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Republic of the Philippines

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES


College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

Arduino Projects Design Documentation

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Components of Design Documentation

1. Title Page, Acknowledgement, Table of Contents

This should contain the title of the project, the organization, the

designer’s names, the design group, and the date that the design was

submitted. The title page serves primarily as a way to uniquely identify the

design document.

2. Purpose and Features

The purpose, features, and ratings page is the first thing that will

be read, and thus it should come across as simple, clean, concise, to the

point, and easily understood. This is not the place to try to sell the design to a

customer, but rather to state, in plain English, what the design does, what is

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
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Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

good or novel about it, and what are the principal restrictions on its

operation and application.

The purpose of the design should be stated first in a very

abbreviated form, and this may be only an expanded description of the

design’s name. A list of principal (usually desirable) features should appear

next.

3. Detailed Specification

The detailed specifications follow up behind the purpose, and

features by providing more specific limits and ranges on the performance

parameters. These are most commonly presented in a vertical table which

lists the parameter, the test conditions, the minimum, typical, and maximum

values, and the units of measurement. Absolute maximum ratings are often

pulled out in a separate table which simply lists the parameter and the rated

limit. It is highly desirable to organize the table by groups of related

parameters and label each group. Example groups might include: input

signal, frequency response, dynamic range, measurement accuracy, power

supply, temperature range, and size and weight.

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

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Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

4. Block Diagrams

A systems-level description of the design is best illustrated by a

block diagram. A few short paragraphs can also be added, if needed, to

explain how the system is structured. The purpose of this section is to give the

reader a global view of the entire design, and to see how the different parts

interconnect and work together.

The block diagram should be introduced in a way which breaks

the overall design into functional units and gives some idea of signal, power,

and control flow paths. Each block should be given a specific name which

indicates its function and identifies it uniquely for other documents. If the

design is in any way hierarchical, the block diagrams should indicate this

hierarchy. If the design involves multiple printed circuit boards (PCBs), then

each PCB should at least have its own block in the diagram.

5. Complete Electrical Schematics

A complete set of electrical schematics provides the most

detailed information of how a design is constructed, and is to some measure

the centerpiece of the documentation package for an electronic circuit

design. The schematics may be a single sheet, or multiple sheets which

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

“THE COUNTRY’S 1st POLYTECHNICU”


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

connect in either a flat design, or in a simple or complex hierarchy. The

schematics should be uniquely numbered and referred to in such a way that

their interconnection is clear.

Standard schematic symbols should be used whenever possible.

Never indicate devices by drawings of their packages! For example, an

operational amplifier should be indicated by the standard triangular op amp

symbol; not by a rectangular box indicating the actual 8-pin package.

On integrated circuits and other devices with many

mechanically identical pins, indicate the pin numbers by the terminals of the

symbol. Assembly and troubleshooting of the circuit is virtually impossible

without this information. A rectangular block (a part rectangle) may be used

for complicated and special purpose integrated circuits where no other

standard symbol exists. Conventionally, the pin number is placed above the

pin on the outside of the part rectangle. The pin name is place adjacent to

the pin on the inside of the part rectangle.

Junction dots should be used to indicate connections between

three or more wires. If no junction dot is shown, it is assumed that crossing

wires are not connected. A cross-over symbol is less frequently used, but this

can still add clarity when many cross-overs are needed. No end of any wire

should be free or unconnected.

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

“THE COUNTRY’S 1st POLYTECHNICU”


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

While circuit designs themselves are usually patented, the

schematics describing these designs may be copyrighted, depending upon

the practice of the organization. If so, include a copyright symbol ©, the year,

and the name of the organization which owns this intellectual property.

Copyrighting a schematic does not protect the use of the actual design, only

the use of the graphical representation of the design, i.e. the schematic itself.

6. Key Design Equations or Relations

A page or two should summarize the most essential calculations

or engineering tradeoffs that are associated with the given choice of circuit

topology or component values or ratings. If certain advertised features of the

design hinge upon the choice of specific components in the circuit, this

should be described in sufficient detail that another circuit engineer could

easily use the design formulas to customize or optimize the design in the

future.

If the design is one where the user will have to customize the

circuit or system, either by selecting specific component values of additional

resistors or capacitors, by configuring jumper wires, or by programming

special sections of software or firmware code, this should be clearly defined

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

“THE COUNTRY’S 1st POLYTECHNICU”


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

in this section so that the user has all of the information they need to

accomplish this task.

7. Performance Simulations or Predictions

Based upon the previous design equations, some prediction,

either by sample calculation, tabulated numbers, simulation software

(Arduino Simulators Lineup, etc.) should be given which illustrates the design

choices. Many times, it may be more convenient to combine this section with

the preceding one on key design equations and relations, so that the key

design equations are illustrated with simulations that immediately follow

them.

8. Test Procedure and Results

The results of laboratory tests on the prototype design should be

given here. For class purposes where the design must satisfy a given set of

specifications, this can simply be inserting the completed performance

verification test sheet into the design documents at this point.

In electrical engineering practice, it is common to include

performance tests of the design in the form of graphs which indicate how the

system behaves under differing loads or environments. These would provide

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

“THE COUNTRY’S 1st POLYTECHNICU”


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

the user with information on what to expect from the design when it is

operated or applied in varying conditions. These test results would typically

include any variations in performance with input power supply voltage,

output load current, added accessories, or simultaneous use of multiple

functions. Variations in the performance of the system with temperature are

almost always given here, from which practical guidelines on the proper

temperature range of operation can be inferred.

9. Software and Firmware Source Code Listings and Description

Increasingly, any electronic design will involve some digital

subsystems, and a sizeable part of this may be programmable by means of

directly loaded software or firmware. Whenever a design involves software or

firmware, this native source code must be included as part of the design

documentation, and the source code must be meticulously commented to

describe its operation.

All software and firmware must also use a very clear and

unambiguous system for denoting version numbers. Most software has

conventionally used a version numbering of the form vX.X.X which starts at

v0.0.0. Finally, don’t forget to put a copyright © symbol, the year, and the

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

“THE COUNTRY’S 1st POLYTECHNICU”


Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

company which owns this intellectual property within any original or revised

software source code. For example, “© 2006 Chumstick Electronics.”

10. Bill of Materials and Cost Estimate

From the schematics, a bill of materials (BOM) should be drawn

up which lists each type of part, the part references which use it, and the

part value or part number. This is conventionally done in a spreadsheet

format so that item costs and subtotals can be computed and summed to

give a cost for each module of the design. This is usually the best way to get

a first estimate on where the construction costs are going, and it also forms

an initial materials schedule for production of the design.

11. Subassembly and Installation Procedure

A design engineer must also perform the important task of

explaining how certain subassemblies or modules are to be assembled, and

also how they are to be adjusted to bring them into proper working order.

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

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Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

12. Mechanical Drawings for Chassis, Casework , Interface

and Controls

Self Explanatory

13. Human Interface or Patient Application

Consumer products or medical instruments which are intended

to closely interface to humans require additional documentation of how this

is to be accomplished. In particular, the manner in which any sensors are

intended to be placed or attached to the body must be specified,

preferably with a drawing. If the sensors are orientation-dependent, then this

must also be specified. The intended routing of any wire harnesses and

interconnections should also be detailed in this section.

14. Operating Procedure

The proper method for operating the final device, circuit, or

system must be detailed in a step-by-step numbered list. The overall

operation can be broken down into the most common procedures, and

various options or user selections can provide natural breaks between these

procedures.

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

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Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

15. Operating Hazards and Procedure (if applicable)

Any possible hazards and precautions for avoiding them should

be stated here. This includes possible conditions which could damage the

design or result in a situation which could harm the operator or technician

working with it. Overall electrical safety is addressed in the health and safety

standards compliance section. This section should address hazards which are

more specific to the particular nature of the device or the method of its use

which goes beyond simply turning it on and handling its exterior. A hazard is a

situation which could cause harm to a human operating the device. A

precaution is a warning that the device or instrument itself could become

damaged by use outside of its intended limits. Using an electrical device in a

wet environment could, for example, pose both a user hazard from possible

electric shock, and an operating precaution from the device possibly

becoming damaged by water exposure.

16. Reference, and Intellectual Property

Any references used in completing the design should be stated

here. These include published articles from magazines, manufacturer's data

books and application notes, copies of applicable standards (EIA, IEEE, NIST,

ASME, AAMI, etc.), and any compliance certifications from regulatory

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

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Republic of the Philippines
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
College of Engineering
Department of Electrical Engineering

agencies (FCC or UL certifications). Any other sources of divine inspiration

may also be included here. Since much of today’s data comes from the

internet, the applicable web hyperlinks should be listed here.

This section should also detail what parts of the design’s

intellectual property are intended to be protected by either patent,

copyright, trademark, or trade secret. If a certain patent of copyright is being

licensed in order to produce the design, that should be noted here with

reference to the signed agreement between the parties. Intellectual

property ownership and infringement is becoming an increasingly thorny

issue, and the best preparation is to lay out explicitly what is being claimed

with reference to the supporting documents that prove such. Patent

application numbers and provisional patent numbers are very useful to cite

here.

PUP NDC Campus Anonas Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila Phone: (Direct Line) _7166273
website: www.pup.edu.ph e-mail_ce@pup.edu.ph

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