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On the other hand, Science Curriculum has a big role in helping to achieve the

aims of Enhanced Basic Education. Science education aims to develop scientific literacy

among students that will prepare them to be informed and articipative citizens

who are able to make judgments that may have social, health, or environmental impact

(Ferido, 2013-UP NISMED). The science curriculum is designed around three domains

of learning science namely: Scientific and technological literacy, assessment and

monitoring. Science curriculum has a spiral progression approach in which the scope and

sequence of the content are developed such that concepts and skills are revisited at each

grade level with increasing depth. Because of these approach, Science teachers must

meet the demands of K+12 Curriculum with the mastery of knowledge and skills and in

order for them to develop scientifically, technologically and environmentally literate

Filipinos who are critical problem solvers, responsible stewards of nature, innovative and

creative citizens.

. However, in Tagbina District II, not all Science teachers easily adapt the

implemented curriculum and still struggling to the sudden change. Science teachers have

their specializations in their undergraduate studies and are not expert in some areas of

Science. Inevitably, there are some problems met by the Science teachers in

implementing the K+12 Curriculum in teaching, thus, the researcher embarks the need of

this study.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

The study is based on Bruner’s Theory (1960) about spiral curriculum learning,

which states that students learn best by building on their current knowledge. This was

anchored by Bruner’s Model of the Spiral curriculum that revolves around the
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understanding that human cognition evolved in a step-by-step process of learning, which

relied on experience and environmental interaction and to form knowledge and intuition

students continually return to basic ideas, new subjects and concepts are added over the

course of a curriculum. Accordingly, one learns best through the repeated experience of

a concept.

Through the Republic Act 10533 and the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013,

the Philippines committed to introduce a new K-12 school curriculum, involving raising

the school leaving age by two years, and to introduce a new science curriculum to

enhance teaching and learning. The new spiral curriculum has an overall design of the

Grades 1 to 10 curriculum follows the spiral/progression approach across

disciplines/subjects by building on the same concepts developed in increasing complexity

and sophistication starting from grade school. Teachers including who handled Science

subjects even those who took up other specialization are expected to adopt the spiral

progression approach in teaching the desired competencies.

As stated by Cruz (2012), there is now a continuous progression of competencies

starting from elementary until to end of Junior High School.

According to Framework for Philippine Science Teacher Education (2011), the

effectiveness of Science teachers anchored mainly from their confidence of the subject

matter/content, pedagogy, and their attitude toward the subject. Truly inspirational

Science teaching occurs when a teacher is not only enthusiastic about the science topics

being taught but also understands the topics fully in order to present it in meaningful and

comprehensible way to each learner.


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Upon the implementation of K-12 Curriculum, teachers’ challenges in handling

classes are becoming evident. This study is based on the most current action to address

the challenges with DepEd Order (DO) no.35, series of 2016 that institutionalizes the

Learning Action Cell (LAC) Session for improvement of teaching and learning. The said

session will be conducted mostly every Friday in which a group of teachers engaged in

collaborative learning sessions top solve and share challenges encountered in the

teaching-learning process and their best practices to address some issues in the school.

This policy aims to improve the teaching-learning process that will lead improvement

among students’ learning, nurturing successful teachers, and enabling teachers to

support each other to continuously improve their content and pedagogical knowledge,

practice, skills and attitudes(DepEd, 2016). The theories and concepts cited above are

evident in the research paradigm below in Figure 1.

The independent variables of the study are teacher’s personal profile which

includes age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, area of specialization in

Science, years in teaching and number of trainings in K-12 Curriculum.On the other hand,

the dependent variables include best practices and problems among Secondary Science

teachers in implementing K-12 curriculum in terms of teacher preparation/readiness,

curriculum enhancement, teaching strategies and techniques, learning

resources/materials and classroom assessment and evaluation. The output is a proposal

of development program for teachers.


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Best Practices of Secondary


Science Teachers in
Implementing K+12
Curriculum
1. Teacher Preparation/
Readiness
2. Curriculum Enhancement
3. Teaching Strategies and
Techniques
4. Learning Resources/
Teacher’s Personal Materials
Profile 5. Classroom Assessment and
a. Educational Evaluation
Attainment
b. Area of
Proposed
Specialization in
Development
Science Problems Encountered Program
c. Years in Teaching Among Secondary Science
Science Teachers in Implementing
d. Number of K+12 Curriculum
Trainings in K+12 1. Teacher Preparation/
Curriculum Readiness
2. Curriculum Enhancement
3. Teaching Strategies and
Techniques
4. Learning Resources/
Materials
5. Classroom Assessment and
Evaluation

Figure 1. Schematic diagram showing the interplay of the Independent and Dependent
variables and the output of the study.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to identify and investigate the best practices of Secondary Science

Teachers of Tagbina District II in the implementation of the K-12 curriculum and the

underlying problems along with its implementation with an end view of determining the

teachers’ best practices to come up with a development program.


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Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the Secondary Science Teachers of Tagbina District II in terms

of (a) Educational Attainment (b) Area of Specialization in Science (c) Years of

Teaching in Science (d) Number of Trainings on K+12 curriculum?

2. What are their practices in the implementation of the K+12 Curriculum in

consideration to the following: (a) teacher preparation/ readiness, (b) curriculum

enhancement, (c) teaching strategies and techniques (d) learning resources, and (e)

assessment and evaluation?

3. What problems are encountered by the Secondary Science Teachers in terms of the

following: (a) teacher preparation/ readiness, (b) curriculum enhancement, (c) teaching

strategies and techniques (d) learning resources, and (e) assessment and evaluation?

4. Is there a significant relationship in respondents profile to the best practices and

problems encountered in the K-12 Curriculum implementation?

5. What development program for Secondary Science Teachers should be proposed

based on the findings of the study?

Hypothesis

On the basis of the study, the hypothesis is formulated and to be tested at 0.05

level of significance.

Ho1. There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents to the best

practices and problems encountered in the K-12 Curriculum implementation.


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Significance of the Study

This results of this study will provide information regarding the best practices of

Secondary Science Teachers of Tagbina District II in the implementation of the K-12

curriculum and the underlying problems along with its implementation as a basis for

development program. The study will be beneficial to the following:

School Administrators. The findings of this study will provide them clear idea

on the needs of their Science teachers, address problems or eradicate undesirable

practices and monitor the progress of the implementation in their respective schools.

Science Teachers. Similarly, findings of this study will help the teachers to

conduct self-evaluation on how effective and efficient they are on implementing the

curriculum. They will also benefit the development program to be designed for a better

teaching-learning process.

Students. The findings of this study will lead to various instructional

improvements which would greatly benefit the students. They will be the recipients of

these improvements made by highly effective, efficient and worthy school personnel.

Parents. This study is also for parents for them to be aware on their important

role of the successful implementation of K-12 Curriculum and for providing the best quality

of education for their children.

Government Officials. Findings of the study will encourage them to continually

establish linkage with school system by assisting various school programs including the

development for Science teachers under K-12 Curriculum.

Researchers. Findings of the study will serve as a benchmark data for

researchers interested on curriculum-related studies.


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Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study will be conducted in the Secondary Schools of Tagbina District II,

Tagbina, Surigao del Sur. The respondents of this study will be the fifteen (15) identified

Science teachers of Secondary Schools namely: Carpenito Integrated School, Maglatab

National High School, Maglambing Integrated School, Manambia Integrated School And

Malixi Integrated School. A survey-questionnaire will be answered by the teacher-

respondents and an interview will also be considered. This will be done on the second

(2nd) week of January, 2019. Aspects of best practices and problems encountered will be

delimited to (a) teacher preparation/ readiness, (b) curriculum enhancement, (c) teaching

strategies and techniques (d) learning resources, and (e) assessment and evaluation.

The personal profile characteristics of the respondents will be delimited to

educational attainment, years in teaching Science, number of trainings on area of

specialization, and number of trainings on K+12 curriculum.

Definition of Terms

In order to enhance better understanding of the study, conceptual and / operational

definition of the terms used in the study are hereby given alphabetical order:

Area of Specialization. Area of specialization refers to the special subject or skill a

person have chosen as a career in getting a degree.

Assessment. Assessment refers to wide variety of methods or tools that educators use

to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill

acquisition or educational needs of students.


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Best Practices. Best Practices or professional procedures that are accepted or

prescribed as being correct or most effective.

Curriculum Enhancement. Curriculum enhancement refers to enhancing the contents

and designing all the needed and appropriate materials to develop and create situations

that will boost students’ creative and critical thinking skills.

Development Program. Development Program refers to programs designed to help

teachers make use of their potentials by providing them with the skills, trainings, seminars

and resources necessary for them to meet the standards for teaching-learning process.

Educational Attainment. Educational attainment refers to the highest educational level

the teacher has acquired or received through formal schooling. In this study, it is classified

as Bachelor’s degree holder (BS), BS with master’s units, Master’s degree holder, MA

holder with doctoral units, and Ph.D./ Ed.D. holder.

Evaluation. Evaluation refers to a systematic determination of a subject’s merit, worth

and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

K-12 Curriculum. K+12 Curriculum mandates that all pupils entering Grade 1 should

have compulsory undergone Kindergarten or Pre-school and the secondary level will add

two more years, that is Senior High School.

Learning Resources. Learning resources are learning materials, modules and other

related references used in teaching-learning process.

Teaching Strategy. Teaching strategy refers to the structure, system, methods,

techniques, procedure and process that a teacher uses during instruction.


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Teaching Readiness/Preparation. Teaching preparations refers to training and

seminars to equip every teacher with the contemporary teaching strategies to be used in

the classroom discussion.

Teachers’ Trainings. Teachers’ trainings refer to the policies, procedures, and provision

designed to equip teachers with knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require

to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.
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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the related literature and studies reviewed that the

researcher have discovered about the best practices and problems among Science

teachers in K-12 Curriculum Implementation.

Related Literature

The K to 12 Basic Education Program

Waugh 2013 cited, high standard of living, is an important part of culture and

values. The education system has a significant and direct impact on the quality of our

workforce our economic productivity and ultimately, our ability to prosper as businesses,

as people, and as a nation rely on our public schools to provide highly skilled and

educated talent. K to 12 is a solution to create opportunities that will help all children from

the time they enter the classroom to when they join the workforce – (McCleary,2012).

K–12 (k twelve) is a designed curriculum for the sum of primary and secondary

education. It is used in the United States, Canada, Turkey, Philippines, and Australia. (K)

for 4- to 6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 7- to 19-year-olds, It is a free education

from Kindergarten to Senior High School in the countries mentioned respectively.

Wikipedia (2008)

The K to 12 Basic Education came in 2011. Republic Act No. 10533, otherwise

known as the “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 201”,Rule 2. Curriculum, Section 10.2.g.

Standards and Principles, “The curriculum shall use the spiral progression approach to

ensure mastery of knowledge and skills after each level”. Enclosure No. 1 to Department
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of Health (DepEd) Order No. 31, s 2012 is the “Implementing Guidelines of Grades 1 to

10 to Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum”, which states that “the overall design of

Grades 1 to 10 curriculum follows the spiral approach across subjects by building on the

same concepts developed in increasing complexity and sophistication starting from grade

school. Teachers are expected to use the spiral progression approach in teaching

competencies.” Furthermore, the spiral progression of topics in the said subject reveals

how lessons are intertwined in every year level.

There is now “vertical articulation” or a “seamless progression” and “horizontal

articulation” of competencies. Vertical articulation serves as a bridge of knowledge from

one lesson to the next, across a program of study. It develops skills and knowledge which

are reinforced as other elements are used in the study. While, horizontal articulation

integrates the skills and knowledge across different disciplines. It means that what has

been studied in one specific course or area is in line with the other.

Science in the K to 12 Curriculum

The new science program has many innovations. One of which is the decongestion

of the competencies and arrangement in spiral progression manner. In the old curriculum,

a specific discipline is being offered per grade level. First year will take up general

science, the second year will deal with biology, the third year will study chemistry, and the

seniors will master physics. But in the new science program, the different disciplines in

science which are life science, chemistry, physics and earth science, have been

incorporated in every level.

In terms of instruction, the science program shifts from traditional methods of

teaching to a more innovative exploration that emphasizes the enhancement of the


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students’ critical thinking and scientific skills. The new curriculum utilizes learner-centered

approach such as the inquiry based learning pedagogy. Concepts and skills are being

taught by providing pedagogy which will enable them to enhance their cognitive, affective,

and psychomotor domains.

As stated in the K-12 Science Curriculum Guide, Science Curriculum helps

learners with repertoire of competencies vital in the world of work and in knowledge-based

society. It visualizes the development of scientifically, technologically, environmentally,

literated and productive members of society who are critical thinkers, responsible

stewards of nature, innovative and creative citizens, decision-makers, and effective

communicators. This curriculum is designed in different areas of learning science:

understanding and applying scientific knowledge as well as global context whenever

possible, performing scientific process and developing and demonstrating scientific

attitudes and values. These areas are aided using the following approaches:

multi/interdisciplinary, technology-based society approach, contextual learning,

problem\issue-based learning, inquiry-based approach. The approaches are grounded

on teaching strategies namely: constructivism, social cognition, learning model, and

problem-based learning.

Spiral Curriculum in K-12

Spiral progression approach follows the progressive type of curriculum anchored

on John Dewey's idea about the total learning experiences of the individual. According to

Martin (2008), progression as a thing that describes pupils' personal journeys through

education, and ways in which they acquire, apply, develop their skills, knowledge, and

understanding in increasingly challenging situations. On the other hand, Zulueta (2002),


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stated that this approach refers to the choosing and defining of the content of a certain

discipline to be taught using prevalent ideas against the traditional practice of determining

content by isolated topics. Cabansag (2014), concluded that students find the topics easy

at first and gradually become hard, but there is mastery of the topics because they are

discussed in their own pace and longer years to study.

On the contrary, some students did not agree that K-12 program is more

interesting, effective and enjoyable because the topics are too difficult, and they need to

stay longer in school for two years on senior high school. De Dios (2012), stated that

when DepEd's K to 12 treatment of chemistry was compared with the basic education

curriculum in other countries, it can be said that one can combine Grades 7 to 10. Each

of these grades in DepEd's K to 12 assigns one quarter of the year to chemistry. Adding

these across the first four years of high school could sum up to one year of instruction in

chemistry. The flow of concepts covered can be managed more easily in a year-long

subject than in a spiral curriculum. Tapang (2012), on the other hand stated that the

decision of DepEd in dropping science from the subjects being taught at the grade 1 level

is based on the design of the K-12 curriculum and the department's efforts to decongest

the Basic Education curriculum. Hence, science will be introduced as a subject only at

Grade 3. This move to limit the contact hours for science is worrisome, especially since

the purported target of the shift to 12 years of basic education curriculum is to improve

student's competencies in English, Math and Science and prepare them for college.

Issues on the K-12 Curriculum

The initial implementation of the K12 curriculum has raised some social concerns.

In a paper written by John Mark Burila (2012), he cited some concerns of the community
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in the implementation of the K12 program like the readiness of the Philippine Government

to undergo transitions such as the poverty in the Philippines, availability of technology,

teachers training, and even the low salary of the workforce of the academe have been

cited. In an online forum, Dr. Flor Lacanilao (2012) of the University of the Philippines

Diliman, also presented some critiques on the K12 program where he based his

arguments on the stand of Filipino scientists and non-scientists. According to Dr.

Lacanilao, scientists do not agree with the implementation of the K12 program because

it does not answer the real problem of the Philippine education system like the number of

dropouts recorded each year. Also, the inclusion of the kinder level is not scientifically

proven that it contributes in the enhancement of student learning. Moreover, Dr. Lacanilao

stressed that upon his readings, those who agree with the K12 implementation, are not

scientists or educators.

With all these clamors on the K12 implementation, what is the stand of the people?

Clara Masinag (2012) reported in Interaksyon.com (October, 2012) that the K12 program

has gained acceptance from the Filipinos according to the Social Weather Stations (SWS)

survey. In her report, 72% percent of Filipino adults believe that the new curriculum will

prepare students in their college education even in their field of work. Sixty nine (69%) of

the respondents believe that students will be encouraged to continue their study in high

school because of the additional 2 years that is equivalent to college level even if it will

cost them more money and time.

Now that the K12 is being implemented for about six academic years some issues

are raised like the lack of training of teachers to implement the new program. With these,

Senator Antonio Trillanes makes a move to stop implementing the K12 Program which
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he referred to as overly ambitious because of perennial issues in the education system

of the Philippines. In an article in Inquirer.net of Maila Ager (2014), Sen. Trillanes

elaborated that upon his country-wide inspections, he found real problems like the

availability of classrooms and low wage of kindergarten teachers. He also foresees the

problem of the number of college professors that will go through retrenchment because

of the lack of enrollees for school year 2016. Sen. Trillanes also mentioned that backlogs

in the education system are still present even if the department of education declared that

there is none.

Teacher Trainings

Teachers also reacted that K-12 is very difficult on their part. Teachers’ trainings

and seminars was undertaken but many teachers commented that trainings have

improved but inadequate. There is likewise inadequacy of materials. However, the

teachers provided only curriculum guide consisting of a few pages, and teaching modules

are not totally completed. For the recent years, teachers undergo trainings that equip

them the skills required in new spiral progression approach of curriculum with the

connection to the Commission on Higher Education or CHED to make sure the Teacher

Education course meets the needed standards.

As stated by Abulencia (2015) in his journal, The Unraveling K-12 Program as a

Education Reform in the Philippines , “ the teachers are very critical in the delivery of

quality education. The training of teachers is a starting point. That’s why the TEIs

(Teacher Training Institutions) should be well equipped in all their facilities, curriculum,

professors, libraries, among others in educating the future teachers of the country. The

national government, through the DepEd (Department of Education), should allocate


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additional or bigger budget for the training of teachers, In-SET (In Service Training), and

other professional growth opportunities, like scholarship for post graduate studies. More

importantly, the incentive package for them should be attractive to motivate the best and

the brightest young people to go into teaching profession and like to retain and motivate

our teachers, who are already in the field. The remuneration or compensation package

should be higher, so that it will be at far with the salaries of teachers in the other developed

economies. K-12 Program did not strongly factor in the effective training of teachers.

Trainings were done haphazardly and the mass trainings were not really of quality.’

Learning Materials

Aside from the quantity of books, there’s also the issue of their quality. The K-12

curriculum pursues to enhance the learning experience of millions of Filipino children. Go

(2015) has been studying DepEd textbooks for years and discovered thousands of errors.

He says not much has changed. One K-12 English book he studied, for example has over

1, 300 errors. It contains words like unexcitement and laklustre. It describes a process of

DNA alteration. Matedo (2015) admitted the error-riddled books were utilized to train

English teachers. Another problem arose when another school year has begun, and with

no books, teachers were communicated to instead download materials from the Internet

but only found in the DepEd portal which contain digital versions of textbooks, most

obtainable materials are just paper less (Ortilla, 2015).

Textbooks should carry or provide information that is reflective of Filipino values or

Asian way of life before bombarding our students with Western ideas and ways of life.

However, our students are so much exposed with foreign ideas and cultures through the

social media. We need textbooks as instruments for them to learn our being a Filipino.
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The textbooks should not be biased in all ways: gender, age, ethnicity, class, among

others. Textbooks should not only a monopoly of big publishing corporations, who are

obviously promoting the values of capitalist economy (or neo-liberal/free market). But,

Filipino scholars and intellectuals, critical members of society, our indigenous wisdom are

considered in textbook projects. Textbooks are the main references, but it there should

be ample and relevant available references that students could use for their studies.

Latest journal publications and books are also very crucial to our students aside from the

traditional textbooks that we used to have (Abulencia, 2015).

School Facilities

Another consideration or variable in the implementation of the K-12 Program is the

lack of school equipment and facilities. The country have 23 million students entering the

public schools every opening of the school year, but the DepEd (Department of

Education), even up to now, is aware of the limitations that the system have in terms of

number of classrooms, buildings, chairs, rest rooms, LCDs (Liquid-Crystal Displays),

computers, internet connection, and others. The school facilities are the support system

of our teachers in their teaching-learning encounters. The K-12 Program is now on its 6th

year of implementation, but these problems have not yet addressed the basic or essential

needs and demands of the public schools.

Related Studies

Impact of Restructuring Curriculum

The study of Quismundo (2010) centers on the teacher perception on the

curriculum reform. With the restructuring of the senior secondary education system in

Hong Jong in 2009, the senior secondary curriculum was fixed substantially by the
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conversion of the two year Certificate Level and the two-year Advanced Level to a new

three-year senior secondary level. This process needs changes to the contents and

organization of a various science subjects. This study was designed to explore, through

questionnaires and interviews, the perception of science teachers about the design of the

three science curricula, namely, Physics, Chemistry and Biology and the challenges

teachers perceived for teaching and learning these subjects in the new education context

before the full implementation of the reform. The findings reveal that the respondents

were well aware of the emphases of the new curricula. Nevertheless, the respondents

were likely to face difficulty in putting rhetoric into practice due to limitations inherent to

the curriculum design, increased diversity of students’ ability, and teachers’ inertia in

changing of practices and resources constraints.

Challenges Faced by Teachers

There are many concerns that were evident in teaching different subjects. As

mentioned by Mizzi (2013), several research studies have been conducted with

neophytes and experienced teachers when teaching within and outside their subject

specialization. The study targets to review number of these studies and highlights key

points concerning the teaching of different science subjects at secondary level and

teachers’ level of self-confidence. Teachers encounter considerable challenges are

mainly due to limited subject matter knowledge (SMK) in a particular science area. This

will also influence the development of the teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge

(PCK) which is crucial in lesson preparation and in the way science teaching is conducted.

Teachers have also developed a number of strategies to deal with such challenges.
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Pedagogy

The study of Prasart (2011) explains that the teacher should have declarative

knowledge of the content and pedagogy for authority and supports the idea that teaching

is a profession. The concept of pedagogical content knowledge is widely distributed in

science and mathematics teaching. This study aims to study how in-service science

teachers react their role in the concept of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Five

in-service science teachers participated in this study through project leader teacher to

change in science and mathematics instruction since 2010 which is supported by Institute

of Teaching Promotion for Science and Technology (IPST). Interviewing, classroom

observation, and informal small group discussion are employed. Data is analyzed and

then presented by descriptive explanation in terms of knowledge base (Shulman, 1987).

Findings revealed that in-service teachers can change their ideas how to react their role

in PCK as well. They can employ instructional strategies and integrate content knowledge

into classroom based on motivation in teacher profession. The findings will be discussed

and developed instructional strategies in which relevant to philosophy and nature of

science.

Teaching Strategies

Shamsudina et.al (2013) emphasizes in his study that teaching Science is not

about preparing students for a world that is static and fixed, but it concerns getting

students ready to cope with changes and challenges in their lives. Traditional direct

instruction in Science generally focuses on mastery of content with less emphasis on the

development of scientific skills and attitudes; students are the receivers while the teacher

the dispenser. In most classroom contexts, teachers are preoccupied with academic
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activities in pursuit of the schools’ successes; often in the form of their students gaining

as many A’s as possible. This scenario does not help students learn in a meaningful

manner. This study specifically examines how meaningful science learning could be

achieved via the introduction of an inquiry-based Science teaching approach. Three

trainee teachers who underwent their teaching practice In Semester 2 2011/2012 session

participated in the study. The study employed qualitative research design whereby data

were mainly obtained through interview and document analysis in the form of lesson plans

and reflective journal. Occasional observations on the way the trainee teachers apply the

inquiry-based teaching strategies and model exposed to and taught in the Science

Teaching Method course they took in the previous semester were also noted. The findings

revealed that the inquiry-based teaching strategies employed were able to stimulate

excitement among students when learning science. The ZYL teaching model was also

proposed at the end of the study. This proposed teaching model summarizes the

strategies of inquiry discovery in Science Education that can be adapted in science

teaching process.

Some research studies have also attempted to find a correlation between teachers’

self-confidence and best practices to teach the different sciences and the level of content

knowledge (Appelton, 1995; Harlen & Holyrod, 1997; Kind et al., 2011). Studies with

secondary school science teachers are scarce compared to studies carried out with

elementary teachers. Appleton (1995) found that elementary teachers gained more

confidence not only when they experienced success in learning science content but also

when they experienced how the subject is taught after undergoing a science method

course.
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The study of Combalicer, Jr. (2016) provided on significant information on which

best practices are needed to be adapted and which problems are needed to be addressed

for the learners benefits in the effective implementation of K-12 Curriculum.


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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents overall design of the study, research questions, description

of the variables, participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedure and

data analysis.

Research Design

The descriptive method of research will be used and questionnaire will be

employed to determine the teacher-respondents’ best practices and problems in teaching

Science in the K - 12 Curriculum. In this study, quantitative data will be collected. In

quantitative data, a self-reported questionnaire will be used to collect data from the

teacher-respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used to analyze the data

collected through the questionnaire.

Research Locale

The study will be conducted in different Secondary Schools of Tagbina District II,

Tagbina, Surigao del Sur. These schools are as follows: Carpenito Integrated School

which is located in Brgy. Carpenito, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur, Maglambing Integrated

School which is located in Brgy. Maglambing, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur, Maglatab

National High School which is located in Brgy. Maglatab, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur, Malixi

Integrated School which is located in Brgy. Malixi, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur, and

Manambia Integrated School which is located in Brgy. Manambia, Tagbina, Surigao del

Sur.
25

Population and Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study will be the fifteen (15) Secondary Science Teachers

of five (5) high schools in Tagbina District II, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur who handled

Science subjects. The respondents are purposely selected for the study as recommended

by the Disctrict Science Coordinator. The table below shows the demographics of the

respondents and the participating schools.

Table 1. Population and Respondents of the Science Teachers

No. of
Science
Address
Name of School Teachers

1.Carpenito Integrated School Carpenito, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 3

2.Maglambing Integrated School Maglambing, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 3

3.Maglatab National High School Maglatab, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 1

4. Malixi Integrated School Malixi, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 5

5. Manambia Integrated School Manambia, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 3

Total 15

Sampling Design

This study will use purposive sampling technique which includes the selected

Secondary Science Teachers of Tagbina District II, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur with the total

population of fifteen (15) Science teachers as the respondents of the study.


26

Research Instrument

A survey questionnaire will be used as the instrument in gathering the data. The

Science teachers’ questionnaires will be divided into three (3) parts. The first part is

Science teachers’ profile such as Name, Educational Attainment, Area of Specialization

in Science, Years in Teaching in Science , Number of Trainings on K+12 curriculum. The

second part will include the best practices of Science teachers in terms of (a) teacher

preparation/ readiness, (b) curriculum enhancement, (c) teaching strategies and

techniques (d) learning resources, and (e) assessment and evaluation. The last part is

the problems encountered among Secondary Science Teachers in the implementation of

K-12 Curriculum in terms of (a) teacher preparation/ readiness, (b) curriculum

enhancement, (c) teaching strategies and techniques (d) learning resources, and (e)

assessment and evaluation.

Data Gathering Procedure

Before conducting the questionnaire, the researcher will ask permission from the

Public Schools District Supervisor of Tagbina District II and to the principal of the identified

schools. After which, the researcher will explain the details of the study so as to get

necessary permission for conducting the study.

The questionnaire will be administered to a total of fifteen (15) identified Secondary

Science teachers. The teacher-respondents will be provided with information about the

study and how to fill in the instrument. According to the principles Dörnyei (2003)

maintains, the oral and written instructions included what the study is about, why it is

important or socially useful, the organization responsible for administering the study,
27

emphasizing that there are not right or wrong answers, requesting sincere answers,

promising confidentiality and saying thank you. The researchers will retrieve the

questionnaires and the date will be then subjected to statistical analysis.

Scoring and Quantification of Data

The survey questionnaire indicated the quantification scoring of the different

variables with the following legend:

Part I. Profile of Science Teachers

Educational Attainment Scale


PhD/EdD 5
With PhD/EdD Units 4
MA/MS 3
With MA/MS Units 2
Baccalaureate Degree 1

Area of Specialization in Science Scale

Major in General Science 4


Major in Biology 3
Major in Physics 2
Major in Chemistry 1
Years in Teaching in Science Scale

20 Years-above 5
15-19 years 4
10-14 years 3
5-9 years 2
less than 5 years 1
28

Number of Trainings on K+12 curriculum Scale

15 and above 5

11- 14 times 4

7-10 times 3

4-6 times 2

3 and below 1

Part II. Best Practices in the Implementation of K-12 Curriculum

Scale Range Verbal Interpretation

1 1.0-1.50 Never

2 1.51- 2.50 Seldom

3 2.51- 3.50 Sometimes

4 3.51 – 4.50 Often

5 4.51-5.0 Always

Part III. Problems Encounter by the Science Teachers in the Implementation of


K-12 Curriculum

Scale Range Verbal Interpretation

1 1.0-1.50 Not a Problem

2 1.51- 2.50 Slightly a Problem

3 2.51- 3.50 Moderately a Problem

4 3.51 – 4.50 Completely a Problem


29

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following statistical tools were used to facilitate the analysis and interpretation

of data.

Frequency and Percentage. This tool will be used to describe the profile of

Science teachers in terms of educational attainment, number of years in teaching

Science, and number of trainings in K-12.

Weighted Mean. This tool was used to determine the extent of the best practices

and problems among Secondary Science Teachers in K-12 Curriculum implementation.

Correlation Analysis. This tool will be used to determine if there is a significant

relationship between the profile and best practices and problems of Secondary Science

Teachers in in K-12 Curriculum implementation.


30

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abulencia, A. S. (2015). “The unraveling of K-12 program as an education


reform in the philippines” in SIPATAHOENAN: South-East Asian Journal for
Youth, Sports & Health Education, Vol.1(2) October, pp.229- 240. Bandung,
Indonesia: Minda Masagi Press, Apaksi Bandung, And Kemenpora Ri
Jakarta, ISSN 2407-7348.

Alonzo, A.C.(2002) Evaluation of a model for supporting the development of elementary


school teachers’ science content knowledge. Proceedings of the Annual
International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers
in Science; Charlotte, NC.

Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge,MA: The President and Fellows
of Harvard College.

Burila, J.M. (2012).” Science teacher Beliefs and their Influence of Curriculum
Implementation; Two Case Studies. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching. vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 235-250

Cabansag, M. 92014). Impact Statements on the K-12 Science Program in the Enhanced
Basic Education Curriculum in Provincial School. PNU Isabela,
Philippines

Corpuz, B. B.,Ph.D., and Gloria G. Salandanan, Ph.D. Principles of Teaching 1 -2nd


Edition. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc., c2011.

Cruz, G. (2013). Standard-Based Assessment and Grading in the K to 12 Program

Combalicer, Jr. (2016). Best practices and problems in the initial implementation of the
K-12 curriculum among teachers in Infanta, Quezon: implication to an
effective implementation of senior high school. Journal of Education and
Social Sciences, Vol.4, pp. 1-16.

De Dios, A. (2012). Philippines' Basic Education. Department of Health's Curriculum II.


Discovery Learning Scaffolding. http://kadriyeportfolio77.weebly.com/jerome-
bruner-1715.html

Department of Education. (2010). Discussion Paper on the Enhanced K +12 Basic


Education Program. Department of Education (2011). K to 12 Basic Education
Program Primer DepEd Updates. Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/
31

Department of Education. (2010). Briefer on the enhanced k12 basic education


program. Retrieved from http://www.gov.ph/2010/11/02/briefer-on-theenhanced-
k12-basic-education-program/

Ferrido, M.(2011). The spiral progression approach in science programme for intern
student assessment (PISA).2009. Curriculum Comparison Study. University of
Manila.

Ferido, M.(2013). A Spiral Progression in Science Curriculum.UP NISMED.Retrieved


from curriculum.nismed.upd.edu.ph

Lacamilao,G. (2012).” Students’ and Teachers’ Conceptions of the Nature of Science: A


Review of the Research Science and Mathematics Education, Oregon State
University. Journal of research in Science Teaching. vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 331-359

Martin, B.(2008). Obstacles to Academic Integrity. Proceedings of the 3rd Asia-


Pacific Conference of Educational Integrity: Creating a Culture of Integrity.
University of South Australia

Masinag,C. (2012).“Assessing Teachers’ Beliefs about Their Science Teaching Context”.


Vol. 37. no. 3, pp. 275–292.
McCleary, L. (2012).” Pupils’ Views of the Role and Value of the Science Curriculum:
A focus-group study: School of Education, King’s College London

Mizzi, D. (2013). The challenges faced by science teachers when teaching outside the
specific science specialism. Acta Didactica Napocensia,Vol.5 No.4, pp.4

Ortilla, M. (2015). Problems hounding K-12 program (part 2): Errors in textbook.
http://cnn philippines.com/incoming/2015/06/25/Problems-hounding-K-to-12-
program-Part-2-Errors-in-textbooks.html

Prasart,N. (2011). Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education,


Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44000, Thailand Received 15 July
2011; accepted 26 November 2011

Quismundo, T. (2011, October 7) DepEd readies K +12 curricula for next year.
Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from
http://multilingualphilippines.com/?p=5350

Tapang, G. (2012). Science and K+12.Retrieved: http://opinion.inquirer.net /22527/


science-and-k12.Teachersshouldknow.
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Shamsudina, et.al (2013)l , .” Pupils’ Views of the Role and Value of the Science
Curriculum: A focus-group study: School of Education, King’s College London.

Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge-base and teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.
Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.

Velasco, P.T. (2012). A Primer on the new K-12 Philippine Education Curriculum.
Retrieved: http://www.philippinedailyinquirer.com.

Zulueta, A. (2002). As cited by Resurreccion J. & Adanza J. (2015). Spiral Progression


Approach in Teaching Science in Selected Private and Public Schools in Cavite.
DLSU, Manila, Philippines.
33

APPENDICES
34

Republic of the Philippines


CARAGA STATE UNIVERSITY
Ampayon, Butuan City
College of Education-Graduate Studies

December 12, 2018


Myrna S. Lauron, Ph.D.
Schools District-In-Charged
Tagbina District II
Tagongon, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur

Madamme:

A pleasant day to you!

As a student of MSCIEd- Graduate Studies of Caraga State University, Ampayon, Butuan City, I
have the honor to inform your good office that I am presently working on my research proposal
which is entitled “Best Practices and Problems in the Implementation of the K-12 Curriculum
Among Secondary Science Teachers:Basis for Development Program” as a requirement of our
subject EDUC 200 (Methods of Research).

In this connection, I would like to ask a permission from your respective office that I will conduct
a survey and get necessary data from your Science Teachers of these following Secondary
schools, namely: Carpenito Integrated School, Maglambing Integrated School, Maglatab National
High School, Malixi Integrated School and Manambia Integrated School to make this study
relevant and reliable. Rest assured that there will be no interruption of classes and this will be
conducted on their most favorable time.

Thank you and God Speed!

Respectfully yours,

DAISY ROSE C. PEREZ

Noted by:

NELIA S. RAGANAS, Ph.D.


Professor
Approved by:

MYRNA S. LAURON, Ph. D.


Public Schools District-In-Charged
35

Republic of the Philippines


CARAGA STATE UNIVERSITY
Ampayon, Butuan City
College of Education-Graduate Studies

December 12, 2018


Roberto L. Polinar
Head Teacher III
Malixi Integrated School
Malixi, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur

Sir:

Good day!

As a student of MSCIEd- Graduate Studies of Caraga State University, Ampayon, Butuan City, I
have the honor to inform your good office that I am presently working on my research proposal
which is entitled “Best Practices and Problems in the Implementation of the K-12 Curriculum
Among Secondary Science Teachers: Basis for Development Program” as a requirement of our
subject EDUC 200 (Methods of Research).

In this connection, I would like to ask a permission from your respective office that I will conduct
a survey and get necessary data from your Science Teachers in your school on 2nd week of
January, 2019. Rest assured that study there will be no interruption of classes and this will be
conducted on their most favorable time. Also, you will be given a copy of the result of this study.

Thank you and God Speed!

Respectfully yours,

DAISY ROSE C. PEREZ

Noted by:

NELIA S. RAGANAS, Ph.D.


Professor
Approved by:

MYRNA S. LAURON, Ph. D.


Public Schools District-In-Charged
36

Best Practices and Problems in the Implementation of the K-12 Curriculum


Among Secondary Science Teachers: Basis for
Development Program

Survey Questionnaire

Dear Participants:

This study will be conducted for the purpose of determining best practices and problems in the
implementation of the K-12 curriculum among Secondary Science Teachers. The researcher asks
for your sincere response for the items below. Your full cooperation to the study will not only
benefit your school but those people who are in teaching force. Thank you very much.

The Researcher

Part I. Teacher’s Profile

Name (Optional): ___________________________________________________________________

Age: __________________________________ Sex: _______________________________________

Educational Attainment

PhD/EdD [ ] With MA/MS Units [ ]


With PhD/EdD Units [ ] Baccalaureate Degree [ ]
MA/MS [ ]

Area of Specialization in Science


Major in General Science [ ] Major in Physics [ ]
Major in Biological Science [ ] Major in Chemistry [ ]
Years in Teaching in Science
20 Years-above [ ] 5-9 years [ ]
15-19 years [ ] less than 5 years [ ]
10-14 years [ ]
Number of Trainings on K-12 Curriculum
15 and above [ ] 4-6 times [ ]
11- 14 times [ ] 3 and below [ ]
7-10 times [ ]
37

Part II. Practices Among Secondary Science Teachers in K-12 Curriculum

Direction: Read each statement/item and check the appropriate column which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.

Scale Verbal Interpretation


5 - Always
4 - Often
3 - Sometimes
2 - Rarely
1 - Never
A. Teacher Preparation/Readiness
Items 5 4 3 2 1

1. Attends to seminars/trainings related to K-12

2. Reads varied references and materials on K-12

3. Collects a variety of learning materials for use in instruction

4. Consults with experts on the proper implementation of K-12

5. Consults with school head regularly for updates on K-12

6. Holds conferences with parents to solicit their support and


feedback
7. Solicits support and feedback from other K-12 teachers

8. Prepares all needed materials first before starting the lesson


proper
9. Reviews all subject matters first before delivery

10. Assesses student performance through varied tools

Other Practices, please specify: ____________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________
38

B. Curriculum Enhancement
Items 5 4 3 2 1

1. Revises the content to suit to learner needs as needed

2. Integrates learner nature and interest in the subject matter

3. Designs project-based learning situations for active students


participation
4. Simplifies content to suit the level of learners

5. Integrates the culture, customs and traditions of the


community
6. Creates situations that enable the students to develop
communication skills
7. Designs activities that develop critical thinking/problem
solving skills
8. Design activities that develop student creativity and flexibility

9. Commences discussion of lessons with what already know

10. Integrates relevant scholarly works and ideas as needed

Other Practices, please specify: ____________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________

C. Teaching Strategies and Techniques


Items 5 4 3 2 1

1. Does team teaching to bring about effective teaching

2. Employs student groupings in accomplishing projects

3. Taps community as a learning laboratory

4. Exposes students to the resources of community

5. Invites resource speakers to share expertise in the subject


matter
39

6. Employs technology assisted instruction where appropriate

7. Uses student base knowledge on subject matter as spring


board for discussion
8. Explores the use of varied teaching strategies in teaching

9. Incorporates student practical experiences with the lessons

10. Uses varied assessment tools to rate student performance

Other Practices, please specify: ____________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________

D. Learning Resources
Items 5 4 3 2 1

1. Uses computer in teaching

2. Uses projector and ICT related materials in teaching

3. Provides 1:1 ratio of textbooks in every subject

4. Provides enough supplies of modules to be used in all subjects

5. Exposes the students to the community through


excursion/fieldtrip at least once in a school year
6. Provides sufficient reference materials in the library

7. Uses laboratory rooms/laboratory equipment to engage


students to long retention of learning
8. Invites resource person/ speaker to give discussion on specific
topic
9. Uses books and other references in the community library

10. Provides numerous project materials and books

Other Practices, please specify: ____________________________________________________


______________________________________________________________________________
40

E. Assessment and Evaluation


Items 5 4 3 2 1

1. Makes exams that reflect the content

2. Uses authentic assessments in measuring students’ learning

3. Makes use of portfolio to help students to learn better

4. Collects and uses evidence of students’ learning to


understand their individual learning needs
5. Uses success criteria with students so they understand what
is expected of them
6. Provides Science activities that are efficient to students’
learning
7. Makes use of reflections to help students realized what
they’ve learned

8. Gives the right amount of graded assignments, tests, and


quizzes in order to fairly evaluate students’ performance
9. Corrects assignments and tests and returns to the students
immediately
10. Constructs summative tests that reflect all the students’
learning

Other Practices, please specify: __________________________________________________


____________________________________________________________________________
41

Part III. Problems Encountered Among Secondary Science Teachers in K-12 Curriculum
Implementation

Direction: Read each statement/item and check the appropriate column which corresponds to
the number of your choice based on the description specified.

Scale Verbal Interpretation


1 - Not a Problem
2 - Slightly a Problem
3 - Moderately a Problem
4 - Completely a Problem

A. Teacher Preparation/Readiness

Items 4 3 2 1

1. Inadequate seminars/ trainings related to K-12

2. Insufficient readings and study materials on K-12

3. Lack of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values pertinent to K-12

4. Poor awareness on the goals, purposes, and objectives of K-12

5. Lack of confidence to appropriately teach K-12

6. Insufficient knowhow on how to address the needs of learners

7. Lacks mastery on teaching content and objectives

8. Inadequate knowledge on varied teaching strategies and


techniques
9. Insufficient knowledge on educational technology

10. Inadequate knowhow on the use of varied assessment tools


42

B. Curriculum Enhancement

Items 4 3 2 1

1. Mandated by authorities with predetermined content

2. No participation of teachers concerned in the formulation of the


curriculum
3. Integration of the resources and needs of the community is not
evident
4. Integration of the needs and interest of the learners is not been
considered
5. Revision as needed to make content relevant has not given attention

6. Project-based learning activities have not carefully planned

7. Very few learning situations that develop critical thinking and


problem solving skills
8. Content is not simplified to the level of student

9. Teacher lacks knowledge on how to enhance subject matter

10. Activities that develop student communication skills are meager

C. Teaching Strategies and Techniques

Items 4 3 2 1

1. Team teaching to bring about effective teaching is not done

2. Various assessment tools to rate students’ performance are not


used
3. Lack of appropriate technology-assisted instruction

4. Insufficiency of varied teaching strategies and techniques

5. Students practical experiences are not incorporated with the


lessons
43

6. Resources of the community are meager for student exposure

7. No qualified or available resource speaker to share expertise on the


subject matter
8. Groupings in accomplishing projects are not employed

9. Inadequate resources of the community for the students to use

10. Lack of qualified person in the community to tap as a resource


person

D. Learning Resources

Items 4 3 2 1

1. Insufficient computers in school to be used in teaching

2. No available projector and ICT related materials neede in teaching-


learning process
3. No available modules in Science subjects

4. Lack of textbooks needed in the lesson

5. Inadequate community resources as an aid of student learning

6. Few reference materials are found in the school library

7. No available laboratory rooms and laboratory equipment needed in


laboratory activities or experiments
8. Absence of resource persons to give discussion/talk about specific
topic
9. Limited numbers of books and references are found in the
community library
10. Few available materials for projects and research work
44

E. Assessment and Evaluation


Items 4 3 2 1

1. Having difficulty in making exams because of too many


competencies
2. Prefers authentic assessments than traditional assessment in
measuring students’ learning
3. Not comfortable in using portfolio as a tool for students to learn
better
4. Identifying and collecting of evidences for students’ learning to
understand their individual learning needs
5. Setting/giving of success criteria to the students so they understand
what is expected of them
6.Too many Science activities/experiments to be given to help
students understand Science concepts
7. Writing of reflections make some students confuse with their
learning
8. Grading system expects more on performance based rather than
result from quizzes, summative test or quarterly examinations
9. Assignments and quizzes are not immediately return because of
classes interruption
10. Summative tests are poorly constructed because of time
constraints
The survey questions are over. Thank you for giving a time.
45

CURRICULUM VITAE

Personal Information
Name: Daisy Rose C. Perez
Nickname: “Dayz”
Age: 28
Address: Purok-8, Taglatawan, Bayugan City
Mobile Number: +639483118600
Email Address: daisyrose.perez@deped.gov.ph

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Graduate Studies: Master of Science Education Major in Physical Science


Caraga State University
Ampayon, Butuan City
2018 up to present
College: Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in General Science
Philippine Normal University-Mindanao Campus
Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur
2012

High School: Bayugan National Comprehensive High School


Bayugan City
2007
Elementary: East Bayugan Central Elementary School
Bayugan City
2003
Quote in Life: “Life doesn’t require that we be the best, only that we
try our best.”
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