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American Psychological

Association [APA] Citation

Based on the APA Manual 6th Edition
ISBN-13 : 781433805615

© 2014 Grand Canyon University 1

Table of Contents

 Paper Format
 Slides 4-10
 In-Text Citations
 Slides 11-42
 References
 Slides 43-85

APA Websites

American Psychological Association. (2012). APA style. Retrieved from
The OWL at Purdue. (2012). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved
The Writing Center @ The University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2011). APA
documentation guide. Retrieved from

Formatting a Scholarly
Part 1

Format: Basics

 Font: Times New Roman, 12 point.

 1 space after periods.
 Margins, 1.0” all around.
 Jagged right-edge text alignment: Do not justify.
 Left margin can be l.5 inches if instructor has
requested the paper to be bound.
 Everything is double-spaced, including quotes and
reference page.
Format: Spelling and Word Usage

 To ensure compliance with APA style requirements,

use the current Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate
Dictionary as a default for spelling words. The
dictionary can also be used as a resource for
hyphenation, capitalization, etc.

Format: Title Page

 Include author’s name (byline) and institutional

 Author’s name should include full first name, middle
initial, and last name.
 Affiliation identifies the location where the author, or
authors, conducted the investigation. If there is no
institutional affiliation, list the city and state of the
author’s residency below the author’s name.
 For GCU students the affiliation should be Grand Canyon
University followed by the course prefix and number.
Format: Title Page

 Page numbers start with title page by setting

header feature in your software. Page number is
flush right.
 Running heads should include several words from
title. For specific guidelines on formatting running
heads, refer to the APA Manual (2010), pp. 229-230.
 See example of a title page in APA Manual (2010), p.
Format: Elements in Series

 Series in a sentence
 To identify elements of a series within a paragraph, use
lowercase letters in parentheses, for example:

The participant's three choices were (a) working with

another participant, (b) working with a team, and (c)
working alone. (APA, 2010, p. 64)

Format: Numbers

 Use figures for numbers 10 and above (12 of the

subjects); for numbers above and below 10 grouped for
comparison (2 of 16 responses); for numbers
representing time, dates, and age (3 years ago, 2 hours
15 minutes); for numbers denoting a specific place in a
series, book, or table (Table 3, Group 3, page 32).
 Use words for numbers below 10 that do not represent
precise measurements (eight items, nine pages); for
numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (Forty-
eight percent responded; Ten subjects improved, and 4
subjects did not).

In-Text Citations

Part 2

In-Text Citations

 When you use material from a source, you need to

document that source. All quotations, paraphrases,
and summaries must be cited in text.
 Using material from a source without citing that
source is considered plagiarism; please reference
GCU’s policy on plagiarism in the University Policy

In-Text Citations

 Two things to remember above all:

 If an entry appears in text, it must have a corresponding
entry in the Reference list unless it is a “personal
communication” or a “major classical work.” Similarly, if
an item appears in the References, then it must be cited
somewhere in text.
 Enough information must be given in text for the reader
to locate the item on the Reference list without

In-Text Citations

 Authority
AARCTIC  Accountability
 Credibility
 Trustworthiness
 Confidence
In-Text Citations

 Purpose: In-text citations give the author

the AARCTIC without the frostbite of

 Consequently, any borrowed information,

whether quoted directly, summarized, or
paraphrased must exhibit a clear indication
of its origin.
In-Text Citations

 Include as much of the following information

in a citation within the body of a paper as possible:
 Author
 Absence of an author allows the use of a truncated version of the
source document’s title.
 Copyright Year
 Location within the source document (e.g., page, paragraph,
or section number).
 Summaries and paraphrases do not necessarily require the
location element, but it is not wrong to include it.
 Standard in-text citation: (Author’s last name, year, p. #)
In-Text Citations: Authors

 General Rules:
 An author mentioned within the body of a sentence can
include a first name, if desired.
 Only surnames are represented in a parenthetical citation.
 If two or more authors share the surname, then use first and
middle initials to differentiate them. For example:
 Sentence body: A. B. Smith (2004) contradicted C. D. Smith
(2006) when she said…
 Parenthetical: (Smith, A. B., 2004) (Smith, C. D., 2006).
(Note: inverted name order and the space between the
In-Text Citations: Authors

 One or two authors:

 Always use the surnames of both authors throughout
the paper.
 Always cite authors in the order they appear on the
source material.
 Multiple author punctuation:
 Authors of a source mentioned within a sentence use the
word “and.”
 Authors represented in the parenthetical use the
ampersand (&) (APA, 2010, p. 175).

In-Text Citations: Authors

 Three to five authors:

 Cite all authors the first time a reference occurs within
an entire paper; subsequent citations require only the
surname of the first author followed by “et al.”
(Note: there is no period following the “et” but there is
a period after the “al.”)

In-Text Citations: Authors

 Six or more authors:

 Cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et
(Note: There is no period following the “et” but there is a
period after the “al.”)
 No author
 Use a few words of the item’s title or the entire title (if it
is short) in place of the author.
 Use quotation marks (for article) or italics (for book)
around the title identifier.
In-Text Citations: Authors

 Groups as authors.
 Corporations, associations, government agencies, study
groups, etc.
 Usually spelled out each time they are used in-text.

 Remember: The key is to be absolutely sure that the reader

can match an in-text citation to its entry in the reference

In-Text Citations: Authors

 Groups as authors, continued.

 Familiar or readily-understandable acronyms and abbreviations
can be used in the second and subsequent citations, but it
must be established as follows:
 First text citation:
 (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999).
(Note: The use of brackets avoids nested parentheses.)
 The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) was founded…
Note: The use of parentheses to establish the acronym when not
nested within a set of parentheses.
 Subsequent citations:
 (NIMH, 1999).

In-Text Citations: Authors

 Anonymous vs. Unknown:

 Authors are only ever referred to as anonymous when
they have chosen to be so.
 In-text citation will list the author in the parenthetical as
 Reference list will list the author as Anonymous.
 An author is unknown when there is no identifying
information at all.
 In-text citation will replace the author designation with one
or two words from the title of the work.
 Reference list will promote the title of the work to the
location of the author.

In-Text Citations: Dates

 Placement of the date in a citation is always directly

linked to the mention of the author.
 If the author’s name appears in the signal phrase, follow
it immediately by a parenthetical representation of the

In-Text Citations: Dates

 Four-digit year is standard.

 Add alphabetical designation for works by the same
author published in the same year.
 Example: (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c).
 Use “n.d.” for no date.
 This is only acceptable if no date is represented
anywhere on a work, website, etc.
 Use periods after the n and the d, and do not put a
space between the two.

In-Text Citations: Page Numbers

 Provide a location reference (e.g., page numbers, or

“part” references) for all direct quotations.
 There is a space between the location reference
designation and its number or title.
 Notations and Abbreviations:
 Page: p.
 Pages: pp.
 Paragraph: para.

In-Text Citations: Examples

 (Sadler, Fine, & Grace, 1999)

 (Cheek & Hoa, 1981, p. 332)*
 (Cheek & Hoa, 1981, pp. 332-333)*
 (Bow, 2000, para. 1)

* Note: There is no comma between the first author and

the ampersand when there are only two authors in the
In-Text Citations: Personal

 Includes anything from letters, memos, e-mail,

telephone conversations, personal interviews, etc.
 Because it is nonretrievable data, personal
communications do not appear in the References list.
They appear in-text only.
(Note: Personal communications can be called into
question for validity and credibility. Use this type of source

In-Text Citations: Personal

 Provide the initials, the surname, and provide as exact

a date as possible.
 J. Burnitz (personal communication, September 20,
2007) indicated …
 A recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication,
September 20, 2007) revealed the reluctance …

In-Text Citations: Capitalization

 Applies to Titles and Headings.

 Capitalize major words.
 Conjunctions, articles, and prepositions are not
considered major.
 Capitalize all words of four letters or more.
 Capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound.
 Capitalize the first word after a colon or dash. (APA,
2010, p. 101).

In-Text Citations: Quotes

 Definition:
A precise, word-for-word, punctuation-for-punctuation, error-
for-error reproduction of source material for use in one’s own

In-Text Citations: Quotes –
Signal Phrases

 Signal Phrases (It’s only polite!)

 Signal phrases introduce the quote, or provide
information relevant to the citation that can then be
omitted from the parenthetical insertion.
 Though the placement and appearance may differ,
ALWAYS use a signal phrase to signal a reader about
information borrowed from a source.
 Think of it as avoiding “quote bombing,” or dropping of
self-contained, unannounced quotations.

In-Text Citations: Signal Phrases

 Signal phrases may require an in-text citation to be

broken apart
 Standard citation: (Author’s last name, year, p. #).
 Author in signal phrase:
 Schwartz (2003) contended, “…” (p. 3).
 Research (Cummings, 2002) suggested that “…” (para. 2),
but there are still conclusions yet to be reached.
(Note: A comma is not needed before a quote when a quotation
falls seamlessly into the flow of the sentence.)

In-Text Citations: Short Quotes

 Short quotes with fewer than 40 words are

incorporated into text and enclosed by double
quotation marks.
 Parenthetical citations appear after the end quotation
marks, but before the final punctuation, such as a
period or a comma.
 Citation information not contained within a signal
phrase immediately follows the quote after the end
double quotation marks, no matter where it appears
in the sentence.

In-Text Citations: Block Quote

 Used for 40 words or more (APA, 2010, pp. 92, 171).

 Indent the entire quotation one tab, or the same as an
indentation at the beginning of a regular paragraph (half
 If the block quote incorporates more than one paragraph,
indent the first line of the subsequent paragraphs an
additional tab (equal to one half inch).
 Do not use quotation marks at the beginning and end of a
block quote.
 Parenthetical citation appears after the final punctuation mark
within the block quote. 35
In-Text Citations: Block Quote

Miele (1993) found the following:

The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in
previous studies disappeared when behaviors were
studied in this manner. The behaviors were not
exhibited again even when real drugs were given. (p.
(Note: The use of double quotes within the block quote is
permissible, and the comma appears within the double
quotation marks.
In-Text Citations: Quotes

 Altering the appearance of quotations is permissible

with the appropriate notation.
 Errors in the Original text.
 Because quotations must be an exact duplication of
original material, sometimes it is necessary to indicate
the legitimacy of the reproduction, such as a special
spelling or an error that appears in the original.
 Insert [sic] immediately after the error appears within
the quote.
In-Text Citations: Quotes

 Omission:
 For an omission of a word or words, use the ellipses
(. . .), not 3 periods in a row.
 If the omission appears in the middle of a sentence, use
only the three period ellipses.
 If the omission appears at the end of a sentence in the
quote, use a four-period ellipses to indicate that the final
point is the end of the sentence.
 Do not use ellipses at the very beginning or at the very end
of a quotation.

In-Text Citations: Quotes

 Inserting material
 Use brackets, not parentheses, to enclose inserted
material, such as additions or explanations.
 Adding emphasis
 If you want to emphasize a word or words anywhere in
an APA paper, italicize them. Do not put them in
quotations marks or use a bold font.
 Within a quote, insert the bracketed tag [italics added]
immediately after the italicized words.

In-Text Citations: Quotes

 Alterations to quotations that do not require a

 Making the first letter of the first word in a quotation
uppercase or lower case depending on the context.
 Change ending punctuation to fit the syntax.

In-Text Citations:
Summaries and Paraphrases

 Borrowed information that is not reproduced

verbatim must be changed significantly in wording
and structure when used in-text.
 It must still be cited using the rules previously
mentioned, though a location reference (e.g., page or
paragraph number) is not mandatory.
 Signal phrases are not mandatory for all paraphrases
and summaries, but it is still wise to use them.

In-Text Citations: Visuals

 Tables vs. Figures

 Tables typically display exact values or comparisons and
figures display qualitative data like pictures, graphs and
drawings. They are labeled differently. Table labels are
displayed above the table and labels for the figures are
displayed below the figure. For examples, see APA, 2010,
pp. 52-53.

Part 3


 Purpose:
 References are the map to the AARCTIC.
 References provide readers the path to directly access
any and all source materials used within a document.
 Bear in mind: Knowing the basics and finding the
patterns behind APA citations will make it easier to
cope with all of the “exceptions.”

References: Must-Haves

 Elements represented in Reference entries in order of importance:

 Author
 Editor
 Copyright date
 Title of work directly ascribed to the author
 Edition
 Title of “harboring” entity (e.g., magazine, journal name,
newspaper, website, etc.)
 Publication information
 Publisher information
 Volume and issue number
 Page numbers
 Retrieval address or location (e.g., DOI number, website URL,
or housing database)
References: Cardinal Rule

 Remember the Cardinal Rule: References cited in text

must appear in the References list; conversely, each
entry in the References list must be cited in text.

References: Format

 Begin the reference list on a new page.

 Using “References” as the title or “Reference” if there is
only a single source:
 Title is center aligned.
 If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type
References on sequential pages, simply continue the list.
 For each entry, use a hanging indent: The first line is flush
left with remaining lines of the reference note indented a
half inch.
 Alphabetize entries by author’s last name.
 Double space.
 Use one space after all punctuation.
Sample References Page


Elkind, D. (1978). The child's reality: Three developmental

themes. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Issac, G. (1995). Is solar disorder timed? Adolescents, 30(118),

References: Authors

 Single Author
 Use only a complete surname and the first and middle initials
of any author.
 Surname appears first followed by a comma.
 First initial – period – space – middle initial – period – space.
 Multiple Authors
 Invert the order of the surnames and the initials of all authors.
 Separate authors from one another with a comma.
 Use an ampersand (&) before the last author.

References: Authors

 Editor with no author.

 Place and represent the editor’s name as if it were the author.
 Immediately follow the name with (Ed.). for a single editor and
(Eds.). when there is more than one editor.
(Note: The E is capitalized, there is a period after the abbreviation
and a period after the closing parentheses.)
 No author or editor:
 Promote the title of the piece to main importance.
 Alphabetize by the first word of the title that is not an article
(e.g., the, a, an).

References: Authors

 Same Author Variables

 Same author, same year
 Apply an alphabetized designation immediately after the
 Use this identifier in-text, as well.
 Arrange alphabetically by title.

Jones, J. R. (2001a). Control….
Jones, J. R. (2001b). Roles of ….
References: Authors

 Same Author Variables

 Same Authors, Different Year of Publication: List by
publication date, from earliest to most recent.
 Jones, J. R. , & Wright, K. (2000).
 Jones, J. R. , & Wright, K. (2001).

References: Publication Dates

 Give (in parentheses) the year the work was

published immediately after the author information.
 A period belongs after the end parentheses.
 Standard.
 (1995).
 Monthly items.
 (1995, January).
(Note: All months must be completely spelled out. Do not

References: Publication Dates

 Daily and weekly items.

 (1995, June 5).
 Any work accepted for publication, but not yet
 (in press).
 Work with no available date.
 (n.d.).

References: Titles

 Initial Capitalization
 Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a
colon, and proper nouns in titles of books and articles.
 Agony and you: How to survive really long, dry presentations.
 Do not capitalize the second word of a hyphenated
compound. (APA, 2010, p. 185)

References: Titles

 Do not use quotation marks or underlining as title

 Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and
 Note: For articles in periodicals, the rules of capitalization and
italicizing are split between the title of the article and the title
of the periodical:
 Use special capitalization rules for the actual article, but do
not italicize.
 Italicize the name of the periodical, but use the standard
Heading capitalization rules.

References: Titles

 Title components within a reference listing require

ending punctuation.
 Use a period unless there is a specific ending
punctuation in the title.

References: Editions

 Book Edition.
 Edition information appears in parentheses immediately
following the title before the period.
 Use the designation of ed. with a lower-case e and a

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of
the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington,
DC: Author.

Publication Information

 Books
 City of publication – comma – space – state abbreviation –
colon – space – name of publisher – period.
 Example:
 Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

References: Publication Information

 Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, etc.)

 Immediately following the title of the periodical, provide
a volume number.
 Include the issue number for journals if, and only if, each
issue begins on page 1.
 Include the range of page numbers of the specific article
within the periodical.

References: Publication Information

 Periodical Title (italicized) – comma – space – volume

number (italicized) – open parentheses – issue number –
close parentheses – comma – space – page range –
(Note: Do not include any designations or abbreviations, such
as vol. for volume number or p. or pp. for page numbers,
except where indicated in the APA manual.)

Borman, W. C. (2001). Role of supervisor. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 78(2), 443-449.
References: Publication
Information – Electronic Sources

 Direct readers as closely as possible to the

information being cited – whenever possible,
reference specific documents rather than home or
menu pages.
 Reasons why it may not be possible to direct the
reader to the precise document:
 The parent website or organization archives its articles
after a period of time.
 The item exists behind a firewall.
References: Publication
Information – Electronic Sources

 Electronic publication information comes in the form

of a path. In other words “follow this” or “go here”
and you will find the source.
 Digital Object Identifier (DOI): The “path” is in the form of a
unique alphanumeric reference number that identifies the
specific article.
 Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The “path” is in the form
of a URL, or web address.
 Note: Do not insert a terminating punctuation mark, or period, after a
web address.
 Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines. Break
only after a slash or a period.

References: Publication Information –
DOI Number

 If an article has a DOI number, this number should be

used to identify access to the article rather than a
retrieval URL.
 Usually, the DOI number is found on the first page of
an electronic journal article and/or on the database
page providing access to the article.
 If no DOI number has been assigned to the source
you are citing, use a URL to supply the location.

References: Publication Information –
Internet URL

If the an electronic reference has not been assigned a

DOI number:
 Include retrieval information at the end of a reference
note in the form of the URL.
 At the end of the reference note, use “Retrieved
from” followed by the URL. Do not put a period after
the URL. Do not hyperlink the URL.
 A date is not required as part of the retrieval
References: DOI vs. URL

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support,
marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill
patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-
Jones, G. (2001). Role of reference elements. Retrieved from

APA Reference Notes

Sample Reference Note:
Authored Book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship:

A practical guide for new school administrators.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Sample Reference Note:
Edited Book

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location:


Feldman, P. R. (Ed.). (1997). British women poets of the

romantic era. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins

Sample Reference Note:
Electronic Version of a Print Book

Electronic Book with DOI:

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. doi:xxxxxxxxxx

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder

sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and
growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].

Sample Reference Note:
Electronic Version of a Print Book

Electronic Book with URL:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work.

Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of

computer dependency [DX Reader version].
Retrieved from
Sample Reference Note:
Electronic-Only Book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from


O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism and the crisis in Western values.

Retrieved from

Sample Reference Note:
Selection from an Edited Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry.

In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp.
xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of

subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.),
The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New
York, NY: Guilford Press.

Sample Reference Note:
Entry in Reference Work

Entry title. (Year). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference

work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Location:

Heuristic. (2007). In J. Smith (Ed.), The book of words

(7th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 65-66). New York, NY: Jones
and Lawrence.

Sample Reference Note:
Journal Article With DOI

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title,

Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxxx

Kalpič, B., & Bernus, P. (2006). Business process modeling

through the knowledge management perspective.
Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(3), 40-56.

Sample Reference Note:
Journal Article Without DOI (Print)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title,

Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic

expansion of Mexican immigration in the United
States and its implications for local law
enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum
Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Sample Reference Note:
Journal Article Without DOI (Internet)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title,

Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. Retrieved from

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence

and self-esteem mediate between perceived early
parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of
Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Sample Reference Note:
Web Page Article — Author Known

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work [format description]. Retrieved from


Landis, B. (1996). Carlisle Indian Industrial School history. Retrieved from

Note: The format description in brackets is used when the format is

something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes. For
other examples of format descriptions, refer to page 186 of the
Publication Manual. If no date is given for the work, use (n.d.).
Sample Reference Note:
Web Page — Author Unknown

Use the article title or web page title as the first element of the
citation if the author is unavailable.

Seventeen moments in Soviet history. (2013). Retrieved from

Sample Reference Note:
Website — General Citation

When discussing an entire website (as opposed to a specific page

on the website), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but
is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:

The International Council of Museums website provides many links

to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession

Sample Reference Note: Magazine

Article in a Magazine — Print

Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title,
Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.
Mehta, P. B. (1998, June). Exploding myths. New Republic,
290(25), 17-19.
Article in a Magazine — Online
Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title,
Volume(Issue). Retrieved from http://www.homepage
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back
about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology,
39(6). Retrieved from
Sample Reference Note: Newspaper

Article in a Newspaper — Print

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title,
pp. xx, xx.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic,
social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Article in Newspaper — Online
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title.
Retrieved from
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile.
The New York Times. Retrieved from

For Further Examples

See the 6th edition of the APA Manual, Chapter 7, for

additional examples and more specific information on
preparing reference notes for a wider variety of
sources, especially for electronic sources such as
eBooks and online sources including data sets,
software, and discussion forums.


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the

American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychological Association. (2012). APA style. Retrieved from
Cornell University Library. (2012). APA citation style. Retrieved from
Hacker, D. (2006). APA research paper. Retrieved from


Hacker, D. (2007a). A writer’s reference (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St.

Hacker, D. (2007b). A writer’s reference (6th ed.). Retrieved from
Indiana University Bloomington. (2011). Help with citing (APA, Chicago,
MLA). Retrieved from


The OWL at Purdue. (2012). APA formatting and style guide. Retrieved from
University of Maryland University College. (2011). APA citation examples.
Retrieved from
The Writing Center @ The University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2011). APA
documentation guide. Retrieved from


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the

American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.