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1.

2 Determination of Differential Equations


Occasionally, the derived mathematical model for a physical situation is in the form of a function or a
relation free from derivatives but containing arbitrary constants that are essential. By essential
constants, we mean those that cannot be reduced to a smaller number of arbitrary constants. It is
necessary to obtain a differential equation of such equation with order equal to the number of arbitrary
constants the equation contains. The equation from which the differential equation is derived is called its
solution.

Definition 1.7 Solution of a Differential Equation

A solution of a DE is a function or a relation defining a function such that when


substituted into the differential equation reduces the equation to an identity.

Generally, a solution of a DE fulfills the following conditions:

 with the number of arbitrary constants equal to the order of the differential equation
 consistent with the differential equation
 free from derivatives or differentials

Example 1.2.1The following illustrate the solutions corresponding to the differential equations.

Solutions of DE’s Differential Equations


2 2
e  x  y 2  C xy 3 dx  e x dy  0
y  Ae x  B cos x (1  tan x ) y   2 y   (1  tan x) y  0
2
y  ax  bx  c y    0
2 2
( x  h)  ( y  k )  r 2
y [1  ( y ) 2 ]  3 y ( y ) 2

You will notice that not all solutions can be expressed in the form y = f (x). Hence, solutions of DE’s
can be distinguished as explicit or implicit solutions. The function of the form y = f (x) is said to define
a solution of a DE explicitly whereas the relation G(x, y) = 0 is said to define a solution implicitly
provided it defines one or more explicit solutions of the form y = f (x).

Example 1.2.2The following classify the solutions of differential equations as to explicit or implicit.

Explicit Solutions Implicit Solutions

y  ax3  bx 2  cx  d x2  y2  r 2
y  C1e 2 x  C2e 2 x y 2  by  ct  0
y  cos(ax  b) y 8 (1  4e 2 x )  c 2
CA
r  ae  cos(4)  ln  ( k1  k 2 )t
C A0

Sometimes we get a solution of the form y = 0. This is called a trivial solution.

Definition 1.8 Trivial Solution

A trivial solution is a solution of any DE that is identically zero, that is, y = 0 for all
x in a given interval.

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 Verification of Solutions of DE’s 
Here we illustrate how to show whether the given equation is a solution of a differential equation or
not.
dy 2y
Example 1.2.3Verify if x 2  cy 3 is a solution of the differential equation  .
dx 3x
Example 1.2.4Verify if y  ae x  b sin x is a solution of the DE (1  cot x) y   2 y   (1  cot x ) y  0 .

Example 1.2.5Verify if y  2(e 2 x  cos x  2 sin x ) is a solution of the differential equation


y   y  10e 2 x .

 Types of Solutions of an Ordinary Differential Equation 


A solution of an ordinary differential equation of order n contains n number of independent arbitrary
constants. If these arbitrary constants are assigned specific values, the equations formed also satisfy the
differential equation and hence, serve as solutions. For this reason, we have types of solutions of an
ordinary differential, namely general solution, particular solution, and singular solution.

Definition 1.9 General, Particular, and Singular Solutions

A general solution is a solution of a DE that contains a number of distinct


arbitrary constants that is equal to the order of the equation. It constitutes a
family of solutions or family of curves.
A particular solution is a solution of a DE obtainable from the general solution by
assigning specific values to the arbitrary constants, thus it is free from arbitrary
constants. Each particular solution corresponds to a particular curve.
A singular solution is a solution of a DE which cannot be obtained from the
general solution (family of solutions) whatever values are assigned to the arbitrary

Example 1.2.6The following illustrate the general solutions of differential equations.


1. x 2  cy 3 is the general solution of 2 ydx  3 xdy  0 .
2. y  C1 cos 2 x  C 2 sin 2 x is the general solution of y   4 y  0 .
3. y  ln cos( x  A)  B is the general solution of y   ( y ) 2  1  0 .

Example 1.2.7The following illustrate the particular solutions of differential equations.


1. x 2  4 y 3 is one of the particular solutions if c = 4 in x 2  cy 3 .
2. y  3 cos 2 x  5 sin 2 x is one of the particular solutions if C1 = 3 and C2 = 5 in
y  C1 cos 2 x  C 2 sin 2 x .

3. y  ln cos( x  4 )  2 is one of the particular solutions if A = /4 and B = 2 in y  ln cos( x  A)  B .
2 2
Example 1.2.8The DE y   x y  0 has a family of solutions given by y  ( 14 x  C ) . For any choice
of C, the trivial solution y  0 cannot be obtained. Thus, y  0 is a singular solution of y   x y  0 .

Exercise 1.2

A. Verify if the given general solution is a solution of the indicated differential equation.
1. y ( x 2  C )  2  0 ; y   xy 2 4. y  ln sin( x  A)  B ; y   ( y ) 2  1  0

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2. xy 3  2  cxy ; ( x 2  y 2  x) dx  ydy  0 5. y  ae 3 x  be 3 x ; y   9 y  0
3. y  ax 2 ; xy   2 y  0 6. y  c1 x  c 2 e x
; ( x  1) y   xy   y  0
B. Verify if the indicated particular solution is a solution of the given differential equation.
d2y dy
1. y  2 x  ce x ; y   y  2(1  x ) 3. y  x 2 (1  ln x ) ; x 2 2
 3x  4y  0
dx dx
2. y  2 cosh x ; y   y  0 4. y  3e x cos 2 x ; y   2 y   5 y  0

 Initial-Value and Boundary-Value Problems for ODE’s 

For ordinary differential equations of order n, particular solutions often arise. The
requirement for each of these ordinary differential equations is that a solution and its first n  1
d k y d0y
derivatives satisfy n conditions of the form 
dx k  x  a
 bk , where k = 0, 1, 2, n  1 and y  .
dx 0
Such a problem is called an initial-value problem. If a solution and its first n 1 derivative
satisfy n conditions at different values of the independent variable, the problem is called a
boundary-value problem.

Definition 2.0 Initial-Value and Boundary-Value Problems

An initial-value problem for an ODE is one that can be written in the form

d k y
F ( x , y , y , y  ,  , y (n ) ) ;   b k for k = 0, 1, 2, …
dx k  x  a

and the auxiliary conditions themselves are called initial conditions.


A boundary-value problem is one with the conditions above are at different
values of the independent variable and the auxiliary conditions themselves are
called boundary conditions.

Example 1.2.9The following differential equations subject to the indicated conditions are
initial-value problems.
1. y   x 2  2 x  4 ; y = 6 when x = 3
dy cos 3 x
2. dx  sin 2 y ; y ( 12  )  13 
3. y   2 y   3 y  0 ; y (0)  4 , y (0)  0
d3y d2y dy
4. 3
2 2
5  6 y  0 ; y (0)  1 , y (0)  7 , y (0)  1
dx dx dx

Example 1.2.10The following differential equations subject to the indicated conditions are
boundary-value problems.
1. y   3 y   10 y  0 ; y (0)  0 , y (2)  1
d 3x d 2x dx
2. 3
5 2
3  9 x  0 ; x ( 1)  0 , x (0)  1 , and as t  , x  0
dt dt dt
d2y
3.  y  2 cos x ; y (0)  0 , y ( )  0
dx 2
 Elimination of Arbitrary Constants 
To obtain a differential equation corresponding to the general solution, the following steps can be
applied.
1. Differentiate the given equation a number of times equal to the number of distinct arbitrary constants
(essential constants) present.
2. If, after applying (1), there are still arbitrary constants present, solve the given equation and the
derived ones simultaneously until the desired differential equation is obtained.

Three techniques are presented in eliminating the arbitrary constants, each of which has its own
advantage over the others, namely:

 Algebraic Elimination   Eliminant Method   Isolation of Constants 

Example 1.2.11Obtain the DE of y  a sin (3 x  b) , thus eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b.

Example 1.2.12Obtain the DE of r  a (sec   tan ) by eliminating the arbitrary constant a.

Example 1.2.13Obtain the DE of y  Ae  x  B cos 2 x by eliminating the arbitrary constants A and B


Another way of eliminating the arbitrary constants is to use the determinants. This is called the
eliminant method.
Example 1.2.14Obtain the DE of y  C1 x  C 2 x 2  C 3 x 3 by eliminating the arbitrary constants C1, C2
and C3 using the eliminant method.
Example 1.2.15Obtain the DE of y  C1e 4 x  C 2 xe 4 x by eliminating the arbitrary constants C1 and
C2.
Example 1.2.16Obtain the DE of ( x  h) 2  y 2  r 2 by eliminating the arbitrary constants h and r.
Example 1.2.17Obtain the DE of y  ax 2 by eliminating the arbitrary constant a
x3
Example 1.2.18Obtain the DE of the cissoids y 2  by eliminating the arbitrary constant a.
ax
 Differential Equations of Families of Plane Curves 
A family of plane curves is a set of plane curves possessing common properties or characteristics.
The properties common to the members of the family are represented mathematically by arbitrary
constants. A solution of a differential equation is sometimes referred to as an integral curve (a
family of plane curves).
Example 1.2.19Find the differential equation of the family of straight lines passing through (1, 5).

Example 1.2.20 Obtain the DE of a family of straight lines 4 units from the origin.
Example 1.2.21 Find the DE of a family of circles with center on the x-axis.
Example 1.2.22 Find the DE of a family of parabolas with vertical axis.
Example 1.2.23 Find the DE of a family of ellipses centered at the origin and with horizontal major
axis.

Exercise 1.3
A. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use
algebraic elimination method.
1. cy 3  3 x 2  y 11. y  C1 cos 2 x  C 2 sin 2 x
2
2. axy  a x  6  0 12. y  A cos 5 x  B sin 5 x
3. y  c 2  cx3  4 13. y  x  c1e 2 x  c2e 4 x
4. x 2  ( y  k ) 2  r 2 14. y  a cos x  be 2 x
5. y sin x  x cot y  c 15. y  Ae x  B tan x

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6. xy 4  x tan y  cx  y cos x 16. y  Ae x cos x  Be x sin x
7. y  c1 x 2  c2 x 3 17. y  c1 x  c2 x 2  c3 e 3 x
8. y  c1e 2 x  c 2 sin 4 x 18. y  ax  be  x  c cos 2 x
9. y  c1 x 2  c 2 cos x 19. y  C1  C 2 x  C3 e 2 x  C 4 e 3 x
10. y  C1 cos 2 x  C 2 sin 2 x
x
20. y  C1  C 2 e  C 3 cos x  C 4 sin x
B. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use the
eliminant method.
1. y  c1 e 3 x  c 2 e 4 x 6. y  ae3 x  b cos 2 x
2. y  a sin 3 x  b cos 3 x 7. y  c1  c2 x  c3e 3 x
3. y  C1e 2 x  C2e 4 x 8. y  C1  C2 x  C3 x 2  C4 x 3
4. y  ax 3  bx 5 9. y  C1e x  C2 cos x  C3 sin x
3 x
5. y  C1e5 x  C2 e 6 x 10. y  c1  c 2 x  c 3 e  c4 e x
C. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use
isolation of constants method.
1. y 2  Cx 6. r  a(1  sin )
2. y  cx 2  4  0 7. y  C1e 2 x  Cxe 2 x
1. y  sin( x  B ) 3x 3x 2 3x
8. y  C1e  C 2 xe  C 3 x e
2. y  sec( x  B ) 9. y  C1 e 2 x cos 3 x  C 2 e 2 x sin 3 x
3. y  a tan( x  b) 2x 2x
10. y  C1  C 2 e cos 3 x  C 3 e sin 3 x
D. Find the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constants of each of the following. Use any
method.
1. y  ax 2  bx  c 9. y  A sec( x  B )
2. x  4 xy  c
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10. y  A  Bx  Ce 3 x
3 3. y tan x  2 x 3 y  c 11. y  ae 2 x  b cos 3 x
2 x
4 4. y  sin( Ax  B ) 12. y  C1 e  C 2 e 2 x cos x  C 3 e 2 x sin x
5. y  a tan( x  b) 13. y  C1 e x  C 2 cos x  C 3 sin x
6. y  ln tan( x  A)  B 14. c 2 y 2  x ( x  1) 3
x2 y2
7. y  C1 x  C 2 e 4 x 15. 2  2  1 , a and b not to be
a  b 
8. y  C1e 2 x cos 3 x  C 2 e 2 x sin 3 x eliminated
E. Find the DE of the family of curves described and sketch some of its members.
1. Straight lines through the origin.
2. Straight lines through the (2, 1).
3. Straight lines with slope twice the x-intercept.
4. Straight lines whose sum of intercepts is 5.
5. Straight lines with slope and y-intercept equal.
6. Straight lines tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 4.
7. Straight lines tangent to the parabola y  4x 2 .
8. Circles with center at (1, 2).
9. Circles with radius 9.
10. Circles with center on the y-axis.
11. Circles tangent to the y-axis.
12. Circles passing through the origin and center on the line y = x
13. Circles with ordinate of its center twice the radius.
14. All circles.
15. Parabolas with axis on OY and vertex at the origin.
16. Parabolas with vertex and focus on the y-axis.
17. Parabolas with axis parallel to the x-axis and with distance from vertex to focus 4.
18. Parabolas with axis parallel to the y-axis.
19. Parabolas with axis vertical and vertex on the line y = x.
20. Ellipses with major axis on OY and center at the origin.