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# Complex Numbers

## Engr. John R. Dela Cruz, ECE, 1PHN, DV1LFB, AAE (cand.)

Complex Number
A complex number Z is a number in the
form of:
𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃
where a and b are constants, and 𝒋 is the
imaginary number 𝒋 = −𝟏 .

## a is called the real part of z or Re(Z)

b is called the imaginary part of z or Im(Z)
Forms of Complex Number
1. Rectangular form 𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃
2. Polar form 𝒓∠𝜽
𝒋𝜽
3. Exponential form 𝒓𝒆
(Euler’s form)
r is known as Modulus of Z
𝒓= 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐 or Mod(Z)
𝒃 𝜽 is known as Argument of Z
𝜽= 𝒕𝒂𝒏/𝟏 or Arg(Z)
𝒂
Powers of 𝒋
𝒏
𝒋 = 𝟏, if 𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑 4 = 0
𝒏
𝒋 = 𝒋, if 𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑 4 = 1
𝒋𝒏 = −𝟏, if 𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑 4 = 2
𝒏
𝒋 = −𝒋, if 𝑛 𝑚𝑜𝑑 4 = 3
Problem #1
Determine the equivalent value of the
following powers of 𝒋
𝟓
1. 𝒋
𝟐𝟎
2. 𝒋
𝟑𝟐𝟓
3. 𝒋
𝟐𝟗𝟕𝟑
4. 𝒋
𝟏𝟑𝟖𝟒
5. 𝒋
Operations on Complex Number
Let 𝒛 = 𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃 and 𝒘 = 𝒄 + 𝒋𝒅

𝒛 + 𝒘 = (𝒂 + 𝒄) + 𝒋(𝒃 + 𝒅)
𝒛 − 𝒘 = (𝒂 − 𝒄) + 𝒋(𝒃 − 𝒅)
𝒛𝒘 = 𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃 𝒄 + 𝒋𝒅
𝒛 𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃
=
𝒘 𝒄 + 𝒋𝒅
𝒛G = 𝒂 − 𝒋𝒃
Conjugate
𝒘
H = 𝒄 − 𝒋𝒅
Problem #2
Let 𝒛 = 𝟑 + 𝒋𝟐 and 𝒘 = 𝟕 − 𝒋𝟒,
Determine the value of the following:
1. 𝒛 + 𝒘 H
2. 𝒛 + 𝒘 H 𝒛
𝒘
3. + 𝒘𝒘
H
𝒛G
Problem #3
Let 𝒛𝟏 = 𝒋𝟐, 𝒛𝟐 = 𝟏 − 𝒋, 𝒛𝟑 = 𝟐 − 𝒋𝟑
Determine the value of the following:
𝟐
1. 𝒛𝟏 𝒛𝟐 + 𝒛𝟑
𝒛𝟏 J𝒛𝟐
2.
𝒛𝟏 𝒛𝟐
Graphical Representation
Let 𝒛 = 𝒂 + 𝒋𝒃 = 𝒓∠𝜽
Im(z)
Argand Diagram

b z 𝒓= 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐
r 𝒃
/𝟏
𝜽 𝜽= 𝒕𝒂𝒏
Re(z) 𝒂
a
Problem #4
Convert the following into polar and
exponential form
1. 4 + 𝑗4
2. −1 − 𝑗 3
3. 4 − 𝑗3
Problem #5
Convert the following into rectangular
form:
1. 3∠(45°)
2. 4∠(60°)
Q
P
3. 6𝑒 R
Multiplication and Division of Polar
and Exponential Form
Let
𝒋𝜽
𝒛𝟏 = 𝒓𝟏 ∠𝜽𝟏 = 𝒓𝟏 𝒆 𝟏
𝒋𝜽
𝒛𝟐 = 𝒓𝟐 ∠𝜽𝟐 = 𝒓𝟐 𝒆 𝟐
𝒋(𝜽 J𝜽 )
𝒛𝟏 𝒛𝟐 = 𝒓𝟏 𝒓𝟐 ∠ 𝜽𝟏 + 𝜽𝟐 = 𝒓𝟏 𝒓𝟐 𝒆 𝟏 𝟐

𝒛𝟏 𝒓𝟏 𝒓𝟏 𝒋(𝜽 /𝜽 )
= ∠ 𝜽𝟏 − 𝜽𝟐 = 𝒆 𝟏 𝟐
𝒛𝟐 𝒓𝟐 𝒓𝟐
Problem #6
Let 𝑧T = 2∠15°, 𝑧U = 3∠75°, 𝑧W =
Q
P
4𝑒 X . Determine the following:
1. 𝑧T 𝑧U 𝑧W
YZ
2.
Y[ Y\
De Moivre’s Theorem
If n is any positive integer, then the nth power
of the complex number 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑗𝑏 = 𝑟∠𝜃 =
Pa
𝑟𝑒 is given by

𝒏 𝒏 𝒏 𝒋 𝒏𝜽
𝒛 = 𝒓 ∠ 𝒏𝜽 = 𝒓 𝒆
Problem #7
Evaluate the following:
b
1. 1 + 𝑗
c/PW W
2.
b/PW
Q W
eX
Ud
3.
T∠cb°
Roots of Complex Number
It is the converse of De Moivre’s Theorem.

𝟏 𝟏 𝜽 + 𝟐𝝅𝒌 𝟏 𝜽J𝟐𝝅𝒌
𝒛𝒏 = 𝒓𝒏 ∠ = 𝒓𝒏 𝒆 𝒏
𝒏

k = 0, 1, 2, …, n-1
Problem #7
Evaluate the following:
Z
1. 1+𝑗 \
Z
2. 5∠20° h
Z
3. 1 h
Trigonometric and Hyperbolic
Functions of Complex Numbers
sin(𝑎 ± 𝑗𝑏) = sin 𝑎 cosh 𝑏 ± 𝑗 cos 𝑎 sinh 𝑏

## cosh(𝑎 ± 𝑗𝑏) = cosh 𝑎 cos 𝑏 ∓ 𝑗 sinh 𝑎 sin 𝑏

Problem #8
Evaluate the following:
1. sin(2 + 𝑗3)
2. cosh(5 + 𝑗4)
3. tan(−𝑗2)
4. tanh(4 − 𝑗2)
Exponential Functions of Complex
Numbers
Let 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑗𝑏
Y sJPt
𝑒 =𝑒
Y s Pt
𝑒 = 𝑒 ⋅𝑒
Pt
𝑒 = cos 𝑏 + 𝑗 sin 𝑏 = 1∠𝑏
𝒛 𝒂
𝒆 = 𝒆 ∠𝒃
Problem #9
Evaluate the following:
/TJPU
1. 𝑒
W/P
2. 2
Natural Logarithm Functions of
Complex Numbers
Pa
Let 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑗𝑏 = 𝑟𝑒
Pa
ln 𝑧 = ln 𝑟𝑒
Pa
ln 𝑧 = ln 𝑟 + ln 𝑒

𝐥𝐧 𝒛 = 𝐥𝐧 𝒓 + 𝒋𝜽
Problem #10
Evaluate the following:
1. ln(−5)
2. ln(𝑗3)
3. ln 1 − 𝑗 3
4. log P (1 + 𝑗)
5. log UJP (1 + 𝑗)
Complex Number raised to
Complex Number
Let 𝑧 = 𝑎 + 𝑗𝑏 = 𝑟𝑒 Pa and 𝑤 = 𝑐 + 𝑗𝑑
𝑧 | = 𝑎 + 𝑗𝑏 }JP~
| Pa }JP~
𝑧 = 𝑟𝑒
| •€ •JPa }JP~
𝑧 = 𝑒
Let 𝑝 + 𝑗𝑞 = (ln 𝑟 + 𝑗𝜃)(𝑐 + 𝑗𝑑)
𝒘 𝒑J𝒋𝒒 𝒑
𝒛 = 𝒆 = 𝒆 ∠𝒒
Problem #11
Evaluate the following:
/TJPU
1. 3 + 𝑗
/W/P
2. 𝑗
/PU
3. 2 − 𝑗
Pe
4. 𝑗