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Show your understanding upon essential amino acids, & give example where possible

Amino acids are organic compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, along
with a variable side chain group. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, they must come
from food. The 9 essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,
phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
- Leucine helps regulate blood sugar levels and aids the growth and repair of muscle and bone.
Sources: cheese, soybeans, beef, pork, chicken, pumpkin, seeds, nuts, peas, tuna, seafood, beans,
whey protein, plant proteins, …
- Isoleucine helps with wound healing, immunity, blood sugar regulation, and hormone production.
Sources: soy, meat and fish, dairy and eggs, cashews, almonds, oats, lentils, beans, brown rice,
legumes, chia seeds.
- Lysine plays a vital role in building muscle, maintaining bone strength, aiding recovery from injury
or surgery, and regulating hormones, antibodies, and enzymes. Sources: eggs, meat, poultry, beans,
peas, cheese, chia seeds, spirulina, parsley, avocados, almonds, cashews, whey protein.
- Methionine play a role in the health and flexibility of skin and hair. Methionine also helps keep
nails strong. Sources: meat, fish, cheese, dairy, beans, seeds, chia seeds, brazil nuts, oats, wheat,
figs, whole grain rice, beans, legumes, onions, and cacao
- Phenylalanine helps the body use other amino acids as well as proteins and enzymes. Sources: milk
and dairy, meat, fish, chicken, eggs, spirulina, seaweed, pumpkin, beans, rice, avocado, almonds,
peanuts, quinoa, figs, raisins, leafy greens, most berries, olives, and seeds.
- Threonine is necessary for healthy skin and teeth, as it is a component in tooth enamel, collagen,
and elastin. Sources: lean meat, cheese, nuts, seeds, lentils, watercress and spirulina, pumpkin, leafy
greens, hemp seeds, chia seeds, soybeans, almonds, avocados, figs, raisins, and quinoa.
- Tryptophan is necessary for proper growth in infants and is a precursor of serotonin and
melatonin. Sources: chocolate, milk, cheese, turkey, red meat, yogurt, eggs, fish, poultry, chickpeas,
almonds, sunflower seed, pepitas, spirulina, bananas, and peanuts
- Valine is essential for mental focus, muscle coordination, and emotional calm. People may use
valine supplements for muscle growth, tissue repair, and energy. Sources: cheese, red meat,
chicken, pork, nuts, beans, spinach, legumes, broccoli, seeds, chia seeds, whole grains, figs, avocado,
apples, blueberries, cranberries, oranges, and apricots.
- Histidine facilitates growth, the creation of blood cells, and tissue repair. It also helps maintain the
special protective covering over nerve cells. Sources: red meat, cheese, white meat and poultry,
seafood, soybeans, beans, legumes, chia seeds, buckwheat, potatoes.

2. Discuss and exemplify the absorbable form of proteins

To be absorbed, proteins must be digested to small simple molecules (amino acid), which are easily
absorbed from the intestine. There are 2 mechanisms for amino acids absorption: carrier proteins
transport system, Glutathione transport system.
- Carrier proteins transport system: - Glutathione transport system:
+ It is the main system for amino acids + Glutathione is used to transport amino
absorption, an active process that need acids from intestinal lumen to cytosol of
energy intestinal mucosa cells
+ The energy needed id derived from ATP + It is an active process that need energy
+ There are 7carrier proteins, one for each + The energy needed id derived from ATP
group of amino acids + Absorption of 1amino acid molecule
+ Each carrier protein has to sites one for needs 3ATP molecules
amino acid one for Na+

3. What would happen to protein during processing, storage?

4. Show you understanding about nutritional & functional properties of food proteins
a. Functional properties: Intro FT
b. Nutritional properties:
- Protein conformation: The structural state of a protein influences its hydrolysis by proteases.
Native proteins are generally less completely hydrolyzed than partially denatured ones.
Generally, insoluble fibrous proteins and extensively denatured globular proteins are difficult to
- Antinutritional factors: Most plant protein isolates and concentrates contain trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins.
- Binding: Interaction of proteins with polysaccharides and dietary fiber also reduces the rate and
completeness of hydrolysis.
- Processing: Proteins undergo several chemical alterations involving lysyl residues when exposed
to high temperatures and alkaline pH. Such alterations reduce their digestibility. Reaction of
reducing sugars with e-amino groups also decreases digestibility of lysine.

5. Discuss about the roles of carbohydrates in food industry

6. Discuss about the glycosidic linkage. What would occur with carbohydrates if no
glysidic linkage forms?
7. What are the most commonly knows functional group in foods? Have a short discuss
and give examples for each, where possible
8. What are starches and their most common application in food industry?
9. Show your understanding about nutritional and functional properties of food lipids
a. FP: intro FT
b. Nutritional properties: Fats are a concentrated source of energy. They confer a feeling of satiety
and contribute to the palatability of food. The essential fatty acids linoleic and arachidonic, as
well as fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, are obtained from the lipid fraction of the diet.

10. What is exactly different between artificial flavors and the natural flavors? Exemplify
where possible (ppt)
11. How would you compare the textures of modern processed foods vs the traditionally
12. What are food colors? Discuss ab the natural color vs artificial ones (ppt)
13. Why have the artificial colors been produced and available in the market?
 Make food becomes more attractive, eye-catching, delicious
 Compensate for discoloration caused by environmental conditions (
temperature, light, moisture, air, storage conditions,…)
 Make or retain natural color of foods
 Create a characteristic look, easy to identify
 Use for decorative purposes (cake decorating,…)
 Provide variety of wholesome and nutritious food that meet customer’s demand
 Improve, maintain nutritional value of foods

14. Discuss and demonstrate the application of food enzymes in food industry? Give
concrete example where possible (link)
15. Finding, discussing and exemplifying as many possible the roles of food enzymes as well
as of digestive enzymes
- Amylase is a digestive enzyme essential for our digestion of carbohydrates, as amylase breaks
down starches into sugars. Amylase is secreted by both our salivary glands and from our
pancreas. The measurement of amylase levels in the blood is sometimes used as an aid in
diagnosing various pancreas or other digestive tract diseases.
- Lactase is a type of enzyme that breaks down the sugar, lactose, found in dairy products.
Supplemental lactase may be used to assist people who are lactose intolerant to digest dairy
- Lipase is the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of fats that we consume. Specifically, lipase
breaks fats into fatty acids and glycerol (simple sugar alcohol). Within your body, lipase is
produced in small amounts by your mouth and stomach, and in larger amounts by your
- Maltase is secreted by the small intestine and is responsible for breaking down maltose (malt
- Proteases are digestive enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids.
- Sucrase is secreted by the small intestine where it breaks down sucrose into the simpler sugars
of fructose and glucose.
16. Why is acidity chemically important? Show your understanding per your discussion
17. How would you evaluate the functional properties of carbohydrates? Give concrete
example where possible
18. Exploring and showing your evaluations of upon all related issues of food colors and
food flavors (ppt)
19. Finding, discussing and exemplifying as many as possible the application of amylase
enzymes, lipase enzymes and protease enzymes in food industry (ppt)
20. What are starches and their most common application in food industry?
21. How many types of food flavor/colors? (ppt)
22. Why are some FC/FF considered as artificial ones even though they are extracted from
natural source?
23. Compare natural and artificial FC/FF, especially discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each (ppt)
24. Why do people like FC as well as FF? Show your understanding upon the negative
effects of the FC and give ex., where possible (ppt)