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# SURVEYING I

UNIT I
by
R.GOPALAKRISHNAN

## Asst.Professor in Civil Engineering,

Dept. of Civil Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering.

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UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS AND CHAIN SURVEYING

## Definition – Classifications – Basic principles-

Equipment and accessories for ranging and
chaining- Methods of ranging – well
conditioned triangles errors in linear
measurement and their corrections –
obstacles – Traversing plotting applications –
enlarging the reducing the figures – Areas
enclosed by straight line irregular figures –
Digital planimeter.
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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
Objectives
Appreciate the importance of surveying
State the objectives of surveying
Explain the basic principles of surveying
Classify surveys according to instruments, methods,
purpose and place
Explain the construction and working of different types
of scales

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AGENDA
Objectives of Surveying
Basic Principles
Basic Terminology
Classification of Surveys
General
Plans and Maps
Scales
Errors

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Definition
• Surveying is the art of determining the relative
positions of different objects on the surface of
the earth by measuring the horizontal
distances between them, by preparing a map
to a suitable scale.

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OBJECTIVES OF SURVEY
Collect and record data of points on the
surface of the earth
Compute areas and volumes
Prepare plans and maps
Lay out engineering works using survey data
Check the accuracy of laid out works

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Uses of surveying
• To prepare a topographical map this shows the hills,
valley, rivers, villages, town, etc, of a country.

## • To prepare a cadastral map showing the boundaries

of fields houses, and other properties.

## • To prepare an engineering map to show details like

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Contd….
• To prepare military map showing roads and railways,
communication with different parts of country.

## • To prepare contour map and to determine capacity of a

reservoirs and ton find the best possible route for roads,
railways etc.

## • To prepare archeological map including places where ancient

relics exist.
• To prepare a geological map showing areas including
underground resources

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BASIC PRINCIPLES
1. Working from whole to part

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BASIC PRINCIPLES
2. Locating points by independent
measurements
Points can be located by rectangular
coordinates
Polar coordinates
By measuring two angles
Angular and linear measurements

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BASIC PRINCIPLES
• Locating points by independent
measurements

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BASIC DEFINITIONS
Level line, horizontal line and plumb line

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BASIC DEFINITIONS
Earth’s Magnetism

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Plane Survey - When the survey area is small,
the curvature of the earth is ignored.
Difference between arc and chord is small.
Geodetic Survey – High precision survey where
survey area is large and curvature of earth is
taken into account. Many other correction in
measured quantities are done for higher
precision.

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Instrument based Survey
• Chain survey
• Compass survey
• Plane Table Survey
• Theodolite Survey
• Levelling
• Tacheometry
• EDM survey
• Total Station Survey
• Remote sensing, Satellite-based Survey

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Method-based Surveys
• Triangulation
• Trilateration
• Traversing
• Levelling
• Tacheometry
• Trigonometric Levelling

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Purpose-based surveys
• Reconnaissance
• Preliminary Survey
• Engineering Survey
• Geographical Survey
• Mine Surveys
• Route Surveys

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Purpose-based surveys
* Location Surveys
• Geological Surveys
• Defence Surveys
• Archeological Surveys

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CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYS
Place-based Surveys
• Land Survey
• Hydrographic Survey
• Aerial Survey
• Underground Survey

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CONTROLS
Horizontal Control – Establishing points with
great precision using highly precise
equipment; Such points are used for further
detailed surveys.
Vertical Control – Establishing points of known
elevation, called Bench Marks, using precise
instruments and methods. The Datum surface
is the mean sea level.

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SURVEY INSTRUMENTS
Survey instruments are delicate and sensitive.
Care in using instruments
• Keep instrument in the box or cover properly
• Protect from sun and rain
• Take care of optical parts
• Proper use of instruments in field.

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QUALITIES OF GOOD SURVEYOR
• Sound knowledge of theory
• Knowledge of instruments, limits of precision,
possible errors and maintenance
• Field practice, proficiency, accuracy and
judgment
• Good professional conduct

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Measurement of Distance
• Linear measurement is the basis of all
surveying and even though angles may be
read precisely, the length of at least one line in
a tract must be measured to supplement the
angles in locating points.

## • Old surveys were often measured using a

Surveyors Chain. These were literally chains
long. Each link was 0.666 of a foot.

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Units of Measurement
• Acre - The (English) acre is a unit of area
equal to 43560 square feet, or 10 square
chains. A square mile is 640 acres. The
Scottish acre is 1.27 English acres.

## • Chain - Unit of length usually understood to

be Gunter's chain, from the heavy metal chain
of 100 links that was used by surveyors to
measure property bounds.
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Units of Measurement
• Hectare - Metric unit of area equal to 10,000
square meters, or 2.471 acres.
• Link - Unit of length equal to 1/100 chain
(7.92 inches).
Engineer's Chain - A 100 foot chain containing
100 links of one foot a piece.

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Linear Measurements
Accessories or Equipments:
1. Ranging rods
2. Chains – Metric Chain, Engineer’s chain,
Gunter’s Chain, Revenue Chain, Steel band.
3. Metric chain – 100 links – each 0.2m, Talleys
20m chain or 30m chain.

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Contd..
• Steel band : It consists of ribbon of steel
width of 16mm (length 20m or 30m)
• Engineer’s chain : 100 ft long (100 links)
• Gunter’s chain : 66 ft long (100 links)
• Revenue Chain : 33ft long (16 links)

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• Tapes: Cloth or linen tape, metallic tape
(reinforced with brass or copper), Steel tape,
Invar tape ( Alloy of steel – 64% and metal
36%)
Arrows : 4mm diameter ( 400mm length)

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PLANS AND MAPS
Plans and maps are graphical representations.
Plans and maps are projections of a spherical
surface on a plane.
Distortions occur during such representations
In the case of small areas, such distortions are
small and accepted.

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Scales
The ratio by which the actual length of the object is
reduced or increased is known as Scales.
Full size scale:
If the actual length of the object is shown on the
drawing the scale is said to be full size scale
Reducing scale:
If the actual length of an object is reduced in order to
accommodate on the drawing sheet the scale is said
to be a reducing scale.

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Contd..
Increasing or Enlarging scale:
If the actual length of an object is enlarged so as to
bring details more clearly on the drawing, the scale
used is called enlarging scale.
Representative fraction:
The ratio of the distance on the drawing to the
corresponding actual length of the object is known
representative fraction.
RF = Distance on drawing of object
Corresponding actual distances of the object
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Types of Scales:
1. Plain
2. Diagonal
3. Comparative scale
4. Vernier scale
Plain scale:
The scale used to represent two successive
units. (eg. Metre, decim, km, hectam
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Diagonal scale:
The scale used to represent 3 successive units or one
unit and fraction up to second place of decimals (eg
km, hectam, decim; metre, decim, cm)
Length of the scale:
Length of the scale should be calculated according to
max.length shown. Max. length is not given, it is
assumed within (10 – 15cm) so that , max. distance is
divisible by 10 or 100.

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Problem 1
A Plan represents an area of 93750 Sq.m and
measures 6 x 6.25 cm. Find the scale of the
plot and indicate through a sketch how
suitable scale can be constructed to read up to
1m in the plan

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Problem 2
A 1.2 km long road is indicated in a map by a
length of 30 cm. Find the scale of the plot and
indicate through a sketch how suitable scale
can be constructed to read up to 1m in the
map.

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SCALES
Scale representation is
i) as 1 cm = 10 m.
ii) As representative fraction 1/1000
iii) Or as graphical representation

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PLAIN SCALE STANDARDS
Designation Scale values RF values
A Full size, 50 cm to 1 m 1/1, 1/2

## B 40 cm = 1m, 20 cm = 1/2.5, 1/5

1m
C 10 cm = 1m, 5 cm = 1 1/10, 1/20
m
D 2 cm = 1 m, 1 cm = 1 1/50, 1/100
m
E 5 mm = 1m, 2 mm = 1 1/200, 1/500
m
F 1 mm = 1m, 0.5 mm = 1/1000, 1/2000
1m
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DIAGONAL SCALE
Construction of diagonal scale

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DIAGONAL SCALE
Construction of Diagonal scale
Is based on the principle of similar triangles
Can measure three dimensions like units, tenths
and hundredths.

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DIAGONAL SCALE STANDARDS
Designation Length RF

A 150 cm 1/1

## B 100 cm 1/100000, 1/25000

1/25000,

C 50 cm 1/100000, 1/50000
1/25000,

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