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1.

Enzyme is widely used in many fields as food processing, environment, agriculture,


medicine,… student choose one and discuss the application of enzyme.
Lipase: Enhancing flavor development and shortening the time for cheese ripening. Production
of specialty fats with improved qualities. Production of enzyme-modified cheese/butter from
cheese curd or butterfat.

2. Coenzyme is helper molecule and it takes an important role in enzyme catalyzed


reaction. Discuss about it.
- Non protein, also bind to active site but not considered as substrate. Function as intermediate
carrier of electron, specific atoms/ functional groups that are transferred in the overall reaction
- The active site also contains functional groups that participate directly in the reaction .The
functional groups are donated by the polypeptide chain or by coenzymes. As the substrate
binds, it induces conformational changes in the enzyme that promote further interactions
between the substrate molecules and the enzyme functional groups.

3. Active site occupies a small part of enzyme protein but it is the place where substrate
comes and combines with. Base your understanding, clarify the structure and property
of active site.
- Structure of active sites
• The active site takes up a relatively small part of the total volume of an enzyme
• The active site is a three dimensional entity
• Substrates are bound to enzymes by multiple weak attraction
• Active sites are clefts or crevices
• Functional residues in enzyme binding directly to substrate to form or break down the
bonding in substrates to produce products
- Properties of active sites: Many different functional residues of amino acids, water in bonding,
metal ions, functional residues of coenzyme

4. Write down six categories of enzyme. Discuss and focus on the first three groups.
Oxidoreductase - Transferases - Hydrolases - Lyases – Isomerases - Ligases
i. Oxidoreductase
• Oxidoreductase catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions.
• Subclasses of this group include
o Dehydrogenase
- Catalyze the reaction in which H+ from substrate transferring to NAD+, NADP+, FAD, FMN
These enzymes can be found some first stages of ETC
-The reactions: H from NADH, NADPH, FADH2, FMNH2, can be transferred to substrate and
reduced the substrates Catalyze the synthesis reaction
Alcoholdehydrogenase: CH3CH2OH + NAD+ ⇔ CH3CHO + NADH + H+
Important role in alcohol fermentation
Glutamatedehydrogenase: L-glutamic + H2 O + NAD+ ⇔ α-ketoglutaric + NH3 + NADH + H+
N from soil to plant and microorganism by absorbing NH3
o Reductase: Catalize the process in which electron can be transferred to Oxygen and then
Oxygen can combine with proton
4 Ferocytochrom c + O2 + 4H+ = 4 Fericytochrom c + 2H2O

o Oxygenase Catalyze oxido-reduction reactions in which Oxygen can combine with


substrate to form functional groups as -OH, -COOH
o Peroxydase
• Including peroxydase and Catalase
• Coenzyme is hem
• Catalyze organic substrates in the presence of H2O2

Peroxydase: Donating substrate + H2O2 = oxidized substrate + H2O

Catalase: H2O2 + H2O2 = O2 + 2H2O

ii. Transferases: Transferases catalyze reactions that involve the transfer of groups from one
molecule to another such as amino, carboxyl, carbonyl, methyl, phosphoryl, and acyl (RC=O)
and the enzyme names often go with trans such as transcarboxylase, transmethylase, and
transaminases.

iii. Hydrolases
- Hydrolases catalyze reaction in which the cleavage of bonds is accomplished by adding water
- Hydrolases include the esterases, phosphatase, and peptidase

5. What do you know the enzyme kinetics? Write down the Michaelis-Menten /
Linweaver Burk equation and discuss the Vmax and Km.
Michealis : Linewaever:
Advances - Easy to find Vmax.
- Possible to figure out the ceiling of
- Only need two points to draw
the graph.
the graph Saving time.
Disadvances - Having to make many points by
making several samples in the lab to - Impossible to figure out the ceiling
draw the graph Waste of time. of the graph.
- Hard to find Vmax.
6. Can you recommend the enzyme source?
- In the past, enzymes were being produced strictly from animals (liver/pancreas) but not very
stable at the low pH (acidic) environment of the stomach denature before do the job
- After that Plant enzymes were used. These animal-friendly enzymes are much more stable
under low pH conditions, such as inside the stomach, and temperature changes don't seem to
affect them as much.
- Microbial enzymes have since come along and provide for numerous enzymes that perform
multiple body functions. Microbial enzymes are extracted from fermented bacteria or
fermented fungal organisms.

7. What is metabolism and why do you need to study it? Base on your best
understanding of metabolism, summarize the key notes related to its basic roles and
functions in living organisms.
- Metabolism : Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
- Metabolism is a central theme in biochemistry. It keeps cells and organisms alive by:
+ Giving them the energy to carry on
+ The building blocks required for growth and propagation.
- The metabolism can be divided into: catabolic and anabolic reactions
- Two kinds of metabolic reactions:
+ Catabolism = breakdown of large molecules into simple ones to produce energy (release
energy)
+ Anabolism = build large molecules from simple molecules. (requires energy input)
- The key functions of:

Catabolic metabolism Anbolic metabolism


- Accumulation of energy in the form of ATP - Small molecules and building blocks that are
not sufficiently available in the food
- Regeneration of reducing power (NADPH) - Macromolecules, in particular proteins and
nucleic acids
- Production of building blocks for a.m - Apart from building blocks and ATP, a.
reactions require a good deal of reducing
power in the form of NADPH

- Metabolism role in life


A large share of the substrates broken down in catabolism are being used for producing ATP.
ATP is used for nearly every energy-requiring task in cell biology. This includes
1. Cell motility, particularly in muscle cells,
2. Active transport across membranes, e.g. Na+/K+-ATPase and other ion pumps. Ion pumps are
largely responsible for the conspicuous energy requirements of brain and kidneys.

8. Discuss and exemplify the differences between anabolism and catabolism, where
possible.

Anabolism Catabolism
- Large molecules are constructed from small - Decomposition of large complex molecules
molecules (build up) into small ones.
- Energy required - Energy liberated
- Reductive - Oxidative
- Biosynthetic - Degradative
- Diverging - Converging

9. Focus and discuss the energy-generating pathways of carbon hydrate metabolism.


Carbohydrate metabolism refers to the production, storage and use of carbohydrates within
organisms. The energy-generating pathways of carbohydrates metabolism contains 3 major
pathways: Glycolysis, Kreb cycle and Electron transport chain..
- During glycolysis, each glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of the compound
pyruvate.
- The pyruvate crosses the double membrane of the mitochondrion to enter the matrix, where the
Krebs cycle decomposes it to carbon dioxide.
- NADH or FADH2 transfers electrons from molecules undergoing glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
to electron transport chains, which are built into the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The electron transport chain converts the chemical energy to a form that can be used to drive
oxidative phosphorylation, which accounts for most of the ATP generated by cellular respiration.
- A smaller amount of ATP is formed directly during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle by substrate-
level phosphorylation.
Respiration is a cumulative function of 3 metabolic stages:
(1) Glycolysis – cytosol: In a eukaryotic cell, glycolysis occurs outside the mitochondria in the
cytosol. Glycolysis, begins the degradation by breaking: glucose = two molecules pyruvate.
• Stages of glycolysis
1. Stage one (the energy requiring stage):
a) One molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of glycerosldhyde-3-phosphate.
b) These steps requires 2 molecules of ATP (energy loss)
2. Stage two (the energy producing stage ):
a) The 2 molecules of glyceroaldehyde-3-phosphate are converted into pyruvate (aerobic
glycolysis) or lactate (anaerobicglycolysis
(.b) These steps produce ATP molecules (energy production).
(2) The Krebs cycle - mitochondrial matrix: The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chains are
located inside the mitochondria. Decomposing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2.

(3) The electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation


The electron transport chain accepts electrons from the breakdown products of the first two stages
(usually via NADH) and passes these electrons from one molecule to another
- The energy released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to
make ATP.
- This mode of ATP synthesis is called oxidative phosphorylation because it is powered by the
redox reactions that transfer electrons from food to O2.
- Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by respiration
- A smaller amount of ATP is formed by substrate-level phosphorylation when an enzyme
transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP. "Substrate molecule" here refers
to an organic molecule generated during the catabolism of glucose.
glucose = CO2 + H2O + 38 molecules of ATP
10. What is biochemistry and its covering scopes as well as its applications in life sciences?
- Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. By
controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through
metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. Much of biochemistry deals
with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules. The chemistry of the
cell also depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions.
-The scope of biochemistry is to understand chemical structures/function of biological molecules,
interaction and organization of different molecules within individual cells and whole biological
systems, and bioenergetics. Therefore opens up the scopes in the field biotechnology,
pharmacology, medicine, dentistry, agriculture, forensics, anthropology, environmental sciences..etc
- Biochemistry: foundation for understanding all biological processes. It has provided explanations
for the mechanisms and developments of living cells as well as causes of many diseases in humans,
animals and plants