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• • • • • • • • This book is to be brought to the class daily. Students are not permitted to attend the class without the identity card. Students should be well in time for the first class and subsequent classes thereafter. Students should keep the Classrooms, Laboratories and Workplace clean and tidy. Writing on desks, walls is strictly prohibited, failing which the students will be fined heavily. If the identity of the individual is not established the entire class / students in the block will be fined. Students are advised to show due respect to all faculty regardless of their department and maintain affable personality. Students are to maintain absolute discipline and decorum, so as to promote the fair name of the college in all its activities. Students securing less than 85% attendance in any individual subject in the semester will not be allowed to take up the exams. Attendance and test performance will be announced in the concerned department notice board as per the calendar of events and the students are advised to bring any discrepancy to the notice of the HOD. Students are informed to clarify their doubts in the respective subjects with the faculty by taking prior appointment. Students are to inform their parents that they should follow up the progress of their wards by being in touch with the college authorities at regular intervals. Ragging is punishable under Karnataka Education Act and is strictly prohibited. Any student involved in ragging, will be severely punished. Students should come prepared with algorithm / flowchart / program for all the experiments before attending the laboratory session. Students should bring the data sheets and laboratory records completed in all respect to the laboratory. Take the PRINTOUTS of the SOURCE LISTING and OUTPUT of the program after EXECUTION and DELETE your files. Students are not supposed to alter the configuration of the system / any software on the system. Students who secure less than 60% in the University exam and / or who secure less than 60% in the internal test are to go through the Academic Support programme compulsorily. The guidelines will be issued separately by the concerned department. Students are to present the mentor meeting failing which appropriate disciplinary action will be taken. SEMESTER - IV - TIME TABLE 10.45 –11.45 11.45-12.45 1.30-2.30

• • • • • • • • •

Day / Time Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

8.15 - 9.15

9.15 - 10.15

2.30-3.30

3.45-4.45

4.45-5.45

Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Code No. MAT 41 CSE 42 CSE 43 CSE 44 CSE 45 CSE 46 CSEL 47 CSEL 48

SCHEME OF STUDY AND EXAMINATIONS FOR BE DEGREE COURSE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING Class No. of Hr. / week Duration of Exams Subject Sessional Theory Practical Theory Practical Marks 04 -03 -25 Engg. Mathematics – IV Graph Theory and Combinatorics Analysis and design of Algorithms Finite Automata & Formal Languages Introduction to Microprocessors Computer Organization OOP Lab with C++ Algorithms Lab Total 04 04 04 04 04 --24 -----03 03 06 03 03 03 03 03 -------03 03 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 200

Exam Marks 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 50 700

Total Marks 125 125 125 125 125 125 75 75 900

SUBJECT Engg. Mathematics – IV Graph Theory and Combinatorics Analysis and design of Algorithms Finite Automata & Formal Languages Introduction to Microprocessors Computer Organization OOP Lab with C++ Algorithms Lab

TEST 1

STUDENT SELF APPRAISAL MARKS TEST 2 TEST 3

REPORT 1

ATTENDANCE REPORT 2

REPORT 3

P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 4th Semester CS

1

**MAT-41 ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – IV
**

Faculty:

Class # 1 Calculus of Complex functions T1-Chapter 20:-20.1 to 20.6, 20.8(4), 20.9(1), 20.10(1 to 3). Title & Reference Topics to be covered Complex Analysis- Introduction Definition of Limit, continuity, differentiability and Analytic function Cauchy-Riemann equations in Cartesian and Polar forms Consequences of C-R equations and examples Conformal transformations: z2, ez z + a2 / z Bilinear transformations Complex integration: Line integral Cauchy’s theorem – corollaries and Problems Cauchy’s integral formula Taylor’s and Laurent’s series examples Singularities, poles, Calculation of Residues Residue theorem: examples. Series Solution of Bessel’s Differential equation Recurrence relations Generating function Orthogonality Property, Bessel’s integral formula Series Solution of Legendre’s differential equation Generating functions , Recurrence relations Orthogonality Property Rodrigue’s formula Curve fitting by the method of Least squares Correlation Regression Probability, conditional probability & Problems Baye’s rule Discrete and continuous random variables PDF and CDF Binomial distribution, Poison distribution Poison and Exponential Normal distribution Sampling, Sampling distribution, Standard error Type-I and Type-II errors Testing of hypothesis for Means large and Small samples Level of Significance and Confidence limits large and small samples Student’s t-distribution. Joint Probability distributions Discrete and independent random variables Problems on expectation and variance Introduction to Markov Chains Probability vectors and Stochastic Matrices Higher transition probabilities Stationary distribution of regular Markov chains and absorbing states.

No. of Hours: 52

2-3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10 11 12 13 14 15-16 17-18 19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26 27 28-30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37-38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

Calculus of complex functions T1-Chapter 20:20.12 to 20.14, 20.16(2,3), 20.17 to 20.19.

Series solutions of Differential equations and special functions T1-Chapter 16:- 16.6 to 16.9, 16.11, 16.13 to 16.17.

Statistics & Probability T1-Chapter1:-1.13, 1.14 T1-Chapter 23- 23.9, 23.10, 23.14, 23.16 to 23.21, 23.26, 23.27(5), 23. 28.

Statistical Methods T1Chapter 23:23.31 to 23.33, 23.35 to 23.37

Relevant articles of T2Chapter 5 & Chapter 7 from Schaum Series

Note: 1)Percentage of portions covered per class on an average is 1.92 per class 2)All questions carry equal marks (i.e 5marks in test & 6/7/8 marks in exam) Part-A Part-B Part-C Part-D Complex Variables- Bilinear Transformation Complex Integration Bessel’s Differential Equation Legendre’s Differential Equation Curve fitting- Baye’s Rule Random Varibles - End Sampling Distributions Joint Probability Distributions- End One Question One One One One One One One Question Question Question Question Question Question Question

**Test 1 Test 2 Test 3
**

Literature:

Test Portions Complex Analysis: Analytic Functions, C-R Equations, conformal Mapping Statistics: Curve Fitting, Correlation, Regression Probability: Upto Baye’s theorem. Complex Analysis: Bilinear Transformation Complex Integration Probability: Random variables, discrete & continuous distributions. Special Functions Sampling distribution. Title & Author Higher Engineering Mathematics – Dr.B.S.Grewal Probability by Seymour Lipschutz Advanced Engineering mathematics by E Kreyszig Edition 36th 2nd Publication Info Publisher Khanna Publisher Schaum’s Outlines John Wiley & Sons Year 2001 2000

Book Type Text book Text book Reference book

Code T1 T2 R1

P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 4th Semester CS

2

**QUESTION BANK ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS: 1. Show that the function f ( z ) = z
**

2. Show that the function is continuous at every point but not differentiable at any point. is continuous at every point but is not differentiable at any point other than origin.

f (z ) = z |2 |

3. Show that the necessary sufficient condition for the function f(z)= u + iv to be analytic is 3. 4. 5. 6. If f (z) is analytic on an open set S and

f ′(z ) = 0 for all z ∈ S

∂u ∂v = ∂x ∂y

,

∂v ∂u =− ∂x ∂y

show that f (z) is constant.

Show that an analytic function with constant real part is constant. Show that an analytic function with constant modulus is constant. If

f (z ) = u + iv is analytic and ψ

2

is any differential function of x and y prove that

⎛ ∂ψ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝

7. If

2 ⎧⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ 2 ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ 2 ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎟ = ⎨⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎬| f ′(z )| ⎟ ⎝ ∂v ⎠ ⎪ ⎠ ⎪⎝ ∂u ⎠ ⎩ ⎭ f (z ) = u + iv is an analytic function, prove the following

(a)

⎛ ∂2 ∂2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ | f (z )|2 = 4| f ′(z )|2 + ⎜ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

2 2

**⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ∂ (b) ⎜ | f (z )|⎟ + ⎜ | f (z )|⎟ = f ′(z )|2 ⎜ ∂y ⎟ | ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂ ∂ ⎟ + log | f (z )|= 0 (c) ⎜ ⎜ ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (d) If f (z ) = u + iv is analytic and φ is any differentiable function of x and y, prove that
**

2 2 ⎧⎛ ∂φ ⎞ 2 ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ 2 ⎫ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ = ⎨⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ | f ′(z )| ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ∂x ⎠ ∂u ⎠ ∂v ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪⎝ ⎩ ⎭

(e) If 8. 9.

f (z ) = u + iv

∂ 2F ∂x 2 +

is analytic, show that

∇ 2 | f (z )|2 = f ′(z )|2 |

Prove that

∂ 2F ∂y 2

=4

∂ 2F ∂z∂z

Here F=F(x, y) z= x+ iy,

z = x − iy

If f(z) = u +iv is analytic u and v satisfy Laplace’s equation, show that

∂ 2u ∂x 2

10. 11. 12.

+

∂ 2u ∂y 2

=0

∂ 2v ∂x 2

+

∂ 2v ∂y

2

= 0 i.e ., u & v are harmonic functions.

If f(z) = u + iv is analytic then the families of curves u= c1 and v= c2 here c1& c2 are constant are orthogonal. Show that an analytic function constant modulus is constant. Find the analytic function f(z)=u + iv, given (a) u =2x(1-y) x (b) u = ex (x cosy – y siny) (f) u + v = 2 (c) x sinx coshy – ycosx sinhy x + y2 (d) v=exsiny (e) v=

sin x sin y cos 2x + cosh 2y

(g)

u −v =

and

**cos x + sin x − e −y 2 cos x − e y − e − y
**

f (z ) = u(r ,θ ) + iv (r ,θ )

prove that

13.

If

z = re iθ

∂u 1 ∂v ∂v 1 ∂u = ; =− r ∂θ ∂r r ∂θ ∂r

14.

f (z ) = u(r ,θ ) + iv (r ,θ )

(a)

is analytic function, show that u and v satisfy the function

∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ϕ 1 ∂ 2ϕ =0 + + ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2

3

P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 4th Semester CS

(b)

15. (a)

**=0 ∂θ 2 Find the analytic function f (z ) = u + iv , given cos 2θ u = r 2 cos 2θ − 4 sinθ (b) u = ,r ≠ 0 r2
**

(c)

1 ∂u 1 + ∂r 2 r ∂r r 2 ∂ 2v 1 ∂v 1 + + 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r r +

∂ 2u

∂ 2u ∂θ 2 ∂ 2v

=0

**COMPLEX INTEGRATION 1. Prove that f (z )dz = (udx − vdy ) + i (udy + vdx ) ∫ ∫ ∫
**

c

2. 3. Prove that

c

∫ f (z )dz = 0

c

c

c

If c1,c2,c3…..cn are ‘n’ non overlapping simple closed curves within C and f(z) is analytic on these curves in the region bounded by them then prove that

∫ f (z )dz = ∫ f (z )dz + ∫ f (z )dz + ..... + ∫ f (z )dz

f (z ) = 3 z + iz − 4

2

c1

c2

cn

4. 5.

Verify the Cauchy’s theorem for the function

with c as the square having vertices at 1 ± i , -1 ± i

If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve c in the complex plane and a is any point c then prove that

f (a) =

6.

1 f (z ) ∫ z − a dz 2πi c

If f(z) is analytic within and on a simple closed curve C and a is any point within C then

f n (a) =

n! 2πi

c

∫ (z − a)n +1 dz

f (z )

7.

Evaluate

c

8. Evaluate

∫

z +1 z2 ez

**dz, where C is a simple closed contour enclosing the origin.
**

where C is the circle |z|=1

c

9. Evaluate

∫ z 3 dz

z2 +1

c

**∫ z 2 − 1 dz, where C is a circle of unit radius with center at
**

(c) |z|>2

(i) z= 1

(ii) z=-1

10. Obtain the Taylor’s and Laurent’s series for the function f(z)= 11. (b) 1<|z|<2

(1 + z )(z + 2)

2

1

for (a)|Z|<1

12. Obtain Laurent’s expansion for

f (z ) =

z2 (z − 1)(z − 3)

in the region (a) 1<|z|<3

(b) |z-1|<2.

13. If C is a simple closed curve and f(z) is analytic within and on simple closed curve c except at finite points a1,a2,a3…..an inside c then prove that a1,a2,a3,……an 14. Evaluate

c

**∫ f (z )dz = 2πi (R1 + R2 + R3 + ......Rn ) here R1, R2 , R3 ....Rn are residues of f(z) at
**

where C: |z|=3/2

c

15.

∫ z (z − 1)(z − 2) dz

dz, where

3z − 4

c

∫

2z + z z 2 −1

2

(i) C: |z|=2 (ii) C: |z-1|=1

16. Show that the transformation w = z2 transforms the circle | z-a | = c to a cardioid or a limacon. 17. Find the bilinear transformation that transforms the points z1 = 1, z2 = i, z3 = -1 onto the points w1 = 2, w2 = i, w3 = -2. Find the fixed points of the transformation. 18. Find the images of (i) x-y = 1 (ii) x2 – y2 = 1 under the transformation w = z2.

4

BESSELS FUNCTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. Find the series solution of Bessel's differential equation. Show that y = c1 Jn(kx ) + c2 J-n (kx) is the solution of x2 y2 + xy1 + (k2 x2 - n2)y =0. Verify that y = xn Jn(x) is the solution of x y2 +(1-2n)y1 + xy =0. Show that (a) J

½

2 2 Sinx (b) J -½ (x) = Cosx. πx πx [J n-1 (x) + J n + 1 (x) ] 5. Show that 2n J n(x) = x 6. Show that J n'(x) = x [J n-1 (x) - J n + 1 (x) ] d n 7. Show that x J n ( x ) = xn J n-1 (x). dx d −n 8. Show that x J n ( x ) = x-n J n+1 (x). dx 2 2 {(Sinx )/x - cosx } (b) J --3/2 (x) = 9. Show that (a) J 3/2 (x) = πx πx d 10. Show that x J n ( x )J n −1 ( x ). = x[ J2 n (x) .- J2 n-1 (x)] dx

(x) =

[ [

]

]

{(Cosx)/x +sinx}

[

]

11. Show that cos (x sinθ) = J0(x) +2ΣJ2n(x)cos 2nθ 12. Show that sin (x sinθ) = 2ΣJ2n-1(x)sin (2n-1)θ 13. Prove that J n(x) =

14. State and prove orthogonal property of Bessel's functions.

1 ∫ cos(nθ − x sinθ)dθ π

1 a 2 + b2

∞

15. Show that

∫e

− ax

J 0 (bx )dx =

0

16. Prove that

J − n(x ) = (− 1)n J n (x ), where n is a positive integer.

LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Find the series solution of Legendre's differential function. Show that (a)Pn (1) = 1 (b)Pn (-x) = (-1) n Pn (x) . Hence deduce that Pn (-1) = (-1)n Express 3 - x + 2x2 + 2x3 + x4 in terms of Legendre’s polynomials. By using Rodrigue’s formula verify that Pn (x) satisfies Legendre’s differential equation. Show that Pn (x) =

1 π⎡ ⎤ 2 ∫ ⎢ x ± x − 1 cos θ⎥dθ π 0⎣ ⎦

Show that [ (2n+ 1) x Pn (x)] = (n+1) Pn+1 (x) + n Pn-1 (x) Show that Pn (x) = xP'n (x) - P'n-1 (x) Show that Pn (x) = P'n+1 (x) - 2x P'n (x) + P'n-1 (x)

1

Show that

−1 1

10. Show that

2 ∫ x .Pn + 1 (x).Pn − 1 (x) dx = (2n − 1)(2n + 1)(2n + 3)

2n (n + 1)

−1

1

∫ x .Pn (x).Pn − 1 (x) dx =

2n (4n 2 − 1)

11.

Show that

−1

∫ x .Pn (x).P' n (x) dx = (2n − 1)

(x ) =

2n

12. 13. 14.

**1 dn 2 (x − 1)n n n 2 n! dx 3 2 Express x + 3 x − 4 x + 5 in terms of Lagendre’s Polynomials. ' ' Prove that P n ( x ) = xP n −1 ( x ) + nPn −1 ( x )
**

Prove that Pn

5

12. mean of y is 67. 5. Four cards are drawn from a pack of 52 cards without replacement. Find the probability that a leap year selected at random will contain 53 Fridays. If A & B are events P(A) = ½. Define a sample space and probability of an event. Σy2 = 460& Σ xy = 508.1 8. Fit a curve of the form x: 1 y: 2. Fit a straight line to the data: (a) x: 0 1 2 3 4 y: 1 1. & 1/5 respectively. Estimate y for x = 2. 4.STATISTICS: 1. 6 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Find the probability that it was a product of C.94. 15. 14.r2 σ x σ y tan θ = r σ x2 + σ y 2 8. 2 white.3 (b) x: 1 2 3 4 5 y: 14 13 9 5 2 13. 13. The probability of a man hitting a target is 1/3. regression equations are y = x + 5.98 4. 10. A class consists of 6 girls & 10 boys If a committee of 3 is chosen at random find the probability that (a) exactly 2 boys are selected (b) at least 1 boy is selected (c) exactly 2 girls are selected. The percentage of defective items produced by A. 1/3. 3 machines A. 7.9 14. σx = 7. Later it was discovered it had copied down the pairs (8. Exponential and Normal. In a partially destroyed laboratory record of correlation data only the following results are legible. ¼. Find the probability that (a) the problem is solved (b) the problem is solved exactly by one of them. If θ is the angle between two regression lines show that 1 . σx = 3.1 19. P(A∩B) = 1/4. 9. Σ x = 125. Show that there is a perfect correlation between x & y . Find the chance that in the next 6 trials there will be at least 4 successes.9 22.8 3. 5. P(B) = 1/3..3 4. Define Geometrical distribution. If a patient dies what is the chance that his disease was not diagnosed correctly.5 3.8 . An item is chosen at random & is found to be defective. 4th Semester CS . 12) & (6. 14) & (8. 11.21 6.1 14. The two regression lines are x = 4y + 5 & 16y = x + 64 find the mean values of x. find (a) P(A/B) (b) P(B/A) (c) P(A∪B) (d) P(Ac) An experiment succeeds twice as often as it fails. 2 marbles are drawn from a bag chosen at random and they are found to be 1 white & 1 red.8 y=axb for the data 2 3 4 4. find the variance of x. 10. There are 3 bags which contains 1 white. 6. variance of y is 16. 3. Define (a) a random variable (b) Discrete and continuous random variable Define probability mass function and probability distribution function for a discrete random variable.26 5. B & C manufacture 40%.1 100 33.5. 16.3 5 6.8 120 46. 40 60 80 9. Σ x2 = 650.8 5. The following table gives the marks obtained by a student in two subjects in ten tests. y & r. 11. 1 red & 2 green marbles respectively. 16x = 9y . (a) If he fires 5 times what is the probability of hitting a target at least twice. 2red & 3 green. The probabilities of solving the problem individually are ½. & 1. Fit a parabola y = ax 2 + bx + c to the following data. 6) respectively. Fit a second degree parabola of the form y = ax2 + bx + c for the data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 y: 1. The chance that a patient will die after correct diagnosis is 40% and the chance of death after wrong diagnosis is 70%. Find the probability that the balls came from the second bag. for the following data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 y: 87 97 113 129 202 195 193.5 & r = 0. PROBABILITY: 1. 12. Fit an exponential curve of the form y = abx.5 respectively. Exponential distribution.E. Estimate y for x = 8.8 find the value of x corresponding to y= 75 & y corresponding to x = 70. uniform distribution. 50% & 10% of the total production of a factory respectively. 8) as (6. Sub A : 77 54 27 52 14 35 90 25 56 60 Sub B: 35 58 60 40 50 40 35 56 34 42 5. Obtain the correct value of the correlation coefficient. 7. State & prove Baye's theorem. and explain the significance when r = 0. When are two events said to be (a) mutually exclusive (b) mutually independent. 4. 3 red & 1 green and 3 white. Find the lines of regression for the following data: x: 1 2 3 4 5 y: 10 12 16 28 25 6 36 7 41 8 49 9 40 10 50 If the mean of x is 65. Find the coefficient of correlation. Find the probability that (a) they are all of different suits (b) no 2 cards are of equal value. A certain problem in mathematics is given to 4 students for solving. 9.0 6 7. Fit the straight line of the form y= a + bx to the given data x: 0 5 10 15 20 25 y: 12 15 17 22 24 30 2. A computer while calculating the correlation coefficient bet x & y from 25 pairs of observations got the following constants n = 25. B & C are 2.5 6. The chance that a doctor will diagnose a disease correctly is 60%. 14. Obtain the mean and variance for the following distributions: Binomial. 2. x: 10 12 14 16 18 20 y: 20 25 30 35 40 45 6. 8.5 x: 20 y: 5. Σ y = 100. Poisson.

Find (i) 95%& (ii) 99%confidence limits for the S. 4. A quality control engineer inspects a random sample of 3 batteries from each lot of 24 car batteries that is ready to be shipped. 2. 6. If it plays 4 games. buses ply every 30 minutes between 6 a. A distributor makes a profit of $20 on an item. find the probability that a box containing 200 fuses has (a) at least 1 defective fuse (b) at most 3 defective fuses.2 0.E. Find the conditional probability of X given Y = 0. 20. If a dealers profit in units of $1000 on a new automobile can be looked upon as a random variable X having the density function f(x) = 32.1 0. 7 3.33.8 P(Y) 0.D of life time of 200 electric bulbs was computed to be 80 hours.05 0. 29. & 10 p.D 16. Find E(x) & V(x) for the following probability distribution: x: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 p: 0.2 0.m.67 with a probable error of 0.74 % confident that a population S.1 0. elsewhere ⎩0 Find the average profit per automobile and also E(X2).20 0. 6. 10% are shipped in perfect condition but do not arrive on time and 20% are not shipped in perfect condition what is the distributors expected profit per item. Find the mean & S.E(X)2 . 6. The mean marks of 1000 students is 34. How large a sample should one take in order to be (i) 99% & (ii) 99.1 0.D of a normal distribution of marks in an examination where 44% of candidates obtained below 55 & 6% above 80 and rest between 55 & 80. On a certain city transport route. If 70% of such items are shipped in perfect condition and arrive on time. find the probability that 5 of them will be union members. The probability that an individual suffers a bad reaction from a certain injection is 0.236.24 0.32. X /Y -4 2 7 1 1/8 1/4 1/8 5 ¼ 1/8 1/8 Determine (i) the marginal distributions of X and Y. 34. Find the probability that (a) one plane does not return (b) at the most 5 planes do not return. 6.37mm. 27. 26. What is the probability that it will be destroyed in the 6th shot only and not before.2 0 0 1 0.12 0. Find the probability that (i) it needs filling within 8 days & (ii) it will serve for more than 10 days. If 8 employees are chosen by lot to serve on a committee.001. Show that (i) E(c) = c (ii) E (aX + b) = a E(X) + b (iii)V(X) = E(X2) .4 & S. For the frequency distribution given below find the unbiased and efficient estimates for the mean and variance Xi 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 fi 02 00 15 29 25 12 10 04 03 The sample mean of a population was recorded as 184.17 0. 0 < x < 1 ⎨ .5 Find the joint probability distribution of X & Y. The joint distribution of two random variables X and Y is given by the following table. 31.D will not differ from a sample S. what is the probability that he will have to wait for at least 20 minutes? 24. 21. what are the probabilities that an inspectors sample will contain (i) none of the batteries with defects (ii) only one of the batteries with defects (iii) at least 2 of the batteries with defects.74% confidence limits for the true (population) mean.D by more than 2%. If the probability that a target is destroyed on any one shot is 0. The chance that an aero plane fails to return from the flight is 5 %.008 30. (iv) V(c) = 0 (v) V (aX + b) =a2 V(X).5.5.14 0. The S. find the probability that it wins (i) 2 games (ii) at least one game.D of all such bulbs. 22. If a person reaches a bus stop on this route at a random time during this period. A group of 20 airplanes are sent on an operational flight.(b) How many times must he fire so that the probability of hitting a target at least once is more than 90%. 4th Semester CS . A Sample of 5 measurements of the diameter of a sphere was recorded as 6.1 0.4 0.36.01. What is the probability that the 8th child born is the first one to have a defective heart? 23.2 0. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.Find unbiased and efficient estimates of (i) the population mean (ii) the population variance. Among 300 employees of a company 240 are union members while the others are not. 28. Given that 2% of the fuses manufactured by a firm are defective. The duration of time that an overhead tank will serve without refilling is found to follow an exponential distribution with mean 10 days. 25. The following table gives the joint probability distribution of 2 random variables X &Y X/Y -1 0 1 -1 0 0. 33. of students obtaining marks (i) bet 30 & 60 (ii) bet 70 & 80. The distribution of 2 independent random variables X & Y are given below: X 0 1 Y 1 2 3 P(X) 0. A cricket team has probability 2/3 of winning whenever it plays.1 ⎧2(1 − x ). 35. If it is shipped from the factory in perfect condition and arrives on time but it is reduced by $2 if it does not arrive on time & $12 regardless of whether it arrives on time if it is not shipped from the factory in perfect condition. 5. Determine the probability that out of 2000 individuals (a) exactly 3 (b) more than 2 individuals will suffer a bad reaction.37. If the probability of the birth of a child with a defective heart in a certain city is 0. Find the 99. 19.m. (ii) E (X) and E(Y) (iii) are X and Y independent random variables? SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION: 1.Assuming that the marks are normally distributed find the no. 18. 17.(iii) below 20 (iv)above 80. If such a lot contains 6 batteries with slight defects.

1. which is computed to be 0. Show that the vector (y.25 and S. MARKOVCHAINS 1. Find the transition probability matrix for the chain mode of transport he uses.900kms.1.70. He never sells in the same city on consecutive days.4 has mean x 2 = 76 . x1 = 81. (c) Find the probability that he wins the third game. Assume the population to be approximately normally distributed. Test the hypothesis that the average content of containers of a particular lubricant is 10 liters if the contents of the random sample of 10 containers are 10. 10.6. 9. Define and ⎣1/2 1/2⎦ (3 ) (b) p (3 ) (c) p (3 ) compute. 2. Also find the limits between which the probability of throw of 3 or 4 lies at 99. B &C. Show that a die cannot be regarded as an unbiased one.74% level of confidence A mean of a sample of size 900 is 3.D σ1 = 5. There is an even chance that he wins the first game. Define stochastic matrix. If car is used on the first day of a week find the probability that after 4 day s (i) bike is used (ii) car is used.E. 9.9.70.D of 40 hours. 10. an experiment is conducted using 12 of each brand.71.800kms.4.2.67. in the long run. (b) Find the probability that he wins the second game.66. s1 = 5100kms x 2 = 39. Use 5 % level of significance.60 from a sample of size 28 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS: 1.68. The results are Brand A : Brand B : Test the hypothesis at the 0. 5. However if he sells in either B or C then the next day he is twice as likely to sell it in city A or in other city. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 8. s 2 = 5900kms . 3.7. hypothesis that 4.05 level of significance that there is no difference in the 2 brands of tyres. Show that in the long run he sells 40% of the time in the city A.2 has a mean μ1 = μ2 against the alternative μ1 > μ2 at 5% level of significance. 10.3.7. A random sample of size n1 = 2. the next day he sells in city B. x) is a fixed point of the stochastic matrix P= ⎢ x ⎤ ⎡1 − x 1 − y⎥ ⎣ y ⎦ ⎡1/ 2 1/ 4 1/ 4⎤ ⎢1/ 2 0 1/ 2⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 2. If so.Can the sample be reasonably as a true random sample for a large population with means 3.(a) p 21 2 A salesman’s territory consists of three cities A. 9. If he sells in a city A. A gambler’s luck follows a pattern.D σ2 = 3. x1 = 37. Find the unique fixed probability vector for the regular stochastic matrix 0 ½ 0 ¾ ½ 1 ¼ 0 0 4. 6. However if he loses a game.3 & Use 0. He never goes by bike on 2 consecutive days but if he goes by car on a day then he is equally likely to go by car or by bike the next day. Test the A large automobile manufacturing company is trying to decide whether to purchase brand A or B tyres for its new models. An electrical firm manufactures light bulbs that have a length of life that is approximately normally distributed with a mean of 500 hours and a S. The tyres are run until they wear out.2 /3) . (d) Find out how often. 7. 10. To help arrive at a decision. A die is thrown 9000 times and a draw of 3 or 4 observed 3240 times. 4th Semester CS 8 . 10.01 level of significance and assume that the distribution of contents is normal.61 Ten screws are chosen at random from a population and their lengths are found as (in mms) 63.4. 7. If he wins a game. Find the unique fixed probability vector of the regular stochastic matrix 3. 9.8. Explain the following a) Tests of Hypothesis b) Type I and Type II errors find mean and variance of the Chi square distributions.D 1. (a) Find the transition matrix M of the Markov process. If P= ⎢ o ⎤ ⎡ 1 (0 ) ⎥ is the transition matrix with initial probability distribution p = (1/ 3. the probability of winning the next game is 0. the probability of losing the next game is 0.63. 45% of the time in city B and 15% of the time in the city C A software engineer goes to his workplace everyday by motorbike or by car. 5.5 taken from a normal population with a S.69. he wins.6.On the basis of this information can we say that the mean length in the population is 66mm at 95%confidence level? Find 99% confidence limits for the correlation coefficient.71. Test the hypothesis Ho: μ ≠ 800 of a random sample of 30 bulbs has an average life of 788 hours. A second random sample of size n2 = 36 taken from a different normal population with a S.

Combinations: The Binomial theorem Combinations with repetition Ramsey number The Catalan numbers Striling numbers and Bell numbers The Principles of Inclusion And Exclusion Generalizations of the principles The pigeonhole principle Derangements – Nothing is in its Right Place Rook polynomials Rook Polynomials Arrangements with Forbidden positions Generating Functions – Introductory examples Definition and examples Calculational techniques Partitions of integers The exponential generating functions The summation operator Recurrence Relations – First order linear recurrence relation.9% 7.2% Chapters 10.3.2.9% 26.6% 34.4 Trees T1: Page 547-579 (Inclusive of all exercise problems ) Introduction to Graph Theory Basic terminologies – directed & undirected graphs.2.4 Recurrence relations T1: Page 415-449 (Solved problems only) 11.5% 88.2.1.3.3.5% Chapter 13. Fundamental principles of Counting: The rules of sum and product Permutations.4 Optimization and Matching T1: Page 591-630 (Inclusive of all exercise problems ) 15. Hamilton graphs & traveling salesman problem.6 Introduction To Graph Theory T1: Page 477-546 Inclusive of all exercise problems Chapter 12. Planar graphs – definition & examples.3% 2% 63.5 The principles of inclusion and exclusion T1: Page 361-386 (Solved problems only) 11.3 Chapter 8.4.1.1.1.5 Generating functions T1: Page 387-414 (Solved problems only) 11. walks.5.4.2.3.2. Max .CSE42: GRAPH THEORY & COMBINATORICS Faculty: Class # Chapter Title/ Reference Literature Topics to be covered No of hours: 52 % of portions covered Reference Chapter Cumulative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Literature Chapter 1. 26.1.1.4% 76. paths & circuits Subgraphs and complements Graph isomorphism Graph Isomorphism Vertex degree & regular graphs Konigsberg bridge problem & Euler graphs.flow Min. Asia Mc Graw Hill PHI publications Year 2002 1995 1986 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.7% Chapters 9. P Grimaldi Theory and problems of Combinatorics including concepts of Graph theory by V K Balakrishnan Graph Theory with applications to Engineering and Computer Science by Narsingh Deo 4th Publication Info Publisher Pearson Education.5% 100% Book Type Text book Text book Referenc e book Code T1 T2 R1 Title & Author Edition Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics by Ralph.2.5% 61.3% 49. 4th Semester CS 9 .6 Fundamental principles of counting T1:Page 3 – 46 (Solved problems only) Chapter 5.3.8% Chapter 1.3.1.4.E.2. Spanning trees Optimization and Matching Optimization: Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm Kruskal’s & Prim’s-algorithms for minimal spanning trees Kruskals’s & Prim’s-algorithms for minimal spanning trees Networks: Cutsets Edge & vertex connectivity of a graph. Bipartite & Kuratowskis graphs Euler’s formula & detection of planarity Dual of planar graphs Graph coloring: proper coloring & chromatic number of graphs Chromatic polynomial Four color problem Trees: Definition & properties Rooted & binary rooted trees Ordered trees & tree sorting Weighted trees & prefix codes.cut theorem and its applications Matching theory Applications of matching. formulation problems and examples Second order linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients The non homogenous recurrence relations The method of generating functions.5.4.3% 13.3.

Define with an example : (i) Subgraph of a graph (ii) spanning sub graph (iii) Complement of a graph (iv) Self complementary graph Define with an example: (i) Path (ii) simple path (iii) circuit (iv) a connected graph. 7. 2. 8. th 05 10 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 4. 6.QUESTION BANK GRAPH THEORY AND COMBINATORICS OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the following topics • Introduction to Graph Theory • Planar Graphs • Trees • Optimization and Matching Even numbered questions carry 5 marks and odd numbered questions carry 10 marks… 1. 10 05 GRAPH THEORY 3. which does not have a Hamiltonian circuit. Define with an example a) Union (b) intersection (c) Ring sum of two graphs Define (a) Decomposition of graph into two sub graphs (b) Deletion of a vertex from a graph (c) Fusion of two vertices in a graph Give an example each Discuss the presence or absence of Hamilton circuits and Eulerian circuits in the following graph 10 05 10 05 10 05 a d b 9. 5. 4 Semester CS . Explain Dijkstra’s algorithm for finding the shortest path between 2 given vertices in a graph. Draw a graph that has a Hamiltonian path. Define with an example: (i) Graph (ii) multigraph (iii) pseudograph (iv) simple graph (v) digraph (vi) regular graph (vii) complete graph (viii) bipartite Graph (ix) degree of vertex (x) adjacent vertices (xi) pendant vertex What is isomorphism of graphs? Check if the following pairs of graph are isomorphic & give reason for your answer. e 10 Can you say if the following figure can be drawn in one continuous line with out retracing any edge and without lifting the pencil from the paper? 10.

15.14.9. 4.4.5. 21. 34. 32.36.12 (iv) 1.2.3 is a non-planar (ii) Show that the graph K5 is non planar Explain a Geometric dual of a graph.E. State and prove Euler’s formula for a planar graph.35.25.isomorphism graph (v) 2 .6. Define with an example each: (i) edge connectivity (ii) vertex connectivity (iii) separable graph (iv) 1. (iv) a tree with two are more vertices has atleast two leaves (v) a connected graph with (n-1) edges in a tree (vi) a graph with n-1 edges that has no circuit is a tree. Are five colours sufficient to colour any map? State and prove your version of the 5- 05 10 05 10 11 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.12 (v)1. Define with an example : (i) tree (ii) leaf (iii) branch node (iv) distance between two vertices (v) Eccentricity of a graph (vi) Center of a tree (vii) directed tree (viii) rooted tree (ix) binary tree (x) Spanning tree (xi) minimal spanning tree. State Konigsberg bridge problem & prove it using 13 above. 22. Enumerate all non isomorphic graphs on 4 vertices. (i) Prove that a graph K3. 26.isomorphism graph (vi) circuit correspondence. What is the edge connectivity of the complete graph of n vertices? Define with an example: (i) incidence matrix (ii) fundamental circuit matrix (iii) cut set matrix (iv) Path matrix (v) adjacency matrix. 19.81. 12. 13.10. 37. Has only one chromatic partition. 9. 25.19 (iii) 3. 35. Use the above algorithm & find a minimum spanning tree for a graph of your own What is a prefix code? Use Huffman’s procedure for finding an optimal binary prefix code for the following weights assigning the code word for each weight (i) 5. What is a (i) matching (ii) covering of a graph? Show that the graph 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 36. 17. State and prove the necessary and sufficient condition for an undirected graph to possess and Eulerian path. Prove that there is always a Hamiltonian path in a directed complete graph. Define a Planar Graph with an example. Explain Kruskal’s algorithm for finding a minimum spanning tree of a graph. 38.5.100 Define a fundamental system of cutsets and a fundamental system of circuits. Given an example each and draw them. 18. 31.49.8. 20. Define a transport network and a flow in a transport network and explain with an example.9.6.7. Define (i) An Eulerian path and (ii) A Hamiltonian path.64. 24. 23.16. Explain nearest neighbour method to obtain a Hamiltonian circuit in a graph. 30. 16. Prove that (i) there is one and only one path between every pair of vertices in a tree T.40 (ii) 8. 29.16. (ii) if there is one and only one path between every pair of vertices in a graph G. with an example each. 28. Use the labeling procedure to find a maximal flow in the following transport networks: Draw all the networks obtained after each step. Define (i) chromatic number (ii) chromatic partitioning of a graph.11.12. 33. 14. 4th Semester CS . 27. 39. 15. What is self – dual graph? Prove that a graph has dual if it is planar.4. Explain traveling salesperson problem. Show that the edge connectivity and vertex connectivity of the graph are both equal to 3. What is it? Show that the maximum number of edges in a complete bipartite graph of n vertices is [n2/4] List all types of digraph. G is a tree (iii) a tree with n vertices has (n-1) edges.

E) satisfy |V| = n > 2? Characterize the type of graph in which an Euler trail (circuit) is also a Hamilton path (cycle). 58. 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 12 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 54. How many of thses graphs are connected? For the undirected graph in fig. For n> 2 let G = (V. 47. 50. Draw three nonisomorphic loop-free undirected graphs G1= G2 = (V. If G = (V. and no loops. v walks of length n > 1. d. Let G be a loop-free undirected graph on n vertices. |E|=e. E1).E. E3 ) where. b) State the corresponding inequality for the case when G is directed. 43.E) be the loop-free undirected graph whzere V is the set of binary n-tuples (of 0’s and 1’s) and E = {{v. 41. How many nonisomorphic complete bipartite graphs G = (V.w}|v. λ) for G = K1. prove that 2e< v . a) For n > 3. 42. and deg(d)=deg(e)=deg(f)=1. in all three graphs.E) is an undirected graph with |V|=v. 44. a) If G = (V. what is the maximum value for |V| ? Let G = (V. 52. E2 ). and G3 = (V. f}. what is n? Find all (loop-free) nonisomorphic undirected graphs with four vertices. find and solve a recurrence relation for the number of closed v 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 48.E) be a connected undirected graph. 55. deg(b)=deg(c)=2. Give an example of a connected graph G where removing any edge of G results in a disconnected graph. 53. 56. w differ in (exactly two positions}. Let n Є Z+ with n > 2.40. For all k Є Z+ where k> 2. 45. Define Ramsey number. colour theorem Given a set of 6 people prove that there are atleast 3 people who know each other and 3 people who don’t know each other.E) where |V| = 6. 46. b.3 .w Є V and v. how many different Hamilton cycles are there in the complete graph Kn? b) How many edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles are there in K21? a) Determine P(G.E) be a connected undirected graph with |E| = 17 and deg(v) > 3 for all v Є V. 57. c. a) How many spanning subgraphs are there for the graph G in Fig. we have deg(a) (V.E) where |V|=2k and deg(v) =3 for all v Є V. How many subgraphs of Kn are isomorphic to the complete bipartite graph K13? Find all the nonisomorphic complete bipartite graphs G = (V. 51. Find ĸ(G). a) What is the largest possible value for |V| if |E| = 19 and deg(v) > 4 for all v Є V ? b) Draw a graph to demonstrate each possible case in part (a).? b) How many are connected spanning subgraphs are there in part (a)? c) How many of the spanning subgraphs in part (a) have vertex a as an isolated vertex? 05 49. 4th Semester CS .. If G has 56 edges and its complement has 80 edges. Let V = {a. prove that there exists a loop-free connected undirected graph G=(V. = 3. e.v.

are isomorphic. b) If I C V is independent. … xn. 05 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. If an denotes the number of independent subsets of { x1. a) Show that the graphs G1 and G2. b) Find P(G. are isomorphic. 63. b) Verify that |V| is the sum of the independence number of G and its covering number. a) Prove that if I C V. . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Explain why each of the following polynomials in λ cannot be a chromatic polynomial. y1. and (iv) of fig. The number of vertices in a smallest covering is called the covering number of G. If G = (V. 4th Semester CS 13 . what is the chromatic polynomial for K1. b) Prove that in any group of six people there must be three who are total strangers to one another or three who are mutual friends. a) Prove that there is a red triangle or a blue triangle that is a subgraph.4λ + λ c) λ . find and solve a recurrence relation for an .3λ+ 5λ . a) If G has no isolated vertices. either v Є D or vi is adjacent to a vertex in D.n ? What is its chromatic number? a) Determine whether the graphs in fig.59.5λ+ 7λ . then D is called minimal. λ) for each graph. then V – D is a dominating set. and that |V|< β(G)χ(G) Consider the four graphs in parts (i). a subset K of V is called a covering of G if for every edge {a. If D is a dominating set and no proper subset of D has this property. y2 … . x2. (iii). 10 60. The set K is a minimal covering if K – {x} fails to cover G for each x Є K. 62.E) is an undirected graph. yn }.4λ If the edges of K6 are painted either red or blue. prove that I is a dominating set if and only if I is maximal independent. c) Show that γ(G) < β(G).b} of G either a or b is in K.E.6λ + 3 b) 3λ . b) How many different isomorphisms f: G1 → G2 are possible here? 05 61. then I is an independent set in G if and only if V – I is a covering of G. b) For n Є Z+. where n > 1. If G = (V. a) λ . prove that if D is a minimal dominating set. a subset D of V is called a dominating set if for all v Є V. 10 05 10 64. (ii).E) is an undirected graph. The size of any smallest dominating set in G is denoted by γ(G) and is called the domination number of G. in fig.

10 05 73. y. 3. |V2 |. How many possible projects are there to choose from? In how many ways can the letters in VISITING be arranged? For these arrangements how many have all three I’s together? How many positive integers n can we form using the digits 3. Let G = (V.5. E) is a transport network. 4. 70.3 ? For the tree shown in fig. 10. Using the weights 2.E. E2) be two trees where | E1 | = 17 and |V2 | =2|V1|. 20. Determine |V1|. E) be a loop-free weighted connected undirected graph with T = (V. 4th Semester CS .7 if we want n 10 05 10 05 10 05 14 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Determine x. Prove that the value of the flow f equals c(P.4. Stirling and Bell numbers 74. 31. 3. The three lists contain 23. y). where x Є P. 1. Catalan . 10 05 10 a 68. show that the height of a Huffman tree for a given set of weights is not unique. E) be a tree with |V| = n > 2. There are 32 microcomputers in a computer center. z Є {0. 76.4. 19 possible projects respectively. c. 10.65. Let T = (V. an inorder traversal. … . How many nonisomorphic spanning trees are there for K2. 125. w Є V. list the vertices according to a preorder traversal. 10 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNTING : OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the following topics • The rules of Sum and Product • Permutations. I. How many different ports to a microcomputer in the center are there? How many one-to-one functions are there from a set with m elements to one with n elements? A student can choose a computer project from one of three lists. 67. c. 72. A code for {a.P’) be a cut. How many distinct paths are there (as subgraphs) in T? Find two nonisomorphic spanning trees for the complete bipartite graph K2. let F be a flow in N and let (P. 80. 30. e} is given by a: 00 b: 01 c: 101 d: x10 e:yz1. For v. and a postorder traversal. where v Є P’. The chairs of an auditorium are to be labeled with a letter and a positive integer not exceeding 100 what is the largest number of chairs that can be labeled differently. d. 79.6. 16. y. and |E2|. 2. 3. Assign the weights 1. b. 15. w).5. 2. E’) a minimal spanning tree for G. Construct and optimal prefix code for the symbols a. 4 to the edges of G so that (a) G has a unique minimal spanning tree. Let G = W4.1}. 50. and z so that the given code is a prefix code.3. b. T2 = (V2. 78. j that occur (in a given sample) with respective frequencies 78. y Є P’. the wheel on four spokes. Combinations with Repetition • Ramsey. 3. 69. Each microcomputer has 24 ports. and b) f(e) =0 for each edge e = (v. 77. w Є P. How would you modify the algorithm so as to always produce a Huffman tree of minimal height for the given weights? Let T1 = (V1. Combinations: The Binomial Theorem. is the path from v to w in T a path of minimum weight in G? If N =(V. 5. 66.P’) if and only if a) f(e) = c(e) for each edge e=(x. 05 10 05 71. 75. E1). (b) G has more than one minimal spanning tree. where x. 35.

three engine sizes. and two transmission types.2).m+1). 92. three white. For which n∈Z+ is φ(n) odd? List all the derangements of 1.000. 98.80.1). x1 + x2 + x3 =6? (b)How many solutions in part (a) have x1.5).4). n-1). (4. where three are red. 84. Verify for that integer n > 1. 95. 89.5) (3.E. We roll these dice six times.n-1). 1 < n < 2000.5.1).999.5 where the first three numbers are 1. (4. the other green. 96. In how many ways can Troy select nine marbles from a bag of twelve (identical except for color).n) 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 THE PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION. x2.6. 86. three blue.m-n) = C(m-1.b) indicates a on the red die and b on the green. (a) How many distinct Buicks can be manufactured? (b) If one of the available colors is blue. 102.n) Determine the number of(staircase) paths in a xy-plane from (2.4. 101. 99. Show that for all positive integers m and n. 3.2. Let m. Child gets three books? (b) The two oldest children get 4 books each and the two youngest get two books each? Determine the coefficient of (i) xyz 2 in (x+y+z)4 (ii) xyz 2 in (2x-y-z)4 (iii) xyz-2 in (x-2y+3z-1)4 Define the Catalan numbers. 100.7 are not derangements? Construct or describe a smallest chess board for which r 10 ≠ 0 Find the rook polynomial for the standard 8 X 8 chessboard.3. 93. x3 > 0? (a) Given positive integers m. 83. to exceed 5. 85. where each such path is made up of individual steps going one unit to the right ® or one unit upward (U). 87. Prove that S(m+1.4). Buick models come in four models. 90.] 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. how many different blue Buicks can be manufactured? Prove the Binomial and Multinomial theorem. 94. 12 colors. n)= S(m. What is the probability that we obtain all six values on both the red die and eh green die if we know that the ordered pairs (1.2 and 3 in some order. or 5 b) not divisible by 2. 81.n be positive integers with 1< n ≤ m. or 5 or 7 c) not divisible by 2.2. 97. (2.1) to (7. but are divisible by 7 Determine the number of positive integers x where x < 9. (2. Ralph bets on each of the ten horses in a race to come in according to how they are favored. n-1) = (n+1) -1 C(2n. 88. n(m+n. 4th Semester CS 15 . and (6.000? In how many ways can 12 different books be distributed among 4 children so that (a) each.6) did not occur? [Here an ordered pair (a.3. OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the following topics • The Pigeonhole Principle • Rook Polynomials • Arrangements with Forbidden Positions 91. 103. and three green? Compute Ф(n) for n equal to a)51 b) 5186 c) 5187 While at the race track. In how many ways can they reach the finish line so that he loses all of his bets? We have a pair of dice. How many permutations of 1.4. n with m > n. Determine the number of positive integers n. 3. that are a) not divisible by 2. How many positive integers not exceeding 1000 are divisible by 7 or 11? Give a formula for the number of elements in the union of four sets. (a)How many nonnegative integer solutions are there to the pair of equations x1 + x2 + x3… + x7 =37. 3.999 and the sum of the digits in x equals 31. show that the number of ways to distribute m identical objects into n distinct containers with no container left empty is C(m-1. n-1)+ nS(m. or 5. one is red.n) – C(2n.m) = (m+1)(m+n. 82. C(2n. (b) Show that the number of distributions in part (a) where each container holds at least r objects (m > nr) is C(m-1+(1-r)n.

3. In how many ways can we select seven non consecutive integers from {1. 2!……. z b) 2w + 3x +5y + 7z =n. a4 = 81 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Determine the coefficient of x15 in (x2 +x3 + x4 +…)4 106. Find the generating function for pd (n). n ≥ 1. i) f(x) = 3e3x ii) f(x) = ex + x2 iii) f(x) = 1/ (1-x) iv) f(x) =e2x –3x3 + 5x2…. In how many ways can these assignments be made? 118. each of whom is to be assigned to one of four sub-divisions.E. Show that the number of partitions of n∈Z+ where no sum m and is divisible by 4 equals the number of partitions of n where no even sum and is repeated. 2!. 111.….Homogeneous Recurrence Relations 121. For what sequence is (1-x) f(x) the generating function? 112. x. 1!. 108. 4th Semester CS 10 16 . A ship carries 48 flags. 3!. A company hires 11 new employees. -3 < c2 .…50}? 107. Each subdivision will get at least one new employee. n ≥ 1 c) 2an-3an-1 =0.a2. Let f(x) be the generating function for the sequence a0. a) How many of these signals use an even number of blue flags and an odd number of black flags? b) How many of the signals have at least three white flags or no white flags at all? 117. 109. i) HAWAII ii) MISSISSIPPI iii) ISOMORPHISM b) For section (ii) of part (a). …. the number of partitions of a positive integer n int distinct summands.+ 7x 110. 113. 0 < w. Find the generating function for the number of integer solutions to the equation c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 20 where -3 < c1 . white. Twelve of these flags are placed on a vertical pole in order to communicate a signal to other ships. Find a formula to express 02 +12 + 22 +… n2 as a function of n.2. 4 < x. 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 RECURRENCE RELATIONS: OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the following topics • First order Linear Recurrence Relation • Second order Linear Homogeneous Recurrence Relations with constant coefficients • The Non. a1.GENERATING FUNCTIONS : OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the following topics • Calculational techniques • Partitions of integers • The Exponential Generating function • The Summation operator 104. n > 0. Determine the sequence generated by each of the following exponential generating functions. n ≥ 0 b) 4an-5an-1 = 0. -5 < c3 < 5. Define the exponential generating function. 115. what is the exponential generating function if the arrangement must contain at least two I’s? 119. Find the generating function for the number of integer solutions of a) 2w + 3x +5y + 7z =n. y. Find the exponential generating function for the sequence 0! 1!.. 0 < w. How many integer solutions are there for the equation c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 25 if 0 < ci for all 1 < i < 4 ? 114. a) an+1 –1. 116. blue and black. 12 each of the colors red. 5 < z. y. a) Find the exponential generating function for the number of ways to arrange n letters. Find the general solution for each of the following recurrence relations.5 an =0. Find the exponential generating function for the sequence 0!. 120. How many integer solutions are there for the equation c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 =25 if 0≤ c i for all 1 ≤ I ≤ 4 ? 105. and 0 < c4. selected from each of the following words.

a1 =2.122.6 an-2=0. ao=1. n ≥ 2. how many bacteria will be in the colony in 10 hours? 123. The number of bacteria in a culture is 1000 (approx. a1=6 d) an+2. Solve the recurrence relation an = 2(an-1 .2 an+1+ an= 2n . F1 =1. 133. Paul invested the stock profits he recieved 15 years ago in an account that paid 8% interest compounded quarterly. Find an explicit formula for the Fibonacci sequence. Suppose that the number of bacteria in a colony triples every hour a) Set up a recurrence relation for the number of bacteria after n hours have elapsed b) If 100 bacteria are use to begin a new colony. where n > n > 0 and F0 =0. ao=1 b) an+1. b) an+2 + an = 0. n ≥ 0. ao=1.3an-1 = 5(7n ). ao=1.27 in it. 126. ao=0. what ( constant) payment P mush she make at the end of each period? 135. Solve the recurrence relation an + an-1 .). n ≥ 0. n ≥ 0. where n > 2 and a0 = 1. a1=3 c) an + 2an-1 + 2an-2 ≠ 0. a1=3. a1=2 127. Solve the following systems of recurrence relations. a) an+1 = -2an . Prove that any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime 125. Solve the following recurrence relations by the method of generating functions a) an+1. a1=3. what was his initial investment? 129.4bn b) bn+1 = 4an + 6bn . where n > 2 and a0 = -1. Solve the recurrence relation Fn+2 = Fn+1 + Fn. a0 =1. Solve the following recurrence relations a) an = 5an-1 + 6an-2. Explain the Tower of Hanoi problem and hence derive the recurrence relation associated with it. Pauline takes out a loan of S dollars that is to be paid back in T periods of time. . n ≥ 0 . a1 = 8. If r is the interest rate per period for the loan. If his account now has $7218. n > 0. 4th Semester CS 17 . 124.E. 131. 130. where n > 1 and a0 = 2. Use a recurrence relation to determine the number of bacteria present after one day.an = n2 . ao=1. 134. b0 = 0 Marks 05 10 Total No of Questions 66 69 135 NOTES 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 05 10 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. . and this number increases 250% every two hours. 128. ao=1 c) an+2 . Solve the recurrence relation an .an = 3n.an-2 ). 132.3 an+1+ 2 an=0. n ≥ 2. n ≥ 0.

DECREASE & CONQUER Insertion sort Depth first search Breadth first search Topological sorting Algorithms for generating combinatorial objects TRANSFORM & CONQUER Presorting Balanced search trees.0% Chapter #6 Transform & conquer T1: Page 193-242 9.5 % 23. sets & dictionaries FUNDAMENTAL OF THE ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHM EFFICIENCY 11.Merge sort Quick sort Binary search.8 % 28.7 % 65. Binary tree traversals & related properties Multiplication of large integers. Strassen’s Matrix multiplication Strassen’s Matrix Multiplication continued.7 % 38.6 % 48.0% Chapter #3 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Brute Force T1 : Page 91118 Selection sort & Bubble sort Sequential search & Brute force string matching Exhaustive search DIVIDE & CONQUER . graphs Fundamental data structures : Trees .CSE 43: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ALGORITHMS Faculty: Class No Chapter Title/Reference Literature Topics to be covered No of hours: 52 Percentage of portions covered Reference Cumulative Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chapter #1 Introduction Introduction T1 :Page 1 .7% 31 Chapter #7 SPACE AND TIME TRADE OFF Sorting by counting 7.83 Chapter #2 Analysis frame work Asymptotic notations and basic efficiency classes Mathematical analysis of non recursive algorithms Mathematical analysis of recursive algorithms Exercises Example: Fibonacci numbers BRUTE FORCE 11.5% 7 8 9 10 11 12 Fundamentals of Analysis of Algorithms T1 :Page 41 .E.AVL trees 2-3 trees Heaps and heap sort Problem reduction 5. 4th Semester CS .8% Divide & Conquer T1 : Page 121151 Chapter #5 Chapter #4 7.6 % 57.4% 18 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.39 Introduction & Notion of algorithm Fundamental of Algorithmic problem solving : Important problem types Exercises Fundamental data structures : linear data structures .4% Decrease & conquer T1: Page 155-189 9.5 % 11.

Computer Algorithms by Horowitz E Sahani. 4th Semester CS 19 .0% The knapsack problem & memory functions GREEDY TECHNIQUE Prims algorithm Kruskal’s algorithm Disjoint subsets & Union find algorithms Dijkstra’s algorithm Huffman trees LIMITATIONS OF ALGORITHM POWER Lower bound algorithms Decision trees P and NP problems NP Complete problems COPING WITH LIMITATIONS OF ALGORITHM POWER Back tracking Branch and bound Approximation for NP hard problems.7 % 73.4% 7.E.2001 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.Rajashekaran . PHI 1998. Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen TH. Leirson C E & Rivest RL Computer Algorithms by Horowitz E Sahani. Pearson Education Reference Books: 1.Rajashekaran .Traveling salesman Approximation for the knapsack problem 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 52 Chapter #9 Greedy Technique T1: Page 303 -329 9. Galgotia Edition 1st Publication Info Publisher Year PHI/Pearson 2003 Reference book Reference book R1 2nd PHI 1998 R2 2nd Galgotia Publications 2001 Text Book: 1. Galgotia Publications.7 100% Literature Book Type Text book Code T1 Title & Author Introduction to Design and Analysis of algorithms by Anany Levitin Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen TH.7% Limitations of Algorithm Power T1: Page 331 -364 Chapter #11 Coping with Limitations of Algorithm Power T1: Page 368 -384 Chapter #10 7.7 % 90. Leirson C E & Rivest R L. S. Introduction to Design and Analysis of algorithms by Anany Levitin. 2.32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Sorting & Time Tradeoffs T1 :Page 245 -272 Chapter #8 Dynamic Programming T1 :Page 275 -300 Input enhancement in string matching Boyer moore algorithm Hashing DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING Computing a binomial coefficient Warshall’s algorithm Floyd’s algorithm 7.6% 82. S.

What is string processing problem? Define graph problems. Discuss the time efficiency and space efficiency of an algorithm. 5. What are sets and dictionaries? Discuss the sequence of steps one goes through in designing and analyzing an algorithm. Analyze the efficiency of the matrix multiplication problem. 29. 13. 4. What is an algorithm? Explain the Euclids algorithm for compiling GCD. Analyze the algorithm. 30. 24. 20. 4th Semester CS 20 . 7. 32. 34. 35. This Unit is broadly divided into four sections. 16. What is general plan for analyzing efficiency of recursive algorithms? Analyze the recursive program for tower of Hanoi problem. There are compelling reasons to study algorithms. Explain the various linear data structures. 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 INTRODUCTION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHM EFFICIENCY OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with the analysis of algorithms. Finally the fourth section contains a review of fundamental data structures. 27. 28. 36. 25. Write an algorithm for computing Fibonacci series. 2. 18. Define a graph and the terminologies used in graphs. 22. Define tree and the terminologies used in trees. 21. best and average case efficiency of sequential search algorithm? What is then general plan for analyzing efficiency of non-recursive algorithms? Write an algorithm finding the max element in an array of numbers. Analyze the recursive program for computing the factorial of an arbitrary number. Write the bubble sort algorithm and show that the worst case efficiency is quadratic 5 5 5 5 5 10* 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10* P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Explain the Sieve’s algorithm for generating the prime numbers. It starts with the general framework of analyzing algorithm efficiency. 1. Several issues related to the design of and analysis of algorithms is discussed. 12. 15. What is the worst. 19. The second deals with algorithmic problem solving. Analyze the recursive program to find the sum of first n cubes. 3. 17. 31. Explain the consecutive integer checking algorithm for computing GCD. 26. How does one measure an input’s size? How does one measure a running time? What is amortized efficiency? What are homogenous recurrences? Explain the various asymptotic notations with examples. 14. 33. Explain the searching problem. The three notations O Ω and θ are introduced. 6. 11. These notations have become the language for discussing algorithm efficiency. The third section is devoted to a few problem types that have proven to be particularly important to the study of algorithms and their applications. The first section deals with the notion of algorithm.Analyze its efficiency.E. 23. 10. The general framework outlined earlier is then applied to analyzing the efficiency of recursive and non-recursive algorithms. Explain the sorting problem. 8. Explain the various graph representations. 9. Analyze its efficiency? Write an algorithm to check whether all elements in the array are distinct (element uniqueness problem).QUESTION BANK OBJECTIVE: Algorithms play the central role in both the science and the practice of computing. What are combinatorial problems? What are Geometric and numerical problems? What are the various data structures that have proved to be particularly important for computer algorithms? What are the ways in which you can classify algorithms? Compare the Euclid’s algorithm and consecutive integer algorithm for computing GCD.

it can be exploited either top down or bottom up. Define exhaustive search. Name the problems that can be solved by exhaustive search method. 46. binary search and Strassen’s matrix multiplication 48. 1 4 0 5 0 1 1 0 2 1 3 2 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1 1 0 3 0 0 1 5 1 4 1 0 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 OBJECTIVE: Decrease and conquer technique is based on exploiting the relationship between a solution to a given instance of a problem and a solution to a smaller instance of the same problem. 38. which is a brute approach to combinatorial problems like knapsack. Explain the binary search algorithm with an example. What is the pivot element? Discuss the efficiency of quick sort algorithm. Explain a recursive algorithm to compute the height of a binary tree. This unit also discusses exhaustive search. 37. 45. Write an algorithm for leaf count. traveling salesman. 55. Determine its worst case. Explain the assignment problem. 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10* BRUTE FORCE DIVIDE AND CONQUER OBJECTIVE: Divide and conquer is probably the best known general algorithm design technique.OBJECTIVE: Brute force is a straightforward approach to solving a problem. Outline exhaustive search algorithm for traveling salesman problem. What is the efficiency class of this algorithm? Illustrate with an example. quick sort. 43. 42. 60. 47. How quick sort can be improved? Discuss the efficiency of binary search algorithm. 53. This unit discusses the three major variations of decrease and conquers namely a) decrease by a constant b) decrease by constant factor c) variable size decrease and also the examples associated with them. 61. What is meant by a brute force method? Give example. Analyze the merge sort algorithm. Explain the selection sort algorithm. Analyze its efficiency. Once such relationship is established.E. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. searching etc. 59. 44. 57. Explain the algorithm for brute force string matching. How can it be improved? Explain the knapsack problem. Write an algorithm for sequential search. Apply Strassen’s algorithm to compute the multiplication of the following matrix instance. 52. Determine the efficiency of divide and conquer algorithms. Explain the divide and conquer strategy with examples. best case & average case efficiency. Determine its worst case. 41. Exit the recursion when n=2. These unit discusses and analyzes the various divide and conquer algorithms like merge sort. 51. Write a pseudo code for divide & conquer algorithm for finding the position of the largest element in an array of numbers. Explain Strassen’s matrix multiplication. Explain the traveling salesman problem with a brute force solution. Explain the quick sort algorithm with an example. This unit discusses the various brute force algorithms like sorting. best case & average case efficiency. Explain the multiplication of large integers using divide and conquer. 50. 40. Quite a few very efficient algorithms are specific implantations of this general strategy. assignment problem. Name some of the algorithms that can be solved by brute force method. Analyze its efficiency. 56. 39. 4th Semester CS 21 DECREASE AND CONQUER . 62. 58. 54. Explain bubble sort algorithm. Explain the merge sort algorithm with example. 49.

Traverse the above graph by BFS and construct the corresponding BFS tree. Then in the second stage. balanced search trees. 66. 87. 47. First. Explain the algorithm to solve topological sorting problem using DFS. Explain the efficiency of DFS Algorithm. in the transformation stage. Explain the insertion sort algorithm. 74. 35. 80. Explain how we can identify connected components of a graph by using a)DFS b)BFS. 99. Analyze the insertion sort algorithm for the worst case. 70. traverse the graph by dfs and construct the corresponding DFS tree. Write a program which for a given graph outputs a) Vertices of each connected component b) Its cycle. Sort the following by insertion sort algorithm 71. 71. The vertices are labeled from a to g 10 10 10 10 10 10 10* ⎡0110000⎤ ⎢0000101⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0000010⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1110011 ⎥ ⎢0000000⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0000000⎥ ⎢0000100⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 85. Give a direct implementation. Explain the algorithm to solve topological sorting problem by decrease and conquer technique. Define a) digraph b) directed acyclic graph. 86. 68. ⎡0100000⎤ ⎢0010000⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0001000⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0000001⎥ ⎢1000000 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0110101⎥ ⎢0000100⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 10 10 Explain the Johnson-Trotter algorithm for generating permutations. Starring at vertex a. What is the minimal change requirement? Explain the generating of subsets. 73. the problem’s instance is modified to be more amenable to solution. heaps and heap sort. 81. 67. Apply DFS based algorithm to solve topological sorting problem for the following digraphs with the adjacency matrices given below.63. 67. 77. average case and the best case. 13. This technique is called transform and conquer because these methods work in two stages. Explain the DFS algorithm. 64. 69. or the conquering stage it is solved. 75. 82. What is the efficiency of BFS? What are the applications of BFS? Compare BFS with respect to data structure used and efficiency. Consider the graph with the following adjacency matrix with the vertices labeled from a to g 5 5 5* 5* 10 10 10 10* 10* 10 10 10 10 10 10 ⎡0110000⎤ ⎢1001000 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1000001 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢1100010 ⎥ ⎢1000001 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0101000⎥ ⎢0010100⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 78. 72. OBJECTIVE: This unit deals with a group of design methods that are based on the idea of transformation. Write down the adjacency linked list specifying this graph. Some of the examples discussed here are presorting. 83. What is topological sorting? What is efficiency of DFS based algorithm for topological sorting? Explain the decrease and conquer strategy and its variations. 84. 65. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 21. 79. 85. 76. start the traversal at a. 4th Semester CS 22 TRANSFER AND CONQUER .E. What are the different applications of DFS? Explain the BFS algorithm.

Boyer Moore algorithm for string matching. 5. 88.3. Explain the Bayer moore algorithm. 99. Explain the harpool’s algorithm. A DNA sequence is represented by a text on the alphabet {A. 110. What is presorting. 90. 4th Semester CS 23 .7. Sort 2. What is the efficiency of this algorithm? Explain the distributed counting algorithm. 105. 94. c. 126.C. 113. 119. It also discusses the other approach called presorting and this approach is illustrated by hashing and indexing with B-trees. by heap sort. 100. 9. 130. 98.4. 97. 104. Explain bottom up heap construction algorithm for constructing a heap for a given list of keys -2. 128.6. 6. This unit discusses an approach to problem solving called input enhancement and examines the algorithms like counting method for sorting.7. 9. What is the efficiency of bottom up heap construction algorithm? What do you mean by problem reduction? How do you solve optimization problems? What is linear programming? Explain the transform and conquer strategy and what are its variations. 112. 129.8. a. 7. Derive the efficiency class of this algorithm What are 2-3 trees? Explain search .6. 120. b. 7. What is an AVL tree? Explain single right rotation and single left rotation with an example? Explain the double left right rotation and double right left rotation of AVL tree with an example. Construct an AVL tree for 5.87. 93. 89. 125. What is simplex method? What are the drawbacks of simplex method and Karmakar’s algorithm? How a knapsack problem is reduced to a linear programming problem? What is a state space graph? Where it is used? What is a heap? Outline an algorithm for construction of a heap. What is the efficiency of this algorithm? Sort the following list in alphabetical order by distributing counting algorithm b.3.8. Explain the open hashing method. 122.5.E. Explain the algorithm to check element uniqueness in an array. Explain the top down heap construction algorithm. 121. 95. 91. 96. Explain the algorithm for computing the shift table entries. d. 109.G. 127. 123. Explain the closed hashing. 102. 106. a. Consider the problem of searching for genes in DNA sequence using horspool’s algorithm. 8. insertion and deletion operations and show the efficiency in worst and the average case Design a O(n2) algorithm for finding an optimal binary search tree ? 5 5 5 5 5 5* 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10* 10 10 10 10 10* 10* 10* OBJECTIVE: space and time tradeoffs in algorithm design are a well known issue for both theoreticians and practitioners of computing.2. 107. 118. 103. 2 2 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 20 SPACE AND TIME TRADEOFFS P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Explain the algorithm to compute a mode.8.T} & the gene or the gene segment is the pattern.5. 117. Construct a 2-3 tree for the list 9. What is pre structuring approach? What is distributed counting? What is input enhancement approach? What algorithms are based on this approach? What is hashing? What are different types of hashing? Explain the comparison counting algorithm. 92. 101.4. 115 116 What is the efficiency of element uniqueness algorithm? What is the efficiency of algorithm to compute a mode? What you mean by a balanced search tree? What are the various balanced search trees? What is the efficiency of AVL trees? What are 2-3 trees? What is the efficiency of 2-3 tree? Define a heap. 124. b.2. List out important properties of heap. c. 111. 108. Apply horspool’s algorithm to search for the pattern BAOBAB in the BESS-KNEWABOUT-BAOBABS.

Explain Floyd’s algorithm for all pairs shortest problem. Explain the knapsack problem with a example. 139. 141. 10 10* P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 20. What is the efficiency of Warshall’s algorithm? What is the time and space efficiency of the algorithm for knapsack problem? Explain the algorithm to find binomial coefficient. Solve the all pairs shortest path problem for the digraph with the weight matrix given below. Warshall’s algorithm. 138. 75. 142. Apply Warshall’s algorithm to find transitive closure of the digraphs defined by the following adjacency matrix. 137. 10 ⎡0100⎤ ⎢0010⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0001⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣0000⎦ 144. dynamic programming suggests solving each of the smaller sub problems only once and recording the results in a table from which we can then obtain a solution to the original problem. 31. 148. 56. What is the efficiency of binomial coefficient algorithm? Compare divide and conquer strategy with dynamic programming.a) construct the shift table for the following gene segment of your chromosome 10 TCCTATTCTT b) Apply Horspool’s algorithm to locate the pattern in the following DNA sequence TTATAGATCTCTCGTATTCTTTTATAGATCTCCTATTCTT 131. b) Find the largest and the average number of comparisons in a successful search in this table. Define transitive closure of a directed graph. Rather than solving overlapping sub problems again and again. 134. Apply the bottom up dynamic programming algorithm to the following instance of the knapsack problem. Knapsack problem. 136. Explain the algorithm for knapsack that uses memory function. 20 20 OBJECTIVE: Dynamic programming is a technique for solving problems with overlapping sub problems. 146. For the input 30. 145. 19 and the hash function h(k) = k mod 11 a) Construct the open hash table. Explain the dynamic programming design technique. 140. Item 1 2 3 4 5 Weight 3 2 1 4 5 Value 25 20 15 40 50 Capacity w=6 Apply the memory function to the instance of the above problem Describe an algorithm with an example to compute binomial coefficient and derive its time efficiency. Explain the Warshall’s algorithm with an example. 4th Semester CS 24 . 133. 10 10 10 147. 135. 2 5 5* 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING ⎡02∞18 ⎤ ⎢6032∞ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢∞∞04∞ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢∞∞ 203 ⎥ ⎢3∞∞∞ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 143. Flyod’s algorithm. Some of the algorithms discussed here are computing a binomial coefficient. These sub problems arise from a recurrence relation relating a solution to a given problem with solutions to its smaller sub problems of the same type. How many character comparisons would Bayer moore algorithm make in searching for each of the following patterns in the binary text of 1000 zeros? a) 00001 b)10000 c) 01010 132.

149. 10* ⎡05702 ⎤ ⎢05063 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢70044 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢06405 ⎥ ⎢23450⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 159.2 D 0. 162. What is the efficiency of Kruskal’s and prims algorithm? Explain how find operation of Kruskal’s algorithm is implemented.E. The graph is represented as the weight matrix given below. Apply prims algorithm to generate MST to the following graph. 163. Explain the Huffman’s algorithm. Explain how union operation of Kruskal’s algorithm is implemented. What is the time efficiency of Dijkstra’s algorithm? What is Huffman’s tree and Huffman’s code? What are decision trees? How are they useful? Solve the following instances of the single source shortest path problem with vertex a as the source vertex. Explain the Dijkstra’s algorithm to implement the single source shortest path problem. 10 10 10* 10 ⎡05060⎤ ⎢50130 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢01046⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢63420⎥ ⎢00620⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 158.35 B 0. Explain the Kruskal’s algorithm to generate MST. He vertices are labeled from a to e. Define a spanning tree. The vertices are labeled form a to e. Explain the working phenomenon of greedy technique.1 C 0. 161. Construct a Huffman tree for the following problem. 153. Huffman codes.15 10* 10 10 10 10 10 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. This chapter discusses algorithms that use this technique. 2 5 5 5 10 ⎡00010⎤ ⎢10100 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢00001⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢01100⎥ ⎢10000 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 154. Character Probability A 0. Huffman trees and their applications. The graph is represented as the weight matrix given below. until a complete solution to the problem is reached. 150. 152. The graph is given as the following adjacency matrix. 157. 160. 155. each expanding a partially constructed solution obtained so far.GREEDY TECHNIQUE OBJECTIVE: The greedy technique approach suggests constructing a solution through a sequence of steps. 156. 4th Semester CS 25 . 151.2 0. 164. The vertices are labeled form a to e. Explain the prims algorithm to generate MST. Dijkstra’s algorithm for the shortest path problem. Apply Kruskal’s algorithm to generate MST to the following graph. Some of them are Prims and Kruskal’s algorithm to find minimum spanning tree.

176. Apply prims and Kruskal’s algorithm to generate MST for the following graph. 178. What are NP problems? Give Examples. Solutions to knapsack and TSP are also dealt here. Decode the text whose encoding is 100010111001010 LIMITATIONS OF ALGORITHM POWER OBJECTIVE: This unit deals with the fair assessment of the algorithms as problem solving tool. 173.2 D 0.165. This chapter outlines several ways of dealings with such difficult problems . Construct a Huffman code for the following data Character Probability A 0.E. COPING WITH LIMITATIONS OF ALGORITHMIC POWER OBJECTIVE: Many problems are different to solve algorithmically. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. How is problem reduction method used in finding the limits of algorithm? Find the product of matrices A & B through a transformation to a product of 2 symmetric matrices if A= ⎢ 175. It introduces two algorithm design techniques back tracking and branch & bound.15 20 Encode the text ABACABAD using the code.4 B 0. This technique allows us to establish lower bounds on efficiency of comparison based algorithms for sorting and for searching in sorted arrays. 174. What do you mean by lower bound of an algorithm? How do you obtain a lower bound of an algorithm? Explain the adversary method for establishing lower bounds. The vertices are labeled form a to j. Obtain a decision tree for searching a sorted array. 177. 170. 168. The graph is represented as the weight matrix given below. Algorithms that solve problems approximately but fast are also discussed here.1 C 0. 167. It starts with the methods for obtaining lower bounds i. This unit also discusses about P NP and NP Complete problems.e estimates on a minimum amount of work needed to solve a problem. 172.15 0. 169. 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 10 ⎡1 − 1⎤ ⎡01 ⎤ ⎥ and B= ⎢− 12⎥ ⎣23 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 10 10 10 10* 10* How are decision trees used in judging the performance of an algorithm? Obtain a decision tree for selection sort. 4th Semester CS 26 . What are information theoretic arguments? Obtain a decision tree for finding minimum of 3 numbers. The next section deals with decision trees. 171. Explain briefly the limits of algorithm power. What are P and NP problems? Give examples. 179. 20 ⎡0354000000⎤ ⎢3000360000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢5002004000 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢4020100500⎥ ⎢0301020040⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0600200005⎥ ⎢0040000300⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0005003060⎥ ⎢0000400603⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0000050030⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 166.

192.180. 184. 188. 181.7. 182. Exp0lain the Hamiltonian circuit problem.E. Explain the traveling salesman problem using branch & bound with an example. Assuming the cities is numbered from 10 10 10 196. 189.6. Explain the greedy 194. 4th Semester CS 27 . 185. Apply the nearest given above. 183. Apply the branch & bound algorithm to solve the TSP for the following graph given the cost adjacency matrix. neighbor algorithm to the instance defined by the distance matrix the algorithm at the first city. What is the method of backtracking? State the general backtracking algorithm. 186. Start 1 to 4. Explain the greedy 195.}and d=15 Apply backtracking to the problem of finding a Hamiltonian circuit in the following graph with adjacency matrix given below. Explain the approximation algorithm for TSP. 10 10 10 10 ⎡0257⎤ ⎢2083⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢5801 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣7310⎦ 191. algorithm for the discrete knapsack problem with an example. 10 Item Weight Value W=16 1 10 100 2 7 63 3 8 56 4 4 12 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Explain the knapsack problem using branch & bound technique with an example. The vertices are labeled from a to g 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 ⎡0111010⎤ ⎢1001101 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1000010 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1100011 ⎥ ⎢0100001⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1011001 ⎥ ⎢0101110⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 187. Solve the following instance of the knapsack problem by the branch & bound algorithm. Explain the subset problem for s={3. algorithm for the continuous knapsack problem with an example. Explain the assignment problem. What is the method of branch & bound? Explain the N-Queens problem. Apply the twice around the tree algorithm for the following graph for solving TSP 10 10* ⎡0136⎤ ⎢1023 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢3201⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣6310⎦ 193. 190.

Apply the nearest neighbor algorithm for the following graph for solving TSP 10 ⎡0564⎤ ⎢5036 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢6301⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣4610⎦ Marks 2 5 10 20 Total No of Questions 005 057 128 007 197 NOTES P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.E. 4th Semester CS 28 .197.

21.33 34. Introduction to languages and the theory of Computation by John Martin An Introduction to formal languages and automata 3rd by Peter Linz P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 205-220 18% 37% 12% 49% 15% 64% 11% 75% 14% 89% 11% 100% Title and Author Edition Publication specification Publication Year Pearson Education TMH Narosa publishing 2001 2003 2002 Introduction to automata theory.13 14 15 16 17. 403-411 R1: Page#319-333 The standard Turing Machine Programming techniques for Turing Machine Turing Machines with more complex storage Minor variations on the Turing Machine theme.46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 Literature: Book type Text Book Reference Book Reference Book Code T1 R1 R2 Chapter #:1 Introduction T1: Page#1-5.9 10. Properties of Regular Languages Connection between Regular Expression and Regular Languages Applications of Regular Expressions Closure properties of Regular Languages Decision properties of Regular Languages Equivalence and minimization of Automata Context Free Grammars and Programming Languages Parse trees Applications of Context-Free Grammars Ambiguity in Grammars and Languages Pushdown Automata Non-deterministic pushdown automata The languages of a PDA Pushdown Automata & Context Free Languages (CFL) Deterministic Pushdown Automata & Deterministic CFL Properties of Context-Free languages Normal forms for Context-Free Languages CFL The pumping lemma for CFL Closure properties of CFL Introduction to Turing Machines Chapter #:6 Introduction to Turing Machines T1: Page#307-366 R2: Page#221-247 Chapter #:7 Undecidability T1: Page# 367382.31 32.E.22 23. NonDeterministic Turing Machine Turing Machines and Computers Undecidability Recursively Enumerable Languages Recursive Languages Post’s correspondence problem Other Undecidable problems No of hours: 52 % of portions covered Reference chapter Cumulative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. 4th Semester CS 29 .26 27 28.35 36 37 38 39 40 41. overview of syllabus. 125-167 R2: Page# 71-124 Chapter #:3 Context Free Grammars & Languages T1: Page#169-217 R2: Page#125-148 Chapter #:4 Pushdown Automata T1: Page#219-253 R2: Page#175-203 Chapter #:5 Properties of Context-Free languages T1: Page#255-293 R2: Page#149171.CSE44 : FINITE AUTOMATA & FORMAL LANGUAGES Faculty: Class # Chapter Title/Reference Literature Topics to be covered Introduction to Finite Automata Introduction to subject. R Motwani. 28-81 R2: Page#1-62 18% 18% Chapter #:2 Regular Expressions T1: Page#83-113.29 30. pre-requisites for studying the subject Mathematical preliminaries & notation Three basic concepts Some applications Finite Automata & Deterministic Finite Acceptors (DFA) Non-deterministic Finite Acceptors (NFA) Equivalence of DFA & NFA Reduction of number of states in Finite Automata Regular Expressions & Languages.24 25.18 19 20.44 45. . 392-394.42 43.11 12. languages and 2nd Computation by JP Hpocroft. JD Ullman.

5. 20. 25. G = ({s}. Then prove that for every qi. suffix of a string h) wn i) ∑* j) ∑+ Define a) Language (L) b) Sentence c) Complement (L’) d) LR e) L1.w) = qj if and only if there is in Gm a walk with label w from qi to qj Find the DFA that recognizes the set of all string on ∑ = {a. Show that the language L = {awa : wε{a. Define extended transition function (δ)? Define transition table. 4th Semester CS . transition diagram. qo. {a.1} except those containing substring 001 Define a regular language. Construct a DFA and NFA to accept all string in {a. L = {an bn+1 : n ≥ 0} Derive the string “aaabbbb” from the grammar Given the following grammars and corresponding languages. 4. prefix. 6. {s -> aSb. Give the formal definition of DFA? Explain transition graph? Give an example. Define a) Symbol or element b) Alphabet c) String (w. δ. Distinguish between NFA & DFA.1} Which accepts all strings having 3 consecutive zeros Which accepts all strings having 5 consecutive zeros Which accepts all strings having even number of symbols What language does grammar with these productions generate? S-> Aa. and S-> aAb|ab. 9.L2 f) Ln g) L* h) L Prove by induction |uv| = |u| + |v| Use induction on the size of S to show that if S is a finite set |2s| = 2|s| Give the grammar that generates the language. 16. 19. 21. 22. qj ε Q and w ε ∑+.b}*} is regular ? Also show that L2 is regular? Define the transition table. A->aAb|λ. 28. 27. 13. 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 5 30 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. transition function DFA.b} Which accepts all strings ending in 00 over {0. 8.b} such that every “a” has one “b” 10 10 5* 4 5 5* 7. Define dead configuration in case of NFA. Write a note on applications of formal languages and automata. • Automata theory: Automata theory is the study of abstract computing devices or “machines. Let Gm be its associated transition graph. 11. δ*(qi. finite automata. and the class of languages known as “regular languages. 29. {a.b}. u. Explain the terms 1) Configuration 2) Move 3) Transition functions Give a simple description of the language generated by the grammar with productions s->aA. 15. A-> B. 17. Explain the operation of a Deterministic Finite Acceptor (DFA) with a diagram. Define language accepted by a NFA. S -> aSb. 2. S. 30. S -> λ. Explain different units of automata. S-> λ Define acceptors & Transducers. 31. Which accepts strings which have odd number of a’s and b’s over the alphabet {a.b}. 12. v) d) Concatenation or strings e) Reverse of string f) length of string g) substring. 32. 5* 6 6 6 6 5* 5* 5 5* 6 10 5* 5 4 6 12 23. S. 24. 1. 18. S -> λ}) L(G) = {anbn : n ≥ 0} G = ({s}. B-> Aa Prove that (L1L2)R = L2RL Give the formal definition of NFA. 3.b} Which accepts strings which have even number of a’s and b’s over the alphabet {a. Define language accepted by DFA? Derive the DFA that accepts the language L = {anb : n >=0} Let M = (Q.” These languages are the ones that can be described by finite automata.” • Finite automata: Finite Automata are a useful model for many important kinds of hardware and software.b} starting with the prefix “ab” Find the DFA that accepts all strings on alphabet {0.QUESTION BANK INTRODUCTION TO THEORY OF COMPUTATION AND FINITE AUTOMATA OBJECTIVE: This chapter introduces automata theory. ∑. Define extended transition function for NFA. A -> bS. 14. F) be a DFA. show that the language is indeed generated by the grammar.E. {S -> SS. S -> bSa}) L(G) = {w : na (w) = nb(w) } Define equivalency of grammars. 10. What are the advantages of non-determinism? Are the two grammars with respective productions S-> aSb|ab|λ. 26. equivalent? Assume that S is a start symbol in both cases.

42.1}. Let r be a regular expression. Reduce the number of states in DFA. give a regular expression “ ” such that L(r) = { wε ∑* : w has at least one pair of consecutive zeros} 45. Then prove that there is some NFA that accepts L(r) & hence L(r) is a regular language. Prove that “A language L is regular if and only if there exists a left linear grammar G such P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 47.S2}. Convert the following NFA to DFA Draw NFA for transition table given below : Input States a b {q0. Then prove that there exists a deterministic finite acceptor MD = (QD. Denote the regular languages defined by the following grammar as regular expressions a) G1 = ( {S}. {a. Write a NFA & right linear grammar for L(aab*a) 61. S2->a}) 57. FN). 5 5 10 10* 10* 5 5 10* OBJECTIVE: This chapter introduces the notation called “regular expressions” and how they are capable of defining regular languages. Then prove that there exists a regular expression “r” such that L = L(R) 53. and if qc and qa are distinguishable. Prove that “Language generated by a right linear grammar is a regular language” 59. 38. then qb.33. Let L be a regular language i. 1)*: w has no pair of consecutive zeros). 36. Give the formal definition of a regular expression with example. 37. For ∑ = {0. 46. 4th Semester CS REGULAR LANGUAGES.e. {V0}.FD) such that L = L(Md). Define regular grammar with example. qc must be indistinguishable.QD. • Regular expressions: Regular expressions are a type of language defining notation. ∑. REGULAR GRAMMARS. {V0 -> aV1. V1-> abV0|b}) 60. Give the procedure to reduce number of states in DFA. Show that the automation generated by procedure reduces is deterministic. (a+b) b) (a+b) * (a+bb) c) (aa)* (bb)* b 44.S. 35.q1} q2 Define distinguishable and indistinguishable states. immediately to its right? Define the equivalence between two finite acceptors? Give DFA & NFA which accepts the language {(10)n : n ≥ 0} Prove the equivalence between DFA & NFA OR Let L be the language accepted by NFA MN = (QN. Given the below NFA. PROPERTIES OF REGULAR LANGUAGES 6* 6* 8 6* 4 6* 10 5 6* 8 5 6 6 4* 10 4 6* 6* 5 5 31 . Write the NFA which accepts L(r) where r = (a+bb)*(ba* + λ) 52. Find the other two expressions. Find all strings in L ((a+b)*b(a+ab)*) of length less that four. 34. {a. Define a linear grammar. 41. Show that r = (1+01)*(0+1*) denotes that language L = (w {0. Construct the finite automaton that accepts the language generated by grammar ({V0. Prove the following : If the states qa and qb are indistinguishable. They are closely related to nondeterministic finite automata..δN. V1}. QN. S1->S1ab|S2. Give the set and explain in English the sets denoted by following regular expressions a) (11+0)(00+1) b) (1+01+001)(0+00) c) (0+1)00(0+1) d) 00 11 22 48. S.b}.q1) {q2} q0 {q0} {q1} q1 -{q0. there is a NFA that accepts L. 56. 50. Give the set of notation of language L® denoted by regular expressions given below a) a* .∑D.{S->S1ab. 49. 40. How is language L® denoted by regular expression “R” defined? Give examples. 39. write the corresponding regular expression using generalized transition graphs 55. 54.δD. 43.b}. {S-> abS|a}) b) G2 = ( {S. 58.S1. Explain generalized transition graphs & how they are used for writing regular expression denoting same language as given NFA.b}.E. {a. 51.

The parse tree is the output of a parser for a programming language and is the way that the structure of programs is normally captured.E. there exists a derivation tree of G whose yield is w.b} c) L = {w ε ∑* : na(w) < nb(w)} ∑ = {a. 76.b} b) L(G) = { ab (bbaa)n bba (ba)n : n ≥ o} c) L = {anbm : n ≠ m} d) L = {w ε {a. that L = L(G)”. 72. Define parsing 80. 71. prove that following languages are not regular : a) L = {anbn : n≥ 0} b) L = {wwr : w ε ∑*} ∑ = {a. 77. Then prove that for every w ε l(G). prove that exhaustive search parsing method either produces a P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.b} d) L = { (ab)nak : n > k. where G is a CFG. 73. partial derivation tree. Define context free grammars formally. Write CFG which generates the following CFL’s a) L(G) = {wwr : w ε ∑* } ∑ = {a.c} a) all strings containing exactly one a b) all strings containing no more than three a’s c) all strings which contain at least one occurrence of each symbol in ∑ 5 10* 6 6* 8 8 8 6* 14 10* OBJECTIVE: This chapter introduces context-free grammar notation. Let G = (V. 67. 6* 10* 4* 4* 6* 6* 6 4 6 6 32 Semester CS . k ≥0} g) L = { anb1 : n ≠ 1} Give the regular expression for the following languages on ∑ = {a. 66. 79. K ≥ 0} e) L = { an! : n ≥ 0} f) L = { anbkcn+k : n ≥ 0. P) be a CFG. 63.b}* : na(w) = nb(b) and na(v) ≥ nb(v) where v is any prefix of w} e) L = { a2nbm : n ≥ 0 ≥ 0} 74. 4 th CONTEXT FREE GRAMMMARS AND LANGUAGES. Give some examples. Explain exhaustive search parsing? What is the serious flaw in using exhaustive search parsing? 81. 70. parse tree and shows how grammars define languages. 68. Define leftmost and rightmost derivation with example 75.62. • Context-free grammar: context-free grammars have played a central role in computer technology since the 1960’s. T. Then prove that homomorphic image h(L) is also regular. Prove that “A language L is regular if and only if there exists a regular grammar G such that L = L(G)”. finite or infinite Given standard representations of two regular languages L1 & L2. Show that the family of regular languages is closed under following operations a) union b) intersection c) concatenation d) complementation e) star-closure f) difference g) reversal Let h be a homomorphism & L a regular language. If L1 & L2 are regular languages. S. and yield. Prove that is TG is any partial derivation tree for G whose root is labeled S. 65. 64. Prove that yield of any derivation tree is in L (G). 69. • Parse tree: A picture of the structure that a grammar places on the strings of its language. prove that there is an algorithm to determine whether or not L1 = L2 Prove that the language L = {an bn : n ≥0} is not regular using pigeonhole principle State and prove pumping lemma for regular languages? What is the application of pumping lemma? Using pumping lemma. then prove that L1/L2 is also regular L1/L2 = right quotient of L1 with L2 = {x:xy ε L1 for some y ε L2} Given a standard representation of any regular language L on ε a) prove that there exists an algorithm for determining whether or not any w ε ∑* is in L b) Prove that there exists an algorithm for determining whether L is empty.b. Given a CFG & a string w. 78. then the yield of TG is sentential form of G. Define derivation tree. More recently context-free grammar has been used to describe document formats that are used in XML for information exchange on the web.

B}. When can be a λ-production removed from the grammar? Eliminate λ-production from the following grammar : G = (V. b->b b) S->abSb|aa Write the regular expression for all Pascal real numbers Find the regular expression for Pascal sets whose elements are integer numbers Let L1 = L(a*baa*) and L2 = L(aba*) find L1/L2 If L is a regular language. Then prove that there exists a equivalent grammar G1 = (V1. P) be a CFG with λ L(G). S. S. 84.b}. 101. Define a useful / useless variable. 105. 102. {S->aSb|SS|λ}) b) ({E. Explain two cases when a variable become useless. Define inherently ambiguous language and give an example. 99. parse of w or tells us that no parsing is possible. 97. {a. {a. I -> a|b|c }) Write equivalent unambiguous grammar. {a. A -> BC. What is a normal form & why is it required? Prove the substitution rule of context free grammar. 85. Define λ-productions and nullable variable. 88.E. S. 4th Semester CS 33 . 92. 109.b}. E -> (E).A}.T.82. 86. 93.S) = ({S. 103. A->aA}. E. 96. 91. Let G = (V. A->aA|bB|b. S. 87. like finite automata do. P1) that does not contain any useless variables or productions. Then prove that there exists an equivalent grammar G1 = (V1. E -> E * E.P. 95. S. • Pushdown automata: The pushdown automaton is in essence a nondeterministic finite automaton with Є-transitions permitted and one additional capability: a stack on which it P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 98. if P has no rules of form A -> λ or A -> B? Define simple grammar or s-grammar? What are its applications? Define a ambiguous CFG Show that the following grammars are ambiguous a) ({S}. {a. VcLR Is also regular Find DFA’s that accepts the following languages a) L(aa* + aba*b*) b) L(ab(a+ab)*(a+aa)) c) L((abab)*+(aaa*+b)*) 4 4 6* 4 4 4 4 10* 6 5 5 6* 10 10 10 4 6 8 6 8 8 6 6 4 4 5 6 8 PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA OBJECTIVE: This chapter defines two different versions of the pushdown automaton: one that accepts by entering an accepting state.b}.. Convert the grammar with productions S-> Aba. 108. A-> a|bc|B Define CNF of a CFG Let G = (V. 89.T.S) be a CFG. T1.P. A-> aA|λ b->bA}.S) = ({S. S1-> aS1b|λ}. Define a useless production. Eliminate useless symbols and productions from the following grammar a) G = (V.A. Let G = (V. S) Explain dependency graph & its applications in CFG. C -> D|λ. S) b) G = (V. D->d Define unit production. P) be any CFG without λ productions. B -> b|λ. 104.P. {S-> aSb|λ|A. 106. p1) in CNF. 107. { E -> I E -> E + E. T1.I}. T. 83. Explain the use of CFG in definition of PL. T. {a b c +*()}. P1) that does not have any unit productions and that is equivalent to G Remove all unit productions from S->Aa|B.T. {S->A. and another version that accepts by emptying its stack. A-> aab B->Ac to CNF Define GNF of a CFG Convert the grammar with productions below into GNF a) S->AB.S) = ({S. regardless of the state it is in. T1. Then prove that there exists a CFG G1 = (V1. B->A|bb.S) Let G be any context free grammar with λ not in L(G).T.P. Then prove that there exists an equivalent grammar G1 having no λ-productions? Find the CFG without λ-production equivalent to grammar defined by the following productions S-> AbaC.b}. 90.S1}. prove that the language {uv : UcL. {S->As1b. 94. s. 100.

We will learn normal forms for CFG.A)} δ(q0. then prove that L is CFL.Az)} δ(q0.b}* : na(w) = nb(w)} b) L = {wwr : w ε {a. Explain the operations of a NPDA with diagram.b}+} 117. to show that there are specific problems we cannot solve using a computer. 125. L={an w wR: n ≥ 0. j ≥ 0} 130.λ. n ≠ 100} is context free 129.E. 127. Is the language context-free? L = { anm : n and m are prime numbers } 133. 126. Prove that family of CFL is closed under union. Construct a NPDA for the following languages a) L = {w ε {a. 135. 131.b}*} c) L = {an! : n≥ 0} d) L = {anbj : n = i2} 134.A) = {(q0. Show that the language L = {w ε {a.b. 112. Explain clearly the transition function? 113. Show that language L = {w : na(w)} is not linear 122.z) = {q2. When do we say a CFL is accepted by NPDA? Define a) acceptance by final state b) acceptance by empty stack 116. We then introduce a venerable formalism for computers called Turing machine. concatenation and star closure. If L = L(M) for some NPDA M. Write the CFG for language accepted by NPDA whose transitions are given below: δ(q0.c}* : na(w) = nb(w) = nc(w) is not context free 128. Give two reasons why finite automata cannot be used to recognize all CFL and why PDA is required for that purpose.A) = { {q1. Construct a NPDA that accepts that language generated by grammar with productions a) S -> aA b) S -> Aabc|bB|a c) B -> b d) C -> c 119. Prove that for any CFL L(specified as CFG without λ productions).a. We begin with an informal argument. Write a NPDA that accepts the language L = {anbn : n ≥ 0 }U {a} 114.λ)} δ(q1. Give the formal definition of DPDA and deterministic CFL. Define the instantaneous description of a NPDA 115. State pumping lemma for Linear CFL. 8 5 6 6 6 6 6 4 5 4 4 10 5 OBJECTIVE: In this chapter we shall start looking at the question of what languages can be defined by any computational device. 124. 121. Show that the complement of the language L = { an2 : n ≥ 0} is not context-free. Prove that family of CFL is not closed under intersection and complementation Let L1 be a CFL and L2 be a regular language. using an assumed knowledge of C programming. 4 th INTRODUCTION TO TURING MACHINES 6 34 Semester CS . Determine whether or not the following language is context-free. Show that following languages are not context free using pumping lemma a) L = {anbncn : n≥ 0} b) L = {ww : w ε {a.a.z) = {(Q0. 5 6 6 6* 4 6 10 6 8 8* 5 6 PROPERTIES OF CONTEXT-FREE LANGUAGES OBJECTIVE: This chapter introduces some of the properties of context-free languages. w Є {a.can store a string of “stack symbols. there exists a NPDA M such that L = L(M) 118. Determine whether or not the following language is context-free. b}*} 132. Then prove that L1 intersection L2 is context free. Give the formal definition of NPDA. We will prove the “pumping lemma” for CFL’s.” 110.b. • Turing machine: It has been recognized as an accurate model for what any physical computing device is capable of doing. Explain with diagram the operation of Turing machines? Give formal definition of Turing P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. State and prove pumping lemma for CFL? What is its application? Define linear CFL. L={an bj an bj : n ≥ 0 .λ)} 120. 111. 123. Show that the language L = {anbn : n ≥ 0.

Define offline TM & prove that they are equivalent to class of standard TM. Write a note on universal TM. The chapter gives a formal proof of the existence of the problem about Turing machines that no Turing machine can solve. υ L k = ∑*. For all i ≠ j. 161. Define formally non-deterministic TM. Define algorithm in terms of TM. Show that the halting problem. Design a TM that copies strings of 1’s 149. Define computations of a TM.machine.b} = a. Define the operation of TM as transducers? Define a Turing computable function? 147. design a TM that computes x+y 148.R) δ(q0. for I = 1. 165. 140. 160. For ∑ = {0. Design a Turing machine that halts at a final state if x≥y and at a nonfinal state x<y 150.E. Write a note on Turing Thesis. Explain what you mean by countable. 153. We then divide problems that can be solved by a Turing machine into two classes: those that have an algorithm. 155. Let L1.1} design a TM that accepts language denoted by the regular expression 00 144. the set of (M.y) 0 if x<y 151.q1} ∑ = {a. …. Define TM with semi-infinite tape & prove that they are equivalent to class of standard Turing machine. 154. 159. every string is in one of the languages. Prove that each of the languages is therefore recursive. L2. What strings are: a) w37? b) W100? P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Design a TM that multiplies two +VE integers in unary notation.b} design a TM that accepts L = {anbn : n≥ 1} 145. Define language accepted by TM. draw the different stages of the processing the string “aa”. 4th Semester CS UNDECIDABILITY 6 10 6 35 . Give an example of TM that never halts i.e. uncountable sets and enumeration procedure. 157. i.…. Design a TM that computes the function x+y if x≥ y F(x. 136. When do we say that a language is not accepted by TM? 143. Define TM with stay on option.b) = (q0. 142. k is recursively enumerable. Summarize the features of standard Turing machine. 139. Consider the Turing machine defined as follows Q = {q0. Design a TM to implement the macroinstruction If a Then qj Else qk 152. w) pairs such that M halts (with or with out accepting) when given input is RE but not recursive. 167. a plausibility argument for the existence of problems that could not be solved by computer. 2.b. i.. 163. 166. Define equivalence of automata? Demonstrate the equivalence of TM using simulation.a) = (q0.R) δ(q0. Prove that they are equivalent to class os standard TM? 156. Given two positive integers x and y. Write a note on multitape TM. 3. 10* 5 4 6 5 5 5 5 6 6* 6 6 5 6 10 8 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6* 6 6* 8 OBJECTIVE: This chapter begins by repeating. Each of the languages Li. that goes to infinite loop. Explain what is meant by instantaneous description of a TM.e..} F = q1} δ(q0. no string is in two of the languages. Lk be a collection of languages over alphabet ∑ such that: 1. 158. ) = (q1. 164. Design a TM that accepts L = {anbncn : n≥1} 146. although infinite is countable. Write also the instantaneous descriptions? 137. Li ∩ Lj = Ø. Write a note on multidimensional TM. and those that are only solved by Turing machines that may run forever on inputs they do not accept.e.. L) Starting with state. How is that represented in instantaneous description? 138. in the context of Turing machines.2.b. For ∑ = (a.b. L1 υ L2 υ …. 141. Prove that set of all TM. Prove that class of deterministic TM & class of non-deterministic TM are equivalent 162.

i2. 4.. Prove “if L is a recursive language. b) The set of all primes {2. it prints one of its tapes 10i210i21. 7... a) The set of all perfect squares {1. 3.E. Informally describe multi tape Turing machines that enumerate the following sets of integers. in the sense that started with blank tapes. 170. and non RE languages? Marks 04 05 06 08 10 12 14 Total No of Questions 22 49 60 16 21 01 01 170 NOTES 5 8 5 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 11…. 4th Semester CS 36 . RE. to represent the set { i1.}. 5. so is L¯”. 169. 9…}. What are Recursive languages? What is the relationship between the recursive...168.}.

6. Microprocessor and Interfacing Programming &Hardware by Douglas V. 24. Interrupt Cycle of 8086/8088 Non Maskable and Maskable Interrupts. 11. 4th Semester CS 37 .E. 20. 17. Interrupts.4% 70. Basic Assembler Directives and operators. The Intel Microprocessors 8086/8088. 16. Basic Peripherals and their Interfacing with 8086/8088 Semiconductor memory interfacing. 2. The 8085 Architecture. 65-79 11. Special processor activities. Programming & Applications with 8085. 44.5% Chapter # 1 The 8086/8088 Processors T1: Page #1-30 11. The system bus The Microprocessor. 36. Data movement Instruction set of 8086/8088. 37. 80286. 33. 14. 46. Example problems on Memory Interfacing Example problems on Memory Interfacing Memory mapped and I/O mapped I/O Interfacing I/O Ports. 5. Addressing modes of 8086.3% Chapter # 3 The Art of Assembly Language Programming with 8086/8088 T1: page # 75-116 16. Bus structure. 10. 45. 30.Gaonkar. by Ramesh S. 18.0% Chapter # 5 Basic Peripherals and their Interfacing with 8086/8088 T1: page # 139-212 30% 100% Literature: Book type Text Book Text Book Reference Book Reference Book Reference Book Code T1 T2 R1 R2 R3 Title and Author Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals Architecture. 22. 15. Microcomputer hardware. Introduction to programmable Peripherals Programmable Peripheral Interface 8255 Modes of operations of 8255 Interfacing Analog to digital data converter. 80186/80188.CSE 45: INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSORS Faculty: Class # Chapter Title/ Reference Literature Topics to be Covered Introduction to Microprocessors Evolution of Microprocessors. The 8086/8088 Processors Registers of 8086. 29. hall Edition Publication specification Publication Year Tata McGraw-Hill 6 4 th 2000 2003 1996 Pearson Education Penram International Universal Book stall Tata McGraw-Hill th Microprocessors and Microcomputer – Based System Design by Mohaamed rafiquzzam 4th 2nd 1986 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 26. Arithmetic and logical instructions. 13.6% Chapter # 4 Special Architectural Features and Related Programming T1: page # 118-137 13. 41. single and two dimensional arrays) Assembly language example Programs (sorting and searching) Assembly language example Programs (Using procedures) Assembly language example Programs (Using far procedures and extern variables) Assembly language example Programs (Miscellaneous) Special Architectural Features and Related Programming Introduction to stack and Stack structure of 8086/8088 Interrupts and Interrupt service routines.0% Chapter #2 The 8086/8088 Instruction set and assembler directives T1: Page # 33-73 17. 39. Dynamic RAM Interfacing. I/O addressing capability. 7.5% 23. Interrupt Programming. Minimum and maximum mode 8086 system and timings The processor 8088 The 8086/8088 Instruction set and assembler directives Machine Language Instruction formats. Physical memory organization General Bus operations.3% 56. 51. 8. System software The 8085 Microprocessor. 23. Interfacing Analog to digital data converter. 47. 35. 80386. 49. 3 Introduction to Microprocessors R1: Page #25-52. 50. 48. 38. Architecture Signal description. 19. 52. timings and Delays. Pentium amd Pentium Pro Processor by Barry B. Brey Microprocessor Aechitecture. 3. Programming & Interfacing by Ajoy Kumar Ray & Kishore M Bhurchandi. 34. 12. 21. 32. Chapter # 2.5% 11. The Art of Assembly Language Programming with 8086/8088 Few machine level programs Machine coding the programs (hand assembly) Programming with an assembler Assembly language example Programs (Simple programs like GCD. MACROS. 9. 43. 28. Interfacing digital to analog data converter Interfacing digital to analog data converter Interfacing stepper motor Control of High power devices using 8255 Control of High power devices using 8255 No of Hours: 52 % of portion covered Reference chapter Cumulative 1. 4. Coprocessor. 80486. Control transfer instructions Miscellaneous instructions String instructions of 8086. Input/Output Direct Memory Access. 40. Memory organization.3% 40. 31. 27. 25. LCM) Assembly language example Programs (Declaring and accessing. 42. Assembly language example programs and advanced assembler directives.

Explain the feature provided in the 8086 architecture for fetching the next instruction when current instruction being executed. What do you mean by pipelined architecture? How is it implemented in 8086? Explain the concepts of segmented memory? What are its advantages? Discuss 8086 based system configured in Maximum mode with a neat diagram. This Chapter deals with different working mode of 8086 processor. 12. 22. What is the purpose of coprocessor? What are the different ways of building system without coprocessor? Why coprocessor is a separate chip. Differentiate between memory mapped I/O with I/O mapped I/O. 9. 4th Semester CS . 6. 37.based system and also explain the general sequence it follows the instruction. 10 05 08* 05* 05 12* 08* 10 10 04* 04 08* 05* THE 8086/8088 PROCESSORS OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with advanced microprocessor Intel 8086.E.QUESTION BANK INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSORS OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with basic concept of microprocessor with an Intel 8 bit processor 8085 1. Explain the general purpose registers of 8086. Describe various addressing modes of 8086. 7. Explain how T flag can be altered in 8086. Explain clearly the generation of 20 bit address in 8086. 19. 24. 13. Explain the usage of segment register in 8086 for generating physical addresses. 27. 17. How does 8086 differentiate between an opcode and instruction format Explain the function of opcode prefetch queue in 8086. 5. Explain the different instruction formats in 8086. Draw and explain the block diagram of microprocessor. 32. What is the need of Co-processors? Give an example. Explain queue and flag register of 8086. Describe the functions of 8086 with respect to a) Queue b) Flag register c) General purpose register d) Segment register. 26. What is lock prefix? What is it use? 05 10 08 05 08* 10* 03* 03* 38 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 15. 3. 36. 10. 14. 8. Explain the different methods of data transfer possible between MPU and I/O. Write a note on evolution of microprocessor. 16. 21. not embedded on the processor? What are the operations the coprocessor can do? Explain the architecture of 8085 with block diagram. Describe the architecture of 8086 with suitable figure. 12 * 06 06 08* 10* 05 10 * 12 10 08 * 08 08 * 10 10 * 10 * THE 8086/8088 INSTRUCTION SETS AND ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with some sample programs by introducing all kind of instructions supported by 8086 processor and directives supported by the and assemblers 30. Describe a scheme to demultiplex the multiplexed AD0 – AD7 bus of 8085 CPU. Its architecture pin details. 28. How does 8086 identifies between 8 bit and 16 bit operation. 25. 31. Explain the arithmetic instruction in 8086. 4. 29. 33. Explain the different data related addressing modes of 8086 with examples. 11. What are coprocessors? Name few. Explain the different looping instruction in 8086. Differentiate between maximum and minimum mode of 8086. 34. 2. 20. Discuss the minimum mode configuration system of 8086 with a block diagram. Explain different type of JUMP instruction in 8086. 18. 35. What do you mean by 8 bit & 16 bit processors explain? Write a short note on 8085 bus structure. Write the symbolic pin configuration of 8086 explain each of them. 23.

Store the results at locations PNOS & NNOS respectively. CL What are assembler directive? Explain the following assembler directive.38. 69. Give 1 example with simple program to support the importance. 60. 67. The value of ‘n’ is available in memory location VALVE. Write an ALP to sort array (of 16 bit numbers) in descending order using selection sort. 68. 61. Write an ALP to convert BCD numbers to binary. 58. multiplication and division for BCD numbers. Store all odd numbers from memory ODD and even numbers from memory EVEN. 52. Write an 8086 assembly language program to move block of 100h bytes of data starting at address 2340h there in DS and to the block starting at 1234h there in ES register assume DS and ES are already initialized. 66. 08 08 10 10 10 10 THE ART OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING 8086/8088.E. subtraction. Describe with neat diagram the wave form of memory write operation of 8086. Write an ALP to sort array (of 16 bit numbers) in ascending order using insertion sort. 04 05* 04* 06 06* 10* 05 10* 10* 06 05 10* 12 * 10 10 * 53. Write an ALP to compute ncr using with and without recursion. 40. Write an ALP to find the sum of the series of 8 bit numbers. a) DAS b) DIV DX c) IMUL BX d) MUL BL e) LAHF f) XLAT g) CMPSB Describe the general instruction format of 8086. generate codes for a) MOV AL. DH b) MOV 1234[BX]. 64. Describe with example the effect of execution of following instruction. array accessing and block data accessing. 42. What are the assembler directives? Explain directives used in MASM assembler for 8086 programming. 59. 70. Explain why memory is divided into segments in 8086? What are its advantages? What is addressing mode? Explain different addressing schemes used in 8086 with examples. 57. Describe with neat diagram the wave form of memory read operation of 8086. 71. 4th Semester CS . 56. Write an ALP to sort array (of 16 bit numbers) in descending order using bubble sort. Explain why they are used for signed numbers only with the flag condition. How is the addressing mode of an instruction communicated to the CPU? Explain the importance of string instructions. Explain the fields in the instruction templates given below for data transfer between a register and another register. List the conditional jump instruction that is used for signed numbers. (with and without recursion) 08 * 10* 12* 10 10 10 10 08 08 * 08 * 08 08 08 * 39 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 39. 100010DW MOD REG R/M Using the above template. Write a program to find largest element in an array using recursion. 41. a) MODEL b) DD c) WORD PTR d) EQU Describe the different memory model of 8086 assembly language programming. Write an ALP in 8086 to count numbers of positive & negative numbers present in a series of ten signed 8 bit numbers stored from address ARRAY. Write an ALP to find odd & even numbers of an array of ‘n’ numbers. 49. 44. Clearly explain how a word at an even address and a word at an odd address accessed in 8086. Explain the sign extension instruction. What are the assembler directives & pseudo-ops? Explain the addressing modes for the control transfer instruction. Write an ALP to calculate a factorial of a number (Byte size) using recursion and result should be displayed on the monitor (max length of 4 EX digit). 43. 55. 54. 45. 46. 62. 48. 63. 50. Explain the different form of unconditional jump instruction in 8086/8080. Write the comment for the program. register and memory location. Bring out the difference between the jump & loop instruction. 47. Write an ALP to calculate the G C D of four 16 bit number and store the result in word location called RES. Which instruction of 8086 can be used for lookup table manipulation? Justify. Write an ALP to perform addition. OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with advanced programming concept such as recursion. 51. 65. Write an ALP to search for a given key element in the array (of 16 bit numbers) using binary search.

Consider 8086 operating on a 4MHa clock. With neat diagram explain the architecture of 8255. Describe the multiply and divide instruction of 8086 with example. 83. BX = (1200H). 107.E. 81. further write an ALP to rotate a shaft of a 4-phase stepper motor in clockwise by 5 rotations. Mode-1 and BSR modes of 8255. 85. 94. Interface stepper motor to 8086 with 8255. Describe the Interrupt and Interrupt related instruction of 8086. 93. 74. Explain the following pseudo instruction a) DUP b) EQU c) DD d) DW Discuss the purpose of the following assembler directives. Explain the different modes of 8255 operation. 98. Bring out the difference between a static and dynamic RAM. 88. Explain the control word of 8255. 12 05 10* 06* 10* 06* 10* 05* 10 10 12 12 * 10 05* 10* 12 10 10 10 12 * 12 * 12 SPECIAL ARCHITECTURE FEATURES AND RELATED PROGRAMMING OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals PPI 8255. 90. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Interface a DAC 0800 to 8086 and write a program to generate a triangular waveform. Explain how Analog to digital converter can be interfaced using 8255. 73. Explain the following instruction a) TEST b) CLC c) STI d) SAHF How do the following differ a) test pin and test instruction b) Ready pin and wait instruction c) HOLD/HLDA pin with RQ/GT signal What are assembler pseudo instructions? What do you mean by interrupt priorities? List out interrupt priorities in 8086. Write a ALP procedure to generate a delay of one sec if processor speed = 3mhz. 79. What are the criteria to be considered before interfacing memory to the processor? Interface 64KB EPROM and 64KB RAM to 8086 in minimum mode. 106. its different mode of working and interfacing I/O devices via 8255. Describe the interrupt system of 8086 in detail. Explain how Digital to Analog converter can be interfaced with 8255. 97. 95. 91. 101. find the branch address for a branch instruction that uses (I) Intra segment direct (II) Intra segment Indirect which uses the BX register. give control word format for the operating modes Draw and explain a typical stepper motor interface. Write a short note on priority of interrupts in 8086. 102. 75. 87. 109. Write a neat internal block diagram of 8255. Explain the stack structure of 8086. (222A0H) = 0600H and (275B9)= 098AH. Explain how high power devices can be controlled using 8086 processors Explain how delay routine works. Explain the Interrupt structure of 8086 and action taken when interrupts are activated. Explain the Mode-0. Explain how to pass parameters in MACROs with the help of an example Describe the interrupt sequence of 8086. 100. 4th Semester CS 40 . 92. 84. 86. 103. (DS) = 212AH. 76. What do you mean by interrupts? Explain how they will be handled by 8086. displacement = (5119H). (CS) = 0200H. 89. Explain the different memory devices in detail. 99. 80. 12 * 10 04* 06* 10* 10* 12* 12 10 * 12 12 12* 10* 10* 10 10 PERIPHERAL AND THEIR INTERFACING WITH 8086/8088. Explain the working of DMA processor.OBJECTIVE: This chapter deals with other architecture features of 8086 such as stack interrupts management etc. 105. 108. 77. without changing any of the processor registers. How does main program & subroutine communicate explain with an examples List out the difference between MACRO & PROCEDURE. 82. Write an 8086 MACRO to produce 25ms of delay. 78. a) ASSUME b) SEGMENT ENDS c) DUP d) PROC Describe the various stack manipulation instruction in 8086. 104. 96. Given (IP) = 2BCDH. 72. Differentiate between a macro & a subroutine.

4th Semester CS 41 .E. of Questions 02 05 13 08 18 45 18 109 NOTES P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.Marks 03 04 05 06 08 10 12 Total No.

Hit Rate & MISS PENALTY. Instruction Execution & Straight-line sequencing. Execution of a complete Instruction Branch instruction & Multiple-bus organization Hardwired Control A complete processor Micro programmed: control Microinstructions. Stack & Queues : Subroutines Subroutine Nesting & processor stack.7% Chapter#9: Embedded Systems T1 Page# 512-525 6. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Chapter #7: Basic Processing Unit T1 Page#412437. Enabling & Disabling Interrupt Chapter #4: Input/Output Organization T1:Page 204220.13-21 7. SCSI bus. Generating memory addresses.6486. number notation. memory system consideration. USB. Encoding of Machine instruction: General features of CISC & RISC. arithmetic operation and characters. memory location & addresses: byte addressability.234-282 Handling Multiple devices Controlling Device Requests Exceptions Direct memory Access Bus Arbitration Buses: synchronous bus. Multiplication of positive numbers : Signed-Operand Multiplication booth Algorithm Fast Multiplication :Bit-pair Recoding of multipliers. Condition codes. Flash memory. serial port Standard I/O interfaces. EEPROM.400402 Chapter#5 The Memory System T1:Page# 292321.8% 19% 65% 13. Parameter Passing. Arithmetic Addition & Subtraction of Signed Numbers: Addition/Subtraction Logic Unit. performance measurement.3% 100% Literature: Book Type Text Book Reference Book Reference Book Code T1 R1 R2 Title And Author Computer Organization by Carl Hamacher. Addressing modes: implementation of variables & constants. performance consideration. The Stack Frame Additional Instructions: logic Instruction. The Memory System Basic concepts: semiconductor ram memories. Eprom. Virtual memories :Address translation Secondary Storage: Magnetic hard disks.6% 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43. big-endian & little–endian assignment. Input/Output Organization Accessing I/O devices: Interrupts: Interrupt Hardware.6% 7. Register transfer Notation. Fetching a word from memory. Integer Division : Floating-point Numbers & operations IEEE Standard for floating point Numbers Arithmetic Operations on Floating Point Numbers. storing a word in memory. of memory chips Static memories. Interleaving. characters & characters strings.440-443 Chapter# 6: Arithmetic T1 Page# 368385. basic performance equation. Micro program Sequencing microinstruction with next-address field. Additional modes. prom.E.4% 15. control unit. Multiprocessor & multicomputer Historical perspective. Processor chips for Embedded Applications A simple Microcontroller 19. Cache memories: Mapping functions. Machine Instructions & Programs Numbers.0% No. rambus memory. PCI bus. output unit. Evolution of performance. basic input & output operations. performing an Arithmetic or Logic Operation. Assembly language: Assemblers Directives.2% 46.Zvonko Vranesic. Implementing Floating-Point opr Basic Processing Unit Some Fundamental concepts: Register Transfers. memory units. Assembly Language Notation. pipelining & superscalar operation Clock rate.2% 26.3% 93. Memory operation: instruction and instruction sequencing. Relative addressing.only memories: ROM. Beyond the 4th generation. Multiplication & Division. Basic operational concept: bus structure: Performance: processor clock.337358 Chapter#2: Machine Instructions & Programs T1:Page# 27-62. Asynchronous drams. of hours: 52 % of portion covered Reference chapter Cumulative 1 2 3 4 Chapter #1 Basic Structures of Computers T1:Page# 2-10. the 2nd generation.94-98 19. Indirection & Pointers.390-398. Asynchronous Bus. Embedded Systems : Microwave oven Digital camera. Shift & Rotate Instructions. home Telemetry. internal org. arithmetic & logic units. Interface circuits Parallel port. the fourth generation. Synchronous drams Structure of larger memories. Branching. Indexing & Arrays. the third generation.329-334.4% 78. Design of fast adders: Carry-Lookahead Addition. 4th Semester CS 42 . the 1st generation.CSE46: COMPUTER ORGANIZATION Faculty Class# Chapter Title/Reference Literature Topics to be covered Basic Structures of Computers Introduction :Computer types: Functional units: input units. Safwat Z Computer system Architecture by Morris Mano Computer System Design And Architecture by Vincent H & Harry J Edition 5th 2nd 1st Publication Information Publisher McGraw-Hill Education PHI Addison-Wesley Year 2002 1986 1999 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Read. speed size & cost. Optical disk. word alignment. Basic Instruction types. accessing numbers.

What is a bus? Explain single bus structure in architecture. and about the evolution of computer from 1st generation to 4th. its performance. In this chapter we study how these instructions and operands are brought from memory to the processor and executed. 7. Store. Assume that the processor has Load. overwriting the original operand at the second location. Show the contents of the two memory words at locations 1000 and 1004 after the name “Johnson” has been entered. 10 10 9. Give a short sequence of machine instructions for the task: “Add the contents of memory location A to those of location B. Location 2 These instructions move or add a copy of the operand at first location to the second location. 08 BASIC STRUCTURES OF COMPUTERS 2. It has various functional units. 7. State whether or not overflow occurs in each case. 8. Is it possible to use fewer instructions to accomplish the task in question 2? If Yes. and Add instructions and that all values fit in the accumulator. 14. 51 and –43.complement binary numbers and add them. State whether or not overflow occurs in each case. queue. Suppose that Move and Add instructions are available with the format Move / Add Location 1. give the sequence. R0 in terms of transfers between memory and processor and some simple control commands. -10.E. starting at location 1000. At the end of the chapter one will know about machine instructions and program execution. List and explain the developments made during different generations of a computer. LOC are the only instructions available to transfer data between the memory and general purpose register Ri. Write a program that can evaluate the expression A*B+C*D In a single-accumulator processor. 10. Assume that the instruction itself is stored in the memory at location INSTR and that this address is initially in register PC. 5. Ri and Store Ri. 4th Semester CS 43 . and has evolved to the present day form after generations. Location can be in either the memory or the processor register set. -2. These instructions and operands are stored generally in memory. and place the answer in location C. A program reads ASCII characters representing the digits of a decimal number as they are entered at a keyboard and stores the characters in successive memory bytes. i. Given a binary pattern in some memory location. a set of instructions along with some operands. 06* 08* 06* MACHINE INSTRUCTIONS & PROGRAMS OBJECTIVE: Computer executes programs. List the steps needed to execute the machine instruction Add LOC. In this chapter we learn and understand basic operational concepts of a computer. 1. Represent the decimal values 5. 06 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. number representation. addressing modes. list. 6. 11.” Instructions Load LOC. where the second number of each pair is to be subtracted from the first number. A program reads ASCII characters entered at a keyboard and stores them in successive byte locations. a) 5 and 10 b) 7 and 13 c) –14 and 11 d) –5 and 7 e) –3 and –8 (b) Repeat Part a for the subtract operation. Examine the ASCII code and indicate what operation is needed to convert each character into an equivalent binary number. -19.QUESTION BANK OBJECTIVE: Computer performs the function of storing and processing the information. 26. Explain different functional units of a digital computer. What does this pattern represent when interpreted as a binary number? What does it represent as an ASCII code? Consider a computer that has a byte-addressable memory organized in 32-bit words according to the big-endian scheme. operations on stack. 06 13. 2’s. 08 4. as signed.e. 08 3. linked-list and array data structures. is it possible to tell whether this pattern represents a machine instruction or a number? A memory byte location contains the pattern 00101100. signed. 04 04 06 12.bit numbers in the following binary formats: a) Sign-and-magnitude b) 1’s complement c) 2’s complement (a) Convert the following pairs of decimal numbers to 5-bit. Do not destroy the contents of either location A or B. Multiply.

The array will be stored in the memory of a computer one row after another. b) Calculate the values of the constants k1 and k2 in the expression k1+k2n. occupying a fixed region of k bytes. The IN pointer keeps track of the location where the next byte is to be appended to the queue and the OUT pointer keeps track of the location containing the next byte to be removed from the queue. 16. but at different times. (b) Copy the fifth item from the top into register R3. j). R4 R4. where i=0 through n – 1 is the row index. R0 R3 LOOP R0. Register R5 is used in a program to point to the top of a stack. R3 R0 (R1)+. A FIFO queue of bites is to be implemented in the memory.R5 Consider an array of numbers A (i.30(R1. and them.” Devise a simple computational task to show the validity of this statement for a processor that has four registers compared to another that has only two registers. What is the effective address of the memory operand in each of the following instructions? (a) load 20(R). DOTPROD 08 LOOP 15. The indices x and y are passed to the subroutine in registers R1 and R2. Registers R1 and R2 of a computer contains the decimal values 1200 and 4600. leaving the sum elements in column y. and Autodecrement addressing modes to perform each of the following tasks: (a) Pop the top two items off the stack. indicating what they point to in the data structure. 4th Semester CS 44 . The two instructions Load and Store are used to transfer operands between registers and the memory. 18. an IN pointer and an OUT pointer. ORIGIN 1000 DATAWORD 300 and move #300. (c) Remove the top ten items from the stack. one operand of an instruction can be in memory. “Having a large number of processor registers makes it possible to reduce the number of memory accesses needed to perform complex tasks. Assume that each instruction occupies a single word. a) As data items are added to the queue. element by element. with elements of elements of each row occupying m successive word locations. which represents the number of memory accesses required to execute your program for Part a. R5 b) move #3000. Both of the following statements cause the value 300 to be stored in location 1000. Write a subroutine for adding column x to column y. and then push the result onto the stack. Rewrite the dot product program above for an instruction set in which the arithmetic and logic operators can only be applied to operands in processor registers. Write a sequence of instructions using the Index. including instruction word fetches. and j=0 through m-1 is the column index. Use a simple diagram to illustrate your answer.14. c) Show that if the state of the queue is described only by the two pointers. Assume that the memory is byte-addressable and that the word length is 32 bits. 19. they are added at successively higher addresses until the end of the memory region is reached.E. R2 N. the situations when the queue is completely full and completely empty are 05 06 06 05 06 08 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Any of the addressing modes in table 1 can be used. 20. You need two pointers. R5 f) subtract (R1)+. a) Move Move Move Clear Move Multiply Add Decrement Branch>0 Move #AVEC. The parameters n and m are passed to the subroutine in registers R3 and R4.R5 c) store d) add R5. when a new item is to be added to the queue? b) Choose a suitable definition for the IN and OUT pointers.0) is passed in register R0. At most. and the address of element A (0. 1000 Explain the difference. Autoincrement. R1 #BVEC. What happens next.R2) (e) add -(R2). 17. R4 (R2)+.

c) Assembler Directives. b) Assembly language Notation. What is Addressing Mode? Explain various methods with examples. What is a Queue? Write the line of code for its implementation. subroutine SUB1 calls another intermediate routine. 36. To return to the calling program. d) What condition would you add to solve the problem in part c? e) Propose a procedure for manipulating the two pointers IN and OUT to append and remove items from the queue. What is an Instruction? Explain its functionalities. The upper and lower limits of the stack are recorded in memory locations UPPERLIMIT and LOWERLIMIT. CALLSUB saves the return address on a stack. Be careful to inspect and update the state of the queue and the pointers each time an operation is attempted and performed. 25. RETRN. Write the complete execution of Straight Line Sequencing with an example. Explain Big-Endian. it calls an intermediate routine. What are the instructions to manipulate bit wise data? Explain. Write a note on RISC and CISC machines. 38. making sure that the upper limit of the stack is not exceeded. (a) Consider the memory system of a computer storing the following data: Address in Hex Data stored (binary) 2000 00111000 2001 00110100 2002 00110010 2003 00111001 Interpret the storage as numbers in the manner indicated below and find their decimal values in each case. 39. 28. 37. Justify which is better method with examples. 26. 23.21. b) In a memory location associated with the call. 30. 27. 40. What do you understand by stack frame? Discuss their use in sub-routines. CALLSUB. Explain the Instruction Sequencing and its complete execution. 32. 31. a subroutine that calls itself)? The subroutine call instruction of a computer saves the return address in a processor register called the link register. and passes to it the address of SUB1 as a parameter in register R1. 35. What is Stack? Write the line of code to implement the same. Write a piece of code in ALP to implement the student record and compute average. of a 4-digit BCD word. Mention various parameter-passing techniques with examples. respectively. i) Single address instructions in 8-bit CPU’s ii) Double address instruction in 16-bit CPU’s 06 04 05 06 06 06* 05 06 05 05 08* 06 04 06 04 04 06 10* 06 06 06 08 20* P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. indistinguishable. Which of these possibilities supports subroutine nesting and which supports subroutine recursion (that is. Explain various forms of representation of numerical data. of a 4-digit signed hex word iv) Little-endian storage. in ASCII. Consider the queue structure described in the above problem. assuming that the subroutine call instruction saves the return address in a link register. c) On a stack. Write a brief note on Input and output operations with a neat diagram. so that a different location is used when the subroutine is called from different places. 42. i) Big-endian storage of 2 hex words of 4-digits each ii) Big-endian storage of 2 BCD words of 4-digits each iii) Little-endian storage. 43. 4th Semester CS 45 . in ASCII. 33. Write a note on Branching Instruction with reference to the PC. Write the use of ROTATE & SHIFT Instructions with examples. Write APPEND and REMOVE routines that transfer data between a processor register and the queue. Write routine CALLSUB and RETRN. 29.E. RL. Little-Endian assignment and byte addressability. Write notes on: a) Register transfer notation. Consider the following possibilities for saving the return address of a subroutine: a) In a processor register. This routine checks that the stack is not empty and then uses the top element to return to the original calling program. 22. RL. (b) Give reasons to justify using. generally. 24. 34. What would you do to allow subroutine nesting? Would your scheme allow the subroutine to call itself? Assume you want to organize subroutine calls on a computer as follows: When routine Main wishes to call subroutine SUB1. Then it branches to SUB1. Explain SUBROUTINE LINKAGE with example. 41.

What is an Interface? Write a note on its types. Explain different types of arbitration. a) Explain how interrupt request from several I/O devices can be communicated to a processor through a single INTR line. b) Which type of I/O devices is interfaced through DMA? Explain the bus-arbitration process used for DMA. Explain data transfer using PCI Bus. What are assembler directive? Explain any two directives. 62. 08* 46 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. USB and PCI Bus. What is Program Controlled I/O? Explain. What is DMA? Explain. 71. What is Asynchronous Bus Transfer? Explain with a timing diagram. 64. Write a note on addressing scheme used in USB. Write a note on Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus. Consider load/store and 3-address system. 68. iii) Three address instructions in RISC systems In each of these systems give assembly language programs for performing the operation: Data at mem A + Data at mem B -> mem C. 58. Show that a spurious bus-grant pulse will travel down stream from device 3. 60. and about PCI. 77. When the device is finished. direct memory access. Shift and Rotate instructions with examples. 54.44. Why is bus arbitration required? Explain with block diagram bus arbitration using daisy chain. Explain Logical. 48. Write a note on Parallel Interface. Explain how USB operates using split-traffic mode. SCSI and USB buses. What are Vectored Interrupts? Explain. Write a note on Standard Interfaces. Explain SCSI. Write an assembly program to multiply 2 memory arrays and store their result in a third memory array: a(i) * b(i) = c(i) for i=0 to n-1. What is I/O BUS? Explain. Assume device I/O3 requests the bus and begins using it. 73. 74. 10* 06* 06* 06* OBJECTIVE: One of the basic features of a computer is its ability to exchange data with other devices. Differentiate all the three buses. 46. 52. What is Interrupt I/O? Explain how an I/O is serviced? What is an ISR? Write how interrupts are enabled or disabled. What is Priority Interrupts? Explain. 49. 4th Semester CS . 79. 56. interrupts. What is Synchronous Bus Transfer? Explain with a timing diagram. It means computer performs various input/output operations. 05 05 06 08 06* 06 05 06 04 06 04 04 06 08 08 06 04 04 04 04 04 06 05 04 04 04 06 05 04 10* INPUT / OUTPUT ORGANIZATION 78. it deactivates BR3. 61. Explain any two methods of handling multiple I/O devices. Write an assembly language program to solve an expression ax2 + bx + c = 0 using two addressing modes. Explain the USB architecture with a neat diagram.E. 47. 66. 10* 10* 80. data transfer over synchronous and asynchronous buses. 53. 59. Explain different types of data Transfer methods. Write a note on USB protocols. Estimate the width of this pulse. 65. Why does DMA have priority over the CPU when both request a memory transfer? What is bus arbitration? Explain how it is resolved when requested for service by both processor and memory. 45. Explain with a neat diagram the single bus organization. 57. 75. 55. Write a note on SCSI bus signals. 76. 72. 50. 67. Explain the general features of interfacing a parallel I/O port to a processor. Write a note on Serial Interface. 51. 63. Assume the delay from BGi to BGi+1 in any device is d. 70. In this chapter we will learn in detail about how these operations are performed. Consider the daisy chain arrangement shown in figure 3 (available at the end of the Qbank) in which the bus request signal from the I/O is directly fed back as grant signal. We will know about program-controlled I/O using polling. 69. Explain how a read operation is performed using PCI Bus.

Describe the terms latency. Explain the following: a) Effective address b) Logical address c) Virtual address d) Physical address Explain memory management segmentation and paging. Write a block diagram of 256K x 8 memory using 256K x 1 chips. A CPU with a 20-MHz clock is connected to a memory unit whose access time is 40 ns. optical disks and magnetic tapes. 102. Describe the operation of 2M x 8 asynchronous DRAM chip. virtual memory mechanism. 111. Include the address in the timing diagram. Write briefly about Read only memories. Formulate a read and write timing diagrams using a READ strobe and a WRITE strobe. 98. 83. 110. 85. 87. 94. With a block diagram. 103. Obtain the truth table of an 8x3 priority encoder. magnetic disks.81. Explain the memory operations Read and Write. Show how a 8K x 8 memory can be obtained using 2K x 8 chips. 100. Explain the static RAM cell design. Explain the following: a) Primary memory b) Secondary memory c) Tertiary memory d) Block transfer in menu hierarchy. 89. Discuss the organization of 1K x 1 memory cell. Explain the dynamic RAM. Explain the following: a) Multiprogramming b) Page placement and replacement Explain the structure and operation of translation look. 88. Differentiate between internal fragmentation and external fragmentation. 108. 101. 107. 90. 91. 93. 105. organization of the main memory. 96. In this chapter you will learn about basic memory circuits. 99. 114. with reference to cache memory. bandwidth. cache memory. Write a note on virtual memory and give the advantages. Explain the operation of memory hierarchy with block diagram. 4th Semester CS . 106. 109. Explain the following: a) Hit ratio b) Miss ratio c) Cache regime d) Disk regime Differentiate between Miss and Main memory miss. explain how a keyboard is connected to a processor. 92. Assume that the three outputs xyz from the priority encoder are used to provide a vector address of the form 101xyz00. With a suitable block diagram explain the cache swapping function. 82. Design a 4M x 32 module using 512K x 8 memory chips. Write a note on memory expansion. Discuss the main features of SDRAM with a neat diagram. 104. with the help of a neat diagram. List the eight vector addresses starting from the one with the highest priority. mapping function and replacement algorithm. What is refreshing? Explain the concept of refreshing in dynamic memory. How many different addresses can be formulated? 06* 08 10 08 06 04 04 THE MEMORY SYSTEM OBJECTIVE: Programs and the data operated on are stored in the memory of a computer. Show the address lines and control signals required. locality of reference.E. 112. Mention the various memory performance parameters. What programming steps are required to check when a source interrupts the computer while it is still being serviced by a previous interrupt request from the same source? Why are the read and write control lines in a DMA controller bi-directional? Under what condition and for what purpose are they used as inputs? Under what condition and for what purpose are they used as outputs? What is the basic advantage of using interrupt-initiated data transfer over transfer under program control without an interrupt? The address of a terminal connected to a data communication processor consists of two letters of the alphabet or a letter followed by one of the 10 numerals. 113. 95. Explain the Read/Write operation of an SRAM cell designed using CMOS. 84. 86. 97.aside buffer. The execution speed of programs is highly dependent on the speed with which instructions and data can be transferred between the processor and the memory. 08 08 08 05 05 05 08 05 08 05 08 08 08 10 05 08 08 08 06 06 06 06 06 06 08 04 08 47 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Explain the following: a) PROM b) EPROM c) Flash EPROM d) EEPROM Explain the general properties of a 2 level hierarchy.

Consider a system having 512K main memory organized as 16K blocks of 32 words each and a cache memory of 16K arranged as 512 blocks of 32 words each. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. What are the number of bits in TAG. Work out the time saved by using the cache. Describe SDRAM and DDR SDRAM operations for data transfer between main memory and cache memory systems. A set-associative cache consists of 128 blocks divided into 4 block / set. The cache uses direct mapping with a block size of four words. 117. 119. How many bits are there in each word of cache. 131. SET and WORD fields? 118. A computer has L1 and L2 caches. a. 4th Semester CS 06 08 06 05 04 10* 10* 06* 08* 06* 08* 04 06 08 06 06 06 48 . Each segment can have upto 32 pages of 4K words in each. What is the size of the cache memory? 130. block and word fields of the address format? b. 127. What is the data transfer rate in bytes per second at a rotational speed of 6000 rpm? 120. 116. How many address bits are required to access a main memory location? b. How many bits are there in the tag. The time required to access an 8-word block in L1 cache is 1 cycle and in L2 cache is 10 cycles. The high-order bit of the address is used to select a register which receives the contents of the data bus. The logical address space in a computer system consists of 128 segments. a. Formulate the logical and physical address formats. The hit rate is 0. A virtual memory has a page size of 1K words. There are 400 sectors per track with each sector having 512 bytes of data. What is the total capacity of the disk in bytes? b. A digital computer has a memory unit of 64K x 16 and a cache memory of 1K words. 122. When a cache bit occurs for instruction or for data. Formulate all pertinent information required to construct the cache memory. index. for a total of 256K bytes of memory. 2 a. 3 b. The main memory size is 128Kx32. 126. only one clock is needed while the cache miss penalty is 17 clocks to read/write on the main memory. A magnetic disk system has the following parameters: Ts = average time to position the magnetic head over a track R = rotation speed of disk in revolutions per second Nt = number of bits per track Ns = number of bits per sector Calculate the average time Ta that it will take to read one sector. 128. What are the key factors that affect the performance and cost of a computer with respect to memory? Explain briefly.E. 124. The main memory has 8192 blocks each consists of 128 words. 0 Make a list of all virtual addresses (in decimal) that will cause a page fault if used by the CPU. given the total number of instructions executed is 1 million. b. a. 123. Explain how this configuration can be used to extend the memory capacity of the system to eight banks of 32K bytes each. 1 a.95 for both caches. 125.115. 30% of the instructions of which require a memory read or write operation if the cache bit ratio is 0.9 for data. Show how the mapping is done using direct mapping. Explain any two cache mapping functions. Explain the working principles of magnetic disk. and how are they divided into functions? Include a valid bit. Physical memory consists of 4K blocks of 4K words in each. Time needed to access L1 cache is 1 cycle. Consider a disk unit having 24 surfaces and 14000 cylinders. The cache block consists of a 8 words. L2 cache is 10 cycles and main memory is 50 cycles. A two-way set associative cache memory uses blocks of four words. The first 15 lines of the address are used to select a bank of 32K bytes of memory.95 for instructions and 0. An 8-bit computer has a 16-bit address bus. How read and write operation takes place in 1KX 1 memory chip? Explain. Discuss how read and write operations are carried out in a cache memory. Calculate the average access time experienced by the processor. How many blocks can the cache accommodate? 129. The associative memory page table contains the following entries: Page Block a. The cache can accommodate a total of 2048 words from main memory. Consider a processor running a program. c. There are eight pages and four blocks. a. 121.

243F6A8885A308D3… Work out the IEEE standard representation (IEEE standard 754-1985) of ∏ in single and double precision formats. Y = 11111 b) X = 1001.725 b) –25. Calculate the time required to generate the sum and output carry assuming a CUP frequency of 100 MHz. Y = 10010 Represent the following decimal numbers using IEEE standard floating point notation. Y = 1101 b) X = 1110. What is your observation in each case? a) A = 010111. B = 001110 d) A = 001101. The numbers are represented using 7-bits including the sign bit. 139. Give the procedure for floating-point multiplication and division. Is there any improvement in performance? Write a note on IEEE standard for floating-point numbers. Give the Pseudocode for multiplying 2 m-digit unsigned integers. 135. perform the operations AxB and A÷B on the given set of 5-bit unsigned numbers a) A = 10101. The range of A and B is from 0 to 9.125 c) –0. ‘6’. a) X = 0101.. 4th Semester CS . 145. a) +25 and +38 b) +33 and +51 c) –24 and +63 d) –23 and –57 e) –12 and –40 f) –62 and +18 Show how to implement a full adder using half-adders and external logic gates. What is your observation in each case? a) A = 010111. B = 011111 c) A = 001110. Explain floating-point addition and subtraction with a suitable example and also give the h/w structure for that. Explain 2’s complement multiplier with suitable block diagram. X is the multiplier and Y is the multiplicand. ‘3’. B = 110110 b) A = 111000. 154. 10 151.08125 d) +45 The hexadecimal value of ∏ is 3. 08 05 08 05 08 05 06 141. The inputs are A = A3 A2A1A0 and B = B3B2B1B0 and a carry-in. B = 010101 Show the sequential multiplication process for each of the following pairs of numbers. What would the layout of the following data structure be in little-endian and big-endian machines? char d[7]. What is the memory layout of the 16-bit value. Design a BCD adder for adding 2 decimal digits using 4-bit binary adder and external logic gates. B = 001110 d) A = 001101. 147. In this chapter we learn about design of arithmetic and logic unit viz. 137. 06 08 08 10* 49 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. B = 011111 c) A = 001110. a. Perform addition and subtraction on the following pairs of numbers represented in 2’scomplement format. and a little-endian 16-bit machine? b. Design a 16-bit adder using 4-bit carry-lookahead adder blocks. Work out the multi level look-ahead carry scheme for doing a 32-bit number addition. 134.132. A is the multiplicand and B is the multiplier. How many logic gates are required? Using longhand methods. Calculate the time required to generate the sum and output carry assuming a CUP frequency of 100 MHz. 149. 146. 142. ‘7’ byte array */ 05 04 ARITHMETIC UNIT OBJECTIVE: A basic operation in all digital computers is the addition or subtraction of two numbers. Multiplications. 143. Y = 0111 Perform the operation of division using a) restoring and b) non-restoring method on the following pairs of numbers. 138. 152. Write the procedure for integer division for dividing (101101)2 (45)10 by (000110)2 (6)10. B = 01000 Multiply each of the following pairs of signed 2’s – complement numbers using Booth Algorithm. They are implemented along with basic logic functions. 148. 144. 08 06 10* 08 10 08* 08 06 08 150. 153.. 140. a) +1. What would the layouts be in 32-bit machines? 133. ABCDH in a big-endian 16-bit machine. Arithmetic operations occur at the machine instruction level. a) X = 0101. verify whether overflow has occurred or not. B = 00101 b) A = 11001. ‘2’. cin bit. /* ‘1’. representation of Floating point numbers in IEEE standards and its implementation. ‘5’. etc. X is the divisor and Y is the dividend. ‘4’. How many gate delays are required to do the complete addition in this method? Design a 16-bit adder using 4-bit ripple-carry adder blocks.E. B = 110110 b) A = 111000. Explain 2’s complement Adder/ Subtracter with a suitable block diagram. booth’s algorithm. In each case. A is the multiplicand and B is the multiplier. B = 010101 Multiply each of the following pairs of signed 2’s – complement numbers using bit-paring of the multipliers. 136. Write the complete logic diagram of 4-bit carry-lookahead adder. Adders.

register transfer. READ . (+35) + (+40) b. which executes machine instructions and coordinates the activities of other units. Assume that each instruction consists of two words. Show that this statement implies that no overflow can occur in the multiplication operation. Design a 3-bit carry lookahead adder and determine the maximum number of gates between any input and each of the four outputs (3 sum bits and a carry) 160. Use seven bits to accommodate each number together with its sign. 158. and executing instructions of a program. respectively. Perform the arithmetic operations below with binary numbers and with negative numbers in signed-2’s complement representation. In each case. b) Add the contents of memory location NUM to register R1. Read 5 R1out . Assume that a memory read or write operation takes the same time as one internal processor step and that both the processor and the memory are controlled by the same clock.Select Y. Zin 7 Zout . 156. R1in . 12* 06 06 04 08 08 OBJECTIVE: A typical computing task consists of a series of steps specified by a sequence of machine instructions that constitute a program.3 and 2 ns. Explain the working of the algorithm taking an example. Step Action 1 PCout . 06 06 50 . MARin . determine if there is an overflow by checking the carries into and out of the sign bit position. Estimate the execution time of this sequence. and the second word contains the number NUM. (-35) + (-40) c. Add. sign-magnitude integer 159. Assume that propagation delays along the bus and through the ALU of figure 1 are 0. PCin . Prove that the multiplication of two n-digit numbers in base r gives a product no more than 2n digits in length. End Consider the add instruction that has the control sequence given above. Yin . (Refer figure 4) P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. 2’s complement integer d. In this chapter we learn about the processor’s internal structure and how it performs the tasks of fetching.Yin .155. 4th Semester CS BASIC PROCESSING UNIT 04 04 04 06 165. What is the minimum clock period needed? 164. Zin 2 Zout . The set up time for the registers is 0. assuming that a memory read operation takes 16 ns to complete? What percentage of time is the processor idle during execution of this instruction? 166.WMFC 3 MDRout . control unit–design of hardwired & microprogram sequencing. The processor is driven by a continuously running clock. a. Show the control steps for the Branch on Negative instruction for a processor with threebus organization of the data path. c) Add the contents of the memory location whose address is at memory location NUM to register R1. Add. How many gate delays are there in the longest path from some input to some output of a 64-bit adder using 4-bit carry lookahead groups and a multiple level structure? Compare with the longest path for a 64-bit ripple carry adder. fundamental concepts. microinstruction with next–address field. 161. WMFC 6 MDRout . Select4. decoding. unsigned integer b. The first word specifies the operation and the addressing mode. such that each control step is 2 ns in duration how long will the processor have to wait in steps 2 and 5. 1’s complement integer c. execution of instruction.E. 163. MARin .2 ns and the hold time is 0. Give Booth’s algorithm to multiply two binary numbers. Write the sequence of control steps required for the bus structure in figure 1 in each of the following instructions: a) Add the immediate number NUM to register R1. Why is the Wait-for-memory-function-completed step needed for reading from or writing to the main memory? 162. What decimal value does the binary word 1010 1111 0101 0100 have when it represents an a. (-35) – (+40) 157. IRin 4 R3out . In this chapter we focus on the processing unit.

183. 173. control word and control store. microroutine. 178. The multiplexer and feed back connection in figure 2 eliminates the need for gating the clock input as a means of enabling and disabling register input. 181. a.E. Add the contents of a memory location whose address is at memory location NUM to register R1. Write the control sequence for the operation Sub R2. Write a microroutine for the instruction MOV X (Rsrc). Rsrcin μBranch {µPC MDRout . MARin . microoperation. Read. 179. End 170. Discuss the internal and external operations performed in a computer system. for the instruction MOV X (Rsrc). SelectY. A BGT (Branch if>0) machine instruction has the expression Z+(N +V)=0 as its branch condition. 177. WMFC MDRout . Zin 001 002 003 121 122 123 170 171 172 173 Zout . PCin . Rdstin .167. Read. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hardwired and microprogrammed control? 171. show the complete action of the CPU in fetching and executing the instruction.MARin. 180. R4 of the three-bus organization of a processor. Rdst (octal) 000 PCout . μPC5. Rdst when the source and destination operands are specified in index and register addressing modes respectively. Discuss how unconditional branching is taken into account in a control sequence. 175. Add the contents of memory location NUM to register R1 and storing the result in NUM. WMFC 08 06 169. 174. Add. Discuss the need for gating signals with an example. μPC3 [IR10 ] · [IR9 ] · [IR8]} Rsrcout .9 ]. 170. Select4. explain the problems that may arise if clock gating were used. Explain single bus organization of the processor. 4th Semester CS 51 . Define the following terms: microinstruction. 172. Write a microroutine that can implement this instruction. b. Discuss two types of microinstructions. Address Microinstruction for Add (Rsrc)+. Show the basic organization of a CPU in terms of registers and other units for a single bus data path CPU. Add. Using a timing diagram. explain three-bus organization of the processor. Write the sequence of control steps required to perform the following operations in a single bus structure. c. R3. such as the one shown below. 08 06 08 06 04 06 06 04 06 04 08 10 06 04 06 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Zin Zout . 168.μPC0 [IR8]}. In such a CPU. 176. Describe how field encoding of microinstructions is implemented? 182. MARin . Yin . Rdst. Select4. where Z. Describe the organization of microprogrammed control unit. WMFC MDRout . N and V are the zero. Discuss the organization of hardwired control unit. Zin Zout . Show the circuitry needed to test the condition codes. Write a microroutine. Add. IRin µBranch {μPC<--101 (from instruction decoder).Yin Rdstout . negative and overflow condition flags respectively. With the help of a neat sketch. Read. Add an immediate number VALUE to register R1 and storing the result in R1.4 [IR10.

Direct b. we learn about embedded applications and microcontrollers for embedded systems. of Questions 34 23 68 49 19 01 01 195 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. Indicate the control signals to be used at each stage of execution.184. If there are 250 two-address instructions. State how Z is calculated from the other addresses if the addressing mode of the instruction is a. In such a CPU. 194. 10* 10* 06* 04 06 04 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS OBJECTIVE: Computer systems are used in a myriad of applications. A computer has 32-bit instructions and 12-bit addresses. sizes. 187. OR and XOR with the two binary strings 10011100 and 10101010. Explain the basic concepts of micro programmed control. 191. c) Field Programmable Gate Array [FPGA] d) Interrupt Control mechanism. In this chapter. Load R1 from memory data at A. R1 and explain. Show the basic organization of a CPU in terms of registers and other units for a single bus data path CPU. therefore they come in a variety of organizations. The operand used during the execution of the instruction is stored at an address symbolized by Z. b) System design approaches. 05 06* 10* 08 08 08 Marks 04 05 06 08 10 12 20 Total No. 192. Explain the applications of Embedded systems. With a neat block diagram explain digital camera. An index register contains the value X. Indirect c.E. Perform the logic AND. 195. Show the control sequences for execution of Add (R3). 190. Indexed 189. A two-word instruction is stored in memory at an address designated by the symbol W. What is Embedded Processor? Explain. 193. With a neat block diagram explain the working of a microwave oven system. how many one-address instructions can be formulated? 188. 186. show the complete action of CPU in fetching and executing the instruction. 185. and capabilities. Assume the instruction is in one process or word. 4th Semester CS 52 . Write short notes on: a) Embedded Processor Families and its features. The address field of the instruction (stored at W+1) is designated by the symbol Y. where A is a memory address. Write the Organization of Micro controller with a neat diagram. A physical system that employs computer control for a specific purpose rather than for general-purpose computation is referred to as an embedded system. Relative d.

4th Semester CS 53 .E.P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.

Increment Ri Decrement Ri. Three-b organization of the datapath Table1. Assembler syntax #Value Ri LOC (Ri) (LOC) X(Ri) (Ri. Generic addressing modes Name Immediate Register Absolute (Direct) Indirect Index Base with Index Base with Index and offset Relative Autoincrement Autodecrement Figure 4.Bus A Bus B Incrementer PC Bus C Register file Constant 4 MU X A ALU B Instruction decoder IR MDR R MAR Memory bus data lines Address lines Figure 4.E. Rj) X(Ri. Three-b us org anization of the datapath. Rj) X(PC) (Ri)+ -(Ri) Addressing function Operand = Value EA = Ri EA = LOC EA = [Ri] EA = [LOC] EA = [Ri] + X EA = [Ri] + [Rj] EA = [Ri] + [Rj] + X EA = [PC] + X EA = [Ri]. 4th Semester CS 54 . EA = [Ri] P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B.

Implement the following operations by overloading the operator == which checks the compatibility of two matrices to be added and subtracted. 4. Implement the following operation by overloading the operators + and -. 4th Semester CS 55 . 5. ii. Declare an array of 10 STUDENT objects. Name. Implement the following operator by overloading the operators + and -. } else display error. Also display the contents of the stack after each. i. Write a c++ program to create a class called DATE. LIST OF PROGRAMS Given that an EMPLOYEE class contains following members: Data members: Employee_number. 8.2 3 4 5 6 7 13 8 9 11 10 12 14 15 Sl 1.E. operation. d2=d1+no_of_days. where s1 is an object of the class stack. to calculate Net_Sal and to print data members. ii. where s1 is an object of class stack and element is an integer to be pushed on the top of the stack. d1 >= d2 and no_of_days is an integer. By overloading the operator <<. Define a STUDENT class with USN. Write C++ program to create a class called COMPLEX and implement the following overloading functions ADD that return a COMPLEX number. s2) – where s1 and s2 are complex numbers. After every operation display the results by overloading the operator <<. Write a C++ program to create a class called LIST (linked list) with member functions to insert an element at the front as well as to delete an element from the front of the list. Display the results by overloading the operator <<. Name and the average marks of all the students. Employee_Name. i. 2. If(m1==m2) { m3=m1+m2. DA. Accept two valid dates in the form DD/MM/YY. P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. s2) – where a is an integer (real part) and s2 is a complex number. Handle the stack empty and stack full conditions. 6. Basic. where d1 and d2 are date objects. find the average of two better marks for each student. Net_Sal Member functions: to read the data. ADD (a. s1= s1 . s1=s1 + element. Write a c++ program to create class called stack using an array of integers. 3. Perform the addition and subtraction by overloading the operators + and . (DA)=52% of Basic and Income Tax (IT) = 30% of the gross salary). – operator pops the element . ADD (s1. ii.CSEL 47: OOPS LAB Class # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Programs Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program Program No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: No: 1. 7. i. IT. where d1 is a date object and no_of_days is an integer. m4=m1-m2. Demonstrate all the functions after creating a list object. no_of_days= d1-d2. Write a c++ program to read the data of N employees and compute Net_Sal of each employee. Using appropriate functions. Write a c++ program to crate a template function for quick sort and demonstrate sorting of integers and doubles.respectively. and Marks in 3 tests of a subject. Write a c++ program to create a class called MATRIX using a two dimensional array of integers.. Print the USN.

In y=h+k. Write a c++ program to create class called expression. Find the semester wise average age for all ug and pg students separately. 11. 13. i. Display the octal result by overloading operator <<. Write a c++ program to create a class called string and implement the following operations.(use copy constructor) Write a c++ program to create a class called bin_tree (binary tree) with member functions to perform inorder. Demonstrate the operations by displaying the content of the queue after every operation. implement a queue of integer and double.E.name and age. Write a c++ program to create class called STUDENT with a data members usn. Enter the for atleast five students. Implement the following operations by writing an appropriate constructor and an overloaded operator +. Using appropriate member function convert a given valid infix expression to postfix form. also display the value of h and y. 12. 15. i. STRING s2=”BELGAUM” iii. Write a c++ program to create class called DLIST (doubly linked list) with member functions to insert a node a specified position and delete a node form specified position of the list. 14. Using these member functions. NOTES P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. ii. Demonstrate the operations by displaying the content of the list after every operation. 4th Semester CS 56 . preorder and postorder traversals. Write a c++ program to create class called QUEUE with member functions to add an element and to delete an element from the queue. Create a bin_tree object and demonstrate their traversals. where h is an octal object and k is an integer. hwre x is an integer. Octal h=x. Write a c++ program to create a class called OCTAL which has the characteristics of an octal number. fees and stipend. Display the infix and postfix expressions. 10. STRING s3=s1+s2. Display the results after every operation by overloading the operator <<. Using inheritance creates the classes’ ugstudent and pgstudent hasving fields as semester.9. STRING s1=”VTU” ii.

Program no: 5b.s2. Program no: 5a. Find a subset of a given set s={s1. a) Implement Horspool algorithm for String matching. a) Print all nodes reachable from a given starting node in a digraph using Breadth first search. b) Implement all pairs shortest paths problem using Floyd’s algorithm. a) Obtain topological ordering of vertices in a given digraph. Dynamic Programming. Decrease & Conquer. a) Sort a given set of elements using merge sort.8}. Implement N queens problem. 14b. Divide & Conquer Program no: 1. Greedy Technique Program no: 12b. Program no: 2. b) Check whether a given digraph is connected or not using DFS method. Sl. Sort a given set of elements using selection sort and hence find the time required to sort the elements. find shortest paths to other vertices using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Divide & Conquer. 3b. 6. Transform & Conquer.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 LIST OF PROGRAMS Perform recursive binary search & linear search. 4th Semester CS 57 .CSEL48: ALGORITHMS LAB Class no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Programs Brute Force.E. 13. Greedy Technique Program no: 7. a) Print all the nodes reachable from a given starting node in a given digraph using DFS method.6. there are 2 solutions {1. Coping with Limitations Program no: 15.…. b) Sort a given set of elements using insertion sort method. 9. Hence find the time required to search an element.6} and {1. Implement 0/1 knapsack problem using dynamic programming. 14a. 11. From a given vertex in a weighted connected graph.5. 12 13 14 15 P E S Institute of Technology – Education for the Real World – Course Information – B. b) Find the binomial coefficient using Dynamic programming. Sort a given set of elements using heap sort method.n} of n positive integers whose sum is equal to a given positive integer d. 3a. 10a Decrease & Conquer.10b. A suitable message is to be displayed if the given problem instance doesn’t have a solution. Space & time trade offs.8} and d=9. 12a. Dynamic programming Program no. Program no: 4. For example if S={1. Find Minimum-spanning tree of a given undirected graph using Prims algorithm. b) Compute the transitive closure of a given directed graph using Warshall’s algorithm. Sort a given set of elements using Quick sort method.2. Find the minimum spanning tree of a given undirected graph using Kruskal’s algorithm. 8.

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