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- Simultaneous Linear Equations Q
- Intro DE.pptx
- [EJEMPLO DE CÓMO HACER APUNTES].pdf
- A Concise Lecture Note on Differential Equations
- Second Order
- CFD
- MATHS QP
- Methods for Finding Particular Solutions Of
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- 105台聯大考科綱要及參考書目
- Untitled
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- 2013-2014-homework-pre

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Occasionally, the derived mathematical model for a physical situation is in the form of a function or a

relation free from derivatives but containing arbitrary constants that are essential. By essential

constants, we mean those that cannot be reduced to a smaller number of arbitrary constants. It is

necessary to obtain a differential equation of such equation with order equal to the number of arbitrary

constants the equation contains. The equation from which the differential equation is derived is called its

solution.

substituted into the differential equation reduces the equation to an identity.

with the number of arbitrary constants equal to the order of the differential equation

consistent with the differential equation

free from derivatives or differentials

Example 1.2.1The following illustrate the solutions corresponding to the differential equations.

2 2

e x y 2 C xy 3 dx e x dy 0

y Ae x B cos x (1 tan x ) y 2 y (1 tan x) y 0

2

y ax bx c y 0

2 2

( x h) ( y k ) r 2

y [1 ( y ) 2 ] 3 y ( y ) 2

You will notice that not all solutions can be expressed in the form y = f (x). Hence, solutions of DE’s

can be distinguished as explicit or implicit solutions. The function of the form y = f (x) is said to define

a solution of a DE explicitly whereas the relation G(x, y) = 0 is said to define a solution implicitly

provided it defines one or more explicit solutions of the form y = f (x).

Example 1.2.2The following classify the solutions of differential equations as to explicit or implicit.

y ax3 bx 2 cx d x2 y2 r 2

y C1e 2 x C2e 2 x y 2 by ct 0

y cos(ax b) y 8 (1 4e 2 x ) c 2

CA

r ae cos(4) ln ( k1 k 2 )t

C A0

A trivial solution is a solution of any DE that is identically zero, that is, y = 0 for all

x in a given interval.

1

Verification of Solutions of DE’s

Here we illustrate how to show whether the given equation is a solution of a differential equation or

not.

dy 2y

Example 1.2.3Verify if x 2 cy 3 is a solution of the differential equation .

dx 3x

Example 1.2.4Verify if y ae x b sin x is a solution of the DE (1 cot x) y 2 y (1 cot x ) y 0 .

y y 10e 2 x .

A solution of an ordinary differential equation of order n contains n number of independent arbitrary

constants. If these arbitrary constants are assigned specific values, the equations formed also satisfy the

differential equation and hence, serve as solutions. For this reason, we have types of solutions of an

ordinary differential, namely general solution, particular solution, and singular solution.

arbitrary constants that is equal to the order of the equation. It constitutes a

family of solutions or family of curves.

A particular solution is a solution of a DE obtainable from the general solution by

assigning specific values to the arbitrary constants, thus it is free from arbitrary

constants. Each particular solution corresponds to a particular curve.

A singular solution is a solution of a DE which cannot be obtained from the

general solution (family of solutions) whatever values are assigned to the arbitrary

1. x 2 cy 3 is the general solution of 2 ydx 3 xdy 0 .

2. y C1 cos 2 x C 2 sin 2 x is the general solution of y 4 y 0 .

3. y ln cos( x A) B is the general solution of y ( y ) 2 1 0 .

1. x 2 4 y 3 is one of the particular solutions if c = 4 in x 2 cy 3 .

2. y 3 cos 2 x 5 sin 2 x is one of the particular solutions if C1 = 3 and C2 = 5 in

y C1 cos 2 x C 2 sin 2 x .

3. y ln cos( x 4 ) 2 is one of the particular solutions if A = /4 and B = 2 in y ln cos( x A) B .

2 2

Example 1.2.8The DE y x y 0 has a family of solutions given by y ( 14 x C ) . For any choice

of C, the trivial solution y 0 cannot be obtained. Thus, y 0 is a singular solution of y x y 0 .

Exercise 1.2

A. Verify if the given general solution is a solution of the indicated differential equation.

1. y ( x 2 C ) 2 0 ; y xy 2 4. y ln sin( x A) B ; y ( y ) 2 1 0

2

2. xy 3 2 cxy ; ( x 2 y 2 x) dx ydy 0 5. y ae 3 x be 3 x ; y 9 y 0

3. y ax 2 ; xy 2 y 0 6. y c1 x c 2 e x

; ( x 1) y xy y 0

B. Verify if the indicated particular solution is a solution of the given differential equation.

d2y dy

1. y 2 x ce x ; y y 2(1 x ) 3. y x 2 (1 ln x ) ; x 2 2

3x 4y 0

dx dx

2. y 2 cosh x ; y y 0 4. y 3e x cos 2 x ; y 2 y 5 y 0

For ordinary differential equations of order n, particular solutions often arise. The

requirement for each of these ordinary differential equations is that a solution and its first n 1

d k y d0y

derivatives satisfy n conditions of the form

dx k x a

bk , where k = 0, 1, 2, n 1 and y .

dx 0

Such a problem is called an initial-value problem. If a solution and its first n 1 derivative

satisfy n conditions at different values of the independent variable, the problem is called a

boundary-value problem.

An initial-value problem for an ODE is one that can be written in the form

d k y

F ( x , y , y , y , , y (n ) ) ; b k for k = 0, 1, 2, …

dx k x a

A boundary-value problem is one with the conditions above are at different

values of the independent variable and the auxiliary conditions themselves are

called boundary conditions.

Example 1.2.9The following differential equations subject to the indicated conditions are

initial-value problems.

1. y x 2 2 x 4 ; y = 6 when x = 3

dy cos 3 x

2. dx sin 2 y ; y ( 12 ) 13

3. y 2 y 3 y 0 ; y (0) 4 , y (0) 0

d3y d2y dy

4. 3

2 2

5 6 y 0 ; y (0) 1 , y (0) 7 , y (0) 1

dx dx dx

Example 1.2.10The following differential equations subject to the indicated conditions are

boundary-value problems.

1. y 3 y 10 y 0 ; y (0) 0 , y (2) 1

d 3x d 2x dx

2. 3

5 2

3 9 x 0 ; x ( 1) 0 , x (0) 1 , and as t , x 0

dt dt dt

d2y

3. y 2 cos x ; y (0) 0 , y ( ) 0

dx 2

Elimination of Arbitrary Constants

To obtain a differential equation corresponding to the general solution, the following steps can be

applied.

1. Differentiate the given equation a number of times equal to the number of distinct arbitrary constants

(essential constants) present.

2. If, after applying (1), there are still arbitrary constants present, solve the given equation and the

derived ones simultaneously until the desired differential equation is obtained.

Three techniques are presented in eliminating the arbitrary constants, each of which has its own

advantage over the others, namely:

Example 1.2.11Obtain the DE of y a sin (3 x b) , thus eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b.

Another way of eliminating the arbitrary constants is to use the determinants. This is called the

eliminant method.

Example 1.2.14Obtain the DE of y C1 x C 2 x 2 C 3 x 3 by eliminating the arbitrary constants C1, C2

and C3 using the eliminant method.

Example 1.2.15Obtain the DE of y C1e 4 x C 2 xe 4 x by eliminating the arbitrary constants C1 and

C2.

Example 1.2.16Obtain the DE of ( x h) 2 y 2 r 2 by eliminating the arbitrary constants h and r.

Example 1.2.17Obtain the DE of y ax 2 by eliminating the arbitrary constant a

x3

Example 1.2.18Obtain the DE of the cissoids y 2 by eliminating the arbitrary constant a.

ax

Differential Equations of Families of Plane Curves

A family of plane curves is a set of plane curves possessing common properties or characteristics.

The properties common to the members of the family are represented mathematically by arbitrary

constants. A solution of a differential equation is sometimes referred to as an integral curve (a

family of plane curves).

Example 1.2.19Find the differential equation of the family of straight lines passing through (1, 5).

Example 1.2.20 Obtain the DE of a family of straight lines 4 units from the origin.

Example 1.2.21 Find the DE of a family of circles with center on the x-axis.

Example 1.2.22 Find the DE of a family of parabolas with vertical axis.

Example 1.2.23 Find the DE of a family of ellipses centered at the origin and with horizontal major

axis.

Exercise 1.3

A. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use

algebraic elimination method.

1. cy 3 3 x 2 y 11. y C1 cos 2 x C 2 sin 2 x

2

2. axy a x 6 0 12. y A cos 5 x B sin 5 x

3. y c 2 cx3 4 13. y x c1e 2 x c2e 4 x

4. x 2 ( y k ) 2 r 2 14. y a cos x be 2 x

5. y sin x x cot y c 15. y Ae x B tan x

4

6. xy 4 x tan y cx y cos x 16. y Ae x cos x Be x sin x

7. y c1 x 2 c2 x 3 17. y c1 x c2 x 2 c3 e 3 x

8. y c1e 2 x c 2 sin 4 x 18. y ax be x c cos 2 x

9. y c1 x 2 c 2 cos x 19. y C1 C 2 x C3 e 2 x C 4 e 3 x

10. y C1 cos 2 x C 2 sin 2 x

x

20. y C1 C 2 e C 3 cos x C 4 sin x

B. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use the

eliminant method.

1. y c1 e 3 x c 2 e 4 x 6. y ae3 x b cos 2 x

2. y a sin 3 x b cos 3 x 7. y c1 c2 x c3e 3 x

3. y C1e 2 x C2e 4 x 8. y C1 C2 x C3 x 2 C4 x 3

4. y ax 3 bx 5 9. y C1e x C2 cos x C3 sin x

3 x

5. y C1e5 x C2 e 6 x 10. y c1 c 2 x c 3 e c4 e x

C. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use

isolation of constants method.

1. y 2 Cx 6. r a(1 sin )

2. y cx 2 4 0 7. y C1e 2 x Cxe 2 x

1. y sin( x B ) 3x 3x 2 3x

8. y C1e C 2 xe C 3 x e

2. y sec( x B ) 9. y C1 e 2 x cos 3 x C 2 e 2 x sin 3 x

3. y a tan( x b) 2x 2x

10. y C1 C 2 e cos 3 x C 3 e sin 3 x

D. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use any

method.

1. y ax 2 bx c 9. y A sec( x B )

2. x 4 xy c

4

10. y A Bx Ce 3 x

3 3. y tan x 2 x 3 y c 11. y ae 2 x b cos 3 x

2 x

4 4. y sin( Ax B ) 12. y C1 e C 2 e 2 x cos x C 3 e 2 x sin x

5. y a tan( x b) 13. y C1 e x C 2 cos x C 3 sin x

6. y ln tan( x A) B 14. c 2 y 2 x ( x 1) 3

x2 y2

7. y C1 x C 2 e 4 x 15. 2 2 1 , a and b not to be

a b

8. y C1e 2 x cos 3 x C 2 e 2 x sin 3 x eliminated

E. Find the DE of the family of curves described and sketch some of its members.

1. Straight lines through the origin.

2. Straight lines through the (2, 1).

3. Straight lines with slope twice the x-intercept.

4. Straight lines whose sum of intercepts is 5.

5. Straight lines with slope and y-intercept equal.

6. Straight lines tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 4.

7. Straight lines tangent to the parabola y 4x 2 .

8. Circles with center at (1, 2).

9. Circles with radius 9.

10. Circles with center on the y-axis.

11. Circles tangent to the y-axis.

12. Circles passing through the origin and center on the line y = x

13. Circles with ordinate of its center twice the radius.

14. All circles.

15. Parabolas with axis on OY and vertex at the origin.

16. Parabolas with vertex and focus on the y-axis.

17. Parabolas with axis parallel to the x-axis and with distance from vertex to focus 4.

18. Parabolas with axis parallel to the y-axis.

19. Parabolas with axis vertical and vertex on the line y = x.

20. Ellipses with major axis on OY and center at the origin.

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