You are on page 1of 190

IPS-C-TP-101(1)

FOREWORD ‫ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻔﺘﺎر‬


The Iranian Petroleum Standards (IPS) reflect the ‫( ﻣﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻫﻬﺎي‬IPS) ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان‬
views of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum and ‫وزارت ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده در ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎت ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻔﺖ‬
are intended for use in the oil and gas production
،‫ واﺣﺪﻫﺎي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ و ﭘﺘﺮوﺷﻴﻤﻲ‬،‫ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺸﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ‬،‫و ﮔﺎز‬
facilities, oil refineries, chemical and
petrochemical plants, gas handling and processing ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎت اﻧﺘﻘﺎل و ﻓﺮاورش ﮔﺎز و ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﺎت ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬
installations and other such facilities. .‫ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
IPS is based on internationally acceptable ‫ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل‬،‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ‬
standards and includes selections from the items ‫ﺑﻴﻦاﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه و ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﺰﻳﺪهﻫﺎﺋﻲ از اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬
stipulated in the referenced standards. They are
‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎت ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻧﻔﺖ ﻛﺸﻮر‬.‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
also supplemented by additional requirements
and/or modifications based on the experience ‫ ﻣﻮاردي‬،‫و ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻻ از ﺑﺎزار داﺧﻠﻲ و ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻴﺎز‬
acquired by the Iranian Petroleum Industry and .‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ و ﻳﺎ اﺻﻼﺣﻲ در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻟﺤﺎظ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
the local market availability. The options which
are not specified in the text of the standards are ‫ﻣﻮاردي از ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎي ﻓﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﺘﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ آورده ﻧﺸﺪه‬
itemized in data sheet/s, so that, the user can ‫اﺳﺖ در داده ﺑﺮگ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺷﻤﺎره ﮔﺬاري ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
select his appropriate preferences therein.
.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان آورده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
The IPS standards are therefore expected to be ‫ ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺗﺪوﻳﻦ ﺷﺪه‬،‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ‬
sufficiently flexible so that the users can adapt .‫اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺎزﻫﺎي ﺧﻮد را ﺑﺎ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬
these standards to their requirements. However,
they may not cover every requirement of each ‫ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎل ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻧﻴﺎزﻣﻨﺪيﻫﺎي ﭘﺮوژه ﻫﺎ را ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
project. For such cases, an addendum to IPS ‫ در اﻳﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮارد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻟﺤﺎﻗﻴﻪاي ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎزﻫﺎي ﺧﺎص‬.‫ﻧﺪﻫﻨﺪ‬
Standard shall be prepared by the user which
‫ اﻳﻦ اﻟﺤﺎﻗﻴﻪ‬.‫آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ و ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬
elaborates the particular requirements of the user.
This addendum together with the relevant IPS ‫ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻓﻨﻲ آن ﭘﺮوژه و ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎر‬،‫ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬
shall form the job specification for the specific .‫ﺧﺎص را ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ داد‬
project or work.
The IPS is reviewed and up-dated approximately ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﻫﺮ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺳﺎل ﻳﻜﺒﺎر ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻗﺮار‬
every five years. Each standards are subject to
‫ در اﻳﻦ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ و روزآﻣﺪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
amendment or withdrawal, if required, thus the
latest edition of IPS shall be applicable ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردي ﺣﺬف و ﻳﺎ اﻟﺤﺎﻗﻴﻪاي ﺑﻪ آن اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد و ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ‬
.‫ﻫﻤﻮاره آﺧﺮﻳﻦ وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻼك ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
The users of IPS are therefore requested to send ‫ درﺧﻮاﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎ و‬،‫از ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
their views and comments, including any ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدات اﺻﻼﺣﻲ و ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ اﻟﺤﺎﻗﻴﻪاي ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮارد‬
addendum prepared for particular cases to the
following address. These comments and ‫ ﻧﻈﺮات و‬.‫ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻲ زﻳﺮ ارﺳﺎل ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺧﺎص ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدهاﻧﺪ‬
recommendations will be reviewed by the relevant ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدات درﻳﺎﻓﺘﻲ در ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪﻫﺎي ﻓﻨﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ و در‬
technical committee and in case of approval will ‫ﺻﻮرت ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ در ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﺮﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻨﻌﻜﺲ‬
be incorporated in the next revision of the
standard. .‫ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
Standards and Research department ‫ ﻛﻮﭼﻪ‬،‫ ﺧﺮدﻣﻨﺪ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬،‫ ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎن ﻛﺮﻳﻤﺨﺎن زﻧﺪ‬،‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬،‫اﻳﺮان‬
No.19, Street14, North kheradmand 19 ‫ ﺷﻤﺎره‬،‫ﭼﻬﺎردﻫﻢ‬
Karimkhan Avenue, Tehran, Iran. ‫اداره ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎت و اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬
Postal Code- 1585886851 1585886851 : ‫ﻛﺪﭘﺴﺘﻲ‬
Tel: 88810459-60 & 66153055 66153055 ‫ و‬88810459 - 60 : ‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ‬
Fax: 88810462 88810462 : ‫دور ﻧﮕﺎر‬
Email: Standards@nioc.org Standards@nioc.org :‫ﭘﺴﺖ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﻚ‬
GENERAL DEFINITIONS: :‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬
Throughout this Standard the following .‫در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ زﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
definitions shall apply.

COMPANY: :‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬
Refers to one of the related and/or affiliated ‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬،‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻲ از ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻫﺎي اﺻﻠﻲ و ﻳﺎ واﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ وزارت ﻧﻔﺖ‬
companies of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum ‫ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻠﻲ‬،‫ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻠﻲ ﮔﺎز اﻳﺮان‬،‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻠﻲ ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان‬
such as National Iranian Oil Company, National
‫ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﭘﺘﺮوﺷﻴﻤﻲ و ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻠﻲ ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺶ و ﭘﺨﺶ ﻓﺮآوردهﻫﺎي‬
Iranian Gas Company, National Petrochemical
Company and National Iranian Oil Refinery And .‫ﻧﻔﺘﻲ اﻃﻼق ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
Distribution Company.

PURCHASER: :‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪار‬
Means the "Company" where this standard is a ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ "ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻲ" ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﻣﺪارك ﺳﻔﺎرش‬
part of direct purchaser order by the “Company”, ‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ آن ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻳﺎ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎري ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ‬
and the “Contractor” where this Standard is a part .‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﻣﺪارك ﻗﺮارداد آن اﺳﺖ‬
of contract documents.

VENDOR AND SUPPLIER: :‫ﻓﺮوﺷﻨﺪه و ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬


Refers to firm or person who will supply and/or ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ و ﻳﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات و ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎي‬
fabricate the equipment or material. .‫ﻣﻮرد ﻟﺰوم ﺻﻨﻌﺖ را ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
CONTRACTOR: :‫ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر‬
Refers to the persons, firm or company whose ‫ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ و ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدش‬،‫ﺑﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ‬
tender has been accepted by the company. .‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺼﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
EXECUTOR: :‫ﻣﺠﺮي‬
Executor is the party which carries out all or part of ‫ﻣﺠﺮي ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮوﻫﻲ اﻃﻼق ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻳﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻲ از ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي‬
construction and/or commissioning for the project. .‫اﺟﺮاﺋﻲ و ﻳﺎ راه اﻧﺪازي ﭘﺮوژه را اﻧﺠﺎم دﻫﺪ‬
INSPECTOR: :‫ﺑﺎزرس‬
The Inspector referred to in this Standard is a ‫ﮔﺮوه ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪاي اﻃﻼق‬/‫در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺎزرس ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮد‬
person/persons or a body appointed in writing by ‫ اﺟﺮا و ﻧﺼﺐ‬،‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻛﺘﺒﺎً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎرﻓﺮﻣﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬
the company for the inspection of fabrication and
.‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
installation work
SHALL: :‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
Is used where a provision is mandatory.
.‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎري ﻛﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم آن اﺟﺒﺎري اﺳﺖ‬
SHOULD:
Is used where a provision is advisory only. :‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬
.‫ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎري ﻛﻪ ﺿﺮورت اﻧﺠﺎم آن ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
WILL: :‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ‬
Is normally used in connection with the action by ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً در ﺟﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم آن ﻛﺎر ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬
the “Company” rather than by a contractor, .‫ﻧﻈﺎرت ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
supplier or vendor.

MAY: :‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬


Is used where a provision is completely .‫ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎري ﻛﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم آن اﺧﺘﻴﺎري ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
discretionary.
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

CONSTRUCTION STANDARD

FOR

SURFACE PREPARATION

FIRST REVISION
MAY 2010

‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺟﺮا‬
‫ﺑﺮاي‬
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬

‫وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ اول‬
1389 ‫ﺧﺮداد‬

This Standard is the property of Iranian Ministry of ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺣﻘﻮق آن ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ‬.‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ وزارت ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان اﺳﺖ‬
Petroleum. All rights are reserved to the owner. Neither ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ‬،‫ﻣﺎﻟﻚ آن ﺑﻮده و ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪون رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﺘﺒﻲ وزارت ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان‬
whole nor any part of this document maybe disclosed to any ،‫ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬،‫ ذﺧﻴﺮه ﺳﺎزي‬،‫ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻳﺎ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ازﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬،‫از اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
third party, reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior .‫ﻳﺎ روش دﻳﮕﺮي در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻓﺮاد ﺛﺎﻟﺚ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد‬
written consent of the Iranian Ministry of Petroleum.
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

CONTENTS: Page :‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬


No
1. SCOPE.................................................................10
10 ............................................................ ‫ داﻣﻨﺔ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬-1
2. REFERENCES ...................................................10
10 .................................................................... ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬-2
3. DEFINITIONS & TERMINOLOGY ...............16
16 ..................................................... ‫ ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ و واژﮔﺎن‬-3
3.1 Acid Pickling ............................................... 16
16 ................................................ ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬1-3
3.2 Aliphatic Solvents ....................................... 16
16 ..................................... ‫ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي آﻟﻴﻔﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬2-3
3.3 Anchor Pattern ........................................... 16
16 .......................................... ‫ ﺷﻜﻞ دﻧﺪاﻧﻪ اي‬3-3
3.4 Aromatic Solvents....................................... 16
16 ...................................... ‫ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬4-3
3.5 Blast Cleaning ............................................. 16
16 ..................................... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬5-3
3.6 Blistering ..................................................... 16
16 .................................................‫ ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ‬6-3
3.7 Calcareous Deposits.................................... 16
16 ........................................... ‫ رﺳﻮﺑﺎت آﻫﻜﻲ‬7-3
3.8 Cement Paint............................................... 16
16 ..............................................‫ رﻧﮓ ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬8-3
3.9 Centrifugal Blast Cleaning ........................ 17
17 .................. ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬9-3
3.10 Chemical Conversion Coating................. 17
17 ............................... ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬10-3
3.11 Chemical Environment ............................ 17
17 .......................................... ‫ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬11-3
3.12 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons...................... 17
17 ....................... ‫ ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻦﻫﺎي ﻛﻠﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﺪه‬12-3
3.13 Coating ...................................................... 17
17 .................................................... ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬13-3
3.14 Damp.......................................................... 17
17 ...................................................... ‫ ﻧﻢ دار‬14-3
3.15 Descaling.................................................... 17
17 ............................................ ‫ رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ‬15-3
3.16 Dew Point .................................................. 18
18 ............................................... ‫ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ‬16-3
3.17 Efflorescence ............................................. 18
18 ............................................... ‫ﺷﻮره زدﮔﻲ‬17-3
3.18 Emulsifier .................................................. 18
18 ....................................... ‫ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬18-3

1
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪3.19 Emulsion.................................................... 18‬‬


‫‪ 19-3‬اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ‪18 .................................................‬‬
‫‪3.20 Erosion....................................................... 18‬‬
‫‪ 20-3‬ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ‪18 .....................................................‬‬
‫‪3.21 Etch ............................................................ 18‬‬
‫‪ 21-3‬اچ ﻛﺮدن ‪18 .................................................‬‬
‫‪3.22 Etching Primer.......................................... 18‬‬
‫‪ 22-3‬اچ ﻛﺮدن آﺳﺘﺮي ‪18 ......................................‬‬
‫‪3.23 External Rendering .................................. 19‬‬
‫‪ 23-3‬اﻧﺪود ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ ‪19 ....................................‬‬
‫‪3.24 Flint (chert) ............................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 24-3‬ﺳﻨﮕﺮﻳﺰه )ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺳﻨﮓ ﭼﺨﻤﺎق رﻳﺰ داﻧﻪ( ‪19 ........‬‬
‫‪3.25 Galvanizing ............................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 25-3‬ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه ﻛﺮدن ‪19 .........................................‬‬
‫‪3.26 Hand Cleaning .......................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 26-3‬ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ‪19 .............................‬‬
‫‪3.27 Hydro-Blasting.......................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 27-3‬ﻫﻴﺪروﺑﻼﺳﺖ‪19 ............................................‬‬
‫‪3.28 Inhibitor..................................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 28-3‬ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪه ‪19 ................................................‬‬
‫‪3.29 Laitance ..................................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 29-3‬ﺣﺒﺎب روي ﺑﺘﻦ ‪19 .........................................‬‬
‫‪3.30 Manual Cleaning ...................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 30-3‬ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ‪19 ......................‬‬
‫‪3.31 Masonry..................................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 31-3‬ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ‪19 ......................................‬‬
‫‪3.32 Masonry Cement ...................................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 32-3‬ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ‪19 .....................................‬‬
‫‪3.33 Maximum Amplitude ............................... 19‬‬
‫‪ 33-3‬داﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‪19 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪3.34 Metal Spraying.......................................... 20‬‬
‫‪ 34-3‬ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰ ‪20 ...............................................‬‬
‫‪3.35 Mill Scale ................................................... 20‬‬
‫‪ 35-3‬ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ‪20 .............................................‬‬
‫‪3.36 Passivation................................................. 20‬‬
‫‪ 36-3‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﺮدن ‪20 ........................................‬‬
‫‪3.37 Phosphating............................................... 20‬‬
‫‪ 37-3‬ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن‪20 ...........................................‬‬
‫‪3.38 Power Tool Cleaning ................................ 20‬‬
‫‪ 38-3‬ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ‪20 ..............................‬‬
‫‪3.39 Precast Concrete....................................... 20‬‬
‫‪ 39-3‬ﺑﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ‪20 .......................................‬‬
‫‪3.40 Pretreatment ............................................. 20‬‬
‫‪ 40-3‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ ‪20 .......................................‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3.41 Pretreatment Primer ................................ 21


21 ............................ ‫ آﺳﺘﺮي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ‬41-3
3.42 Profile ........................................................ 21
21 ................................................... ‫ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬42-3
3.43 Rural Environment .................................. 21
21 ........................................ ‫ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ‬43-3
3.44 Rust ............................................................ 21
21 ................................................ ‫ زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ‬44-3
3.45 Abrasive Blast ........................................... 21
21 ............................... ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬45-3
3.46 Abrasive..................................................... 21
21 .................................................... ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ‬46-3
3.47 Scarifying .................................................. 21
21 ................................................‫ ﺧﺮاﺷﻴﺪن‬47-3
3.48 Sieve ........................................................... 21
21 ....................................................... ‫ اﻟﻚ‬48-3
3.49 Stain ........................................................... 21
21 .............................................. ‫ رﻧﮓ روﺷﻦ‬49-3
3.50 Stucco......................................................... 21
21 .......................................... ‫ روﻛﺶ ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬50-3
3.51 Surface Preparation ................................. 21
21 ...................................... ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬51-3
3.52 Surface Profile .......................................... 22
22 ........................................... ‫ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ‬52-3
3.53 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) ................. 22
22 ........................... (TLV) ‫ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬53-3
3.54 Wash Primer ............................................. 22
22 .............................................. ‫ واش ﭘﺮاﻳﻤﺮ‬54-3
3.55 Water Blasting .......................................... 22
22 ....................................‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ آب‬55-3
3.56 Wood Preservation ................................... 22
22 ........................................... ‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﭼﻮب‬56-3
4. REQUIREMENTS .............................................22
22 .................................................................. ‫ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت‬-4
4.1 General ........................................................ 22
22 ...................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-4
4.2 Selection of Cleaning Method(s)................ 24
24 ....................... ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش )ﻫﺎي( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬2-4
4.3 Cleanliness of the Surfaces ........................ 26
26 ............................................. ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح‬3-4
4.4 Degree of Roughness (Surface Profile) ..... 33
33 ........................... (‫ درﺟﻪ زﺑﺮي )ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ‬4-4

3
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.5 Temporary Protection of Prepared Surfaces


Against Corrosion and/or Contamination 35
‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ از ﺳﻄﻮح آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬5-4
35 ................................. ‫ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ‬/ ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و‬
4.6 Preparation of Surfaces Protected by
Temporary Coats or by only Part of the
Purposed Coats until Subsequent Coating
are Applied .................................................... 35
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي‬6-4
‫ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه‬
35 ........................... .‫ﺗﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
4.7 Inspection and Testing ............................... 37
37 ....................................... ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ و آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬7-4
4.8 Quality Systems .......................................... 37
37 ....................................... ‫ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬8-4
4.9 Procedure Qualification ............................. 37
37 ..................................... ‫ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬9-4
5. DEGREASING ...................................................38
38 ........................................................... ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬-5
5.1 General ........................................................ 38
38 ...................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-5
5.2 Hot Solvent Cleaning Method ................... 39
39 ..........................‫ روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ‬2-5
5.3 Cold Solvent Cleaning ................................ 40
40 ................................ ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد‬3-5
5.4 Emulsifiable Solvent Cleaning................... 43
43 ............... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺷﻮﻧﺪه‬4-5
5.5 Aqueous Alkaline and Detergent Cleaning.47
47 .......... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ آﺑﻲ و ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه‬5-5
5.6 Steam Cleaning ........................................... 52
52 ....................................... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر‬6-5
5.7 Test for Freedom from Grease
(See also ASTM A 380-88) ......................... 53
‫ آزﻣﻮن ﻣﻴﺰان ﻋﺎري ﺑﻮدن ﺳﻄﺢ از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬7-5
53 ............. .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ASTM A 380-88 ‫)ﺑﻪ‬
5.8 Some Notes on Degreasing ......................... 54
54 ..................‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻧﻜﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬8-5
6. PICKLING..........................................................56
56 ............................................................ ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬-6
6.1 General ........................................................ 56
56 ...................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-6
6.2 Pickling Methods ........................................ 56
56 .................................... ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬2-6
6.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement........................... 57
57 ......................................... ‫ ﺗﺮدي ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ‬3-6
4
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.4 Cleaning and Preparation of Metal Prior


to Pickling..................................................... 57
57 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻠﺰ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬4-6
6.5 Pickling Process .......................................... 58
58 ......................................‫ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬5-6
6.6 Electrochemical Pickling............................ 64
64 ........................... ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬6-6
6.7 Treatment of Metal after Pickling ............ 65
65 ................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬7-6
6.8 Appearance of Pickled Surface ................. 67
67 ......................... ‫ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه‬8-6
6.9 Test Methods-Determining of Acid and Iron
Content of Pickle Baths............................... 67
‫ روشﻫﺎي آزﻣﻮن ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ‬9-6
67 ....................................‫ﺣﻤﺎم ﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
6.10 Precautionary Notes ................................. 71
71 ................................... ‫ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬10-6
7. MANUAL CLEANING (HAND AND
POWER TOOL CLEANING)...........................71
71 ..... (‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ )اﺑﺰار ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬-7
7.1 General ........................................................ 71
71 ...................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-7
7.2 Surface Preparation Before and After
Manual Cleaning ......................................... 72
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬2-7
72 ...................................................... ‫دﺳﺘﻲ‬
7.3 Hand Tool Cleaning ................................... 72
72 ............................... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬3-7
7.4 Power Tool Cleaning .................................. 73
73 ................................. ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬4-7
7.5 Manual Cleaning of Non-Ferrors Metals . 77
77 ................... ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮآﻫﻨﻲ‬5-7
7.6 Precautionary Notes ................................... 78
78 ................................. ‫ ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬6-7
8. BLAST CLEANING ..........................................79
79 ........................................‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬-8
8.1 General ........................................................ 79
79 ...................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-8
8.2 Choice of Method of Blast-Cleaning ......... 81
81 ........... ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬2-8
8.3 Abrasive (See also Appendix B) ................ 82
82 ... (‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-8
8.4 Before and After Blast Cleaning ............... 85
‫ اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت ﻻزم ﻗﺒﻞ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬4-8
85 ........................................... ‫ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
5
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

8.5 Testing the Cleanliness of Blasted Surface 86


86 ................. ‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه‬5-8
8.6 Precautionary Notes ................................... 90
90 ................................. ‫ ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬6-8
9. SURFACE PREPARATION OF IRON AND
STEEL ..................................................................92
92 ................................ ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻫﻦ و ﻓﻮﻻد‬-9
9.1 Cast Irons .................................................... 92
92 ......................................................... ‫ ﭼﺪن‬1-9
9.2 Steels, Non-Corrosion-Resisting................ 93
93 ............. ‫ ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬2-9
9.3 Chemical Smoothing Process for Steel
(RARDE Process) ........................................ 95
‫ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻮﻻد‬3-9
95 ....................................... (RARDE ‫)ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
9.4 Anodic Etching for Ferrous Metals .......... 96
96 .................... ‫ اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ‬4-9
9.5 Cleaning of Shop Primed Steel Surfaces Prior
to Over Coating........................................... 98
‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﺪه ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ‬5-9
98 ...................................... ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
10. SURFACE PREPARATION OF
STAINLESS STEEL .........................................99
99 ........................... ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬-10
10.1 Degreasing (see section 5) of Stainless
Steel............................................................ 99
‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ از ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬1-10
99 ............................ (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
10.2 Cleaning of Welds and Weld-Joint
Areas .......................................................... 99
99 ........ ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ و اﺗﺼﺎل ﺟﻮﺷﻲ‬2-10
10.3 Acid Pickling of Stainless Steel
(see also section 6)...................................... 100
‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬3-10
100 .............. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫)ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
10.4 Manual Cleaning of Stainless Steel
(see section 7).............................................. 102
‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬4-10
102 ........................... (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
10.5 Abrasive Blasting of Stainless Steel
(see also section 8)...................................... 103
‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬5-10
103 ............... (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫)ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
10.6 Final Cleaning........................................... 103
103 ........................................‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬6-10

6
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

10.7 Passivation* of Stainless Steel ................. 103


103 ...................... ‫ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬7-10
10.8 Preparation of Stainless Steel for
Electroplating.............................................. 104
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري‬8-10
104 .................................................. ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
11. SURFACE PREPARATION OF NON-
FERROUS METALS (see also BS 3012) ........106
BS ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬-11
106 ................................................ (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3012
12. SURFACE PREPARATION OF
METALLIC SURFACES FOR
MAINTENANCE ............................................121
121 .... ...‫ آﻣﺎدهﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬-12
12.1 Choice of Maintenance Method............... 121
121 ...................... ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬1-12
12.2 Choice of Procedures................................ 121
121 .................................. ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬2-12
12.3 Spot Repair (Patch Paint) only................ 121
121 ........(‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ )رﻧﮓ ﻛﺮدن وﺻﻠﻪاي‬3-12
12.4 Spot Repair Plus Full Topcoat ................ 122
122 ...... ‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬4-12
12.5 Complete Repaint ..................................... 123
123 ............................... ‫ رﻧﮓ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﺪد‬5-12
12.6 General Notes for Guidance .................... 123
123 ................. ‫ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺮاي راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ‬6-12
13. SURFACE PREPARATION OF
IMPERFECTION METALLIC
SURFACE .........................................................125
125 ............................ ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻣﻌﻴﻮب‬- 13
13.1 Weld Spatter ............................................. 125
125 ........................................ ‫ ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﻫﺎي ﺟﻮش‬1-13
13.2 Porosity...................................................... 125
125 ............................................... ‫ ﺧﻠﻞ و ﻓﺮج‬2-13
13.3 Sharp Edges .............................................. 125
125 .............................................. ‫ ﻟﺒﻪ ﻫﺎي ﺗﻴﺰ‬3-13
13.4 Pits.............................................................. 125
125 ................................................... ‫ ﺣﻔﺮه ﻫﺎ‬4-13
13.5 Laminations, Slivers ................................. 125
125 ..................................... ‫ ﺗﻮرقﻫﺎ و ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ‬5-13
13.6 Crevices ..................................................... 126
126 .................................................... ‫ ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ‬6-13

7
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

14. SURFACE PREPARATION OF


CONCRETE (See ACI 546-R)........................126
ACI 546-R ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺘﻦ )ﺑﻪ‬-14
126 ....................................................... (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
14.1 General ...................................................... 126
126 ..................................................... ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-14
14.2 Types of Exposures................................... 127
127 .......................... ‫ اﻧﻮاع در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬2-14
14.3 Types of Cementitious Surfaces
(see Table 30).............................................. 127
30‫ اﻧﻮاع ﺳﻄﻮح ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬3-14
127 ............................................. (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
14.4 Types of Preparation (See Table 30)....... 128
128 .. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬30 ‫ اﻧﻮاع آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬4-14
14.5 Maintenance of concrete surfaces ........... 130
130 ...................... ‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺘﻨﻲ‬5-14
14.6 Test Methods (See Appendix G).............. 130
130 ..... (‫ روﺷﻬﺎي آزﻣﻮن )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ز ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6-14
14.7 Surface Preparation of Precast Concrete
Blocks (see also BS 6073) .......................... 130
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻠﻮﻛﻬﺎي ﺑﺘﻨﻲ ﭘﻴﺶ رﻳﺨﺘﻪ‬7-14
130 ............. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬BS 6073 ‫)ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬
15. INSPECTION AND REJECTION ................131
131.......................................... ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ و ﻣﺮدود ﻛﺮدن‬-15
15.1 Surface Inspection .................................... 131
131 ............................................ ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ‬1-15
15.2 Access of Inspector ................................... 131
131 ........................................ ‫ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﺎزرس‬2-15
15.3 Facilities for Inspector ............................. 131
131 ................................... ‫ اﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزرس‬3-15
15.4 Inspection Guide....................................... 131
131 ........................................ ‫ راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬4-15
15.5 Rejection.................................................... 132
132 ............................................. ‫ ﻣﺮدود ﻛﺮدن‬5-15
15.6 Qualified Inspectors ................................. 132
132 .................................. ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﺎن واﺟﺪ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬6-15

APPENDICES:
:‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ﻫﺎ‬
APPENDIX A APPLICATION OF
DEGREASING METHODS ........138
138 ...................... ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ اﺟﺮاي روﺷﻬﺎي ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬
APPENDIX B APPLICATION PROCESS OF
BLASTING....................................147
147 .......................... ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬

8
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

APPENDIX C DRYING PARTS AFTER


AQUEOUS CLEANING AND
BEFORE COATING....................168
‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ج ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ آب و‬
168 ..................................... ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻫﻲ‬
APPENDIX D SURFACE PREPARATION OF
PLASTER, BRICK, STONE,
AND WOOD .................................171
‫ ﺳﻨﮓ و‬، ‫ آﺟﺮ‬،‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ د آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﮔﭻ ﻛﺎري‬
171 ......................................................... ‫ﭼﻮب‬
APPENDIX E TREATMENT OF ORGANIC
GROWTHS ...................................180
180 ............................... ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ﻫـ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت رﺷﺪ ﻣﻮاد آﻟﻲ‬
APPENDIX F METHOD OF PREPARATION
OF A REFERENCE SURFACE
FOR COMPARISON
(SEE 9.1.3, 9.2.3) .............................183
‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ و روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺮاي‬
183 ... (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-2-9 ‫ و‬3-1-9 ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ )ﺑﻪ‬
APPENDIX G TEST METHOD OF CLEANED
CONCRETE SURFACE..............184
184 ..................‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ز روش آزﻣﻮن ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺘﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬

9
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

1. SCOPE ‫ داﻣﻨﺔ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬-1

This Construction Standard gives the minimum ‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺟﺮاﺋﻲ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر‬
requirements for surface preparation of substrates ‫ ﻫﺮ دو ﺑﺮاي اﺟﺮاي‬،‫را ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎن ﺑﺎ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬
prior to protecting against corrosion, both for
.‫ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬/ ‫اوﻟﻴﻪ و‬
initial construction and/or maintenance.

The standard includes the minimum requirements ‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
for surface preparation of ferrous metals, non .‫ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ و ﺳﻄﻮح ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ‬
ferrous metals and nonmetalic surfaces (e.g.
‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻋﻤﺎل‬.(‫ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ و ﭼﻮب‬، ‫)ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬
masonry materials and wood). Applicable
methods of surface preparation such as ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ‬،‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬،‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬
degreasing, pickling, manual cleaning, and ‫ راﺟﻊ ﺑﻪ‬.‫و ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺤﺚ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
blasting are discussed in this Standard.
Recommendations are made regarding the ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش )ﻫﺎي( ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬
selection of appropriate method(s) of surface ‫زﻳﺮﻛﺎر و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي و آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ( ﻛﻪ‬
preparation with reference to substrate and the
. ‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ اراﺋﻪ ﮔﺮدﻳﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
Coating (including metallic coating and
electroplating) to be applied.

Note 1: :1 ‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
This standard specification is reviewed and ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻨﻲ‬1378 ‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد در آذر ﻣﺎه ﺳﺎل‬
updated by the relevant technical committee on ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ و روز آﻣﺪ ﺷﺪ و ﻣﻮارد ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان‬
Nov. 2000, as amendment No. 1 by circular
.‫ اﺑﻼغ ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‬138 ‫ ﻃﻲ ﺑﺨﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﺷﻤﺎره‬1 ‫اﺻﻼﺣﻴﻪ ﺷﻤﺎره‬
No.138.

Note2: :2‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
This bilingual standard is a revised version of the ‫ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺑﺎزﻧﮕﺮي ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻓﻮق‬،‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد دو زﺑﺎﻧﻪ‬
standard specification by the relevant technical ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻓﻨﻲ‬1389 ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﺧﺮداد ﻣﺎه ﺳﺎل‬
committee on May 2010, which is issued as
‫ از اﻳﻦ‬.‫( اراﻳﻪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮدد‬1) ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬
revision (1). Revision (0) of the said standard
specification is withdrawn. .‫( اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻨﺴﻮخ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬0) ‫ﭘﺲ وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬

Note3: :3‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
In case of conflict between Farsi and English ‫ ﻣﺘﻦ اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬،‫در ﺻﻮرت اﺧﺘﻼف ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻓﺎرﺳﻲ و اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ‬
languages, English language shall govern. .‫ﻣﻼك ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
2. REFERENCES
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬-2
Throughout this Standard the following dated and ‫در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﻪ آﻳﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ و اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ دار و‬
undated standards/codes are referred to. These ‫ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي ﻛﻪ در‬،‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬.‫ﺑﺪون ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ در زﻳﺮ اﺷﺎره ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
referenced documents shall, to the extent
specified herein, form a part of this standard. For ‫ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از اﻳﻦ‬،‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﻧﺪ‬
dated references, the edition cited applies. The ‫ وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬،‫ در ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ دار‬.‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﺤﺴﻮب ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
applicability of changes in dated references that
occur after the cited date shall be mutually agreed ‫ﺷﺪه ﻣﻼك ﺑﻮده و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮاﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ در آﻧﻬﺎ‬
upon by the Company and the Vendor. For ‫ ﭘﺲ از ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺎرﻓﺮﻣﺎ و ﻓﺮوﺷﻨﺪه ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺟﺮا‬،‫داده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
undated references, the latest edition of the
‫ آﺧﺮﻳﻦ وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ اﻧﻀﻤﺎم‬،‫ در ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ ﺑﺪون ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬.‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
referenced documents (including any supplements
and amendments) applies. .‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ اﺻﻼﺣﺎت و ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ﻫﺎي آن ﻣﻼك ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬

10
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

ACI (AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE) (‫ )ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺑﺘﻦ آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ACI

546-R "Concrete Repair Guide" "‫ "راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﺑﺘﻦ‬546 – R

ASTM (AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR (‫ )اﻧﺠﻤﻦ آزﻣﻮن و ﻣﻮاد آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ASTM


TESTING AND MATERIALS)
A 380 "Standard Practice for Cleaning, ‫ رﺳﻮب‬،‫"اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬ A 380
Descaling, and Passivation of
‫زداﺋﻲ و ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﺮدن ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات و‬
Stainless Steel Parts, Equipment, and
Systems" " ،‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬
D 451 "Standard Test Method for Sieve ‫"روش آزﻣﻮن اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ D 451
Analysis of Granular Mineral
Surfacing for Asphalt Roofing
‫ داﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ روﻛﺎر ﺑﺮاي‬،‫داﻧﻪ ﺑﻨﺪي‬
Products". "‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت آﺳﻔﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﺸﺖ ﺑﺎم‬
D 610 "Standard Practice for Evaluating ‫"اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻴﺰان زﻧﮓ‬ D 610
Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel " ‫روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه‬
Surface"
D 4081 "Standard Specification for ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ درﺟﻪ‬ D 4081
Drycleaning – Grade Perchloro-
ethylene".
"‫ﭘﺮﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺧﺸﻚ‬

D 714-87 "Standard Method for Evaluating ‫ "روش اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ درﺟﻪ ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ‬D 714-87
Degree of Blistering of Paints" "‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬

D 3640-91"Guide- Line for Emission Control in ‫"دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺧﺮوج ﺣﻼل در‬D 3640-91
Solvent Metal Cleaning Systems" "‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻓﻠﺰ‬
D 4080 "Standard Specification for ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ روش ﻓﻨﻲ‬ D 4080
Trichloroethylene, Technical and
Vapor – Degreasing".
"‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬

E 161-87 "Standard Specification for Precision ‫ "ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ دﻗﺖ اﻟﻜﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬E 161-87
Electroformed Sieves" "‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬

E 323-80 "Standard Specification for ‫ﺳﻮراخ‬-‫ "ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي اﻟﻚﻫﺎ از ورق‬E 323-80
Perforated-Plate Sieves for Testing "‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي اﻫﺪاف آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬
Purposes"

F 941-85 "Standard Practice for Inspection of ‫ "اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ از آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬E 941-85
Marine Surface Preparation and "‫ﺳﻄﺢ و اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ در درﻳﺎ‬
Coating Application"
BRE (BUILDING RESEARCH ‫ )ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎت ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن( ﭼﻜﻴﺪه ﻣﻘﺎﻻت‬BRE
ESTABLISHMENT) Digests. London HMSO
‫ ﻟﻨﺪن‬HMSO
No. 139 "Control and Lichens, Moulds and ‫ ﻛﭙﻚﻫﺎ و ﻣﻮاد‬،‫ "ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﮔﻞ ﺳﻨﮓﻫﺎ‬139 ‫ﺷﻤﺎره‬
Similar Growths" "‫زاﺋﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬

BSI (BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE) (‫ )ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﺑﺮﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬BSI

EN 771-2 "Specification for Masonry Units – -‫ "ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي واﺣﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬EN 771-2
Part 2: Calcium Silicate Masonry ‫ واﺣﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت‬:2 ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬
Units"
" ‫ﻛﻠﺴﻴﻢ‬

11
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

EN ISO 6507-1 "Metallic Materials Vickers ‫ روش‬:‫ "آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺳﺨﺘﻲ وﻳﻜﺮز ﻣﻮاد ﻓﻠﺰي‬EN ISO 6507-1
Hardness Test-Part 1: Test "‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺨﺶ اول‬
Method"

245 "Specification for Mineral ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ )ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي‬ 245


Solvents (White Spirit and (‫وﻳﮋه و ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬
Related Hydrocarbon Solvents)
"‫ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ ﻫﺎ و اﻫﺪاف دﻳﮕﺮ‬
for Paints and other Purposes "

479 "Specification for Aromatic "‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻔﺘﺎﻫﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬ 479


Napthas"

524-64 "Refined Cresylic Acid" "‫"اﺳﻴﺪ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﻴﻠﻴﻚ ﺗﺼﻔﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه‬ 524-64

805-2000 "Specification for Toluenes" "‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻮﻟﻮﺋﻦ‬ 805-2000

EN 1593 "Non – Destructive Testing. ،‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺸﺘﻲ‬،‫"آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺨﺮب‬ EN 1593


Leak Testing. Bubble Emission "‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻓﻨﻲ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺣﺒﺎب‬
Techniques"

EN 13279-1 "Gypsum Binders and Gypsum ‫ ﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎي‬:1 ‫"اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت و ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ EN 13279-1
Plasters – Part 1: Definitions "‫ﺳﻨﮓ ﮔﭻ و اﻧﺪودﻫﺎي ﮔﭻ‬
and Requirements"

EN 13279-2 "Gypsum Binders and Gypsum ‫ ﭼﺴﺐﻫﺎي‬:2 ‫"روﺷﻬﺎي آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺨﺶ‬ EN 13279-2
Plasters – Part 2: Test " ‫ﺳﻨﮓ ﮔﭻ و اﻧﺪودﻫﺎي ﮔﭻ‬
Methods"

ISO 2944 "Fluid Power Systems and ‫"ﻓﺸﺎرﻫﺎي اﺳﻤﻲ اﺟﺰاء و ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي‬ ISO 2944
Components Nominal " ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻗﺪرت ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺎل‬
Pressures"

EN ISO 11124-3"Preparation of Steel Substrates ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح زﻳﺮﻛﺎر‬EN ISO 11124-3
Before Application of Paints ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت‬
and Related Products-
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
Specifications for Metallic
Blast – Cleaning Abrasive – ‫ ﺳﺎﭼﻤﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬-3 ‫ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ‬
Part 3 High – Carbon Cast – ‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ از ﺟﻨﺲ ﻓﻮﻻد ﭘﺮ‬
Steel Shot and Grit"
" ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻦ و ﮔﺮﻳﺖ‬
EN ISO 11124-4"Preparation of Steel Substrates ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح زﻳﺮﻛﺎر‬EN ISO 11124-4
Before Application of Paints ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت‬
and Related Products –
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ –ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
Specifications for Metallic
Blast–Cleaning Abrasives–Part ‫ ﺳﺎﭼﻤﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬4 ‫ ﺑﺨﺶ‬-‫ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
4: Low Carbon Cast–Steel ‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ از ﺟﻨﺲ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻛﻢ‬
Shot"
"‫ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬
2713 "Specification for 2- ‫ اﺗﺎﻧﻮل اﺗﻮﻛﺴﻲ )ﻣﻮﻧﻮاﺗﻴﻞ‬-2 ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬ 2713
EthoxyEthanol (Ethylene "(‫ﻛﻠﻴﻜﻮل اﺗﻴﻠﻦ اﺗﺮ‬
Glycol Monoethyl- ether)"

3591 "Specification for Industrial ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي اﻟﻜﻞﻫﺎي ﻣﺘﻴﻞ ﺷﺪه‬ 3591
Methylated Spirits" "‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ‬

12
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4072-99 "Copper/Chromium/Arsenic ‫ آرﺳﻨﻴﻚ‬/ ‫ ﻛﺮوم‬/ ‫"آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﺲ‬ 4072-99


Preparations for Wood "‫ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﭼﻮب‬
Preservation "

4764 "Specification for Powder ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮕﻬﺎي‬ ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬ 4764


Cement Paints" "‫ﭘﻮدري‬

5056-74 "Specification for Copper ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻣﺲ‬ ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻧﻔﺘﻨﺎت‬ 5056-74


Naphthenate Wood "‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆﻫﺎي ﭼﻮب‬
Preservatives"

EN 13914-1 "Design, Preparation and ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي و اﻋﻤﺎل اﻧﺪود ﻛﺎري‬،‫ "ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬EN 13914-1
Application of External :‫ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ و ﮔﭻ ﻛﺎري داﺧﻠﻲ – ﺑﺨﺶ اول‬
Rendering and Internal
"‫اﻧﺪود ﻛﺎري ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ‬
Plastering – Part 1: External
Rendering"

EN 13914-2 "Design, Preparation and ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي و اﻋﻤﺎل اﻧﺪود ﻛﺎري‬،‫ "ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬EN 13914-2
Application of External :‫ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ و ﮔﭻ ﻛﺎري داﺧﻠﻲ – ﺑﺨﺶ دوم‬
Rendering and Internal
‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ و اﺻﻮل ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺮاي‬
Plastering – Part 2: Design
Considerations and Essential "‫ﮔﭻ ﻛﺎري داﺧﻠﻲ‬
Principles For Internal
Plastering"

5589 "Code of Practice for ‫"آﺋﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري اﻟﻮار‬ 5589
Preservation of Timber" "‫ﭼﻮﺑﻲ‬

5707 "Specification for Preparations ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆﻫﺎي‬ 5707


of Wood Preservatives in "‫ﭼﻮب در ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي آﻟﻲ‬
organic Solvents"

6073 Part 1 "Specification for Precast ‫ ﺑﺨﺶ اول "ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬6073
Concrete Masonry Units" "‫واﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬

7773 "Code of Practice for Cleaning ‫"آﺋﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و‬ 7773
and Preparation of Metal "‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰي‬
Surface"

1994 "Specification for ‫" ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي دي ﻛﻠﺮوﻣﺘﺎن )ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ‬ 1994


Dichloromethane (Methylene "(‫ﻣﺘﻴﻠﻦ‬
Chloride)"

7079 "General introduction to ‫"ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي آﻣﺎده‬ 7079


standards for preparation of ‫ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل‬
steel substrate before
"‫رﻧﮓﻫﺎ و ﻓﺮآوردهﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬
application of paints and
related products"

DIN (DEUTSHES INSTITIUE FUR (‫ )ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي آﻟﻤﺎن‬DIN


NORMEN)
18364 "Construction Contract -(VOB) ‫"دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺮار داد اﺟﺮا‬ 18364
Procedure (VOB)- Part C:
General Technical
‫ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻓﻨﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ در ﻗﺮار‬:‫ﺑﺨﺶ ج‬
Specifications In Construction -‫( ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺳﺎزه‬ATV) ‫دادﻫﺎي اﺟﺮاﻳﻲ‬
Contracts (ATV) – Corrosion
13
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Protection of Steel Structures" "‫ﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي از ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬


EN ISO 4628-2 "Paints and Varnishes – ‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬-‫ "رﻧﮓﻫﺎ و ﺟﻼﻫﺎ‬EN ISO 4628-2
Evaluation of Degradation of ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺖ و اﻧﺪازه ﻋﻴﻮب‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎ‬
Coatings Designation of
‫و ﺷﺪت ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺖ در ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ‬
Quantity and Size of Defects,
and Intensity of Uniform "‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ درﺟﻪ ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ‬:2
Change in Appearance Part 2:
Assessment of Degree of
Blistering"

EN ISO 4658-3 "Paints and Varnishes – ‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬-‫ " رﻧﮓﻫﺎ و ﺟﻼﻫﺎ‬EN ISO 4658-3
Evaluation of Degradation of ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺖ و اﻧﺪازه ﻋﻴﻮب و‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ‬
Coatings Designation of
‫ﺷﺪت ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺖ در ﻇﺎﻫﺮ – ﺑﺨﺶ‬
Quantity and Size of Defects,
and Intensity of Uniform " ‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ درﺟﻪ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬:3
Change in Appearance Part 3:
Assessment of Degree of
Rusting"

55928 Part 8 "Corrosion Protection of Steel ‫" ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي از ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬ 8 ‫ ﺑﺨﺶ‬55928
Structure by Application of ‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ‬،‫ آﻟﻲ‬، ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي‬
Organic, Metallic Coatings,
‫ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺑﺎ ﺟﺪاره ﻧﺎزك از‬
Corrosion Protection of Thin –
Walled Structure Members" " ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬

IPS (IRANIAN PETROLEUM (‫ )اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺖ اﻳﺮان‬IPS


STANDARD)

IPS-C-TP-102 "Construction Standard for "‫ "اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺟﺮا ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬IPS-C-TP-102
Painting"

IPS-E-TP-100 "Engineering Standard for "‫ "اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬IPS-E-TP-100


Paints"

IPS-E-TP-350 "Engineering Standard for ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬ ‫ "اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬IPS-E-TP-350


Lining" "‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬

IPS-E-TP-270 "Engineering Standard for ‫ "اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬IPS-E-TP-270


Protective Coatings for Buried ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري‬
and Submerged Steel
"‫و ﻣﺪﻓﻮن‬
Structures"

ISO (INTERNATIONAL (‫ )ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻠﻲ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ISO


STANDARDIZATION FOR
ORGANIZATION)

3274 "Geometrical Product ‫ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‬- ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل‬ 3274


Specifications (GPS) –Surface ‫ وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎي اﺳﻤﻲ روش ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ از‬: ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬
Texture: Profile Method-
" (‫اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي دﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻲ )ﻧﻮك ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ‬
Nominal Characteristics of
Contact (Stylus) Instruments"

14
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4288 "Geometrical Product ‫ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ‬- ‫"ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل‬ 4288


Specifications (GPS) - Surface
Texture: Profile Method- Rules
‫ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎ و ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ روش‬: ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬
and Procedures for the "‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺑﺮاي ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ‬
Assessment of Surface Texture"
8501-1 "Preparation of Steel Substrate ‫"آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ‬ 8501-1
before Application of Paints and -‫از اﻋﻤﺎل رﻧﮓ ﻫﺎ و ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬
Related Products-Visual
: 1 ‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ– ﺑﺨﺶ‬
Assessment of surface
Cleanliness – Part 1: Rust ‫ﻣﻴﺰان زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ و درﺟﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬
Grades and Preparation Grades ‫ﺳﻄﻮح زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺑﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
of Uncoated Steel Substrates
After Overall Removal of "‫از ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻗﺒﻠﻲ‬
Previous Coatings"

9004 "Quality Management Systems ‫"رﻫﻨﻤﻮدﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ 9004


Guidelines for Performance ‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬xxx ‫ﺑﺮ اﺻﻼﺣﺎت اﺟﺮا‬
Improvements XXX See Also ISO
xxx ‫ و ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ISO 9000 ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬
9000 Collection and
CompendiumXXX" "‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

NACE (NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF (‫ )اﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎن ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬NACE


CORROSION ENGINEERS)

RP-01-72-72 "Surface Preparation of Steel ‫"آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي و ﻓﻠﺰات‬ RP-01-72-72
and Hard Metals/ Water "‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آب‬/ ‫ﺳﺨﺖ‬
Blasting"

TPC 15-85 "NACE-Coating and Lining ‫"ﻛﺘﺎب راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ‬ TPC 15-85
Hand Book" "NACE

SAE (SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE (‫ )اﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎن ﺧﻮدرو‬SAE


ENGINEERS)

J444-93 "Surface Vehicle Recommended "‫" راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺧﻮدرو‬ J444-93
Practice"

SSPC (STEEL STRUCTURE PAINTING (‫ )اﻧﺠﻤﻦ روﻛﺶ ﻛﺎري و ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺳﻄﻮح‬SSPC


COUNCIL)

Vol. 1 "Good Painting Practice Steel ‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮي‬، ‫"ﻛﺘﺎب راﻫﻨﻤﺎي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬ Vol. 1
Structures Painting Manual" "‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺧﻮب ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي‬

Vol. 2 "Systems and Specifications ‫"ﻛﺘﺎب راﻫﻨﻤﺎي ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬ Vol. 2
Steel Structures Painting "‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ و ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي‬
Manual"

SIS (SWEDISH STANDARD) (‫ )اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺳﻮﺋﺪي‬SIS

05 5900 "Rust Levels of Steel Structure ‫"ﻣﻴﺰان زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺳﺎزه ﻓﻮﻻدي و ﻣﻴﺰان‬ 05 5900
and Quality Levels for ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي‬
Preparation of Steel Surface for
"‫ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓﻫﺎي ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه از زﻧﮓ‬
Rust Protecting Paints"

15
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3. DEFINITIONS & TERMINOLOGY ‫ ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ و واژﮔﺎن‬-3

3.1 Acid Pickling ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬1-3

Is a treatment for removal of rust and mill scale ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺬف زﻧﮓ و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد از‬
from steel by immersion in an acid solution ‫ﻓﻮﻻد ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﺎوي ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪه ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬
containing an inhibitor. Pickling should be
‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬.‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
followed by thorough washing and drying before
painting. .‫ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي دﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﻮد‬

3.2 Aliphatic Solvents ‫ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي آﻟﻴﻔﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬2-3


Hydrocarbon solvents compounded primarily of ‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ اﺻﻮﻻً ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺷﺪه از ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت‬
paraffinic and cycloparaffinic (naphthenic) .‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﭘﺎراﻓﻴﻨﻲ و ﺳﻴﻜﻠﻮ ﭘﺎراﻓﻴﻨﻲ )ﻧﻔﺘﻨﻴﻚ( ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
hydrocarbon compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbon
1 ‫ﻣﻘﺪار ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ داﻣﻨﻪاي ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
content may range from less than 1% to about
35%. . ‫ درﺻﺪ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬35 ‫درﺻﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪود‬

3.3 Anchor Pattern ‫ ﺷﻜﻞ دﻧﺪاﻧﻪاي‬3-3


See surface profile. .‫ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

3.4 Aromatic Solvents ‫ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬4-3


Hydrocarbon solvents comprised wholly or ‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ اﻋﻈﻢ آن ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت‬
primarily of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. . ‫ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻦ آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
Aromatic solvents containing less than 80% ً‫ درﺻﺪ آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬80 ‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ داراي ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
aromatic compounds are frequently designated as . ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
partial aromatic solvents.

3.5 Blast Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬5-3


cleaning and roughening of a surface (particularly ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري و زﺑﺮ ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ )ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﻓﻮﻻد( ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از‬
steel) by the use of metallic or non-metallic ‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻠﺰي ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ روي ﺑﻪ ﺳﻮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬
abrasive, which is projected against a surface by
.‫ ﻳﺎ آب‬، ‫ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬، ‫ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬
compressed air, centrifugal force, or water.

3.6 Blistering ‫ ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ‬6-3


Formation of dome-shaped projection in paints or ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺑﺮآﻣﺪﮔﻲ ﮔﻨﺒﺪي ﺷﻜﻞ در ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻼﻫﺎ در‬
varnish films resulting from local loss of adhesion ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ از دﺳﺖ دادن ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ و ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﺷﺪن ﻻﻳﻪ )ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ‬
and lifting of the film (intercoat blistering) or the
. ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻻﻳﻪاي( از ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
base substrate.

3.7 Calcareous Deposits ‫ رﺳﻮﺑﺎت آﻫﻜﻲ‬7-3


Deposits containing calcium or calcium .‫رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﺣﺎوي ﻛﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﻛﻠﺴﻴﻢ‬
compounds.

3.8 Cement Paint ‫ رﻧﮓ ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬8-3


Paint supplied in dry powder form, based ‫رﻧﮓ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﭘﻮدر ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﭘﺮﺗﻠﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬
essentially on Portland cement, to which pigments ‫ رﻧﮓ ﭘﻮدر‬.‫ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺮﺧﻲ رﻧﮕﺪاﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﺗﺰﺋﻴﻨﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
are sometimes added for decorative purposes.
. ‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺑﺎ آب ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
This dry powder paint is mixed with water
immediately before use.

16
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3.9 Centrifugal Blast Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬9-3


Use of motor-driven, bladed wheels to hurl ‫ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﭼﺮخﻫﺎي ﺗﻴﻐﻪدار ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻣﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺗﻮري‬
abrasive at a surface by centrifugal force. . ‫ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﻄﺮف ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
3.10 Chemical Conversion Coating ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬10-3
A treatment, either chemical or electrochemical, ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ را ﺑﻪ‬، ‫ﻳﻚ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺧﻮاه ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺎ اﻟﻜﺘﺮو ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
of the metal surface to convert it to another ‫ﺷﻜﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻤﻮده ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺪ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻴﺖ‬
chemical form which provides an insulating
‫ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ‬، ‫ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪت ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﻠﺰ و ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺧﻮد ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
barrier of exceedingly low solubility between the
metal and its environment, but which is an ‫ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬.‫ﻳﻜﭙﺎرﭼﻪاي از ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻓﻠﺰي اﺳﺖ‬
integral part of the metallic substrate. It provides ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺑﺰرﮔﺘﺮي ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬
greater corrosion resistance to the metal and
increased adhesion of coatings applied to the ‫ ﻣﺜﺎلﻫﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه روي ﻓﻠﺰ را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
metal. Examples are phosphate coatings on steel. . ‫ﻓﺴﻔﺎت روي ﻓﻮﻻد ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
3.11 Chemical Environment ‫ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬11-3
An exposure in which strong concentration of ‫ ﺑﺨﺎرات ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺸﺪت‬،‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﮔﺎزﻫﺎ‬
highly corrosive gases,fumes or chemicals either ‫ ﻳﺎ‬،‫ﺧﻮرﻧﺪه ﺑﺎ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
in solution or as solids or liquids contact the
‫ ﺷﺪت‬.‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺟﺎﻣﺪات ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺎت در ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
surface. The severity may vary tremendously
from mild concentration in yard areas to direct ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ از ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ در ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬
immersion in the chemical. . ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ در ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﮔﺴﺘﺮدهاي ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
3.12 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ‫ ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻦﻫﺎي ﻛﻠﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﺪه‬12-3
Powerful solvents that include such members as ،‫ ﺗﺘﺮا ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬،‫ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي ﻗﻮي ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻛﻠﺮوﻓﺮم‬
chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene ‫ و‬،‫ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬،‫ ﺗﺘﺮا ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﺎن‬،‫ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﺘﻴﻠﻦ‬،‫دي ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ اﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬
dichloride, methylene chloride, tetrachlorethane,
‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻮده و در ﺣﺎل ﺣﺎﺿﺮ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آﻧﻬﺎ در‬.‫ﻏﻴﺮه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
trichlorethylene, etc. Generally, they are toxic and
their use is now restricted in some countries. ‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﻫﺎي اﺻﻠﻲ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬.‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از ﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﺪود ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
Their main applications include nonflammable ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري و ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي‬،‫رﻧﮓﺑﺮﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل‬
paint removers, cleaning solutions and special
finishes where presence of residual solvent in the ‫ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ و در ﻫﺮ ﻛﺠﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي در ﻻﻳﻪ‬
film is a disadvantage. . ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﺤﺴﻮب ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
3.13 Coating ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬13-3
Generic term for paints, lacquer, enamels, etc. A ‫ ﻟﻌﺎبﻫﺎ و ﻏﻴﺮه‬،‫ ﻻك اﻟﻜﻞ‬،‫اﺻﻄﻼح ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬
liquid, liquifiable or mastic composition that has ‫ داراي ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺷﺪن ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻼت‬،‫ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‬.‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
been converted to a solid protective, decorative,
،‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎزك ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ‬
or functional adherent film after application as
thin layer. .‫ ﻳﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺗﺰﺋﻴﻨﻲ‬

3.14 Damp ‫ ﻧﻢدار‬14-3


Either moderate absorption or moderate covering ‫ اﺷﺎره‬،‫ﺟﺬب ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﻢدار ﺷﺪن‬
of moisture, implies let wetness than that ‫ﺿﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻮدن و اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺧﻴﺲ ﺷﺪﮔﻲ اﺷﺎره ﺿﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ‬
connoted by "wet" and slightly by wetter than that
. ‫رﻃﻮﺑﺖ دارد‬
connoted by moist.

3.15 Descaling ‫ رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ‬15-3


Removal of mill scale or caked rust from steel by ‫از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﻳﺎ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻛﻴﻚ از ﻓﻮﻻد‬
chemical or mechanical means. . ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬

17
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3.16 Dew Point ‫ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ‬16-3


The temperature at which moisture will condense. . ‫دﻣﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ در آن ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

3.17 Efflorescence ‫ ﺷﻮره زدﮔﻲ‬17-3


A deposit of salts, usually white, formed on a ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺳﻔﻴﺪ رﻧﮓ روي ﺳﻄﺢ‬،‫رﺳﻮب ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎ‬
surface the substance having emerged in solution ‫ﻣﺎدهاي ﻛﻪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻲ از ﺑﺘﻦ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور‬
from within concrete or masonry and deposited by
.‫ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
evaporation.

3.18 Emulsifier ‫ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬18-3


Substance that intimately mixes, modifies the ‫ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻗﻄﺮات رﻳﺰ‬،‫ﻣﺎدهاي ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﻮﺑﻲ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﻮد‬
surface tension of colloidal droplets, and disperses ‫ﻛﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪي را اﺻﻼح ﻛﺮده و ﻣﻮاد ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً اﻣﺘﺰاج‬
dissimilar materials ordinarily immiscible, such as
‫ ﺗﺎ‬،‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ روﻏﻦ و آب را ﭘﺮاﻛﻨﺪه ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬،‫ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
oil and water, to produce a stable emulsion. The
emulsifier has the double task of promoting the ‫ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه داراي دو‬.‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﭘﺎﻳﺪاري ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬
emulsification and of stabilizing the finished ‫وﻇﻴﻔﻪ ارﺗﻘﺎء اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺳﺎزي و ﭘﺎﻳﺪار ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﺤﺼﻮل ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ را‬
product.
. ‫ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪه دارد‬
3.19 Emulsion ‫ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬19-3
Two-phase liquid system in which small droplets (‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ دو ﻓﺎزي ﻗﻄﺮات رﻳﺰ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ )ﻓﺎز داﺧﻠﻲ‬
of one liquid (the internal phase) are immiscible ‫اﻣﺘﺰاج ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﻮده و در ﺳﺮاﺳﺮ ﻓﺎز ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ و‬
in and dispersed uniformly throughout a second
. (‫ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺖ ﭘﺮاﻛﻨﺪه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﻓﺎز ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ‬
continuous liquid phase (the external phase).

3.20 Erosion ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ‬20-3


Phenomenon manifested in paint films by the ‫ﭘﺪﻳﺪهاي ﻛﻪ در ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻠﻲ و در‬
wearing away of the finish to expose the substrate .‫ﻣﻌﺮض ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻳﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ زﻳﺮﻳﻦ آﺷﻜﺎر ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
or undercoat. The degree of failure is dependent
‫درﺟﻪ ﺧﺮاﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ زﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ‬
on the amount of substrate or undercoat visible.
Erosion occurs as the result of chalking or by the ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮔﭽﻲ ﺷﺪن ﻳﺎ اﺛﺮ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ذرات رﻳﺰ ﺷﻨﻲ‬.‫دارد‬
abrasive action of windborne particles of grit. . ‫ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎد آورده ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
3.21 Etch ‫ اچ ﻛﺮدن‬21-3
To roughen a surface by chemical agent prior to ‫زﺑﺮﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
painting in order to increase adhesion. . ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ‬
3.22 Etching Primer ‫ اچ ﻛﺮدن آﺳﺘﺮي‬22-3
A priming paint usually supplied as two separate ‫رﻧﮓ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً از دو ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺟﺪا از ﻫﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ‬
components which require to be mixed ‫ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﺪن ﻓﻮري ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده دارد و ﺑﻌﺪ از آن‬
immediately prior to use and thereafter is usable
‫ روي آﻟﻴﺎژ ﺳﺒﻚ‬. ‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮاي دوره ﻣﺤﺪودي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده اﺳﺖ‬
for a limited period only. On clean light alloy or
ferrous surfaces and on many non-ferrous ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻄﻮح آﻫﻨﻲ و ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ رﻧﮕﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
surfaces such paints give excellent adhesion, ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي در اﺛﺮ واﻛﻨﺶ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ دارﻧﺪ‬
partly due to chemical reaction with the substrate
(hence the term ’etching primer’), and give a ‫ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر )از اﻳﻦ رو اﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎً آﺳﺘﺮي اچ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬
corrosion inhibiting film which is a very good ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد( و ﻻﻳﻪ ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ را ﺑﺮاي‬
bases for the application of subsequent coats of
‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮاد‬.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي رﻧﮓ اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
paint. These materials are also known as
"pretreatment primers", "wash primers" and "self ‫ "واش ﭘﺮاﻳﻤﺮﻫﺎ" و‬، "‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان "آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ‬
etch primers". . ‫"آﺳﺘﺮي ﺧﻮد اچ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه" ﻣﻌﺮوف ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

18
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3.23 External Rendering ‫ اﻧﺪود ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ‬23-3


The application of a coat of mortar over external .‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ از ﻣﻼت روي ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ ﻛﺎر‬
of frame work.

3.24 Flint (chert) (‫ ﺳﻨﮕﺮﻳﺰه )ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺳﻨﮓ ﭼﺨﻤﺎق رﻳﺰ داﻧﻪ‬24-3


A very fine grained siliceous rock. . ‫داﻧﻪ ﺳﻨﮓ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ رﻳﺰ‬

3.25 Galvanizing ‫ ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه ﻛﺮدن‬25-3


Application of a coating of zinc to steel by a .‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ روي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺘﻨﻮع روي ﻓﻮﻻد‬
variety of methods.

3.26 Hand Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬26-3


Surface preparation using hand tools such as wire ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي‬
brushes, scrapers, and chipping hammers. ‫ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﺑﺮاده ﺑﺮداري‬،‫ رﻳﺴﻪﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬
3.27 Hydro-Blasting ‫ ﻫﻴﺪروﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬27-3
See water blasting. . ‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

3.28 Inhibitor ‫ ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪه‬28-3


General term for compounds or materials that ‫اﺻﻄﻼح ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮادي اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
slow down or stop an undesired chemical change ‫ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺷﺪن ﻳﺎ ﭘﻠﻴﻤﺮﻳﺰه‬،‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﺎﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬
such as corrosion, oxidation or polymerization,
‫ رﺷﺪ ﻛﭙﻚ و ﻏﻴﺮه را ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬،‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﺪن‬،‫ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن‬،‫ﺷﺪن‬
drying, skinning, mildew growth, etc.
.‫ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
3.29 Laitance ‫ ﺣﺒﺎب روي ﺑﺘﻦ‬29-3
A milky white deposite on new concrete. .‫رﺳﻮب ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺷﻴﺮي روي ﺑﺘﻦ ﺗﺎزه‬

3.30 Manual Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬30-3


Includes hand cleaning and power tool cleaning. .‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬

3.31 Masonry ‫ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬31-3


Construction composed by shaped or molded ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺐ از ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎي ﺷﻜﻞ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ و ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازه‬
units, usually small enough to be handled by one ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺑﻮده ﻛﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ از‬
man and composed of stone, ceramic, brick or
‫ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬،‫ ﺑﺘﻦ‬،‫ ﻛﺎﺷﻲ‬،‫ آﺟﺮ‬،‫ ﺳﺮاﻣﻴﻚ‬،‫ﺳﻨﮓ‬
tile, concrete, glass, or the like.
.‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
3.32 Masonry Cement ‫ ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬32-3
A hydraulic cement for use in mortars for ،‫ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﻫﻴﺪروﻟﻴﻚ در ﻣﻼتﻫﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬
masonry construction, containing a type of ‫داراي ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻮادي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ آﻫﻚ‬
cement plus one or more material such as
.‫ ﺳﺮﺑﺎره ﻳﺎ ﺧﺎك رس ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ ﺗﺎﻟﻚ‬،‫ ﮔﭻ ﺳﻨﮓ آﻫﻚ‬،‫ﻫﻴﺪراﺗﻪ‬
hydrated lime, limestone chalk, talc, slag or clay.

3.33 Maximum Amplitude ‫ داﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬33-3


The term "maximum amplitude" as used in this ‫اﺻﻄﻼح "داﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ" ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮده ﺷﺪه در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
Standard is defined as the greatest vertical ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺑﺰرﮔﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻋﻤﻮدي ﺑﻴﻦ ﻧﻮك ﺑﺮآﻣﺪﮔﻲ روي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
distance between the summit of any peak on the
‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه و ﻓﺮورﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﻛﻒ ﺑﻼﻓﺼﻞ ﻣﺠﺎور آن ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪه‬
blast-cleaned surface and the bottom of an
immediately adjacent trough, but without taking ‫ ﺑﺪون در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻫﺮ ﺑﻠﻨﺪي اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﻳﻲ "ﭘﻴﻚ ﻫﺎي‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬
into account any exceptionally high "rogue peaks" ‫ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫راگ" ﻣﺴﺌﻮل ﺑﻮﺟﻮد آﻣﺪن روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬
19
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

which are liable to occur on a blast-cleaned .‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ذرات ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺟﺎﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
surface as a result of embedded particles of
abrasive.

Such peaks are very undesirable and their size and ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮآﻣﺪﮔﻲﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻧﺎﺧﻮاﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻮده و اﻧﺪازه و ﺗﻌﺪاد آﻧﻬﺎ‬
number may be the subject of special agreement .‫ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع ﺧﺎص ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻗﺮارداد ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
between the parties to a contract.

3.34 Metal Spraying ‫ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰ‬34-3


Application of a spray coat of metal (usually zinc ‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﺎﺷﺸﻲ ﻓﻠﺰ )ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً روي ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم( روي‬
or aluminum) onto a prepared surface. The metal ‫ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﻮد ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺳﻄﺢ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
to be sprayed is rendered molten by passing it, in
‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺳﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮدر ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻣﺎده ﻣﺬاب ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﻣﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬
wire or powder form, through a flame pistol that
projects the semi molten metal onto the surface by ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﺮف ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ رﻓﺘﻪ و ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﻓﻠﺰ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﻣﺬاب ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬
means of a jet of compressed air. .‫ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ زﻳﺎد ﺑﻪ روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
3.35 Mill Scale ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬35-3
Mill scale is the term used for the surface oxides ‫اﺻﻄﻼح ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺑﺮاي اﻛﺴﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﺳﻄﺢ در ﺣﻴﻦ‬
produced during hot rolling of steel. It breaks and ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺧﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و‬. ‫ﻧﻮرد ﮔﺮم ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
flakes when the steel is flexed and paint applied
‫رﻧﮓ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه روي آن ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﺎﺑﻬﻨﮕﺎم ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ رﻓﺘﻪ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬
over it may fail prematurely. The extent of such
failures is unpredictable but they frequently occur ‫ وﺳﻌﺖ ﻳﻚ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﻜﺴﺖﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬.‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ و ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
within a few weeks of painting, particularly in ،‫ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻧﺒﻮده اﻣﺎ اﻏﻠﺐ در ﻋﺮض ﭼﻨﺪ ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
aggressive environments.
.‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً در ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎي ﻣﻬﺎﺟﻢ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ‬
No protective coating can give long-life ،‫ﻫﻴﭻ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﻋﻤﺮي ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
protection unless both the scale and rust are .‫ﻣﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ و زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ از روي ﺳﻄﺢ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
removed.

3.36 Passivation ‫ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﺮدن‬36-3


Act of making inert or unreactive. .‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ ﺳﺎزي ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﺮدن‬

3.37 Phosphating ‫ ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن‬37-3


Pretreatment of steel and certain other metal ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬
surfaces by chemical solutions containing metal ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ داراي ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻬﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي و اﺳﻴﺪ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ ﻛﻪ‬
phosphates and phosphoric acid as the main
،‫ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ‬،‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان اﺟﺰاء اﺻﻠﻲ ﺑﻮده و ﺑﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎزك‬
ingredients, to form a thin, inert, adherent,
corrosion-inhibiting phosphate layer which ‫ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ را‬،‫ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه‬
servies as a good base for subsequent paint coats ‫ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ ﺑﻌﺪي ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
(see IPS-C-TP-102 "Painting").
. (‫ "رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي" ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬IPS-C-TP-102
3.38 Power Tool Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬38-3
Use of pneumatic and electric portable power ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده و اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﻬﺖ آﻣﺎده‬
tools to prepare substrate for painting. ‫ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
3.39 Precast Concrete ‫ ﺑﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬39-3
A concrete member that is cast and cured in other ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﺑﺘﻦ ﻛﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎه ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ آن رﻳﺨﺘﻪ و ﺳﺨﺖ ﺷﺪه‬
than its final position. .‫اﺳﺖ‬
3.40 Pretreatment ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ‬40-3
Usually restricted to mean the chemical treatment ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ رﻧﮓ ﻧﺸﺪه ﻗﺒﻞ از‬
of unpainted metal surface before painting. .‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي اﻃﻼق ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
20
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

3.41 Pretreatment Primer ‫ آﺳﺘﺮي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اوﻟﻴﻪ‬41-3


See "etching primer" and "phosphating". . ‫ﺑﻪ "آﺳﺘﺮي اچ ﻛﺮدن" و "ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن" ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

3.42 Profile ‫ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬42-3


See "surface profile". . ‫ﺑﻪ "ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ" ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

3.43 Rural Environment ‫ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ روﺳﺘﺎﻳﻲ‬43-3


An atmospheric exposure that is virtually ‫در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻫﻮاﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ واﻗﻌﺎً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ دود و ﮔﺎزﻫﺎي ﮔﻮﮔﺮد آﻟﻮده‬
unpolluted by smoke and sulfur gases, and which ‫ﻧﺸﺪه اﺳﺖ و ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازه ﻛﺎﻓﻲ درون ﻣﺮزي اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬
is sufficiently inland to be unaffected by salt
‫آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻧﻤﻚ ﻳﺎ رﻃﻮﺑﺖﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺳﺎﺣﻠﻲ ﻗﺮار ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬
contaminations or the high humidities of coastal
areas. .‫اﺳﺖ‬

3.44 Rust ‫ زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ‬44-3


The reddish, brittle coating formed on iron or ،‫ ﺷﻜﻨﻨﺪهاي ﻛﻪ روي آﻫﻦ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬
ferrous metals resulting from exposure to humid ‫در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﻳﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ‬
atmosphere or chemical attack.
. ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
3.45 Abrasive Blast ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬45-3
To use sand, Flint or similar non-metallic abrasive ‫ ﺳﻨﮕﺮﻳﺰه ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﻪ‬،‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻣﺎﺳﻪ‬
propelled by an air blast, or metal masonary, .‫ ﺑﺘﻦ و ﻏﻴﺮه‬،‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻠﺰي‬،‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮا‬
concrete, etc. to remove dirt, rust, or paint.
.‫ زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ ﻳﺎ رﻧﮓ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬، ‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ‬
3.46 Abrasive ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ‬46-3
An abrasive process used to level a coated surface ‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻳﺸﻲ ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده در ﻫﻤﻮار ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
prior to the application of a further coat. .‫ﺷﺪه ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي‬
3.47 Scarifying ‫ ﺧﺮاﺷﻴﺪن‬47-3
A method of preparing concrete surfaces for ‫ ﺧﺮاش‬.‫روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﺮدن‬
coating. Scarifiers are sharp rotating knives in a ‫ ﺗﻴﻐﻪﻫﺎي دوار ﺗﻴﺰ ﻳﻜﭙﺎرﭼﻪ ﺑﻮده ﻛﻪ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺟﺎرو ﻋﻤﻞ‬،‫دﻫﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬
self contained unit resembling a plant sweeper.
.‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
3.48 Sieve ‫ اﻟﻚ‬48-3
A metallic plate or sheet, a woven wire cloth or ‫ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪاي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻳﺎ ورق ﻓﻠﺰي‬
other similar device, with regularly spaced
apertures of uniform size, mounted in a suitable ‫ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪه‬،‫ ﺑﺎ روزﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ دار ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازه ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬،‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬
frame or holder for use in separating material ‫در ﻗﺎب ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻳﺎ ﻧﮕﻬﺪارﻧﺪه ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده در ﺟﺪاﺳﺎزي ﻣﻮاد‬
according to size.
.‫ﻃﺒﻖ اﻧﺪازه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
3.49 Stain ‫ رﻧﮓ روﺷﻦ‬49-3
The coloring matter that colored wood, plaster or ‫ ﮔﭻ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ را ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﻣﺎده رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻛﻪ ﭼﻮب‬
other masonery by penetration without hiding it ‫ﻧﻔﻮذ ﺑﺪون ﭘﻨﻬﺎن ﺳﺎزي آن و ﺑﺪون ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﮔﺬاردن ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻻﻳﻪ‬
and without leaving any perceptible surface film.
.‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ درﻛﻲ رﻧﮓ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
3.50 Stucco ‫ روﻛﺶ ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬50-3
A cement plaster used for coating exterior walls ‫روﻛﺶ ﺳﻴﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻳﻮارﻫﺎي ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ‬
and other exterior surface of building. . ‫ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎن اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
3.51 Surface Preparation ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬51-3
Any method of treating a surface in preparation ‫ﻫﺮ روش ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺳﻄﺢ در آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
21
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

for painting. Swedish standards include ‫ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﺳﻮﺋﺪي ﺗﺼﺎوﻳﺮي از ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫اﺳﺖ‬
photographic depictions of surface appearance of
‫ﻛﺎري ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ و دﺳﺘﻲ و درﺟﺎت ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮن ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬
hand and power tool cleaning and various grades
of blast cleaning over four initial mill scale and ‫ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ﭼﻬﺎر دﺳﺘﻪ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﻲ و ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬
rust conditions of steel. .‫زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
3.52 Surface Profile ‫ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ‬52-3
Surface profile is a measurement of the roughness ‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﻨﺠﺸﻲ اﺳﺖ از زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
of the surface which results from abrasive blast ‫ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه روي ﺳﻄﺢ از‬.‫ﻛﺎري ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
cleaning. The height of the profile produced on
‫ﻛﻒﻫﺎي ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦﺗﺮﻳﻦ دره ﻫﺎ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮكﻫﺎ اﻧﺪازه‬
the surface is measured from the bottoms of the
lowest valleys to the tops of the highest peaks. .‫ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

3.53 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (TLV) ‫ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬53-3

A concentration of airborne material that experts ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎن ﻏﻠﻈﺘﻲ از ﻣﻮادي ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻫﻮا ﻧﻘﻞ و‬
agree can be inhaled for a working lifetime by ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ و ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺗﻤﺎم ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺪون ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬
almost all workers without any injury. The few
‫ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻣﺤﺪودي ﻛﻪ‬.‫آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﺮ ﻛﺎري اﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎق ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
workers who will be affected will develop their
symptoms so slowly that periodic medical ‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻋﻼﺋﻢ ﺷﺎن ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪري آﻫﺴﺘﻪ رﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
examination can be expected to detect them while ‫ﻛﻪ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر ﻣﻲرود در اﻣﺘﺤﺎن دورهاي ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬
the effects are still reversible.
.‫ﻛﺮده در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ اﻳﻦ اﺛﺮات ﻫﻨﻮز ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
3.54 Wash Primer ‫ واش ﭘﺮاﻳﻤﺮ‬54-3
See "etch primer". .‫ﺑﻪ آﺳﺘﺮي اچ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

3.55 Water Blasting ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ آب‬55-3


Blast cleaning of metal using high velocity water ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آب ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪون‬
with or without addition an abrasive. ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬
3.56 Wood Preservation ‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﭼﻮب‬56-3
Treatment of wood with chemical substances ‫ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﭼﻮب ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬
which reduces its susceptibility to deterioration by .‫ ﻛﺮم درﻳﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬،‫ ﺣﺸﺮات‬،‫آن در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻗﺎرچ‬
fungi, insects, marine borers.

4. REQUIREMENTS ‫ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت‬-4

4.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-4

4.1.1 Surface preparation is (are) the method(s) of ‫ روش )ﻫﺎي( ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺳﻄﺢ‬،‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬1-1-4
treating the surface of substrate prior to ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ و‬،‫زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ )رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
application of Coating (painting, coating and
lining, etc.), Unless otherwise specified by the
‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ و ﻏﻴﺮه( روي ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﺖ‬
company. The method(s) of surface preparation ‫ روش )ﻫﺎي( آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬.‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
shall be selected with references to 4.2, 4.3 and .‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﻮد‬4-4 ‫ و‬3-4 ، 2-4 ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎي‬
4.4.

4.1.2 Typical contaminants that shall be removed ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﺣﻴﻦ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬2-1-4
during surface preparation are moisture, oil, ،‫ ﻓﺮآوردهﻫﺎي ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬،‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬،‫ روﻏﻦ‬،‫ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬،‫ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
grease, corrosion products, dirt and mill scale.
.‫ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
4.1.3 The surface prepared must achieve a level of ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ درﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰي و‬3-1-4
cleanliness and roughness suitable for the ‫زﺑﺮي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﻮب ﻣﺠﺎز‬
proposed Coating and permit good adhesion. The
22
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Coating expenditure on the preparation work shall ‫ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ در راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪف و‬.‫ﺑﺮﺳﺪ‬
be in a reasonable proportion to the purpose and
‫ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎري ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎر‬.‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
to the nature of the Coating. The contractor
carrying out surface preparation work must have ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ را اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داراي ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن آﺷﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ‬
the personnel and technical know-how to enable ‫داﻧﺶ ﻓﻨﻲ روز ﺑﻮده ﺗﺎ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻛﺎر را ﺑﺼﻮرت رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ‬
them to carry out the work in a technically
satisfactory and operationally reliable manner. .‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ اﺻﻮل ﻓﻨﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم دﻫﻨﺪ‬

The surfaces must be accessible and adequately ‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮده و ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﻘﺪر ﻛﺎﻓﻲ روﺷﻦ‬
illuminated. The relevant accident prevention ‫ ﻣﻘﺮرات ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از ﺣﻮادث و ﺗﺪاﺑﻴﺮ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ رﻋﺎﻳﺖ‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
regulations and safety provisions must be
.‫ﺷﻮد‬
observed.

All surface preparation works must be properly ‫ﺗﻤﺎم ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ و‬
quality controlled and inspected. Each subsequent ‫ ﻫﺮ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺑﻌﺪي ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ وﻗﺘﻲ‬.‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
Coating may only be applied when the surface to
‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﻮد ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬
be coated has been prepared in accordance with
the principles of this construction Standard. (See DIN 18364 ‫ )ﺑﻪ‬.‫اﺻﻮل اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺟﺮا آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
DIN 18364) (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
4.1.4 The handling of parts or assemblies, after ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎهﻫﺎ‬4-1-4
cleaning, shall be kept to a minimum when ‫ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﺤﺪود ﺷﻮد‬
handling is necessary, clean gloves or similar
protection shall be used. Canvas, PVC or leather
،‫ ﻛﺮﺑﺎس‬.‫دﺳﺘﻜﺶ ﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر رود‬
are suitable materials for gloves. .‫ ﻳﺎ ﭼﺮم ﻣﻮاد ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺑﺮاي دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬PVC

4.1.5 Cleaned surfaces shall be Coated as soon ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺾ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮوز ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬5-1-4
after cleaning as is practical and before .‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫زﻳﺎن آور ﻳﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد آﻣﺪن آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻣﺠﺪد‬
detrimental corrosion or recontamination occurs.

4.1.6 There is no single, universal method of ‫ ﻫﻴﭻ روش ﺗﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺗﻤﺎم‬6-1-4
cleaning by which all surfaces can be prepared for ‫ﺳﻄﻮح را ﺑﺮاي اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ آﻣﺎده ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ وﺟﻮد‬
the application of protective Coatings, and
cleaning method for any given type of article
‫ﻧﺪارد و روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع ﺷﻴﺌﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
must be carefully selected and properly carried .‫ﺑﺪﻗﺖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب و اﺻﻮﻟﻲ اﺟﺮا ﮔﺮدد‬
out.

4.1.7 The company may require the contractor to ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻻزم ﺑﺪاﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر‬7-1-4
furnish an affidavit that all materials and work ‫ﮔﻮاﻫﻴﻨﺎﻣﻪاي را ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻮاد و ﻛﺎر اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪه ﺗﺤﺖ‬
furnished under the company’s order will comply
or have complied with the applicable
‫دﺳﺘﻮر ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﻮده ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺟﺮاي اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
requirements of this Standard. .‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ دارد‬

4.1.8 The contractor’s equipment for surface ‫ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬8-1-4
preparation shall be of such design and ‫ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪاي ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ و ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ و در وﺿﻌﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ دﺳﺘﻮر‬
manufacture and in such condition as to comply
with the procedure and obtain results prescribed
‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ و ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ‬
in this Standard. .‫داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬

4.1.9 All materials furnished by the contractor ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﻮاد ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬9-1-4
shall be of the specified quality. The entire ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬.‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪهاي ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
operation of surface preparation shall be
performed by and under the supervision of
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﺮﭘﺮﺳﺘﻲ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ و ﻛﺎردان در‬
experienced workers skilled in the cleaning of .‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
surfaces.

23
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.2 Selection of Cleaning Method(s) ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش )ﻫﺎي( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬2-4


4.2.1 The cleaning method(s) shall be selected ‫ روش )ﻫﺎي( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ارﺟﺎع ﺑﻪ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت زﻳﺮ‬1-2-4
with reference to following considerations and ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬.‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﻮد‬2-3-4 ‫و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
also to 4.3.2. The choice between blast-cleaning,
acid-pickling, and manual cleaning is partly ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺗﺎ اﻧﺪازهاي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬، ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
determined by the nature of the Coating to be ‫ اﻣﺎ‬.‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﮔﺮدد‬
applied. It should be appreciated, however, that ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ درك ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ اﻋﻤﺎﻟﻲ روي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﻄﻮر‬
Coating applied to a properly prepared (e.g. blast-
cleaned) surface will always last longer than ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ( ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
similar coating applied to manually cleaned ‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ دوام ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺗﺮي ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ‬
surfaces. The method shall be approved by
company. .‫ روش ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬.‫داﺷﺖ‬

4.2.2 Initial condition of surface (rust grade) (‫ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ )ﻣﻴﺰان زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬2-2-4
The initial condition of surfaces for preparation, ‫ ﻛﻪ در ﺑﻴﻦ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ دﻳﮕﺮ‬،‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬
which, among other factors, determines the choice ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه اﻧﺘﺨﺎب و ﻃﺮز اﺟﺮاي اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي و‬
and mode of execution of the preparation
‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬،‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
measures and the relevant reference sample to be
used, must be known. For this, the information ‫ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت داده ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
given in Sections 4.2.3 and 4.2.4 is of particular .‫ از اﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار اﺳﺖ‬4-2-4 ‫ و‬3-2-4
importance.

4.2.3 New construction (uncoated surfaces) (‫ اﺟﺮاي ﺟﺪﻳﺪ )ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬3-2-4
4.2.3.1 Grade of steel, depends on special ‫ ﺑﻪ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻳﺎ روﺷﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬،‫ رده ﻓﻮﻻد‬1-3-2-4
treatments or methods that have an effect on the ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺑﻜﺎر‬،‫ﻛﻪ روي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اﺛﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺬارد ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
preparation, e.g. use of cold rolling or deep
drawing methods (see Fig. 1). ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬1 ‫ﮔﻴﺮي ﻧﻮرد ﺳﺮد ﻳﺎ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻛﺸﺶ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ )ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ‬
.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
4.2.3.2 Rust level in accordance with SIS 05 59 00 ‫ ﻳﺎ‬SIS 05 59 00 ‫ ﻣﻴﺰان زﻧﮓ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬2-3-2-4
or ISO 8501-1 ISO 8501-1
A= Steel surface covered with firmly ‫ = ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه و‬A
adhesive scale and largely free of .‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار زﻳﺎدي ﻋﺎري از زﻧﮓ‬
rust.

B= Steel surface with beginning of ‫ = ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮوع ﺟﺪاﻳﺶ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ و آﻏﺎز زﻧﮓ‬B
spalling of scale and beginning of ‫زدﮔﻲ‬
rust attack.

C= Steel surface from which scale ‫ = ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻛﻪ از آن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ زﻧﮓ زدوده ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ‬C
has been rusted away or can be -‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻌﺪاد اﻧﺪﻛﻲ از ﺣﻔﺮه‬،‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪه ﺷﻮد‬
scraped off but which exhibits
-‫ﻫﺎي ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از زﻧﮓ را ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﻣﻲ‬
only a few rust pits visible to the
eye. .‫ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

D= Steel surface from which the ‫ = ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻛﻪ از آن ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ آﻧﻜﻪ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ زﻧﮓ‬D
scale has been rusted away and ‫زدوده ﺷﺪه ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﻴﺸﻤﺎري از ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎي ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از‬
exhibiting numerous visible rust
.‫زﻧﮓ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
pits.

4.2.4 Maintenance (coated surface) (‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري )ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه‬4-2-4


a) Rust level of coated surfaces according to ‫اﻟﻒ(ﺳﻄﺢ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻃﺒﻖ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
DIN 53210 and ASTM D 610 (see Fig. 2); 2 ‫ )ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ASTM D 610 ‫ و اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬DIN 53210
. (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
24
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

b) Type of coating (e.g. type of binder and ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬،‫ب( ﻧﻮع ﭘﻮﺷﺶ )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﻧﻮع ﭼﺴﺐ و رﻧﮕﺪاﻧﻪ‬
pigment, metal coating), approximate ‫ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ اﺟﺮا ﺷﺪه‬،(‫ﻓﻠﺰي‬
coat thickness and date when carried
out; (See DIN 55928 Part 8)
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬8 ‫ ﺑﺨﺶ‬DIN 55928 ‫ )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬.‫اﺳﺖ‬
.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
c) Extent of blistering according to DIN ‫ و‬DIN 53209 ‫ج( ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﺎول زدﮔﻲ ﻃﺒﻖ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
53209, and ASTM D 714 ASTM D 714

d) Additional information, e.g. on adhesion, ‫ ﺗﺮك‬،‫ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ‬،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬،‫د( اﻃﻼﻋﺎت اﺿﺎﻓﻲ‬
cracking, chemical and other ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ و دﻳﮕﺮ آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬،‫ﺧﻮردن‬
contaminants and also other significant
phenomena.
.‫ﭘﺪﻳﺪهﻫﺎي ﻣﻬﻢ دﻳﮕﺮ‬

A C
Adherent Mill Scale Rusted

‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه‬ ‫زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬

Rusting Mill Scale Pitted Rusted


‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد زﻧﮓ زده‬ ‫ﺣﻔﺮه ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از زﻧﮓ‬

Fig. 1-RUST GRADES OF UNCOATED SURFACES


‫ رده ﺑﻨﺪي زﻧﮓ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬-1 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

25
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Fig. 2- RUST GRADE OF COATED SURFACES (EXAMPLE OF AREA PERCENTAGE)


(‫ رده ﺑﻨﺪي زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل درﺻﺪي از ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ‬-2 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

4.3 Cleanliness of the Surfaces ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح‬3-4

4.3.1 Removal of contaminants / coats of ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت از ﻓﻠﺰ‬/‫ ﺣﺬف آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬1-3-4
material different from the metal : ‫اﻳﻦ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺬف‬
This includes removal of:

Dirt, dust, soot, ash, concrete, coal slag, sand, ،‫ ﺳﺮﺑﺎره زﻏﺎل ﺳﻨﮓ‬، ‫ ﺑﺘﻦ‬،‫ ﺧﺎﻛﺴﺘﺮ‬، ‫ دوده‬، ‫ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر‬،‫ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ‬
moisture, water, acids, alkalis, soap, salts, ،‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺻﺎﺑﻮن‬،‫ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻫﺎ‬،‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬،‫ آب‬،‫ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬،‫ﻣﺎﺳﻪ‬
encrustations, growths, fluxes, oily and greasy
‫ آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي روﻏﻨﻲ و ﮔﺮﻳﺴﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﮔﺪاز آور‬،‫ﻣﻮاد زاﺋﺪ‬
contaminants, earlier Coatings and cementations
that are loose, rusted under or unusable as an ‫ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ زﻳﺮ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬،‫اوﻟﻴﻪ و ﺳﻴﻤﺎن ﻛﺎريﻫﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺴﺖ‬
adhesion surface and corrosion products of ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻫﻤﭽﻮن ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه و ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬
metallic coatings. Unless otherwise specified by
the company the best cleaning method for the job ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ دﻳﮕﺮي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﻪ‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
shall be selected. The cleaning methods described ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﻮد ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬
in this Standard.
‫ روشﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه‬.‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
.‫اﺳﺖ‬
26
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.3.2 Removal of coats of material related to ‫ ﺣﺬف ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ )رﺳﻮب و‬2-3-4
the metal (scale and rust) (‫زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ‬
4.3.2.1 Removal of firming adherent scale is only ‫ زدودن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺬف زﻧﮓ ﺑﻪ‬1-2-3-4
possible with the following methods of removing .‫روﺷﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
rust:

a) Blasting (see section 8). (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

b) Pickling (see section 6). (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫ب( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
c) Manual cleaning (see section 7). (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫ج( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
With each of these methods only specific surface ‫ﺑﺎ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ از اﻳﻦ روﺷﻬﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺗﻨﻬﺎ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺻﻲ‬
condition can be produced and particular levels of ‫را ﺑﻮﺟﻮد آورد و ﺑﻬﻤﺎن ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري را‬
cleanliness achieved correspondingly, the
‫ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ درﺟﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬، ‫ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آورد‬
appearance of the prepared surface is dependent
not only on the level of cleanliness but also on the ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف زﻧﮓ‬
method of removing rust used. .‫ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
4.3.2.2 Standard level of cleanliness (see also ‫ و‬1 ‫ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول‬2-2-3-4
Table 1 and 2) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2
Standard level of cleanliness for prepared steel ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه‬
surfaces listed in table 1 and 2. Unless otherwise ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ دﻳﮕﺮي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬.‫ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬2 ‫ و‬1 ‫در ﺟﺪول‬
specified by the company, the level of cleanliness
‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي‬،‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
for prepared of uncoated steel surfaces shall be in
accordance with 8.1.9 , 7.4.1 and to provision of ‫ و ﺑﺮاي‬1-4-7 ، 9-1-8 ‫ﺑﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬
table 1 for pickling. .‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬1 ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻘﺮر ﺷﺪه در ﺟﺪول‬
Comparison of standard levels of cleanliness ISO 8501-1‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻃﺒﻖ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
according to ISO 8501-1 with other rust surface ‫ ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﺷﺪه‬2 ‫ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري از زﻧﮓ در ﺟﺪول‬
preparation is shown in Table 2.
. ‫اﺳﺖ‬
4.3.2.2.1 Blasting (see Section 8) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬1-2-2-3-4
During blasting, parts that are not to be worked, ‫ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار ﻧﻴﺴﺖ روي آﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﺎر‬،‫در ﺣﻴﻦ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
parts already coated and the environment should ‫ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼً ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ و ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬،‫ﺷﻮد‬
be protected against the blasting abrasives thrown
‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺮون ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ‬
out. With chemically contaminated surfaces, pre-
washing may be advisable and with coarse coats ‫ ﭘﻴﺶ‬،‫ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ آﻟﻮده ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬.‫ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
of rust on plates, preliminary derusting with ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﻮد و ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﺿﺨﻴﻢ زﻧﮓ‬
impact tools may be advisable. The standard level
of cleanliness for blasted surfaces are described as ‫ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ زﻧﮓﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي‬،‫روي ورقﻫﺎ‬
follows: ‫ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح‬.‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
. ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
Sa1 Light blast-cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺟﺰﻳﻲ‬Sa1
When viewed without magnification, the ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از دﻳﺪه‬،‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ‬
surface shall be free from visible oil, ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و از ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮردي‬،‫ﺷﺪن روﻏﻦ‬
grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering
‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ و ﺟﺴﻢ‬،‫ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬،‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه ﺳﺴﺖ‬
mill scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign
matter (see Table 1). Reference (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻋﺎري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
photographs are BSa1, CSa1and DSa1. . ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬DSa1 ‫ و‬CSa1 ، BSa1 ‫ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬

27
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Sa2 Thorough blast-cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬Sa2


When viewed without magnification, the ‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از‬
surface shall be free from visible oil, ‫ زﻧﮓ‬،‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و از ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬،‫روﻏﻦ‬
grease and dirt, and from most of the mill
‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ و ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ‬،‫زدﮔﻲ‬
scale, rust, paint coatings and foreign
matter. Any residual contamination shall ‫ ﻫﺮ آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬.‫ﻋﺎري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
be firmly adhering (see Note 1). The ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي‬1 ‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬
reference photographs are BSa2, CSa2
and DSa1 (see Table 1). 1 ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬DSa1 ‫ و‬CSa2 ،BSa2 ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬
(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Staining shall be limited to no more than ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ از‬1300 ‫ درﺻﺪ از‬33 ‫ﻟﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬
33 percent of 1300 square mm of surface ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺤﺪود ﺷﻮد و ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬
area and may consist of light shadows,
‫ ﻛﻤﻲ رﮔﻪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ رﻧﮓ رﻓﺘﮕﻲﻫﺎي‬،‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺎﻳﻪﻫﺎي روﺷﻦ‬
slight streaks, or minor discolorations
caused by stains of rust, stains of mill ،‫ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ‬
scale, or stains of previously applied ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه ﻗﺒﻠﻲ‬، ‫ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬
paint. Slight residues of rust and paint
may also be left in the bottoms of pits if ‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه ﺳﻄﺢ اﺻﻠﻲ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺣﻔﺮهاي داﺷﺘﻪ‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
the original surface is pitted. ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﺟﺰﻳﻲ از زﻧﮓ و رﻧﮓ در‬
. ‫ﻛﻒ ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
Sa2½ Very thorough blast-cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬Sa2½
When viewed without magnification, the ‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از‬
surface shall be free from visible oil, ،‫ زﻧﮓ آﻫﻦ‬،‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و از ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬،‫روﻏﻦ‬
grease and dirt, and from mill scale, rust,
‫ ﻋﺎري‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ و ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ‬
paint coatings and foreign matter. Any
remaining traces of contamination shall ‫ ﻫﺮ اﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
show only as slight stains in the form of ‫ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي‬.‫ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﻪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ راه راه ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
spots or stripes. The reference
photographs are ASa2½, CSa2½, BSa ‫ و‬BSa2 ½ ، CSa2 ½ ، ASa2 ½ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬
2½, and DSa2½ (see Table 1).
. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬DSa2 ½
Sa3 White blast-cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت روﺷﻦ‬Sa3
Blast cleaning to visually clean steel ‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﻓﻮﻻد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
when viewed without magnification, the ‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ‬،‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ از روﻏﻦ‬،‫ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ‬
surface shall be free from visible oil,
‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ و ﺟﺴﻢ‬،‫ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬،‫و از ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬
grease and dirt, and from mill scale, rust,
paint coating and foreign matter. It shall ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داراي ﻓﺎم ﻓﻠﺰي‬،‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ ﻋﺎري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
have a uniform metallic color. The ‫ و‬BSa3 ، ASa3 ‫ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬.‫ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
reference photographs are ASa3, BSa3,
CSa3 (see Table 1). .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬CSa3

Note 1: :1 ‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
For previously painted surfaces that have been ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي آﻣﺎده‬
prepared for renewed painting, only photographs ‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ درﺟﻪ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻣﻌﺮفﻫﺎي )د( ﻳﺎ‬، ‫ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
with rust grade designations D or C (for example
‫( ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي‬CSa2½ ‫ ﻳﺎ‬DSa2½ ‫)ج( )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬
DSa2½ or CSa2½) may be used for the visual
assessment. .‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﭼﺸﻤﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

28
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.3.2.2.2 Manual surface preparation (see ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻪ روش دﺳﺘﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬2-2-2-3-4
section 7) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
Standard levels of cleanliness St2, St3 are used ‫ از اﺑﺰار‬St3 ، St2 ‫ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح‬
for Hand and Power Tool Cleaning of Surface. .‫ﺑﺮﻗﻲ و دﺳﺘﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
St1- This grade is not included as it would ‫ – اﻳﻦ درﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎب ﻧﻤﻲ آﻳﺪ ﭼﻮن ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ‬St1
correspond to a surface unsuitable for painting. .‫اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

St2- Thorough hand and power tool cleaning: : ‫ – ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬St2
- When viewed without magnification, the ،‫ در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از روﻏﻦ‬-
surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and ،‫ زﻧﮓ‬،‫ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و از ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺑﻬﻢ ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬
dirt, and from poorly adhering mill scale, rust,
‫ اﻳﻦ درﺟﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ رﻧﮓ و ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻋﺎدي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
paint coating and foreign matter. This grade is
only accepted for spot cleaning. The reference ‫ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬.‫ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل اﺳﺖ‬
photographs are BSt2, CSt2, DSt2 (see Table . (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬DSt2 ‫ و‬CSt2 ، BSt2
1).

St3- Very thorough power tool cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬St3
- As for St2 but the surface shall be treated much ‫ ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞﺗﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺷﺪه‬St2 ‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬-
more throughly to give a metallic sheen arising .‫ﺗﺎ ﻓﻠﺰ درﺧﺸﻨﺪه اي از ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﻮﺟﻮد آﻳﺪ‬
from the metallic substrate.

The reference photographs are BSt3, CSt3, DSt3 2 ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬DSt3 ‫ و‬CSt3 ، BSt3 ‫ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬
(See Table 2). .(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

4.3.2.2.3 Chemical surface preparation, ،‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻪ روش ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬3-2-2-3-4


pickling (see Section 6) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
Standard level of cleanliness shall be according to .‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬1 ‫ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺟﺪول‬
Table 1.

Be - When viewed without magnification the ‫ – در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬Be
surface shall be free from coating residues, scale ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ و زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻋﺎري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬،‫ﻣﺎﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
and rust (see Table 2).
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2

29
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 1 - STANDARD LEVELS OF CLEANLINESS FOR PREPARED STEEL SURFACES


‫ – درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه‬1 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
INITIAL CONDITION OF
STANDARD STEEL SURFACE
LEVELS OF SURFACE ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد‬ REFERENCE
PREPARATION SAMPLE ESSENTIAL
CLEAN- METHOD UNCOATED COATED PHOTOGRAPHS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REMARKS
LINESS
‫روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬ ACCORDING TO ACCORDING ISO 8501-1 PREPARED STEEL SURFACE
‫درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ SECTION 4.2.1 TO SECTION 13
‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎي ﺿﺮوري ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح‬ ‫ﺑﺪون ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ISO 8501-1
1-2-4 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ 13 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
Sa 1 B B Sa 1 Only Loos Scale, Rust And Loos Coatings These standard
C C Sa 2 Are Removed Levels of Cleanliness
D D Sa 1 ‫ زﻧﮓ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﺳﺴﺖ ﺣﺬف‬،‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺳﺴﺖ‬ Apply to Blasting.
. ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬
Sa 2 B B Sa 2 Virtually all scale, rust And coatings are .‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻢ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد دارد‬
C C Sa 2 removed, I.e. Only as much firmly a) Of uncoated
D D Sa 2 Adhesive scale rust and Coating residues steel surface
remain (no Continuous coats) as to (SEE 4.2.3)
Correspond with the Overall impression of
the Reference sample Photographs ‫اﻟﻒ( از ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﺸﺪه‬
(SEE EXPLANATIONS) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-2-4 ‫)ﺑﻪ‬
‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬.‫ زﻧﮓ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﺣﺬف ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺗﻤﺎم ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬ b) Of coated steel
‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و زﻧﮓ رﺳﻮب ﻛﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬ surfaces if the coatings
are also removed
‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ )ﻧﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ( ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬
sufficiently to obtain
‫ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻧﺸﺎن ﮔﺬاري ﺷﺪه در ﻣﺮﺟﻊ )ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬ the required level of
(‫ﺷﻮد‬ cleanliness.
(SEE 4.2.4)
Sa 2½ A A Sa 2½ Scale, rust, and coatings Are removed to
Blasting B See Section 13. B Sa 2½ the extent That the residues on the ‫ب( اﮔﺮﭼﻪ از ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي‬
According C 13 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ C Sa 2½ Steel surface remain Merely as faint ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه‬
To section 8 shading as A result of coloring of the
D ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ D Sa 2½ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪازه ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ‬
Pores.
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬
‫ زﻧﮓ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي ﺣﺬف ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻪ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ 4-2-4 ‫ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻧﺪهﻫﺎي روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻳﻪ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﻲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬
8 (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
.‫از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ‬
Sa 3 A A Sa 3 Scale, rust and coatings Are completely
B B Sa 3 removed (when observed without
C C Sa 3 Magnification)
D D Sa 3 .‫ زﻧﮓ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺬف ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬
(‫)در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺑﻪ ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎز ﻧﺪارد‬
St 2 Manual or B B St 2 loose coatings and loose scale are
Mechanical C C St 2 removed; rust is removed to the extent
Surface D D St 2 that the steel surface after subsequent
preparation cleaning exhibits a distinct lustre from the
according metal.
To section 7
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ زﻧﮓ‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﺳﺴﺖ و رﺳﻮب ﺳﺴﺖ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
‫روش دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬
7 ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ .‫ﭘﻲ در ﭘﻲ درﺧﺸﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰي از ﻓﻠﺰ را ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﺪ‬
St 3 B B St 3 In special Cases removal of firmly Normally Requires
C C St 3 Adhesive coatings, e.g. By Grinding, Machining
scraping or by Using pickling agents is
D D St 3 Possible. If required, this Should be ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻴﺎز‬
additionally Agreed. . ‫دارد‬
‫در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻫﺎي ﺧﺎص زدودن ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﺑﺴﻴﺎر‬
‫ ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪن ﻳﺎ‬، ‫ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن‬
‫ ﻫﺮ ﮔﺎه ﻻزم‬.‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮاد اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﻮد‬
Be Pickling A Coating residues, scale And rust are Coatings must Be
According B completely Removed. removed in A
suitable Manner
To section 6 C .‫ رﺳﻮب و زﻧﮓ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
before Pickling.
‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ D
‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮز ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬
6 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺣﺬف‬
.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

30
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 2 - COMPARISON OF STANDARD LEVELS OF CLEANLINESS ACCORDING TO ISO 8501


WITH OTHER OR QUALITY CLASSES
‫ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻃﺒﻘﻪﺑﻨﺪيﻫﺎي ﻛﻴﻔﻲ‬ISO 8501 ‫ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻃﺒﻖ‬-2 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

STANDARD SURFACE PREPARATION


LEVELS OF METHOD
BS 4232
CLEANLINES ACCORDING TO ISO 8501-1 DIN 18364 (ONLY FOR
SSPC-VIS
‫درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ BLASTING)
‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ‬ IPS-C-TP-101

Sa 1 BRUSH OFF SP 7
Sa 1 --- ---
SP 7 ‫ﺑﺮس زدن‬
BLASTING ACCORDING
Sa 2 Third Quality COMMERCIAL SP 6
Sa 2 TO SECTION 8
‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ درﺟﻪ ﺳﻮم‬ SP 6 ‫ﺗﺠﺎري‬
8 ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
Sa 2½ Surface Preparation Level 2 Second Quality NEAR WHITE SP 10
Sa 2½
Manual or Mechanical Surface 2 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ درﺟﻪ دوم‬ SP10 ‫ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ‬
Preparation According
Sa 3 Surface Preparation Level 3 First Quality WHITE METAL SP 5
Sa 3 to Section 7
3 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ درﺟﻪ اول‬ SP 5 ‫ﻓﻠﺰ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ‬
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻪ روش دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ‬
7 ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ St 2 Essentially less HAND TOOL
Than Surface Preparation CLEANING SP 2
St 2 level 1 --- ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬
1‫ﺿﺮورﺗﺎً ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬ SP 2
St 3 POWER TOOL
Less Than Surface
Preparation Level 1 CLEANING SP 3
St 3
--- --- ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬
1 ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
SP 3
Pickling According
Surface Preparation Level 3 PICKLING SP 8
Be to Section 6 --- (CP 3012)
3 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬ SP 8 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
6 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

4.3.3 Rust converters, rust stabilizers and ‫ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ‬،‫ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ‬3-3-4
penetrating agents ‫و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻧﻔﻮذ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
The use of so-called rust converters, rust ‫ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬،‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺪﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪه ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
stabilizers and similar means for chemically
converting the corrosion products of the iron into ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ و وﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت‬
stable iron compounds. This also applies to ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬.‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ آﻫﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت آﻫﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﺪار ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲروﻧﺪ‬
penetrating agents intended to inhibit rust. The .‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻧﻔﻮذ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر ﺑﺎزداري از اﻳﺠﺎد زﻧﮓ اﻃﻼق ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد‬
use of this materials are not permitted in this
Standard. .‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮاد در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﺠﺎز ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

4.3.4 Influence of environmental conditions on ‫ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ روي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬4-3-4
the cleaning and cleanliness of surfaces ‫ﺳﻄﻮح‬
Storing of unprotected steel in urban, industrial or ،‫ﺑﺮاي ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﻓﻮﻻد ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻧﺸﺪه در ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎي ﺷﻬﺮي‬
marine atmospheres-including the practice of
"rusting off" scale by weathering shall be avoided, ‫ در ﻣﺠﺎورت ﻫﻮا ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از "زﻧﮓ زداﺋﻲ" رﺳﻮب‬،‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ درﻳﺎﺋﻲ‬
because otherwise a higher level of cleanliness ‫ زﻳﺮا در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻪ‬،‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻮادﻫﻲ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
may be necessary owing to the deposit of ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﺷﺪن ﻣﻮاد ﺧﻮرﻧﺪه ﻛﻪ اﺗﻔﺎق ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ اﻓﺘﺎد‬
corrosive substances that will occur. Steel shall as
far as possible be prepared and protected in state ‫ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ اﻣﻜﺎن دارد ﻓﻮﻻد‬.‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
A or A to B (see Table 1 and ASTM F 941) 1 ‫ آﻣﺎده و ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬B ‫ ﺗﺎ‬A ‫ ﻳﺎ‬A ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬
. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ASTM F 941 ‫و‬

31
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

No surfaces shall be prepared for coating during ‫در زﻣﺎن ﺑﺎرﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺰوﻻت آﺳﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬
rain or other precipitation. If the possibility of ‫ اﮔﺮ اﻳﻦ اﻣﻜﺎن وﺟﻮد دارد ﻛﻪ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ را‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ آﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
condensation is to be absolutely excluded, the
‫ دﻣﺎي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ روي آن ﻛﺎر‬،‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻨﻲ ﻛﺮد‬
temperature of the surface to be worked must with
certainty remain above the dew point of the ‫ﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻳﻘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻻي ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ ﻫﻮاي ﻣﺤﻴﻂ اﻃﺮاف‬
surrounding air. If the works still have to be ‫ اﮔﺮ اﺟﺒﺎراً ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﻛﺎرﻫﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ اﻧﺤﺮاف از‬.‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
carried on, even under conditions deviating from
those required, provision shall be made at the ‫ در ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰي ﺑﺮاي‬،‫اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت اداﻣﻪ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
planning stage for special measures, e.g. covering, ‫ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪاﺗﻲ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
enclosing in a tent, warming the surfaces or
‫ ﮔﺮم ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻄﻮح‬،‫ ﻣﺤﺼﻮر ﻛﺮدن در ﻳﻚ ﭼﺎدر‬، ‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪن‬
drying the air, as special works.
.‫ﻳﺎ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻫﻮا ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ وﻳﮋه ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
Preparatory works in the region of plants subject ‫ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ در ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺗﺎﺳﻴﺴﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض اﻧﻔﺠﺎر ﻳﺎ‬
to explosion or fire risk require special measures .‫ﺧﻄﺮ آﺗﺶ ﺳﻮزي ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت ﻣﺨﺼﻮص دارﻧﺪ‬
(e.g. low spark or flame-free methods).
.(‫)ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل روﺷﻬﺎي ﻋﺎري از ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬
4.3.5 Testing of the cleanliness of the prepared ‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه‬5-3-4
surfaces
The surfaces shall be tested after subsequent ‫ در ﻋﻤﻞ‬.‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
cleaning. For all the standard levels of cleanliness 2 ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻠﻴﻪ درﺟﺎت اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺪول‬
according to Table 2 visual testing is in practice
. ‫ ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬. ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
sufficient. A check shall be made;

- As to whether the prepared surfaces exhibit ‫ ﺧﻮاه ﺳﻄﻮح آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎي ﺿﺮوري ﺑﻴﺎن ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي‬-
the essential characteristics stated for the ‫ را ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﺪ و ﺑﺮاي‬1 ‫ﺗﺮاز ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ در ﺟﺪول‬
appropriate level of cleanliness in Table 1 and
‫ ﻳﺎ‬، ‫ﻣﺜﺎل در ﻋﻜﺲ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻌﺎدل ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﺷﺪه‬
shown by way of example in the
corresponding reference sample photograph,
or

- Whether there is adequate conformity to any ‫ آﻳﺎ اﻧﻄﺒﺎق ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﺪه وﺟﻮد‬-
agreed reference surfaces. .‫دارد‬

The reference sample photographs shall in ‫ﻋﻜﺲﻫﺎي ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎً راﺑﻄﻪ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﻮح‬
particular show the interrelationships between the .‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰي را ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﻨﺪ‬
levels of cleanliness.
The comparison is made without magnification .‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺪون ﺑﺰرگ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻲ )ذره ﺑﻴﻦ( اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
(magnifying glass).

For standard level of cleanliness Be (see Tables 1 ‫ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ‬Be ‫ﺑﺮاي درﺟﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح‬
and 2), by nature of the method, reference ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬2 ‫ و‬1 ‫ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول‬.‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻻزم ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬،‫روش‬
samples are unnecessary.
.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
If there are doubts as to be freedom from oil or ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد‬،‫اﮔﺮ زدودن روﻏﻦ و ﮔﺮﻳﺲ از ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻮرد ﺷﻚ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
grease of the surface, this shall be checked. For 7-5 ‫ ﺑﺮاي اﻣﻜﺎن روشﻫﺎي آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬.‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺷﻮد‬
possible testing methods see section 5.7.
.‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
The visual and instrumental test method of blasted ‫روش آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ اﺑﺰاري و ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
surface are described in section 8.5. . ‫ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬5-8

32
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.4 Degree of Roughness (Surface Profile) (‫ درﺟﻪ زﺑﺮي )ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ‬4-4

4.4.1 Blast-cleaning produces a roughened surface ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ زﺑﺮي را ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﻲآورد و‬،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬1-4-4
and the profile size is important. The surface ‫ زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ )ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻗﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ‬.‫اﻧﺪازه ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‬
roughness (average peak-to valley height)
achieved for each qualities of surface finish,
ً‫ اﺻﻮﻻ‬،‫دره( ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آﻣﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻲ از ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
depends mainly upon the type and grade of ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ‬،‫ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع و درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ دارد‬
abrasive used. Unless otherwise specified by the ‫دﻳﮕﺮي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ داﻣﻨﻪ زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
company the amplitude of surface roughness of
steel work shall be within 0.1 mm to 0.03 mm for ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ‬،‫ﻛﺎر ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
painting, coating and lining. Table 3 gives the 3 ‫ ﺟﺪول‬.‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬0/03 ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬0/1 ‫ﺣﺪود‬
range of maximum and average maximum profile
heights of some abrasive to be expected under ‫ﻣﺤﺪوده ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ و ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ ﺑﻠﻨﺪيﻫﺎي ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬
normal good operation conditions (wheel and ‫از ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻛﻪ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر ﻣﻲرود ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻋﺎدي ﺧﻮب‬
nozzle). If excessively high air pressure or wheel ‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه از ﻓﺸﺎر ﻫﻮاي ﺑﺎﻻ‬.(‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ را اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ )ﭼﺮخ و ﻧﺎزل‬
speed is used, the profile may be significantly
higher. ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬،‫ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﺮخ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
. ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
4.4.2 Methods of measurement ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬2-4-4
The methods described herein are some of the ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاي‬
suitable methods for measuring surface (‫ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي روش )ﻫﺎي‬.‫اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
roughness. The Company shall decide for the
.‫ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮي ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬، ‫اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
method(s) of measurement to be used.

4.4.2.1 Sectioning ‫ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ زﻧﻲ‬1-2-4-4


A metallurgical section is prepared and the ‫ﻳﻚ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺘﺎﻟﻮرژي آﻣﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﺖ‬
surface profile measured under a suitable ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮپ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﻛﻪ در آن ﻋﺪﺳﻲ رﻳﺰﺳﻨﺞ ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ‬
microscope using a micrometer eyepiece.
. ‫اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
4.4.2.2 Grinding ‫ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن‬2-2-4-4
The thickness of the blast-cleaned specimen is ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ رﻳﺰﺳﻨﺞ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ اﻧﺪازهﮔﻴﺮي‬
measured with a flat-ended micrometer. The ‫ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﻨﮓ زده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ ﻛﻒ ﻋﻤﻴﻖﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬.‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
surface is then ground until the bottoms of only
‫ ﺳﭙﺲ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﺠﺪد‬.‫ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎ دﻗﻴﻘﺎً ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
the deepest pits are just visible. A further
thickness measurement is then taken. . ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

4.4.2.3 Direct measurement by microscope ‫ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮپ‬3-2-4-4


The blast-cleaned specimen, or a replica, is ‫ ﻳﺎ رﭘﻠﻴﻜﺎ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮپ‬،‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
viewed through a suitable microscope, first ‫ ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ روي ﻗﻠﻪ و ﺳﭙﺲ روي‬،‫ اﺑﺘﺪا‬.‫ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
focusing on the peak and then focusing on the
‫ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺮورﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﻣﺠﺎور اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬
lowest adjacent through, noting the necessary
adjustment of focus. .‫ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺿﺮوري ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

4.4.2.4 Profile tracing ‫ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻢ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬4-2-4-4


‫ﻧﻮك ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﺎس ﻳﺎ ﻳﺎﻗﻮت را روي ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
A blast-cleaned specimen is traversed with a
diamond or sapphire stylus and the displacement ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺖ داده و ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻧﻮك ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﻮر روي ﻗﻠﻪﻫﺎ و‬
of the stylus as it passes over peaks and roughs is ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات و دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎي‬.‫ﻧﺎﻫﻤﻮارﻳﻬﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
recorded. For instruments and the procedures for
the measurement see ISO 3274 and ISO 4288. . ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ISO 4288 ‫ و‬ISO 3274 ‫اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﺑﻪ‬

33
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.4.2.5 Comparator disc ‫ دﻳﺴﻚ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪﮔﺮ‬5-2-4-4


The comparator disc (kean-tator) is a field ‫دﻳﺴﻚ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪﮔﺮ ﻳﻚ اﺑﺰار ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻲ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ اﻟﮕﻮي ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬
instrument to determine anchor pattern profile .‫دﻧﺪاﻧﻪاي ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬
depth of blasted surface. Comparator disc is
‫ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺪام‬، ‫دﻳﺴﻚ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪﮔﺮ از ﭘﻨﺞ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
composed of five section, each with a different
anchor pattern depth (0.0125 to 0.1 min.). To use (0/0125 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬0/1 ‫ﺑﺎ ﻋﻤﻖ اﻟﮕﻮي دﻧﺪاﻧﻪاي ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت )ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬
this instrument, place the disc on the blasted ‫ دﻳﺴﻚ را روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه‬،‫ﺟﻬﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﻳﻦ اﺑﺰار‬
surface and visually select the reference section
most closely approaching the roughness. ‫ﻗﺮار داده و ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﺘﺮﻳﻦ زﺑﺮي ﺑﺎ ﭼﺸﻢ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬
.‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

TABLE 3 - TYPICAL MAXIMUM PROFILES PRODUCED BY SOME COMMERCIAL ABRASIVE


MEDIA (SEE ALSO APPENDIX B)
(‫ – ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ از ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻣﻮاد ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺗﺠﺎري )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

TYPICAL PROFILE
HEIGHT (mm)
MAXIMUM U.S SIEVE (mm)
ABRASIVE ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬
SIZE ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬
U.S ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ اﻧﺪازه اﻟﻚ‬ MAXIMUM Av. MAXIMUM
‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻌﺪل‬
STEEL ABRASIVE:
:‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻮﻻدي‬

SHOT S 230 20 0.074 ± 0.005 0.056 ± 0.007


SHOT S 280 18 0.089 ± 0.007 0.064 ± 0.01
SHOT S 330 16 0.096 ± 0.01 0.071 ± 0.01
SHOT S 390 14 0.117 ± 0.01 0.089 ± 0.02
GRIT G 50 30 0.056 ± 0.007 0.04 ± 0.007
GRIT G 40 20 0.086 ± 0.01 0.61 ± 0.01
GRIT G 25 16 0.117 ± 0.01 0.078 ± 0.02
GRIT G 14 12 0.165 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.02

MINERAL ABRASIVES:
:‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬

HEAVY MINERAL SAND (MEDIUM. FINE)


‫ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ‬ 0.086 ± 0.01 0.066 ± 0.01
(‫ رﻳﺰ‬. ‫)ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
FLINT SHOT (MEDIUM. FINE) 0.089 ± 0.01 0.068 ± 0.01
‫ﺳﻨﮓ رﻳﺰه‬ (‫ رﻳﺰ‬. ‫)ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
SILICA SAND (MEDIUM) 0.10 ± 0.01 0.074 ± 0.01
‫ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﺲ‬ (‫)ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
BOILER SLAG (MEDIUM) 0.117 ± 0.01 0.078 ± 0.01
‫ﺳﺮﺑﺎره دﻳﮓ ﺑﺨﺎر‬ ( ‫)ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
BOILER SLAG 0.152 ± 0.02 0.094 ± 0.02
(COARSE)
‫ﺳﺮﺑﺎره دﻳﮓ ﺑﺨﺎر‬ (‫)درﺷﺖ‬

Profile heights shown for steel abrasives were ‫ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ارﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎت ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ اراﺋﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي‬
produced with conditioned abrasives of stabilized ‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه از ﻣﺨﻠﻮطﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﺪار در‬
operating mixes in recirculating abrasive blast
‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮدش ﻣﺠﺪد ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه اﻳﺠﺎد‬
cleaning machines. Profile heights produced by
new abrasives will be appreciably higher. ‫ ارﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎت ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬.‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
. ‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪاي ﺑﻠﻨﺪﺗﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮد‬
Cast steel shot: Hardness 40 to 50 Rockwell C. (C) ‫ راﻛﻮل‬50 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬40 ‫ ﺳﺨﺘﻲ‬:‫ﺷﺎت ﻓﻮﻻد رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ‬
Cast steel grit: Hardness 55 to 60 Rockwell C. (C) ‫ راﻛﻮل‬60 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬55 ‫ ﺳﺨﺘﻲ‬:‫ﮔﺮﻳﺖ ﻓﻮﻻد رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ‬

34
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

4.5 Temporary Protection of Prepared ‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ از ﺳﻄﻮح آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬5-4
Surfaces Against Corrosion and/or ‫ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ‬/ ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و‬
Contamination
Temporary protection is necessary if the proposed ‫ﻫﺮﮔﺎه ﻧﺘﻮان ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه )آﺳﺘﺮي ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﻠﻲ( را‬
Coating (primer or total Coating) cannot be ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬،‫روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اﻋﻤﺎل ﻧﻤﻮد‬
applied to the prepared surface before its level of
cleanliness has changed (e.g. by formation of (‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ اوﻟﻴﻪ‬
initial rust). The same applies to part areas on ‫ در ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬.‫ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ‬
which the Coating is not to be applied.
.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮد ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻮرد ﺻﺎدق اﺳﺖ‬
It is normal to use: :‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮل اﺳﺖ‬

Wash primers, shop primers as well as ‫ آﺳﺘﺮيﻫﺎي ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻌﻼوه ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن )ﺑﻪ‬،‫واش ﭘﺮاﻳﻤﺮﻫﺎ‬
phosphatizing. (See IPS-C-TP-102) adhesive ‫ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻛﺎﻏﺬﻫﺎي ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه‬IPS-C-TP-102
papers, adhesive films, strippable varnishes and
‫ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﻻكﻫﺎي ﻧﻮاري و ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ‬
protective materials that can be washed off (see
IPS-E-TP-100 Appendix B). (‫ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ب( ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬IPS-E-TP-100 ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬

4.6 Preparation of Surfaces Protected by ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬6-4
Temporary Coats or by only Part of the ‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬
Purposed Coats until Subsequent Coating are
Applied .‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه ﺗﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

Before further Coating, all contaminants as well ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي ﺗﻤﺎم آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﻼوه ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت‬
as any corrosion and weathering products that ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ آب و ﻫﻮا ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در اﺳﺮع‬
have been produced in the mean time shall be
‫وﻗﺖ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت داده ﺷﺪه در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ‬
removed in an appropriate manner described in
this standard. Assembly joints and damaged areas ‫ اﺗﺼﺎﻻت ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪه و ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬.‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻲ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
of the primer Coating shall be again derusted. .‫آﺳﺘﺮي آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دوﺑﺎره زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
4.6.1 Preparation of joint areas (welded, ،‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ اﺗﺼﺎﻻت )اﺗﺼﺎﻻت ﺟﻮﺷﻲ‬1-6-4
riveted and bolted joints) (‫ و ﭘﻴﭽﻲ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺦ ﭘﺮﭼﻲ‬
The best method of removing residues of welding ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ روش ﺣﺬف ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي اﻟﻜﺘﺮودﻫﺎي ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري و ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬
electrodes and welding or riveting scale, is
blasting or manual cleaning. The method shall be ‫ اﻳﻦ روش‬.‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﻲ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮب ﻣﻴﺦ ﭘﺮچ‬
approved by the company. .‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬

4.6.2 Preparation of surfaces of shop primers, ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح داراي آﺳﺘﺮيﻫﺎي‬2-6-4
base coating or top coatings for further coating it ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻗﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬،‫ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ‬
may be necessary to apply a little solvent to ‫ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻤﻲ ﺣﻼل ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
existing Coating or, for example in the case of
ً‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دو ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬،‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد زده ﺷﻮد ﻳﺎ‬
two-component Coating that have cured, to
roughen them with sand paper, steel wool or by ‫ ﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻳﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬،‫ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺳﻨﺒﺎده‬،‫ﺧﺸﻚ‬
lightly blasting and then to remove the dust so ‫ زﺑﺮ ﻛﺮده و ﺳﭙﺲ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﺳﻄﺢ زدوده ﺷﻮد ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ‬،‫ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬
that the following Coating adheres satisfactorily. .‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Surfaces of existing Coatings (especially primers
rich in zinc) must not be burnished or smeared by
‫ﺳﻄﻮح داراي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ )ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎً آﺳﺘﺮي ﻫﺎي ﻏﻨﻲ از روي( را‬
mechanical or similar methods so that later ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ روشﻫﺎي ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮده‬
Coatings no longer adhere satisfactorily. ‫ﺷﻮد زﻳﺮا ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي دوام و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ‬
.‫ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﻨﺪ داﺷﺖ‬
If an existing shop primer or base Coating is not ‫اﮔﺮ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬
in a condition suitable to provide a base for
35
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

further Coatings or is not compatible with such ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻛﺮدن ﭘﺎﻳﻪاي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي ﻧﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ‬
further Coating, it shall be removed. The methods
‫ روﺷﻬﺎي‬.‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
of surface preparation shall be approved by the
company. .‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬

4.6.3 Preparation of hot-dip galvanized or hot- ‫ آﻣﺎدهﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه ﺑﻪ روش‬3-6-4
dip aluminium coated surfaces for other coatings. ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري داغ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ روش ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﺑﺮاي اﻋﻤﺎل‬
.‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎ‬
4.6.3.1 Defective areas in the production of the : ‫ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻮب در ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي‬1-3-6-4
metal coating:

Defective areas in the metal coating must be ‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻮب در ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪاي آﻣﺎده و ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬
prepared and repaired in such a manner that the ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ از ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اول‬
corrosion protecting action of the Coating is
.‫ﺑﺮﮔﺮدد و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ و اﺛﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي آﺳﻴﺐ ﻧﺒﻴﻨﺪ‬
restored and that the adhesion and protective
action of further Coating are not impaired. For 1-6-4 ‫ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
preparation of weld areas paragraph 4.6.1 shall be .‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
observed.

Defective areas repaired by building up with ‫ ﻳﺎ روي ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬،‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻮب ﺑﺎ ﻟﺤﻴﻢ ﻛﺮدن‬
solder, or sprayed zinc or shall be prepared for ‫ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎن ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬،‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
subsequent Coating in the same way as the hot-
‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري داغ‬
dip galvanized or hot-dip aluminum Coated
surfaces, sprayed zinc coated and sprayed ‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻨﺤﺎل ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ روي و آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻢ‬،‫آﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
aluminium Coated surfaces shall not however be .‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه را ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
cleaned with alkaline detergents.

4.6.3.2 Preparation of unweathered hot-dip ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬2-3-6-4
galvanized or hot-dip aluminium coated surfaces. ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض آب و‬
.‫ﻫﻮا ﻗﺮار ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻧﺪ‬
4.6.3.3 Preparation of weathered hot-dip ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬3-3-6-4
galvanized or hot-dip aluminium coated surfaces: ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض آب و‬
:‫ﻫﻮا ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪاﻧﺪ‬
According to the period of weathering and the site ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪت ﻫﻮا ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و ﻣﺤﻞ در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻗﺮار‬
where the surfaces are located, a part from surface ‫ ﺑﺠﺰ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﺎي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ از‬،‫دارﻧﺪ‬
contaminations, various corrosion products of the
‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻳﺎ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﺎ‬
coating metal or steel may be formed soluble or
poorly adherent contaminants shall be removed, ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ وﺳﻌﺖ و ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ‬،‫آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﺎي ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
according to the extent and nature of the deposits. .‫رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
- In the case of hot-dip galvanized surfaces e.g. ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻄﻮح ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه ﺑﻪ روش ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري داغ ﺑﺮاي‬-
oxide compounds and various salts, by dry ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮس‬،‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت اﻛﺴﻴﺪي و ﻧﻤﻚ ﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
brushing (brushes with plastics bristles - see
section 7) or washing with water with a
‫ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬- ‫زدن ﺧﺸﻚ )ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬
detergent added, or by water or steam ‫ ﻳﺎ‬،‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻳﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه‬7
cleaning (see 5.5 & 5.6). ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬6-5 ‫ و‬5-5 ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ آب ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر )ﺑﻪ‬
.‫ﺷﻮد( ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
- In the case of hot-dip aluminium coated
‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺑﻪ روش ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬-
surfaces by brushing or washing with suitable ،‫داغ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮس زدن ﻳﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
solvents, cold detergents or emulsion cleaner ‫ﭘﺎك ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي ﺳﺮد ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
36
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

be used. If necessary, it may also be advisable ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﻮد‬،‫ اﮔﺮ ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
to clean by water or steam cleaning, steam ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬،‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ آب ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدد‬
cleaning with addition of weak phosphoric
‫ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه اﺳﻴﺪ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬
acid cleaner may also be used (see 5.6).
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6-5 ‫ )ﺑﻪ‬.‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
- For mechanical preparation of severely ‫ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪت ﺧﻮرده‬-
attacked surfaces wire brushes, scraper, ‫ دﻳﺴﻚﻫﺎي و‬،‫ ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬،‫ﺷﺪه اﻧﺪ‬
emery discs and blasting methods are
suitable.
.‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

The method(s) of surface preparation shall be .‫روش )ﻫﺎي( آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬
approved by the Company.

4.7 Inspection and Testing ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ و آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬7-4

4.7.1 The quality control system shall include as a ‫ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت‬1-7-4
minimum the requirements listed in Table 31. .‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬31 ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه در ﺟﺪول‬
4.7.2 If in the opinion of Company after ‫ ﻫﺮ‬،‫ اﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﻴﺪه ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻳﺎ آزﻣﻮن‬2-7-4
examination or test, any component has not been ‫ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر‬،‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد در اﺟﺮا ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
cleaned in accordance with this construction
standard the contractor shall reclean the
.‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را ﻣﺠﺪداً ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
component to the satisfaction of the Company.

4.8 Quality Systems ‫ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬8-4


4.8.1 The contractor shall set up and maintain ‫ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬1-8-4
such quality assurance and inspection systems as ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺟﺮا ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ دارد‬
are necessary to ensure that the goods or services
supplied comply in all respects with the ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ و ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز را ﺑﺮﻗﺮار‬
requirements of this construction standard. .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬

4.8.2 The Company will assess such systems ‫ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﺋﻲ را در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدات ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬2-8-4
against the recommendations of the applicable ‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻛﺮد و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﻖ‬ISO 9004 ‫اﺟﺮاي ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎي‬
parts of ISO 9004 and shall have the right to
undertake such surveys as are necessary to ensure
‫داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮرﺳﻲﻫﺎي ﺿﺮوري را ﺑﺮاي اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن از‬
that the quality assurance and inspection systems ‫رﺿﺎﻳﺘﻤﻨﺪ ﺑﻮدن ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ و ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ‬
are satisfactory. .‫آورد‬
4.8.3 The Company shall have right to undertake ‫ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﻖ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﻳﺎ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎ‬3-8-4
inspection or testing of the goods or services ‫ﻳﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت را در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ از ﻛﺎر ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬
during any stage of work at which the quality of
the finished goods may be affected and to
‫اﻗﻼم اﺟﺮا ﺷﺪه را ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮار دﻫﺪ ﺑﻌﻬﺪه ﮔﻴﺮد و ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﻳﺎ‬
undertake inspection or testing of raw material or .‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻮاد ﺧﺎم ﻳﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺧﺮﻳﺪاري ﺷﺪه را ﺑﻌﻬﺪه ﮔﻴﺮد‬
purchased components.

4.9 Procedure Qualification ‫ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬9-4


4.9.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-9-4
Before bulk preparation of components
commences the requirements of 4.9.2 shall be met 2-9-4 ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻋﻤﺪه ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﺑﻨﺪ‬
and a detailed sequence of operations to be ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬
followed on the preparation of components shall ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﻪ دﻧﺒﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺳﺎزﮔﺎري ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ‬
be submitted to Company for checking the
compliance with this Standard and approval. .‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد و اﺧﺬ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ اراﺋﻪ ﮔﺮدد‬

37
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

The Company shall also specify which cleaned ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري را ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ در‬
components are to be subjected to the tests
‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬3-9-4 ‫ﻣﻌﺮض آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه در ﺑﻨﺪ‬
specified in 4.9.3 for formal approval of the
preparation procedure. No preparation shall be .‫رﺳﻤﻲ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
done until the cleaning procedure has been ‫ﻫﻴﭻ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺗﺎ ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري و ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻲ‬
approved and approval confirmed in writing by
the Company. .‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
4.9.2 Preparation procedure specification ‫ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬2-9-4

The preparation procedure specification shall ‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت ﻛﺎﻣﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬
incorporate full details of the following, but not :‫ اﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﺪود ﻧﺸﻮد‬،‫ﻟﺤﺎظ ﺷﻮد‬
limited to them:

a) Cleaning of components and method of ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎم روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري روﻏﻦ و‬
cleaning including oil and grease; ‫ﮔﺮﻳﺴﻬﺎ؛‬
b) Cleaning medium and technique; ‫ب( ﻣﻮاد و روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري؛‬

c) Blast cleaning finish, surface profile and ،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ج( در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
surface cleaning, in the case of blast ‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ و ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﺢ؛‬
cleaning;

d) Dust and abrasive removal; ‫د( زدودن ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر و ﻣﺎده ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه؛‬

e) Post drying time and temperature; ‫ﻫ( زﻣﺎن ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﺑﻌﺪي و دﻣﺎ ؛‬

f) Reclean technique. .‫و( روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﺠﺪد‬

4.9.3 Preparation procedure approval test ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬3-9-4
A batch of 15 to 20 components shall be cleaned ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪاي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬20 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬15 ‫ﻳﻚ دﺳﺘﻪ‬
in accordance with the approved preparation ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬2-9-4 ‫ﺷﺪه آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
procedure (see 4.9.2). The preparation operations
(‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﻈﺎرت ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )و‬
being witnessed by Company (see Appendix F).
.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Three cleaned components shall be selected by ‫ﺳﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺑﺮاي آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬
company for preparation procedure approval tests ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﻮد و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬
and shall be subjected to the complete set of tests
‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬.‫ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬15 ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
in Section 15. Testing shall be witnessed by
company and a full set of records shall be ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻧﻈﺎرت ﺷﻮد و ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﻲ از ﮔﺰارﺷﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬
submitted to company for consideration. Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ ﮔﻮاﻫﻲ ﻛﺘﺒﻲ‬.‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ اراﺋﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
shall not be performed until the procedure has
been certified in writing as being acceptable to .‫ اﺟﺮا ﮔﺮدد‬،‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﺖ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ‬
Company.

5. DEGREASING ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬-5

5.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-5

Degreasing is used for complete removal of oil, ‫ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و‬،‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬،‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ روﻏﻦ‬
grease, dirt and swarf from the surfaces which is ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ و‬،‫ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ از ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
to be protected by painting, coating and lining.
‫ ﭘﻨﺞ روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬
The five following main cleaning methods, which
in turn may consist of different processes, are ‫اﺻﻠﻲ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬
generally used for surface cleaning of substrates. .‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﺢ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي زﻳﺮﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

38
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

- Hot solvent cleaning, ، ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ‬-

- Cold solvent cleaning, ،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد‬-

- Emulsifiable solvent cleaning, ،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺷﻮﻧﺪه‬-

- Aqueous Alkaline and Detergent cleaning, ، ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ آﺑﻲ و ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬-

- Steam cleaning. .‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر‬-

The choice of method(s) depends upon the ‫ ﺷﻜﻞ و ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬،‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش)ﻫﺎ( ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع ﻣﺎده ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر‬
material of the substrate type, shape and condition ‫ رﻫﻨﻤﻮد‬4 ‫ ﺟﺪول‬.‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
of the surface which is to be cleaned. Table 4
‫ ﻣﻮارد ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬.‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روﺷﻬﺎي ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ را اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
gives a guide to selection of degreasing methods.
The specified shall specify the degreasing ‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روش )ﻫﺎي( ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
method(s) as appropriate (see 5.8). For ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ روشﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8-5
application process of degreasing methods see
Appendix A. .‫ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )اﻟﻒ( ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

5.2 Hot Solvent Cleaning Method ‫ روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ‬2-5
These cleaning methods relate to the complete ،‫اﻳﻦ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ روﻏﻦ‬
removal of oil, grease, dirt and swarf from unit ‫ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎهﻫﺎي‬،‫ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬
parts or simple assemblies, with chlorinated
‫ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺘﻌﺪد آﻣﺎده‬،‫ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻛﻠﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﺪه‬،‫ﺳﺎده‬
solvents. Several methods of processing are
available (see Table 4) choice of appropriate ،(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4 ‫ﺳﺎزي در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
process depends upon the type and degree of .‫ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع و درﺟﻪ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ دارد‬،‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
contamination.

5.2.1 Hot solvent cleaning - not water rinsable ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ – ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ‬1-2-5
‫آب‬
5.2.1.1 Trichloroethylene (BS 580 type 1) and ‫( و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺣﻼل‬1 ‫ ﻧﻮع‬BS 580) ‫ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬1-1-2-5
other chlorinated solvent is used for cleaning of .‫ﻛﻠﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
ferrous metals in this method. When parts of
aluminium, magnesium, zinc, titanium or their ‫ ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم ﻳﺎ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي‬،‫ روي‬،‫ ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬،‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم‬
alloys are degreased in trichloroethylene, the ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺣﻼل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬،‫آﻧﻬﺎ در ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮو اﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
grade of solvent shall comply with the . ‫ ﭘﻴﺮوي ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬2 ‫ ﻧﻮع‬BS 580 ‫از اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت‬
requirements of BS 580 type 2.

5.2.1.2 Trichloroethylene degreasing shall not be ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ روي دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي‬2-1-2-5
used on assemblies containing fabric, rubber or ،‫ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻮاد ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬،‫داراي ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ‬
other non-metallic material unless it is known that
no harm will result. Assemblies containing such
‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬.‫ﻣﮕﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﮔﺮدد ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ آﺳﻴﺐ ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
materials can often be cleaned without damage ‫ اﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از‬،‫داراي ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮادي ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
using 1,1,2- trichoro, 1,1,2- trifluoroethane. ‫ ﺗﺮي ﻓﻠﻮراﺗﺎن ﺑﺪون آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪن‬-1،1،2 ،‫ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮو‬-1،1،2
.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮد‬
5.2.1.3 Trichloroethylene is non-flammable, but ‫ اﻣﺎ‬،‫ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل اﺳﺖ‬3-1-2-5
naked flames can cause decomposition of solvent ‫ﺷﻌﻠﻪﻫﺎي ﺑﺪون ﺣﻔﺎظ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺣﻼل ﺷﺪه و‬
vapor with the production of harmful acidic gases
and shall not be allowed near degreasing
‫ﮔﺎزﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪي ﻣﻀﺮ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ و ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺎزه داده ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ در‬
equipment. Contact of solvent with hand should ‫ از ﺗﻤﺎس ﺣﻼل ﺑﺎ دﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زدا ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
be avoided as the solvent will remove the natural .‫ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد زﻳﺮا ﺣﻼل ﭼﺮﺑﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ را از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺑﺮد‬
grease from skin.

39
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5.2.1.4 Hot solvent-not water rinsable method is ‫ روش ﺣﻼل داغ ﺑﺪون ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي‬4-1-2-5
applied in immersion (vapor and liquid), jetting or ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎوراء ﺻﻮﺗﻲ اﻋﻤﺎل‬،‫ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬،(‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري )ﺑﺨﺎر و ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‬
ultrasonic processes (see Appendix A). Heavily
contaminated thin sheet may not degrease
‫ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎزك آﻟﻮدﮔﻴﻬﺎي‬.(‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
satisfactorily with one treatment in vapor, but ‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎر ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ در ﺑﺨﺎر‬
spraying with clean condensed solvent after vapor ‫ اﻣﺎ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺣﻼل ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻴﺪه ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬،‫رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
treatment or immersion in boiling liquor is
preferred in such cases. ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺨﺎر ﻳﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺟﻮﺷﺎن در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
.‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ دارد‬
5.2.1.5 The articles shall be placed on hooks or ‫ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﻼل داغ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي‬5-1-2-5
racks or in suitable containers, during hot solvent ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬.‫ ﻗﺮار داد‬،‫ﻗﻼبﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻔﺴﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ در ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
processing. After cleaning and drying, articles
shall not be handled with bare hands, clean gloves
،‫ ﺑﺎ دﺳﺖ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻛﺮد‬،‫را ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن‬
or similar protection shall be used and handling ‫دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ و ﺣﻔﻆ‬
kept to the minimum. . ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
5.2.1.6 The articles after hot solvent degreasing ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ داغ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت داغ ﺑﻮده و ﺑﻄﻮر ﻋﺎدي‬6-1-2-5
are hot and normally dry. Articles of a complex ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ و‬.‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
construction with crevices and capillaries, etc.
may require further drying at 100-120°C.
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن‬.‫ﺳﻮراﺧﻬﺎي ﻣﻮﺋﻴﻦ و ﻏﻴﺮه‬
. ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬120-100 ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي در دﻣﺎﻫﺎي‬
Notes: : ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬
1) Method of chemical check of solvents are ‫( روش ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎ در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺷﺸﻢ در‬1
described in BS-1133 section 6 and ASTM ‫ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ASTM D 4080 ‫ و‬BS-1133 ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬
D 4080.
.‫داده ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
2) Standard guidelines of emission control in ‫( رﻫﻨﻤﻮدﻫﺎي اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻛﻨﺘﺮل اﻧﺘﺸﺎر در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺨﺎر‬2
vapor process are described in ASTM D ‫ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده‬ASTM D 3640-80 ‫در اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
3640-80.
.‫ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
5.2.2 Hot solvent cleaning-water rinseable ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ – ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب‬2-2-5

5.2.2.1 This method is normally used for paint ‫ اﻳﻦ روش ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن رﻧﮓ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮاي‬1-2-2-5
removal or for assisting in the removal of ‫ اﻳﻦ‬. ‫ﻛﻤﻚ در ﺣﺬف رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﻛﺮﺑﻦ دار اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
carbonaceous deposits. It is based on an
emulsifiable blend of cresylic acid and o-
‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن از اﺳﻴﺪ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﻴﻠﻴﻚ و‬
dichlorobenzene. It is normally used with a water ‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻌﻤﻮل ﺑﺎ ﻧﺸﺖ‬. ‫ديﻛﻠﺮوﺑﻨﺰن ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﮔﺬاري ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬-‫ا‬
seal in a bath (immersion) operated at 60 ‫ﺑﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي ورود آب در ﺣﻤﺎم )ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري( ﻛﻪ در دﻣﺎﻫﺎي ﺗﺎ‬
temperatures up to 60°C.
.‫ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
5.2.2.2 After processing the article shall be rinsed ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﭘﺮدازش ﻛﺎﻻ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺴﺘﻪ و ﺳﭙﺲ‬2-2-2-5
with clear water and then dried (see Appendix C). .(‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ج ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
5.3 Cold Solvent Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد‬3-5
These cleaning methods are related to the use in ‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬،‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻧﻔﺘﻲ ﺳﺮد‬
the cold of petroleum solvents, also halogenated ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ‬،‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻨﻬﺎي ﻫﺎﻟﻮژﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬
hydrocabons other than trichloroethylene, for the
‫ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي‬،‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬،‫روﻏﻦ‬
removal of oil, grease, dirt and swarf from unit
parts or simple assemblies having easily .‫ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺳﺎده ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﻮﺣﺸﺎن ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ دﺳﺘﺮس ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
accessible surfaces. These solvents may also be ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري "در ﻣﺤﻞ" از‬
applied to the "in situ" cleaning of large units,
assemblies or machinery which cannot be ‫واﺣﺪﻫﺎي ﺑﺰرگ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦآﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮان در‬
40
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

accommodated in degreasing equipment. .‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻗﺮار داد اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
Several methods of processing are available (see ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺘﻌﺪد آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ‬
Appendix A). Choice of the appropriate process ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮع و درﺟﻪ‬.(‫اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
depends upon the type and degree of
. ‫آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ و اﻧﺪازه و ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت دارد‬
contamination and the size and shape of the parts.

These solvents should not be used for assemblies ‫ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬،‫اﻳﻦ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﻛﻪ داراي ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ‬
containing fabrics, rubber or other non-metallic ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﮔﺮدد‬،‫ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻮاد ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
materials, unless it is known that no harm will
. ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺻﺪﻣﻪ ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
results.

5.3.1 Cold solvent - not water rinsable ‫ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب‬-‫ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد‬1-3-5
Choice of solvent in this method is largely ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺣﻼل در اﻳﻦ روش ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازه زﻳﺎدي ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬
governed by considerations of toxicity, volatility ‫ ﻓﺮارﻳﺖ و ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎ و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬، ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت ﺳﻤﻴﺖ‬
and flammability of solvents and also
‫ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬.‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ روش در آن اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد دارد‬
environmental condition in which method is
operated. Some solvent especially coal tar ‫ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻛﻮﻟﺘﺎر و آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻗﻞ‬
solvents and aromatics will also dissolve the ‫ اﻣﺎ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﻤﻲ و داراي ﻧﻘﻄﻪ‬،‫رﻧﮓ را ﺣﻞ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻛﺮد‬
vehicle of paint, but they are more toxic and have
low flash point. .‫اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

Benzol (benzene) is the most toxic and shall not .‫ﺑﻨﺰول )ﺑﻨﺰن( ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺳﻤﻲ اﺳﺖ و ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
be used. Xylol, toluol and high flash naphtha may ‫ ﺗﻮﻟﻮل و ﻧﻔﺘﺎي ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﺑﺎﻻ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ‬،‫زاﻳﻠﻮل‬
be used when their concentration in air that is
‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ آﻧﻬﺎ در ﻫﻮا ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎق از ﺣﺪ‬
being breathed does not exceed the safe limit (see
Table 5). Petroleum solvents are flammable and ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬5 ‫اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻧﻨﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
suitable fire precautions shall be taken when they ‫ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻧﻔﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﻳﻬﺎي‬
are used.
. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
Immediately after cleaning the articles shall be ‫ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ‬
dried with compressed air or if their size permits, ‫ درﺟﻪ‬65 ‫اﺑﻌﺎد آﻧﻬﺎ اﺟﺎزه دﻫﺪ در ﻳﻚ آون ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮاﻛﺶ در‬
in a vented oven at 65°C. Articles too large for an
‫ اﻗﻼﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﻳﻚ آون ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺰرگ‬.‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺧﺸﻚ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
oven may be dried by wiping (see also Appendix
C). Cold solvent, not water rinsable is operated by (‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ج ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
immersion brushing or wiping, spraying and -‫ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روش‬،‫ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد‬.‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
ultrasonic processes (see Appendix A).
‫ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ و ﻓﺮا‬،‫ﻫﺎي ﺑﺮس زﻧﻲ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﺶ‬
.(‫ﺻﻮﺗﻲ اﺟﺮا ﻣﻴﺸﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
5.3.2 Cold solvent-water rinsable ‫ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد – ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب‬2-3-5
5.3.2.1 Dichloromethane based mixture ‫ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ديﻛﻠﺮوﻣﺘﺎن‬1-2-3-5
The dichloromethane based mixtures are mainly ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ دي ﻛﻠﺮو ﻣﺘﺎن ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن رﻧﮓ‬
used for the removal of paint and carbonaceous ‫و رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ اﻣﺎ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻓﻌﺎل‬
deposits but also act as effective cleaner. It should
‫( از‬wt/wt) ‫ درﺻﺪ‬70 ‫ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داراي‬،‫ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
contain a minimum of 70% (wt/wt) of
dichloromethane, thickening and emulsifying .‫ﻋﻨﺼﺮ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه و ﻏﻠﻴﻆ ﺳﺎزي دي ﻛﻠﺮوﻣﺘﺎن ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
agent. Corrosion inhibitors may also be added for ‫ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي اﻋﻤﺎل روي‬
applications on close tolerance parts or where
slight etching of metal surface is undesirable. In ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎ رواداري ﻛﻢ ﻳﺎ در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﻛﻢ اچ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ‬
immersion operation also contain cresylic acid for ‫ در ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬.‫ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ‬
increased efficiency and are usually used under a
100 mm water seal.
‫ﺣﺎوي ﻛﺮﻳﺴﻴﻠﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺮاي اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ راﻧﺪﻣﺎن و ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺗﺤﺖ‬
. ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬100 ‫آب ﺑﻨﺪ‬

41
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5.3.2.2 Trichloroethylen based mixture ‫ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬2-2-3-5


The trichloroethylene based mixtures can be used ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي در‬
on metal surfaces adjacent to certain plastics ‫ﻣﺠﺎورت ﻣﻮاد ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺨﻠﻮطﻫﺎي‬
materials which would be affected by
. ‫ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ دي ﻛﻠﺮو ﻣﺘﺎن ﻗﺮار ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
dichloromethane based mixtures.
: ‫ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ‬
A typical composition is as follows:
Trichloroethylene to ASTM D 4080: 70 Parts by ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ‬70: ASTM D 4080 ‫ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﻃﺒﻖ‬
weight
‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ‬6 : BS 805 ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻮﺋﻦ ﻃﺒﻖ‬
Toluene to BS 805 :6 parts by weight
Industrial methylated spirits to BS 3591: 10 parts ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬10: BS 3591 ‫اﻟﻜﻞﻫﺎي ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻣﺘﻴﻞ ﻃﺒﻖ‬
by weight ‫وزﻧﻲ‬
Cresylic acid to BS 524, Grade D: 4 parts by ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ‬4 :BS 524، D ‫ﻛﺮﻳﺴﻴﻠﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ درﺟﻪ‬
weight

2-Ethoxyethanol to BS 2713 :4 parts by weight ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ‬4 :BS 2713 ‫ اﺗﻮﻛﺴﻲ اﺗﺎﻧﻮل ﻃﺒﻖ‬- 2
Paraffin wax Remainder to a total of ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ‬6 ‫ﻣﺎﺑﻘﻲ از ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮم ﭘﺎراﻓﻴﻦ‬
A cellulose ether 6 parts by weight but ‫ﺑﻮده اﻣﺎ ﻣﻮم ﭘﺎراﻓﻴﻦ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ اﺗﺮ ﺳﻠﻮﻟﺰ‬
Emulsifier paraffin wax should not
.‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ وزﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬2 ‫ﺑﻴﺶ از‬ ‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
Corrosion inhibitors exceed 2 parts by weight
‫ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬

This method is operated by immersion and brush, ‫اﻳﻦ روش ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري و ﺑﺮس زدن اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ‬
application (see Appendix A). . (‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

After cleaning the article shall be rinsed with ‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه و ﺳﭙﺲ‬
clear water and then dried (see Appendix C). . (‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ج ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

Note: : ‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
Standard guidelines for emission control in cold ‫رﻫﻨﻤﻮدﻫﺎي اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل اﻧﺘﺸﺎر در ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
solvent-cleaning operation are described in . ‫ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬ASTM D 3640 ‫ﻛﺎري ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد در‬
ASTM D 3640.

42
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 5 - THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES (TLV) FOR SOLVENTS


‫( ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ‬TLV) ‫ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬-5 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

ADOPTED VALUES ADOPTED VALUES


SUBSTANCE STEL. TLV (2) TWA. TLV(1)
‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه‬
mg/cu.m ppm mg/cu.m ppm
ACETONE 2375 1000 1780 750 ‫اﺳﺘﻮن‬
BENZENE (BENZOL)-SKIN 75 25 30 10 ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬- (‫ﺑﻨﺰن )ﺑﻨﺰول‬
BUTYLCELLOSOLVE-SKIN 360 75 120 25 ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬-‫ﺑﻮﺗﻴﻞ ﺳﻠﻮﺳﻮﻟﻮ‬
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE –SKIN 125 20 30 5 ‫ﺗﺘﺮاﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬
CYCLOHEXANE 1300 375 1050 300 ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻠﻮ ﻫﮕﺰان‬
EPICHLOROHYDRIN-SKIN 20 5 10 2 ‫اﭘﻲ ﻛﻠﺮوﻫﻴﺪرﻳﻦ – ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬
ETHYL ACETATE --- --- 1400 400 ‫اﺳﺘﺎت اﺗﻴﻞ‬
ETHANOL (ETHYL ALCOHOL) --- --- 1900 100 (‫اﺗﺎﻧﻮل )اﻟﻜﻴﻞ اﺗﻴﻞ‬
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE ‫دي ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ اﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬
(1, 2-DICHLOROETHANE) 60 5 40 10 (‫دي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﺎن‬-1،2)
ETHYLENEDIAMINE --- --- 25 10 ‫اﺗﻴﻠﻦ دي آﻣﻴﻦ‬
FURFURYL ALCOHOL-SKIN 60 15 40 10 ‫ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬-‫اﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﻮرﻓﻮرﻳﻞ‬
METHANOL (METHYL ALCOHOL) 310 250 260 200 (‫ﻣﺘﺎﻧﻮل )اﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻞ‬
METHYLENE CHLORIDE ‫ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﺘﻴﻠﻦ‬
(DICHLOROMETHANE) 1740 500 350 100 (‫)دي ﻛﻠﺮوﻣﺘﺎن‬
NAPHTHA, COAL TAR (3) --- --- --- --- (3) ‫ ﻛﻮﻟﺘﺎر‬،‫ﻧﻔﺘﺎ‬
NAPHTHA, PETROLEUM (3) --- --- --- --- (3) ‫ ﻧﻔﺖ‬،‫ﻧﻔﺘﺎ‬
PERCHLOROETHYLENE-SKIN 1340 200 335 50 ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬-‫ﭘﺮﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL-SKIN 1225 500 980 400 ‫ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬-‫اﻟﻜﻞ اﻳﺰوﭘﺮوﭘﻴﻞ‬
STANDARD SOLVENT 1050 200 525 100 ‫ﺣﻼل اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
TOLUENE 560 150 375 100 ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻮﺋﻦ‬
TRICHLOROETHYLENE 1080 200 270 50 ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻜﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬
TURPENTINE 840 100 560 100 ‫ﺗﺮﭘﻨﻴﺘﻦ‬
XYLENE (XYLOL) 655 150 435 100 (‫زاﻳﻠﻦ)زاﻳﻠﻮل‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوريﻫﺎ‬
1) TWA. TLV (Threshold Limit Value-Time (‫ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ وزﻧﻲ زﻣﺎن‬- ‫ )ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬TWA.TLV (1
Weighted Average). The time weighted ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻛﺎر روزاﻧﻪ ﻋﺎدي‬8 ‫ﺷﺪت ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ وزﻧﻲ زﻣﺎن ﺑﺮاي‬
average concentration for a normal 8 hour
workday or a 40 hour work week. . ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻛﺎر ﻫﻔﺘﮕﻲ‬40 ‫ﻳﺎ‬

2) STEL. TLV (Threshold Limit Value-Short ‫ ﺣﺪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﻮدن‬- ‫ )ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬STEL.TLV (2


Term Exposure Limit). The maximum ‫ ﺷﺪت ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬.(‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﻣﺪت‬
concentration to which workers can be
exposed for a period up to 15 minutes.
.‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬15 ‫دورهاي ﺗﺎ‬

3) In general, the aromatic hydrocarbon content ،‫ ﻣﻴﺰان ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬،‫( ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ‬3
will determine what TLV applies. .‫ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬TLV ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻧﻤﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻛﺪام‬
5.4 Emulsifiable Solvent Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺷﻮﻧﺪه‬4-5
5.4.1 These cleaning methods relate to the ،‫ اﻳﻦ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن روﻏﻦ‬1-4-5
removal of oil, grease and dirt from unit parts or ‫ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺳﺎده ﺑﺎ ﻗﺮار‬
simple assemblies by leaving them in contact with
a cleaning mixture in which grease and dirt are ‫دادن آﻧﻬﺎ در ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در آن‬

43
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

loosened but not detached and then washing away ‫ اﻣﺎ ﺟﺪا ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و آﻧﮕﺎه ﺑﺎ‬،‫ ﺳﺴﺖ ﺷﺪه‬، ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ و ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ‬
the solid contaminants with water. The method
‫ اﻳﻦ روش داراي‬.‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب آﻟﻮدﮔﻴﻬﺎي ﺟﺎﻣﺪ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺮوﻧﺪ‬
has the advantage that no heating is required and
that a succession of dirty articles can be cleaned ‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮارت ﻧﺪاﺷﺘﻪ و ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﺜﻴﻒ‬
without rapidly fouling the cleaning medium ‫ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﺪون اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬
itself.
.‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺧﻮدﺷﺎن ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪ‬
5.4.2 This method gives a degree of cleanness less ‫ اﻳﻦ روش ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ آﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬2-4-5
than that obtained by hot solvent or aqueous ‫ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ درﺟﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬،‫ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل داغ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ آﺑﻲ‬
alkaline cleaning methods but may be employed if
a residual trace of the cleaning medium may be
‫ اﻣﺎ اﮔﺮ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺟﺰﺋﻲ از ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي‬،‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮي را اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
tolerated by the subsequent process (e.g. ‫ )ﺑﺮاي‬،‫ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﺬﻳﺮش ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻣﺎده ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
phosphating-see IPS-C-TP-102) or if the size of ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻳﺎ اﮔﺮ‬IPS-C-TP-102 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻪ‬
the parts makes "in situ" cleaning essential.
،‫اﻧﺪازه ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺿﺮورت ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري "در ﻣﺤﻞ" را اﻳﺠﺎب ﻛﻨﺪ‬
. ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
5.4.3 Emulsifiable solvent cleaning can in general ‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺷﻮﻧﺪه‬3-4-5
be used on any metallic parts, but shall not be ‫ اﻣﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ روي‬،‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ روي ﻫﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻓﻠﺰي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
used on assemblies containing fabrics, rubber or
other organic material, unless it has been reliably
‫ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد آﻟﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ‬، ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﻛﻪ داراي ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ‬
ascertained that no harm will result. ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻋﺘﻤﺎدي ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
.‫ﻛﻪ زﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎر ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ آورد‬
5.4.4 Emulsion cleaners are broadly classified ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﮔﺴﺘﺮده ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس‬4-4-5
into three groups, on the basis of stability; stable, ‫ ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار و ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﭘﺎﻳﺪار‬،‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪاري ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮوه‬
unstable and diphase emulsion cleaners.
. ‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن دو ﻓﺎز ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪي ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
5.4.5 Stable emulsion cleaners are applied by ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﭘﺎﻳﺪار ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬5-4-5
immersion or spray process. These cleaners shall ‫ اﻳﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
not be used for cleaning of heavily contaminated
surfaces.
. ‫ﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺸﺪت آﻟﻮده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

5.4.6 Unstable emulsion cleaners perform more ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار در زدودن‬6-4-5
efficiently in removing heavy shop soils such as ‫آﻟﻮدﮔﻲﻫﺎي ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ زﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ روﻏﻨﻲ و ﺑﺴﻴﺎري‬
oil- base rust and many lubricants used in
stamping and extruding. This method is applied
‫از روان ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﻛﻪ در ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﮔﻴﺮي و روزن راﻧﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
by immersion or spray process. (see Appendix A). ‫ اﻳﻦ روش ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻳﺎ‬.‫ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻲﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
.(‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Typical cycles for immersion and spray process is ‫ ﻧﺸﺎن‬6 ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻜﻞﻫﺎي ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري و ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ در ﺟﺪول‬
shown in Table 6. . ‫داده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬

5.4.7 Diphase emulsion cleaners are utilized for ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ دو ﻓﺎزي ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ‬7-4-5
removing the most difficult hydrocarbon soil, ‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت‬، ‫ﺑﺮدن ﺳﺨﺖ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻫﺎي ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ‬
such as lapping compounds, buffing compounds,
and oxidized oils. They are capable of providing a
‫آب ﺑﻨﺪ و ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﺟﻼء دﻫﻨﺪه و روﻏﻦﻫﺎي اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﻣﻮرد‬
higher degree of cleanness than can be obtained ‫ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎدرﻧﺪ درﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮي از ﺗﻤﻴﺰي را‬. ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
with stable or unstable emulsions. Diphase ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮنﻫﺎي ﭘﺎﻳﺪار و ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
cleaners are most commonly used in immersion
process. ‫ﻛﺎري دو ﻓﺎزي ﺑﻄﻮر ﻋﺎدي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
. ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

44
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5.4.8 Typical compositions and operating ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت و دﻣﺎﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ اﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬8-4-5
temperatures of different types of emulsion . ‫ ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬7 ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ در ﺟﺪول‬
cleaners are shown in Table 7.

TABLE 6 - TYPICAL CYCLES FOR IMMERSION AND SPRAY EMULSION CLEANING


‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﭼﺮﺧﻪﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري و ﭘﺎﺷﺶ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬-6 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

CYCLE TIME,
MINUTE
‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬، ‫زﻣﺎن ﭼﺮﺧﻪ‬
EASY DIFFICULT
‫آﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺖ‬

CLEANING (a) (‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري )اﻟﻒ‬


CLEANING (b) (‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري )ب‬
PROCESS IMMERSION SPRAY IMMERSION SPRAY
SEQUENCE (c) (d) (e) (f)
‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬ (‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري )ج‬ (‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ )د‬ (‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري )ﻫـ‬ (‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ )و‬
CLEAN (g) 2 TO 4 ½ TO 1 4 TO 10 1 TO 2½
(‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري )ز‬
RINSE (h) ¼ TO ½ ¼ TO ½ ¼ TO ½ ¼ TO ½
(‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب )ح‬
RINSE (j) ¼ TO 1 ¼ TO 1 ¼ TO 1 ¼ TO 1
(‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب )ط‬
AIR DRY (k) ½ TO 2 ¼ TO 2 ½ TO 2 ¼ TO 2
(‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮا )ك‬
a) REMOVING CUTTING OILS AND CHIPS FROM MACHINED SURFACES, SHOP DIRT AND OIL
FROM SHEET METALS, AND DRAWING COMPOUNDS FROM AUTOMOTIVE TRIM.
‫ و ﺑﻴﺮون ﻛﺸﻴﺪن ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻦ‬،‫ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ ﻛﺎرﮔﺎه و روﻏﻦ از ورقﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي‬، ‫اﻟﻒ( از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن روﻏﻨﻬﺎي ﺳﺮد ﻛﻨﻨﺪه و ﺑﺮادهﻫﺎي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه‬
.‫ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر‬
b) REMOVING EMBEDDED BUFFING COMPOUNDS IMPREGNATED CARBONIZED OILS FROM
CAST IRON UNIT PARTS AND QUENCHING OIL FROM HEAT TREATED FORGINGS.
‫ب( از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن روﻏﻦﻫﺎي ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﻴﺰه ﺷﺪه آﻏﺸﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﺟﻼي ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺟﻼي ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺟﺎﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﭼﺪﻧﻲ و روﻏﻦ آﺑﻜﺎري از آﻫﻨﮕﺮيﻫﺎي‬
.‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﺮارﺗﻲ ﺷﺪه‬

c) CONCENTRATION OF CLEANER, (15 TO 60 g/litre) (‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬60 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬15) ، ‫ج( ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬

d) CONCENTRATION, (3.75 TO 15 g/litre) (‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬3/75) ‫د( ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬

e) CONCENTRATION, (30 TO 90 g/litre) (‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬90 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬30) ‫ﻫـ( ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬

f) CONCENTRATION, (7.5 TO 15 g/litre) (‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬7/5) ‫و( ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬

g) ( 60 TO 71°C) (‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬71 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬60) (‫ز‬

h) UNHEATED RINSE. ‫ح( آﺑﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﺪون ﮔﺮم ﻛﺮدن‬

j) (54 TO 71°C ) (‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬71 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬54) (‫ط‬

k) (21 TO 71°C) (‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬71 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬21) (‫ي‬

45
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 7 - TYPICAL COMPOSITIONS AND OPERATING TEMPERATURES FOR EMULSION


CONCENTRATES
‫ – ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت و دﻣﺎﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻏﻠﻈﺖﻫﺎي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬7 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
COMPOSITION, PARTS BY VOLUME
‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬، ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬
COMPONENT STABLE UNSTABLE DIPHASE
‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪار‬ ‫ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار‬ ‫دو ﻓﺎزي‬
PETROLEUM SOLVENT (a) 250 TO 300 350 TO 400 250 TO 300
(‫ﺣﻼل ﻧﻔﺘﻲ )اﻟﻒ‬ 300 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬250 400 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬350 300 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬250
SOAPS (b) 10 TO 15 15 TO 25 NONE
(‫ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻬﺎ )ب‬ 15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬10 25 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬15 ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬
PETROLEUM (SULFONATES)
10 TO 15 NONE 1 TO 5
(c)
15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬10 ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ 5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1
(‫ﻣﻮاد ﻧﻔﺘﻲ )ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ( )ج‬
NONIONIC SURFACE-ACTIVE
5 TO 10 NONE 1 TO 5
AGENTS (d)
10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ 5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1
(‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻲ )د‬
GLYCOLS, GLYCOL ETHERS
1 TO 5 1 TO 5 1 TO 5
(e)
5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1 5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1 5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1
(‫ اﺗﺮﻫﺎي ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮل )ﻫـ‬،‫ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﻟﻬﺎ‬
AROMATICS (f) 5 TO 10 25 TO 50 5 TO 10
(‫آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻫﺎ )و‬ 10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 50 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬25 10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5
WATER (g) 5 TO 10 NONE NONE
(‫آب )ز‬ 10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬
h) TYPICAL COMPOSITIONS AND OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE
‫)ح(ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت و ﮔﺴﺘﺮه دﻣﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬
27 TO 60°C 27 TO 66°C 27 TO 66°C
66 °C ‫ ﺗﺎ‬27 66 °C ‫ ﺗﺎ‬27 60 °C ‫ ﺗﺎ‬27

a) Two commonly used hydrocarbon solvents ‫ ﻧﻔﺖ‬،‫اﻟﻒ( دو ﺗﺎ از ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ‬
are deodorized kerosene and mineral seal . ‫ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﻮ زداﺋﻲ ﺷﺪه و روﻏﻦ آب ﺑﻨﺪ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
oil.
b) Most commonly used soaps are based on ‫ب( راﻳﺞﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺻﻤﻎ ﺻﻨﻮﺑﺮ ﻳﺎ‬
rosin or other short-chainfatty acids, ‫ ﺑﺎ آﻣﻴﻦﻫﺎي آﻟﻲ‬،‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﭼﺮب زﻧﺠﻴﺮه ﻛﻮﺗﺎه‬
saponified with organic amines or
potassium hydroxide. . ‫ﻳﺎ ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻲ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
c) Low- molecular- weight petroleum ‫ج( ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎي ﻧﻔﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ وزن ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻟﻲ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ )"ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎي‬
sulfonates ("mahogany sulfonates") are ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮن"( ﺑﺮاي اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺳﺎزي ﺧﻮب ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻘﺪاري‬
used for good emulsification plus some
rust protection. High-molecular weight ‫ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ‬،‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ زﻧﮓ‬
sulfonates (with or without alkaline-earth - ‫وزن ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ )ﺑﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪون ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
sulfonates) offer good rust inhibition and
fair emulsification. ‫ﺧﺎﻛﻲ( اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ و ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺿﺪ زﻧﮓ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ را‬
. ‫ارﺋﻪ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
d) Increased content generally improves ‫د( اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﭘﺎﻳﺪاري در آب ﺳﺨﺖ را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬
stability in hard water, but increases cost. .‫ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
e) Glycols and glycol ethers are generally ‫ﻫ( ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﻟﻬﺎ و اﺗﺮﻫﺎي ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮل ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً در ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﺿﺮوري‬
used in amounts necessary to act as ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻌﻨﻮان )"ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎ"( دراﻧﻮاع‬
"couplers" in the stable and unstable types ‫ اﻳﻦ‬.‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﭘﺎﻳﺪار و ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
46
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

of emulsions. These agents are frequently ‫ﻣﻮاد اﻛﺜﺮاً ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ دو ﻓﺎزيﻫﺎ و ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ‬
used with diphase and detergent cleaners ‫ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﻤﻚ ﺣﻼل ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺮاي ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ‬
to provide special cosolvency of unique or
unusual types of soils.
.‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮل ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮد ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ روﻧﺪ‬

f) Aromatic solvents are frequently used to ‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي آروﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ اﻏﻠﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﻤﻚ‬ (‫و‬
provide co-solvency for special or unique ،‫ﺣﻼل ﺑﺮاي آﻟﻮدﮔﻲﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮد ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص‬
soils; sometimes they serve also to inhibit
odor-causing or rancidifying bacteria. ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ اوﻗﺎت ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
. ‫ﺑﺎﻛﺘﺮيﻫﺎي ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻮ و ﺗﻌﻔﻦ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻴﺮوﻧﺪ‬
g) Water or fatty acids, or both, are used to ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ دو ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﻴﺖ‬،‫آب ﻳﺎ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﭼﺮب‬ (‫ز‬
adjust the clarity and stability of the ‫ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً آﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ از‬،‫و ﭘﺎﻳﺪاري ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻆ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬
emulsion concentrate, particularly those of
the stable and unstable types. . ‫اﻧﻮاع ﭘﺎﻳﺪار و ﻧﺎﭘﺎﻳﺪار ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

h) Maximum safe temperature depends on the ‫ح( ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ دﻣﺎي اﻳﻤﻦ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﺣﻼل‬
flash point of hydrocarbon (petroleum) ‫)ﻧﻔﺘﻲ( ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﺟﺰء اﺻﻠﻲ‬
solvent used as the major component.
.‫دارد‬
5.5 Aqueous Alkaline and Detergent Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ آﺑﻲ و ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه‬5-5
5.5.1 These cleaning methods relate to the use of ‫ اﻳﻦ روﺷﻬﺎ در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬1-5-5
cleaning solutions containing alkalis, organic ‫ ﻣﻮاد آﻟﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ دو ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن‬،‫ﻛﺎري داراي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
materials or both for the removal of oil, grease,
dirt, and swarf from unit parts or simple ‫ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي‬،‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬،‫روﻏﻦ‬
assemblies having easily accessible surfaces. .‫ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺳﺎده ﻛﻪ داراي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻗﺎﺑﻞ دﺳﺘﺮس آﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

Several methods of processing are available (see ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺘﻌﺪدي از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ‬
Appendix A); choice of the process depends upon ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻛﻪ‬،(‫اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
the nature of the metal to be cleaned, the type and
‫ ﻧﻮع و ﻣﻴﺰان آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ و ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ و اﻧﺪازه و ﺷﻜﻞ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
degree of contamination and the composition and
size and shape of the articles. After cleaning the ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت دارد ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ آﺑﻜﺸﻲ و ﺧﺸﻚ‬
parts require rinsing and drying. . ‫ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
5.5.2 Solutions containing alkalis should be used ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي داراي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط روي‬2-5-5
with caution on articles with highly finished ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﭘﺮداﺧﺖ ﺷﺪه دارﻧﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
surfaces, owing to the possibility of dulling the
surface. Porous articles, of parts and assemblies
‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬،‫ اﻗﻼم ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ‬.‫زﻳﺮا اﻣﻜﺎن ﺗﻴﺮه ﺷﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ وﺟﻮد دارد‬
that would trap liquid, shall not be cleaned with ‫ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬،‫و دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ را ﺣﺒﺲ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﺮد‬
such solutions owing to the difficulty of rinsing ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ زﻳﺮا ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺗﻤﺎم ذرات ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
away all traces of the solution, and of drying.
.‫و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن آن وﺟﻮد دارد‬
5.5.3 Alkaline have advantages over other solvent ‫ ﻣﺰاﻳﺎي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻴﺶ از دﻳﮕﺮ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ در زدودن اﻧﻮاع‬3-5-5
in the removal of certain types of contaminants ‫ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬.‫آﻟﻮدﮔﻴﻬﺎ ﺧﺎص ﺣﺎوي ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻬﺎ و ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
including soaps and salts. The cleaning action is
based on the saponifying and emulsifying effects
‫ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮات ﻣﻮاد‬،‫ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎي ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻲ ﻛﺮدن و ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ درآوردن‬
of aqueous alkalis, often reinforced by ‫ اﺧﺘﻼط و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻓﻌﺎل‬،‫ اﻏﻠﺐ اوﻗﺎت ﺑﺎ ﺟﺪاﺳﺎزي‬،‫ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ آﺑﺪار‬
sequestrating, complexing and surface active ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً از ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬،‫ اﺟﺰاء ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه‬.‫ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ‬
agents. The ingredients are usually selected from
sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium ‫ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﺗﺮي‬،‫ ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎتﻫﺎي ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬،‫ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬،‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬
metasilicates, trisodium phosphate, sodium ‫ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻛﻤﭙﻠﻜﺲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬،‫ ﺑﻮراﺗﻬﺎي ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬،‫ ﭘﻴﺮوﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬،‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬
pyrophosphate, sodium borates, complexing
agents (such as EDTA*, gluconates, heptonates, (‫ ﭘﻠﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺎتﻫﺎ و ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﻫﭙﺘﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬،‫* ﮔﻠﻮﻛﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬EDTA ‫)ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬
polyphosphates, and cyanides) and organic .‫و ﻣﻮاد ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺤﻲ آﻟﻲ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
surfactants.

47
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5.5.4 Application is normally by immersion, ،‫ ﺑﻄﻮر اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ‬،‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻌﻤﻮل ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬4-5-5
electrolytically, ultrasonic immersion or steam ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻣﺎوراء ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ﻳﺎ اﺧﺘﻼط ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺨﺎر و‬
mixture jetting, with subsequent water rinsing
(see Table 8).
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﺎ آب ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬

5.5.5 All detergent and alkaline cleaning shall be ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه و ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ‬5-5-5
followed by adequate draining, but the drainage ‫ اﻣﺎ زﻣﺎن ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ آﻧﻘﺪر ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
time should not be so long as to allow the
cleaning solution to dry on the articles. Water
‫ﺗﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬
rinsing shall follow draining. .‫ ﭘﺲ از ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﺎ آب ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬.‫را داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

In conveyorized jetting and spraying machines the ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﭘﺮﺗﺎب آب ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺗﺴﻤﻪاي و ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﻫﺎي‬
rinsing is usually with water jets; otherwise the -‫ﭘﺎﺷﺸﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ را ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ آب اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ‬
articles should be transferred from the cleaning
‫ در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻦ ﺻﻮرت اﻗﻼم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻣﺨﺰن ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ‬،‫دﻫﻨﺪ‬
tank to a cold running water rinse tank.
. ‫ﻣﺨﺰن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺟﺮﻳﺎن آب ﺳﺮد ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
Rinsing should be thorough and unless the ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ آﺑﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد ﻣﮕﺮ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
cleaning solution has contained little or no alkali, ‫ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬،‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺣﺎوي اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﻣﺎده ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ آن ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
it is preferable to arrange two rinse tanks in
‫اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ دو ﻣﺨﺰن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺼﻮرت آﺑﺸﺎر ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن آب ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬
cascade with the water flowing the opposite way
from the articles; this much reduces the amount of ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻘﺪار زﻳﺎدي در‬،‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ از اﻗﻼم ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ داده ﺷﻮد‬
water needed to give effective rinsing. .‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ آب ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺮاي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
If the articles are not to pass to other aqueous ‫ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ‬،‫ﻫﺮﮔﺎه ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي آﺑﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻋﺒﻮر ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬
processes, a final immersion for 30-60 seconds in 95 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬80) ‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ در آب داغ‬60 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬30 ‫وري ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت‬
hot water (80-95°C) will facilitate drying.
. ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد( ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن را ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻛﺮد‬
5.5.6 immediately after final rinsing the parts ‫ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬6-5-5
shall be dried in accordance with Appendix C, ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي )از‬،‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ج( ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
unless further cleaning (removal of rust and
miscellaneous residues) is to be undertaken.
.‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن زﻧﮓ و ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻗﻪ( ﻗﺮار ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬

*: Ethylen diamine tetra acetic acid ‫ اﺗﻴﻠﻦ دي آﻣﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﺮا اﺳﺘﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬: *

Note: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
As soon as the parts are finally cleaned and dried ‫ﺑﻤﺤﺾ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
the appropriate protective shall be applied without ‫ در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻦ‬،‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪون ﺗﺎﺧﻴﺮ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
delay otherwise corrosion may occur very ً‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬،‫ﺻﻮرت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ واﻗﻊ ﺷﻮد‬
quickly; it is usually desirable to allow the article ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﻻ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ﺳﺮد ﺷﺪن ﺗﺎ‬
to cool to 5°C above room temperature before
applying the protective. Cooling to room ‫ ﺳﺮد ﻛﺮدن‬.‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﺎﻻي دﻣﺎي اﻃﺎق را داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬5
temperature may cause microscopic condensation ‫ﺗﺎ دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮﭘﻲ ﺑﻪ روي‬
on bare metal surfaces. . ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﻫﻨﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﮔﺮدد‬
In immersion tanks the heating can be so arranged ‫ ﮔﺮم ﻛﺮدن را ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪاي ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ داد‬،‫در ﻣﺨﺎزن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬
that convection currents assist the circulation of ‫ﻛﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻬﺎي ﻫﻤﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه در اﻃﺮاف‬
the cleaning medium round the articles;
‫ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﺎً ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻬﻢ زدن ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻮاي‬،‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﻤﻚ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
preferably, agitating may be provided by
compressed air or with an air impeller or . ‫ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺮواﻧﻪ ﻫﻮاﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻠﻤﺒﻪ در ﮔﺮدش ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺷﻮد‬
circulating pump.

5.5.7 A wide variety of proprietary cleaning ‫ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻨﻮع وﺳﻴﻊ از آﻣﻴﺰه ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬7-5-5
mixture is available for cleaning ferrous and non- .‫ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ و ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
ferrous metals.

48
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Solutions containing caustic alkalis should be ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺣﺎوي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻓﻠﺰ دﻳﮕﺮي‬
used only when no metals other than iron and ‫ ﻛﺮوم و ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم ﺣﻀﻮر‬،‫ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬،‫ ﻣﺲ‬، ‫ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از آﻫﻦ و ﻓﻮﻻد‬
steel, copper, nickel, chromium and titanium are
‫ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻮي ﺑﺮاي‬. ‫دارﻧﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
present. A typical strong alkaline cleaner for these
metals may consist of a mixture of sodium ‫اﻳﻦ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻃﻲ از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ )ﺳﻮد‬
hydroxide (caustic soda), sodium metasilicate (or ‫ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت )ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎﺗﻬﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬،(‫ﺳﻮزآور‬
other silicates of a higher soda/silica ratio),
trisodium phosphate (or other phosphates) and (‫ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﺮي ﻓﺴﻔﺎت )ﻳﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻬﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ‬،(‫ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬/ ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬
sodium carbonate (soda ash). . ‫و ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت )ﺟﻮش ﺷﻴﺮﻳﻦ( ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
5.5.8 Aluminium, lead, zinc, and tin, including ‫ روي و ﻗﻠﻊ ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎم ﺳﻄﻮح ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬،‫ ﺳﺮب‬،‫ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم‬8-5-5
galvanized surfaces and tin-plate, are liable to be ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺮ ﭘﺎك ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص‬،‫و روﻛﺶ ﻗﻠﻊ‬
damaged by any alkaline cleaners not specifically
formulated for use with such metals. Mild
‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺑﺎ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﻠﺰاﺗﻲ ﻓﺮﻣﻮل ﺑﻨﺪي ﻧﺸﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪ ﺧﺴﺎرت‬
alkaline cleaners made up of sodium metasilicate ‫ ﭘﺎك ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ اﺟﺮا ﺷﺪه از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬. ‫دﻳﺪن ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
(or sodium silicates of a lower soda/silica ratio), a / ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت )ﻳﺎ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎتﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬
sodium, phosphate and a suitable proportion of
surfactant may be used; sodium carbonate is ،‫ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت و ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ از ﻣﻮاد ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺤﻲ‬،(‫ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎ‬
permissible if silicate is present in such a ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ؛ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬
proportion as to keep the soda/silica ratio below
1:2. ‫ ﻧﮕﻪ دارد‬2 ‫ ﺑﻪ‬1 ‫ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎ را زﻳﺮ‬/‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬
.‫ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺠﺎز اﺳﺖ‬
A proportion of sodium sulfite may be included as ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻲ از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان وﺳﻴﻠﻪاي ﺑﺮاي‬
a means of avoiding feathering of tin-plate by ‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از اﻧﻔﺼﺎل روﻛﺶ ﻗﻠﻊ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺎك ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
mild alkaline cleaners.
.‫ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺷﻮد‬
The action of both strong and mild alkaline ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮد ﻣﺨﻠﻮطﻫﺎ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ و ﻗﻮي ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬
mixtures used in simple immersion cleaning is ‫ درﺻﺪ از ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎده ﻓﻌﺎل‬5 ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺳﺎده ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺮاه داﺷﺘﻦ ﺗﺎ‬
much improved by the inclusion of up to 5 per
/ ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً اﻟﻜﻞ ﭼﺮب ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻴﺪه اﻟﻜﻞ‬،‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ آﻟﻲ‬
cent of an organic surfactant, commonly a
sulfated fatty alcohol or a fatty alchol/ethylene ‫ اﻣﺎ در ﻣﺨﺎزن ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫اﺗﻴﻠﻦ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﭼﺮب ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
oxide condensate; but in electro-cleaning tanks or ‫ﻛﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻًٌ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬
jetting systems such ingredients usually cause
foaming and should be omitted or included only ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻛﻒ ﺷﺪه و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ‬
in very small proportion. Table 8 shows typical ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﻬﺎي‬8 ‫ ﺟﺪول‬.‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
alkaline cleaner formulations for various metals.
. ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻠﺰات ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮن را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
5.5.9 Where hard water only is available this shall ‫ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ آب ﺳﺨﺖ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺮم‬9-5-5
be softened. The addition of a small proportion of .‫ اﻓﺰودن ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻛﻤﻲ از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﮕﺰاﻣﺘﺎﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﻣﻔﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
sodium hexametaphosphate is useful; usually
1g/litre will be adequate (see also Table 9).
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬9 ‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬1 ً‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬
. (‫ﺷﻮد‬
5.5.10 Solutions of organic surfactants alone are ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬10-5-5
usually harmless to any metal, but as they have a ‫ اﻣﺎ از آﻧﺠﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﺪت ﻋﻤﻞ‬،‫ﻫﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﻲ ﺿﺮر ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
less vigorous action they require a longer period
of contact than alkaline cleaners and are
‫ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن ﺗﻤﺎس‬، ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮي دارﻧﺪ‬
unsuitable for dealing with very greasy surfaces. ‫ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺗﺮي ﻧﻴﺎز اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﭼﺮب‬
Such solutions are an effective means of cleaning ‫ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎﺋﻲ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري روﻛﺶ ﻗﻠﻊ‬. ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
tin-plate without damage but not all surfactants
are suitable for this purpose and a selection ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ و ﻓﺎﻗﺪ زﻳﺎن ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﻣﺎ ﻧﻪ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻣﻮاد ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺤﻲ‬
should therefore be made in consultation with the ‫ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﻫﺪف ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ و ﺑﺪﻳﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ‬
manufacturer.
. ‫ﻣﺸﻮرت ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬

49
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5.5.11 Aqueous cleaning solutions should be ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه آﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬11-5-5
made up in accordance with the manufacturer’s ،‫ در ﺻﻮرت وﺟﻮد‬،ً‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬،‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدات ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
recommendations, if any general a concentration
of 30-60 g/litre of water of an alkaline mixture is
‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ آب ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬60 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬30 ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬
necessary for immersion cleaning, and of 5-30 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ آب ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬30 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫و‬
g/litre water for jet cleaning spraying , an ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً دﻣﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬، ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ از ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬
operating temperature of 80-95°C is generally
recommeneded. If surfactants are used alone then ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﻓﻌﺎل‬.‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد اﺳﺖ‬95 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬80 ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه‬
concentrations of the order of 1-10 g/litre of water ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ اﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ آﻧﮕﺎه ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ از ﻏﻠﻈﺖﻫﺎي‬
are normally used at room temperature though
should jet cleaning be employed the concentration ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ آب ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً در دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1
should be low to avoid excessive foaming. ‫ ﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬،‫ﻣﻲﮔﺮدد‬
.‫ﺷﻮد ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻛﻒ زﻳﺎد ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
A alternative method of applying similar active ‫ ﺣﻞ ﻛﺮدن‬،‫ﻳﻚ روش ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﻴﺮي اﺟﺰاء ﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬
ingredients is to dissolve a proportion of an ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻲ از ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﻨﻨﺪه آﻟﻲ در ﻳﻚ ﺣﻼل ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻧﻔﺖ‬
organic emulsifying agent in a solvent such as
‫ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي وﻳﮋه و اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آن ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻳﻚ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬
kerosene or white spirit and use this in the form of
a weak emulsion in water to which a small ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ آن ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻛﻤﻲ از‬،‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ در آب اﺳﺖ‬
proportion of a mild alkali such as sodium ‫ ﻳﻚ‬.‫ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت ﻫﻢ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
metasilicate may be added. Such an emulsion is
generally used in a spraying machine at an ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً در دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﭘﺎﺷﺶ در دﻣﺎي ﺑﺎﻻ‬
elevated temperature. . ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

50
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 8 - TYPICAL ALKALINE CLEANER FORMULATIONS FOR VARIOUS METALS


‫ – ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻠﺰات ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮن‬8 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

CU
ALUMINUM COPPER PLATE IRON & STEEL MAGNESIUM ZINC
A B A B C C A B C A B A B C
‫آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﺲ‬ ‫ورق ﻣﺲ‬ ‫آﻫﻦ و ﻓﻮﻻد‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬ ‫روي‬
BUILDERS: COMPOSITION OF CLEANER, % BY WEIGHT
‫ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬
SODIUM HYDROXIDE, GROUND
‫ ﻧﺮم ﺷﺪه‬، ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ --- --- 20 15 15 55 20 20 55 20 20 --- 15 15

SODIUM CARBONATE, DENSE (1) --- --- ---


(1) ‫ ﭼﮕﺎل‬، ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت‬ --- --- 18 --- --- 8 18 29 8.5 18 29

SODIUM BICARBONATE
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻲ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت‬ 21 24 --- 34 34 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 35 34

SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﺮي ﭘﻠﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت‬ 30 30 --- --- 10 --- 20 20 10 20 20 90 10 10

TETRASODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE
‫ﺗﺘﺮا ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﭘﺎﻳﺮو ﻓﺴﻔﺎت‬ --- --- 20 10 --- 10 --- --- ¼ --- --- --- --- ---

SODIUM METASILICATE, ANHYDROUS


45 45 30 40 40 25 30 30 25 30 30 --- 40 40
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت ﺑﻲ آب‬
SURFACE ACTIVE (WETTING) AGENTS
(‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺳﻄﺤﻲ )ﺗﺮ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ --- --- --- --- ….. --- …. …. … … … … … … …
SODIUM RESINATE.
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ رزﻳﻨﺎت‬ 3 --- 5 --- --- --- 5 --- --- 5 --- 5 --- ---

ALKYL ARYL SODIUM SULFONATE --- --- 5 --- --- 5 --- 1 5 ---
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮﻧﺎت آرﻳﻞ اﻟﻜﻴﻞ‬ --- 5 --- ---

ALKYL ARYL POLYETHER ALCOHOL


‫اﻟﻜﻞ ﭘﻠﻲ اﺗﺮ آرﻳﻞ اﻟﻜﻴﻞ‬ --- --- 2 --- --- 1 2 --- --- 2 --- --- --- ---

NONIONICS HIGH IN ETHYLENE OXIDE


‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻲﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ اﺗﻴﻠﻦ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ 1 1 --- 1 1 1 --- 1 0.5 --- 1 --- --- 1

OPERATING TEMPERATURE OF SOLUTION °C OTHER CONDITIONS


° C ‫دﻣﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬ 71 71 82 76 71 82 82 76 82
93 76 82 93 76
CONCENTRATION OF CLEANER g/litre
‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﮔﺮم‬ 30 7.5 60 7.5 60 60 60 7.5 60 60 7.5 30 7.5 45

A = Immersion ‫اﻟﻒ = ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬


B = Spray ‫ب = ﭘﺎﺷﺶ‬
C = Electrolytic ‫ج = اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ‬
Note (1): : (1)‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
For hydro processing units in which process-side ‫ﺑﺮاي واﺣﺪﻫﺎي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪي ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺘﻈﺎر ﻣﻲرود در‬
chloride salt deposits are expected, the chloride ‫ﺳﻤﺖ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻚ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ رﺳﻮب ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ در‬
concentration in the freshly mixed wash solution
‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﮔﺮم در‬250 ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﺪه ﺗﺎزه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬
should be limited to 250 mg/L (250 ppmw).
. ‫ وزﻧﻲ( ﻣﺤﺪود ﺷﻮد‬ppm) ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬

51
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 9 - MINIMUM PHOSPHATE ADDITIONS REQUIRED FOR SOFTENING WATER (a)


(‫ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ اﻓﺰودﻧﻲﻫﺎي ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺮم ﻛﺮدن آب )اﻟﻒ‬-9 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

MINIMUM ADDITION FOR SOFTENING Mg/lit HARDNESS OF WATER


‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ اﻓﺰودن ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺮم ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺘﻲ آب‬
SODIUM SODIUM PPM CaCO3
TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE PYROPHOSPHATE ppm ‫ﻛﻠﺴﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت‬
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﺮي ﭘﻠﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﭘﻴﺮوﻓﺴﻔﺎت‬
25°C‫ آب در‬WATER AT 25°C
115 520 75
230 810 150
450 1020 300
60°C‫ آب در‬WATER AT 60°C
70 250 75
150 420 150
260 620 300
(a) ACTUAL (NOT THEORETICAL) MINIMUM AMOUNTS REQUIRED FOR WATER
SOFTENING ONLY.
‫اﻟﻒ( ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز واﻗﻌﻲ )ﻧﻪ ﻧﻈﺮي( ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﻧﺮم ﻛﺮدن آب‬

5.6 Steam Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر‬6-5


5.6.1 This cleaning method relate to the use of a ،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮدن "در ﻣﺤﻞ" ﻗﻄﻌﺎت دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﺑﺰرگ‬1-6-5
jet of high pressure steam for the "in situ" ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ و ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ آﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در ﻳﻚ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
cleaning of large unit parts, assemblies and
machinery that cannot be accomodated in a ‫ﻛﺎري ﻗﺮار داده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ از اﻳﻦ روش ﻛﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از‬
cleaning apparatus. . ‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر زﻳﺎد ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

Steam cleaning should not be used where delicate ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر را ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ در ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﺣﺴﺎس‬
mechanisms are found. The cleaning may be ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻳﺎ‬.‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
carried out with pure steam or with aqueous
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬.‫ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه آﺑﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
detergent solution / steam mixtures. After
cleaning the parts may have traces of the original ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺟﺰﺋﻲ از آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ‬،‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬
contamination and of water or cleaning solution ‫ روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه‬،‫اﺻﻠﻲ و آب ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
on their surfaces.
.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
This method is not applicable to the cleaning of ‫اﻳﻦ روش ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح داﺧﻠﻲ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ‬
interior surfaces of assemblies that cannot be . ‫ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫راﺣﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
drained readily.

5.6.2 The steam and hot water themselves tend to ،‫ ﺑﺨﺎر و آب داغ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺘﺎً ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ دارﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ روﻏﻦﻫﺎ‬2-6-5
remove the oils, greases, and soaps by thinning ،‫ﮔﺮﻳﺴﻬﺎ و ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻧﻬﺎ را از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ رﻗﻴﻖ ﺳﺎزي آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮارت‬
them with heat, emulsifying them, and diluting ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ‬.‫ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﻛﺮدن و رﻗﻴﻖ ﺳﺎزي آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ آب‬
them with water. When used to remove old paint,
‫ ﺑﺨﺎر ﻣﺤﻤﻞ رﻧﮓ‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺬف رﻧﮓ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
the steam cooks the vehicle of the old paint so
that it loses its strenght and its bonding to the ‫ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ را ﭘﺨﺘﻪ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ اﺳﺘﺤﻜﺎم و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﻮد را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬
metal. It can then be easily removed by further ‫ آﻧﮕﺎه ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ‬.‫ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ از دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
washing. When detergent is used its higher ،‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ از ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد‬
affinity for the metal also causes the oil, grease,
and paint to loosen, thereby increasing the rate of
‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و‬،‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ آن ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺳﺴﺖ ﺷﺪن روﻏﻦ‬
cleaning. .‫رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﻤﻴﺰي را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬

The mechnical action of the steam usually permits ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺨﺎر ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً اﺟﺎزه ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ از ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه ﻣﻮرد‬
52
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

the use of lower concentration of detergent than ‫ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺎ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺗﺮي ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻣﻮرد‬
are required for immersion cleaning.
. ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد‬
5.6.3 Alkali cleaners used in steam cleaning will ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ در روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬3-6-5
attack aluminum and zinc alloys, unless ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ‬،‫ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﻪ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و روي ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﺮد‬
specifically inhibited against such action.
.‫اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﺨﺼﻮص در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﻧﺠﺎم ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
.‫در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن رﻧﮓ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
They should be used selectively over painted ‫در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ زداﻳﺶ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺮاي اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن از ﻋﺪم‬
surfaces to assure no damage to the paint if ‫ از آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﻮر ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺸﻲ‬،‫آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ رﻧﮓ روي ﺳﻄﻮح رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه‬
removal is not desired. The equipment required is
a pressure jet steam cleaners (see Appendix A). ‫ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﻳﻚ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬،‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
.(‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
5.6.4 On completion of detergent solution/steam ،‫ﺑﺨﺎر‬/‫ در ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه‬4-6-5
cleaning, straight steam should immediately be ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺪون واﺳﻄﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
directed over all cleaned surfaces so as to wash
away deposits from the solution, especially if an
،‫ﺷﺪه ﻫﺪاﻳﺖ ﺷﻮد ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ رﺳﻮﺑﺎت از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
alkaline solution has been used. The raised ‫ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ دﻣﺎي‬.‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً اﮔﺮ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
temperature of the surfaces subjected to high ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﻛﻤﻚ‬،‫ﺳﻄﻮح در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر ﺑﺎﻻ‬
pressure steam helps the drying, but parts
retaining moisture should immediately be dried ‫ اﻣﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ را ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻓﻮراً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
by blowing with compressed air. . ‫دﻣﻴﺪن ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
5.6.5 Strong alkalis attack the eyes and the skins; ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻮي ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸﻤﻬﺎ و ﭘﻮﺳﺖﻫﺎ آﺳﻴﺐ‬5-6-5
goggles and protective clothing should be worn /‫ﻣﻴﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
when carrying out alkaline solution / steam
cleaning with strong alkalis, particularly in
‫ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً در ﻣﺤﻞﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﺼﻮر ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬، ‫ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻮي‬
confined places. Due care should be taken to ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻚﻫﺎي اﻳﻤﻨﻲ و روﭘﻮش ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪ و ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
avoid steam burns. .‫ﺑﺮاي ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از ﺳﻮﺧﺘﮕﻲ ﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
5.7 Test for Freedom from Grease (See also ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﻣﻴﺰان ﻋﺎري ﺑﻮدن ﺳﻄﺢ از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬7-5
ASTM A 380-88) .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ASTM A 380-88
5.7.1 Water breaks test ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ آب‬1-7-5

A commonly used test for the removal of greases ،‫ﻳﻚ آزﻣﻮن راﻳﺞ ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺬف ﮔﺮﻳﺴﻬﺎ و روﻏﻦﻫﺎ‬
and oils is the inspection for water breaks. This is ‫ اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ آب ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
best done after pickling or activation. This
‫ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰم‬.‫ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ روش ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻳﺎ ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي‬
involves visual observation after a final rinse in
clear, cool water. A continuous sheet of water on ‫ ﻳﻚ‬.‫ ﺳﺮد اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب ﺷﻔﺎف‬
the part usually indicates a clean surface (certain ‫ﻻﻳﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ آب روي ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً اﺷﺎره ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ دارد‬
precious-metal surfaces, such as gold, may exhibit
water break even though clean). Some experience ‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻃﻼ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ‬،‫)ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰ ﮔﺮاﻧﺒﻬﺎي ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬
is necessary to judge the appearance of a break in ‫ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬.(‫وﺟﻮد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻮدن ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ آب را ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﺪ‬
the film of water. A specific drainage time, about
‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از‬.‫ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻀﺎوت ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ در ﻻﻳﻪ آب ﻧﻴﺎز ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
30s shall be used before observation, water breaks
method, alone. ‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺮاي‬30 ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺻﺮﻓﺎً ﻳﻚ زﻣﺎن ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﺣﺪود‬
. ‫روش ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲ آب ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
5.7.2 Grease red testing ‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻗﺮﻣﺰي ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬2-7-5
Application of a drop of a 0.1% solution of the ‫ درﺻﺪ رﻧﮓ )ﻗﺮﻣﺰي ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬0/1 ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد ﻳﻚ ﻗﻄﺮه ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
dye (grease red BB*) in ethanol. .‫( در اﺗﺎﻧﻮل‬BB*
On a grease-free horizontal surface, the drop ‫ ﻗﻄﺮه ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﺨﺶ ﺷﺪه و‬،‫روي ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻘﻲ ﺑﺪون ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬
53
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

quickly opens out and there remains a circular ‫ روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻮدي ﺑﺪون‬،‫ﻧﻤﺎي ﻛﻠﻲ داﻳﺮهاي ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﻴﮕﺬارد‬
outline, on a grease-free vertical surface, the run-
‫ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻮﺗﺎه اﺳﺖ و ﻧﻤﺎي ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﺑﻴﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬،‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬
off path is short and there remains an oval outline.
On a horizontal surface not free of grease, the ‫ ﻗﻄﺮه در اﻧﺪازه اﺻﻠﻲ ﺧﻮدش‬،‫ روي ﺳﻄﺢ اﻓﻘﻲ ﭼﺮب‬.‫ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ‬
drop remains at its original size and after ‫ روي‬.‫ ﻧﻤﺎي ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ دﻧﺪاﻧﻪدار ﺗﻴﺰ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه‬
evaporation there is a sharply serrated outline; on
a vertical surface not free of grease a long run-off .‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻮدي ﭼﺮب ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
path forms.

The tested areas must be carefully cleaned before .‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ آزﻣﻮن ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﺪﻗﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
coating.

*: Information on sources of supply can be ‫ اﻃﻼﻋﺎت روي ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان از ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ‬: *
obtained from comittee on paint and similar .‫رﻧﮓ و ﻣﻮاد ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آورد‬
coating materials (DIN) Burggrafenstrasse- 4-10 ,
1000 Berline 30. (DIN) Burggrafen strasse-4-10 , 1000 Berline 30

5.7.3 Fluoresence testing ‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮرﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬3-7-5


Various oils and greases exhibit fluoresence ‫وﻗﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺷﻌﻪ ﻣﺎوراء ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻳﺲﻫﺎ و روﻏﻦﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
effects when irradiated with UV light (must be ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻴﺪه ﺷﻮد اﺛﺮات ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮرﺳﺎﻧﺲ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ )ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از‬
screened from incident daylight). If the type of
‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه اﮔﺮ ﻧﻮع آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ و ﺧﻮاص‬.(‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﺑﺎ ﻧﻮر روز ﺟﺪا ﺷﻮد‬
contamination and its fluorescence properties are
knwon, this method can be used for testing ‫ اﻳﻦ روش را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺮاي آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬،‫ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮرﺳﺎﻧﺲ آن ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
cleaned surfaces. . ‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻧﻤﻮد‬
5.8 Some Notes on Degreasing ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻧﻜﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬8-5

5.8.1 Selection of solvent ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺣﻼل‬1-8-5

5.8.1.1 Strong alkalis are commonly used for ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻮي ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﻜﺎر‬1-1-8-5
cleaning steel, but they are not used where they ،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل روي‬،‫ﻣﻲروﻧﺪ ﻟﻴﻜﻦ در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
can cause attack e.g. on aluminium, tin, zinc and
brass. Mild alkaline cleaner will not attack metals.
‫ ﻣﻮاد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬. ‫ روي و ﺑﺮﻧﺞ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬، ‫ ﻗﻠﻊ‬،‫آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم‬
Articles that are porous or have fine capillary ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ ﻳﺎ‬.‫ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰات ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
spaces shall not be cleaned in alkaline solutions. .‫ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫داراي ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﻣﻮﺋﻴﻦ رﻳﺰ‬
5.8.1.2 For articles which are partially painted or ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ رﻧﮓ ﻳﺎ ﺟﻼ‬2-1-8-5
varnished, trichloroethylene and alkali solutions ‫ از‬.‫ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮو اﺗﻴﻠﻦ و ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
are not generally suitable. Certain emulsifiable
solvent cleaners or petroleum solvents may be
‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﺷﻮﻧﺪه ﻳﺎ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺘﻲ‬
used. . ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮان اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﺮد‬

5.8.1.3 Only unit parts or very simple assemblies, ‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واﺣﺪ ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﺎده ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬3-1-8-5
shall be cleaned in aqueous cleaners. Parts or ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻳﺎ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﺑﺎ‬.‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي آﺑﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
assemblies of complex construction shall not be
cleaned owing to the risk of trapping cleaning
‫ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﻄﺮ ﻣﺤﺒﻮس ﺷﺪن ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬،‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه‬
solution that would not be removed by subsequent ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻌﺪي ﺣﺬف ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
rinsing and drying. .‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
5.8.2 Re-use of cleaning solution ‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﺠﺪد از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬2-8-5
5.8.2.1 Cleaning agents are weakened and ‫ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮاد و آﻟﻮدﮔﻲﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬1-2-8-5
contaminated by material and soil being removed ‫ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ و‬،‫ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬
from surface as they are cleaned. It may be
impractical or uneconomical to discard solution ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻳﻜﺒﺎر‬.‫آﻟﻮده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
after a single use, even in precision cleaning ‫ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ‬،‫ ﺣﺘﻲ در ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﻗﻴﻖ‬،‫ﻣﺼﺮف‬
54
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

operations. When solution are re-used, care must ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬،‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﺠﺪداً اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬.‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
be taken to prevent the accumulation of sludge in
‫دﻗﺖ ﻛﺮد ﺗﺎ از ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻟﺠﻦ در ﻛﻒ ﻣﺨﺎزن ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي‬
the bottom of cleaning tanks. Periodic cleaning of
vats and degreasing tanks, decanting periodic ‫ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ‬، ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دورهاي ﻇﺮوف و ﻣﺨﺎزن ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زدا‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
bottom-drain, agitation of solution and similar ‫ ﺑﻬﻢ زدن ﻣﺤﻠﻮل و ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪات‬،‫آﻫﺴﺘﻪ دورهاي زﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﻒ‬
provisions are essential to maintain the
effectiveness of solution. Care must be taken to ‫ در‬.‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﻮدن ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬
prevent water contamination of trichloroethylene ‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﺑﺎ آب و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي‬
and other halogenated solvents, both while in
storage and in use.
‫ﻫﺎﻟﻮژﻧﻪ ﺷﺪه در ﺣﻴﻦ اﻧﺒﺎﺷﺖ ﻳﺎ در ﻣﺼﺮف ﻫﺮ دو ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ‬
. ‫ﺷﻮد‬
5.8.2.2 Re-distillation and filtering of solvents are ‫ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﺪد و ﺻﺎف ﻛﺮدن ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻣﺼﺮف‬2-2-8-5
necessary before reuse. . ‫ﻣﺠﺪد ﺿﺮوري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
5.8.2.3 Make up is often required to maintain ‫ﻫﺎي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬PH ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻏﻠﻈﺖﻫﺎ و‬3-2-8-5
concentrations and PH of cleaning solution of ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬. ‫ اﻏﻠﺐ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺟﺒﺮاﻧﻲ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬
effective levels. Do not over use chemical
cleaners, particularly vapor-degreasing solvents,
ً‫ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬،‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ را ﺑﻴﺶ از اﻧﺪازه ﻣﺼﺮف ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‬
if light films or oily residues remain on the metal ‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﻧﺎزك ﻳﺎ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي‬،‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲزدا‬،‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﺑﺨﺎري‬
surfaces after use of such solvents, additional ‫روﻏﻨﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎﻳﻲ روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰ‬
scrubbing with hot water and detergent, followed
by repeated rinsing with large quantities of hot ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎ آب داغ و ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن‬،‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
water, may be necessary. ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻣﺘﻮاﻟﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ زﻳﺎدي از آب داغ‬
.‫ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
5.8.3 Protection of cleaned surfaces ‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ از ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬3-8-5
5.8.3.1 Walking on cleaned surfaces shall be ،‫ از راه رﻓﺘﻦ روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬1-3-8-5
avoided, where unavoidable, personnel shall wear ‫ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻫﺮ زﻣﺎن وارد ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫در ﺻﻮرت ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺑﻮدن‬
clean shoe covers each time they enter, or
protective material shall be laid areas where ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ در‬،‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روﻛﺶ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻛﻔﺶ ﺑﭙﻮﺷﻨﺪ‬
personnel are required to walk. .‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ راه رﻓﺘﻦ دارﻧﺪ ﻗﺮار داده ﺷﻮد‬

5.8.3.2 Workmen handling cleaned surfaces of ‫ ﻛﺎرﮔﺮان ﻣﺸﻐﻮل ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر در ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬2-3-8-5
critical items shall never wear clean lint-free ‫ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ‬،‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺪون ﭘﺮز‬،‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﺣﺴﺎس‬
cotton, nylon or dacron cloth or polyethylene film
gloves. Rubber or plastic gloves are suitable
.‫ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮن ﻳﺎ داﻛﺮون ﻳﺎ دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﭘﻠﻲ اﺗﻴﻠﻨﻲ ﺑﭙﻮﺷﻨﺪ‬
during pre-cleaning operation or cleaning of non- ‫دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
critical surfaces. ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
.‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
5.8.3.3 Keep opening of hollow items (pipe, ،‫ ﺷﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬،‫ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺗﻮ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ )ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬3-3-8-5
tubing, valves, tanks, pump, pressure vessels, etc.) ‫ ﻇﺮوف ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎر و ﻏﻴﺮه( درﭘﻮش ﻳﺎ آب ﺑﻨﺪي‬،‫ ﺗﻠﻤﺒﻪ‬،‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬
capped or sealed at;
: ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ در‬
- All times except when they must be open to ،‫ ﺗﻤﺎم اوﻗﺎت ﺑﺠﺰ در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻛﺎر ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎز ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬-
do work on,

- The item, using polyethlene, nylon, TFE- ‫ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬،‫ ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮن‬،‫ ﺟﻨﺴﻲ ﻛﻪ در آن ﭘﻠﻲ اﺗﻴﻠﻦ‬-
Flouro carbon plastic, ،‫ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ‬TFE – ‫ﻓﻠﻮﺋﻮر‬
- Or stainless steel caps, plugs, or seals. ‫ ﻛﻼﻫﻚﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ آب ﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎي از ﺟﻨﺲ ﻓﻮﻻدي زﻧﮓ‬،‫ درﭘﻮشﻫﺎ‬-
.‫ﻧﺰن‬
- The reuse of caps, plugs, or packaging ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪي‬،‫ ﻛﻼﻫﻚﻫﺎ‬،‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﺠﺪد از درﭘﻮشﻫﺎ‬-
55
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

materials shall be avoided unless they have ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﺠﺪد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬، ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
been cleaned prior to reuse.
.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
- Do not remove wrapping and seal from ‫ ﻟﻔﺎف و آب ﺑﻨﺪ ﻣﻮاد و اﺟﺰاء وارد ﺷﺪه را ﺗﺎ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪن‬-
incoming materials and components until they . ‫ ﺟﺪا ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‬،(‫آﻧﻬﺎ در ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﺼﺮف )اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻳﺎ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
are at the use site, ready, (to be used or
installed.)

5.8.4 Solvent hazardous ‫ ﺧﻄﺮات ﺣﻼل‬4-8-5


5.8.4.1 All solvents are potentially hazardous and ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮه ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ‬1-4-8-5
they shall be used under such conditions that their ‫ﭼﻨﺎن ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺷﺎن در ﻫﻮاﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬
concentration in air being breathed by workmen is
low enough for safety. (see Table 6 Threshold ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎق ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﻆ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازه‬
limit valve) when used in closed spaces (pit or .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
vessel) where the safe concentration is exceeded, ‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎرﮔﻴﺮي در ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎي ﺑﺴﺘﻪ )ﭼﺎﻟﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻇﺮف( ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ‬
fresh air masks shall be worn.
. ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ زﻳﺎد اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﻚﻫﺎي ﻫﻮاي ﺗﺎزه ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪه ﺷﻮد‬
5.8.4.2 Smoking shall not be allowed near ‫ ﺳﻴﮕﺎر ﻛﺸﻴﺪن ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زدا ﻣﻤﻨﻮع‬2-4-8-5
degreasing equipment. .‫اﺳﺖ‬
6. PICKLING ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬-6

6.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-6

6.1.1 Pickling is a method of preparing metal ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ روﺷﻲ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي‬1-1-6
surfaces by chemical reaction, electrolysis, or ‫ در روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺰ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ دو‬، ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ واﻛﻨﺶ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬
both. In pickling method the rust and scales are
removed by chemical reaction with mineral acids
‫زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﺗﻮﺳﻂ واﻛﻨﺶ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬
and also with certain alkine materials. . ‫و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ زدوده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

Various acids used in commercial pickling are ، ‫در اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺗﺠﺎري اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻧﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
sulfuric, hydrochloric or muriatic, nitric, ‫ ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ‬،‫ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬، ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬
hydrofluoric, phosphoric and mixtures of these.
.‫و ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻃﻲ از اﻳﻨﻬﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
6.1.2 Pickling is considered a desirable method of ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻳﻚ روش ﻣﻄﻠﻮب در زدودن زﻧﮓ‬2-1-6
removing rust and mill scale from structural ‫ ورﻗﻬﺎ در ﻛﺎرﮔﺎه ﻣﻮرد‬، ‫ ﺗﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ‬،‫و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد از ﻧﻤﺎي ﺳﺎزه‬
shapes, beams, plates in workshop, when the cost
of such removal is felt to be justified. Properly
‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ اﺣﺴﺎس ﺷﻮد ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدﻧﻲ‬، ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻮده‬
accomplished, pickling produces a surface that ‫ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ را‬،‫ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﺪن ﺻﺤﻴﺢ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
will promote long paint life with most coating. ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ رﻧﮓ را ﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ‬
. ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داد‬
6.1.3 Steelworks prepared by pickling methods ‫ ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬3-1-6
shall be primed as soon as dry and while still ‫ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ از ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن و در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ ﻫﻨﻮز ﮔﺮم اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ‬
warm with the specified primer to a specified dry
film thickness and/or to a minimum dry film
‫ ﻳﺎ‬/ ‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺗﺎ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه و‬
thickness of 50 microns. (see IPS-E-TP-100, ‫ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬،‫ ﻣﻴﻜﺮون‬50 ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬
Table 1). . (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ ﺟﺪول‬IPS-E-TP-100 ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
6.2 Pickling Methods ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬2-6
6.2.1 The six main pickling methods, which in ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬،‫ ﺷﺶ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﺻﻠﻲ‬1-2-6
turn may consist of different processes, may be ‫اﺳﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪ‬
used for pickling of metals:
: ‫ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻠﺰات اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻧﻤﻮد‬
56
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

These methods are as follows: : ‫اﻳﻦ روﺷﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

- Sulfuric or hydrochloric acid pickling method ‫ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-
- Phosphoric acid pickling method ‫ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-
- Footner pickling method (Footner) ‫ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ‬-
- Sulfuric acid-sodium dichromate pickling ‫ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ– ﺳﺪﻳﻢ دي ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت‬-
method
- Alkaline derusting method ‫ روش زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬-
- Electrochemical treatment method ‫ روش ﻋﻤﻞ آوري اﻟﻜﺘﺮو ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬-
6.2.2 Selection of pickling method depends on ،‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ زﻧﮓ و رﺳﻮب‬2-2-6
nature of rust and scale, material of articles, ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب و در دﺳﺘﺮس‬،‫ﺟﻨﺲ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‬
degree of desire pickled surface and availability
and cost of pickling material and equipments. The ‫ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ‬.‫ﺑﻮدن و ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﻮاد اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
specifier shall specify the pickling method as .‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روش اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ را ﺑﺎﻧﺪازه ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
appropriate.
6.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement ‫ ﺗﺮدي ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ‬3-6
When metal dissolves in acid during pickling ،‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ در اﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
process, a definite volume of hydrogen is
produced. It is apparently atomic hydrogen,
‫ ﻇﺎﻫﺮاً ﻫﻴﺪروژن اﺗﻤﻲ‬.‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ از ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
absorbed or dissolved in steel, that affects it ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ روي اﻧﻌﻄﺎف‬،‫ ﻛﻪ ﺟﺬب ﻳﺎ در ﻓﻮﻻد ﺣﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬، ‫اﺳﺖ‬
flexibility and ductility. .‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮي و ﭼﻜﺶ ﺧﻮاري آن اﺛﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺬارد‬
Bubbles of molecular hydrogen that form at the ‫ﺣﺒﺎبﻫﺎي ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻟﻲ از اﺗﺼﺎل ﻫﻴﺪروژن اﺗﻤﻲ‬
metal surface from conjugation of atomic ‫ اﻳﻦ "ﺗﺮدي‬.‫ﻓﻮقاﻟﻌﺎده ﺳﺒﻚ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
hydrogen are extremely light. This is "hydrogen
‫ ﺗﺎولﻫﺎي روي ورﻗﻪ ﻳﺎ‬.‫ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ" ﻳﺎ "ﺗﺮدي اﺳﻴﺪي" اﺳﺖ‬
embrittlement" or "acid embrittlement". Blisters
on sheet or plate during pickling and galvanizing ‫روﻛﺶ در ﺣﻴﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﺖ‬
are from the same cause. .‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
Hydrogen bubbles, rise rapidly through a poorly ‫ﺣﺒﺎبﻫﺎي ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ در ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﺪه ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
inhibited bath. As they reach the liquid surface, ‫ ﺑﺸﺪت ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ و‬،‫ وﻗﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻣﻲرﺳﻨﺪ‬. ‫رﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ‬
they break violently and form fumes. The
‫ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺎرات ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ روي‬.‫ﺑﺨﺎرات ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
produced fumes can affect the health of workers
and rapidly corrode any metal work and masonary ‫ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻲ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن اﺛﺮ ﮔﺬارده و ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎر ﻓﻠﺰي و‬
in the pickling room. Inhibitors minimize acid .‫ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ در اﻃﺎق اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻮرده ﺷﻮد‬
fumes by reducing hydrogen that causes them.
‫ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪهﻫﺎ ﺑﺨﺎرات اﺳﻴﺪي را ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬
. ‫آﻧﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻣﻴﺮﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬
6.4 Cleaning and Preparation of Metal Prior to ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻠﺰ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬4-6
Pickling
6.4.1 Heavy deposits of oil, grease, soil, drawing ،‫ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ‬،‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬،‫ ﺗﻪ ﻧﺸﺴﺖﻫﺎي ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ روﻏﻦ‬1-4-6
compounds, and foreign matter other than rust, ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﺑﻴﺮون ﻛﺸﻴﺪه ﺷﺪه و ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از زﻧﮓ‬
scale or oxide must be removed by any
‫ رﺳﻮب ﻳﺎ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺮ روش ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬،‫آﻫﻦ‬
appropriate cleaning method described in section
(‫ ﻣﮕﺮ روش )ﻫﺎ‬،‫ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬5 ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ داده ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
5 unless certain method(s) of section 5 is (are)
specified by the company. Small quantities of . ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬5 ‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ از ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
such foreign matter may be removed in the ‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻛﻢ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ در ﻣﺨﺎزن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺸﺮﻃﻲ‬
pickling tanks provided no detrimental residue ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ از‬،‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي زﻳﺎن آوري روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
remains on the surface. .‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮد‬
57
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.4.2 Heavy deposits of rust, rust scale, and all ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬،‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ زﻧﮓ‬،‫ رﺳﻮبﻫﺎي ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ زﻧﮓ‬2-4-6
paints by suitable mechanical method(s) described 8 ‫ و‬7 ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روش )ﻫﺎي( ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ در ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي‬
in sections 7 and 8. Rust deposits which can be
removed without unduly prolonging the pickling
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻪ ﻧﺸﺴﺖﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ‬. ‫ﺑﻴﺎن ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ‬
time may be removed in the pickling tanks. Paints ،‫ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺑﺪون ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻲ دﻟﻴﻞ زﻣﺎن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
and other types of marking can normally be ‫ رﻧﮕﻬﺎ و دﻳﮕﺮ اﻧﻮاع ﻋﻼﻣﺖ‬.‫در ﻣﺨﺎزن اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺣﺬف ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
removed mechanically or with solvents.
‫ﮔﺬاري ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼلﻫﺎ ﺣﺬف‬
. ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
6.5 Pickling Process ‫ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬5-6
6.5.1 Sulfuric or hydrochloric (muriatic) acid ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ‬1-5-6
pickling
(‫اﺳﻴﺪ )ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬
6.5.1.1 Pickling with these acids is of particular ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ در رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ ارزش‬1-1-5-6
value in descaling, but should be used only for ‫ اﻣﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺘﻮان‬،‫وﻳﮋهاي دارد‬
parts that can be easily and thoroughly washed
free-from acid. It may thus be unsuitable for parts ‫ ﺑﻬﺮ ﺣﺎل ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬.‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺷﺴﺘﻪ و ﻋﺎري از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
of complicated shape particularly those containing ‫اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺨﺼﻮص آن دﺳﺘﻪ‬
narrow channels or blind holes that cannot be
properly washed out, or parts with porous surface ‫ﻛﻪ داراي ﻛﺎﻧﺎلﻫﺎي ﺑﺎرﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮر ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺑﻄﻮر‬
layers. ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ‬،‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮان ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ داد‬
. ‫ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
The following types of components should, ‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد اﻧﻮاع ﻗﻄﻌﺎت زﻳﺮ‬
therefore, not be treated with these acids: : ‫ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
- Parts built up by riveting, spot welding, or ،(‫ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﻧﻘﻄﻪاي )ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺘﻲ‬،‫ اﻗﻼم ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻴﺦ ﭘﺮچ‬-
similar methods. Cast-iron parts owing to the ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﭼﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬.‫ﻳﺎ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
possibility of occlusion of pickling acid in
porous surface layers. .‫اﻣﻜﺎن ﺗﺠﻤﻊ اﺳﻴﺪ در ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ‬

- Ferrous articles with associated non-ferrous or ‫ اﻗﻼم آﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺮاﻫﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻏﻴﺮآﻫﻨﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي‬-
non-metallic parts should not be pickled
because of the risk of attack or of electrolytic
‫ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺧﻄﺮ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ اﺛﺮات اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ و ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ اﻣﻜﺎن‬
effects, and because acid may be trapped at .‫ﺣﺒﺲ ﺷﺪن اﺳﻴﺪ در اﺗﺼﺎل ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
the join.
- High strength constructional alloy and heat- ‫ آﻟﻴﺎژ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺤﻜﺎم ﺑﺎﻻ و ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي آﻟﻴﺎژي‬-
treated alloy steels shall not be pickled by ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﺮارﺗﻲ ﺷﺪه ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ ﻛﻪ‬
sulfuric acid which can be used for low
‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
carbon structural steels. Some higher carbon
and alloy steels burn in acid very easily, ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﭘﺮ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ و آﻟﻴﺎژي‬.‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
making surface smut more of a problem. One ‫ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬،‫ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ در اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺳﻮزﻧﺪ‬
method to help solve this is to add rock salt to ‫ روﺷﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻞ اﻳﻦ‬.‫ﺳﻄﺢ را ﺳﻴﺎه و ﻟﻜﻪ دار ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
the sulfuric acid bath, some specifications call
‫ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻨﮓ ﻧﻤﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم‬،‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
for the bath to contain 1.5% wt. sodium
chloride. ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت اﺷﺎره ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم‬،‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ‬
. ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ دارد‬1/5 ‫داراي‬
- For acid pickling of stainless steel and metals ‫ ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن و دﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ‬-
other than ferrous metals see sections 10 and
11.
.‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬11 ‫ و‬10 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي‬

58
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.5.1.2 Operation ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬2-1-5-6


For the operation of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid ، ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ‬
pickling, various types of acid-resistant tanks are
available, e.g. lead (for sulfuric acid), glass or
‫اﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ از ﻣﺨﺎزن ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﺳﻴﺪ در دﺳﺘﺮس‬
glazed earthenware; wood, steel or concrete lined ‫ ﺳﺮب )ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ( ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﻳﺎ‬،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬،‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
with rubber or other acid resisting materials may ‫ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻳﺎ ﺑﺘﻦ آﺳﺘﺮ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬،‫ ﭼﻮب‬،‫ﻇﺮوف ﮔﻠﻲ ﻟﻌﺎب دار‬
also be used. (see IPS-E-TP-350 "Lining").
Several efficient inhibitors to reduce acid attack ‫ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻮاد ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
on the base metal are available commercially and ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬IPS-E-TP-350 ‫ )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬. ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
one of these should be employed; it is necessary
to adhere strictly to the manufacture’s instructions ‫ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ اﺳﻴﺪ روي ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪهﻫﺎي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬
regarding suitability, concentration and method of ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺗﺠﺎري در دﺳﺘﺮس ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﻳﻜﻲ از آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
addition. . ‫ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
In hydrochloric acid pickling the concentration of ،‫ﭘﻴﺮوي دﻗﻴﻖ از دﺳﺘﻮرات ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه در ارﺗﺒﺎط ﺑﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻮدن‬
acid may be varied between 1 and 50 per cent of ‫ در اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ‬.‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ و روش اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬
concentrated hydrochloric acid by volume, ‫ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ و ﻣﻘﺪار رﺳﻮب ﻳﺎ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ و‬،‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
according to the nature and amount of scale or
rust and the time available for pickling. Higher ‫ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬، ‫زﻣﺎن در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮدن ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
concentrations of acid remove rust and scale more ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻆ ﺷﺪه‬50 ‫ و‬1 ‫اﺳﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
rapidly but may attack the steel more severely. ‫ ﻏﻠﻈﺖﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ اﺳﻴﺪ زﻧﮓ و رﺳﻮب را ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ‬. ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
Hydrochloric acid pickles work reasonably well
‫از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺑﺮد اﻣﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺷﺪﻳﺪي ﺑﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺣﻤﻠﻪ‬
without external heating; often the heat of
reaction between the acid and the scale is ً‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺪون ﺣﺮارت ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎ‬. ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬
sufficient to keep the bath at 30-40°C and then ‫ اﻏﻠﺐ ﮔﺮﻣﺎي واﻛﻨﺶ ﺑﻴﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ و رﺳﻮب ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬، ‫ﺧﻮب ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
quite rapid pickling takes place. ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻧﮕﻪ داﺷﺘﻪ و آﻧﮕﺎه‬40 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬30 ‫اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺣﻤﺎم را در دﻣﺎي‬
. ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻋﻤﻞ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ اﺗﻔﺎق ﻣﻲاﻓﺘﺪ‬
In sulfuric acid pickling the concentration may be ‫ و‬5 ‫در اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
between 5 and 20 percent of sulfuric acid by ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﻮده و ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ دﻣﺎي‬20
volume and the bath should be heated (e.g. by
‫ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از‬.‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﮔﺮم ﺷﻮد‬85 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬60 ‫ﺣﺪود‬
steam coils) to a temperature of about 60-85°C. It
is very uneconomical to pickle in other than hot ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﺣﻤﻠﻪ‬،‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ داغ‬
sulfuric acid solutions because of the relative .‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً آﻫﺴﺘﻪ اي ﻛﻪ دارد ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
slowness of the attack.
Note: : ‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
To avoid accident from overheating when making ،‫در زﻣﺎن اﺟﺮا ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ از ﺣﺎدﺛﻪ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﮔﺮﻣﺎي اﺿﺎﻓﻲ‬
up, always add the acid slowly to cold water
stirring continuously. Do not add the water to the
‫ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﻪ آﻫﺴﺘﮕﻲ اﺳﻴﺪ را ﺑﻪ آب اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ و ﺑﻄﻮر ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬
acid. .‫ آب را ﺑﻪ اﺳﻴﺪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‬،‫ﺑﻬﻢ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﺪ‬
Pickling may be accelerated to some extent by ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪودي ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﻢ زدن ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬
mechanical agitation of the parts or of the ‫ و ﺑﻌﻀﻲ اوﻗﺎت ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪن ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﺗﻪ‬،‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
solution, and sometimes by lightly scrubbing off
deposits that have loosened in the acid bath. .‫ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮد‬، ‫ﻧﺸﺖﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﺴﺖ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
Alternatively, the pickling action may be ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺑﻬﻢ زدن‬
facilitated by the use of ultrasonic vibrations (see
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬5-‫ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ‬.‫ﻟﺮزﺷﻲ ﻣﺎوراء ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺷﻮد‬
Appendix A.5). Completion of pickling is best
judged by periodic inspection. ‫ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬،‫ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﻀﺎوت در ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
.‫دورهاي اﺳﺖ‬
The acid content of the bath shall be checked ‫ﻣﻴﺰان اﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎً ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺷﻮد و اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬
frequently and additions of acid made to maintain ‫ وﻗﺘﻲ‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1-3-9-6 ‫ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺪرت ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
59
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

the correct strength (see 6.9.3.1). The pickle shall ‫ﻣﻴﺰان آﻫﻦ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي ﺑﺎﻻ رﻓﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺪت اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﺟﺪي‬
be discarded when the iron content has risen to
‫ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻣﺤﺪود‬.‫ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ را دور رﻳﺨﺖ‬،‫ﻛﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
such an extent as to retard seriously the rate of
pickling. The limiting iron (Fe) contents are of the ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي‬35 ‫( ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬Fe) ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه آﻫﻦ‬
order of 35 g/litre for hydrochloric acid pickle and ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي‬16 ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ و‬
16 g/litre for sulfuric acid pickle (see 6.9.3.2).
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2-3-9-6 ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
After removal from the sulfuric acid pickling ، ‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺧﺎرج ﻧﻤﻮدن از ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
bath, the parts shall be treated as specified in 6.7. . ‫ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬7-6 ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
6.5.2 Phosphoric acid pickling ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬2-5-6
‫در ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﻳﺎ در ﺣﻴﻦ‬
Phosphoric acid pickling is less danger of
corrosion from residues or during drying, and is ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﺧﻄﺮ ﻛﻤﺘﺮي دارد‬
therefore preferable to the other mineral acids. ‫ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ وﺟﻮد‬. ‫اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ دارد‬
Nevertheless, with certain exceptions, it is
necessary to wash the articles thoroughly after the ،‫ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬،‫ﺧﺎﺻﻲ‬
pickling treatment, particularly if the parts are of ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً اﮔﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه داﺷﺘﻪ و داراي ﻛﺎﻧﺎلﻫﺎي ﺑﺎرﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ‬
complicated shape, contain narrow channels or
‫ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮر ﻳﺎ اﺟﺮا ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﻴﺦ ﭘﺮچ ﻳﺎ‬
blind holes or are built up by such methods as
riveting or spot-welding. . ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اي ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬
6.5.2.1 Rust removal with phosphoric acid ‫ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن زﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬1-2-5-6
Light rust can be removed by immersion in cold ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺎت‬،‫زﻧﮓ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﺮد‬
phosphoric acid, or proprietary liquids based on
phosphoric acid and substantially free from other
‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ و در واﻗﻊ ﻋﺎري از دﻳﮕﺮ‬
mineral acids, diluted for use according to the ‫ ﻃﺒﻖ دﺳﺘﻮرات ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه‬، ‫اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺣﺬف ﮔﺮدد‬
manufacturer’s instructions. The optimum 25 ً‫ ﻗﺪرت اﻳﺪهال اﺳﻴﺪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬.‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺼﺮف رﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
strength of acid is approximately 25 percent by
volume. Generally the procedure is dip .‫درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ اﺳﺖ‬
application.
In dipping process, immerse in the rust-removing ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺬف ﻛﻨﻨﺪه زﻧﮓ‬،‫در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬
solution, if necessary assisting the de-rusting -- ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻧﻤﻮده در ﺻﻮرت ﻟﺰوم ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮس زدن ﺑﺎ ﻻﺋﻲ ﭘﺸﻢ‬
action by brushing with a steel-wool pad.
Alternatively, warm the solution to 60°C to speed 60 ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ وﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل را ﺗﺎ‬
up rust removal. The immersion should not be .‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﮔﺮم ﻛﺮده ﺗﺎ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن زﻧﮓ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﮕﻴﺮد‬
longer than is required for complete de-rusting;
‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺗﺮ از زﻣﺎن ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺮاي زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ‬
normally up to an hour (or 15 minutes at the
higher temperature) should suffice. A lead-lined ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در دﻣﺎي‬15 ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ )ﻳﺎ‬، ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
tank is recommended for the rust removing ‫ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺨﺰن ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺳﺮب ﺑﺮاي‬.‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ( ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
solution.
. ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺪه زﻧﮓ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
Rinse well in clean cold water, and finally in ‫ و در ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ در آب داغ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺨﻮﺑﻲ‬،‫در آب ﺳﺮد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
clean hot water. Dry as quickly as possible ‫ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﺋﻲ ﻛﻪ اﻣﻜﺎن دارد ﻃﺒﻖ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ج( ﻫﺮ‬. ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ دﻫﻴﺪ‬
according to Appendix C.
.‫ﭼﻪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد‬
If composite articles are to be treated, care shall ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ‬، ‫اﮔﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻮزﻳﺘﻲ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
be taken to avoid excessive attack on non-ferrous . ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ از ﺣﻤﻠﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ روي ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
metals. Generally, the solution should not be used
for leaf springs or springs under stress. ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻨﺮﻫﺎي ورﻗﻪاي ﻳﺎ ﻓﻨﺮﻫﺎي ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﻨﺶ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
.‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
Locally hardened or hardened and tempered steel ‫ﻓﻮﻻد ﺳﺨﺖ ﺷﺪه ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺷﺪه و ﺗﻤﭙﺮ و ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي‬
and spring steels shall be given a further treatment .‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ در آب ﺟﻮش ﻗﺮار داده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬30 ‫ﻓﻨﺮي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
for 30 minutes in boiling water.

60
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.5.2.2 Scale removal with phosphoric acid ‫ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن رﺳﻮب ﺑﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬2-2-5-6
Heavy scale can be removed by phosphoric acid ‫ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫رﺳﻮب زﻳﺎد را ﺑﺎ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ در دﻣﺎﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬
only at higher temperatures, e.g. 85°C for 25 ‫ ﺣﺠﻢ اﺳﻴﺪ‬/ ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ‬25 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﺮاي‬85 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬
percent v/v acid. It is not generally necessary to
‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه در ﺣﻤﺎم ﻻزم‬،‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﺮﻃﺮف ﻧﻤﻮد‬
use an inhibitor in the bath. After pickling is
‫ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎ‬، ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺷﺪن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
complete, the treatment of articles by washing,
drying, etc. is the same as in 6.5.2.1. The bath .‫ اﺳﺖ‬1-2-5-6 ‫ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬.‫ و ﻏﻴﺮه‬،‫ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن‬،‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ‬
shall be discarded when the concentration of iron 4-9-6 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬20 ‫( ﺑﻪ‬Fe) ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ آﻫﻦ‬
(Fe) reaches 20 g/litre (see 6.9.4), otherwise ‫ در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻦ‬،‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬،(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
powdery deposits may be formed on the metal ‫ﺻﻮرت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻧﺸﺖ ﭘﻮدري روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬
surfaces.
. ‫ﺷﻮد‬
6.5.2.3 Duplex sulfuric / phosphoric acid ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ دو ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪاي )ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ‬3-2-5-6
(footner process) pickling
‫ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬/ ‫( ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬footner
Economy in the use of phosphoric acid may be
effected by the use of the Footner process for, de- ‫ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﻮﺋﻲ در اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
scaling steel plate and other forms of structural ‫ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ ورق ﻓﻮﻻدي و دﻳﮕﺮ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر‬
steel prior to the application of a protective
. ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
coating.
This process consists in: : ‫اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬

Fig. 3- PICKLING SET UP FOR SULFURIC-PHOSPHATE PICKLING (FOOTNER PROCESS)


SULFURIC ACID TANK IS ON THE RIGHT, RINSE TANK IN THE MIDDLE, AND PHOSPHATE
TANK ON THE LEFT. A PICKLED PLATE IS BEING WITHDRAWN FROM THE SULFURIC ACID
BATH.
‫( در ﺳﻤﺖ راﺳﺖ‬Footner ‫ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ دو ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪاي ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ – ﻓﺴﻔﺎت )ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ‬-3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه از‬.‫ در وﺳﻂ ﻣﺨﺰن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ و در ﺳﻤﺖ ﭼﭗ ﻣﺨﺰن ﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ‬، ‫ﻣﺨﺰن ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ ﺑﻴﺮون آورده ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
6.5.3.1 Pickling in 5-10 percent v/v sulfuric acid ‫ ﺣﺠﻢ‬/ ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ‬10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ در‬1-3-5-6
at 60-65°C for 12-15 minutes, or until all scale 15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬12 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺑﺮاي‬65 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬60 ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ در دﻣﺎي‬
and rust is removed. The bath shall contain an ‫ ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬. ‫ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺎ وﻗﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ رﺳﻮب زﻧﮓ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮود‬، ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
inhibitor. Further sulfuric acid shall be added
‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ زﻣﺎن اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار‬.‫ﺣﺎوي ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
when the pickling time increases appreciably. The

61
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

bath shall be discarded when the accumulation of ‫ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬،‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ اي اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬
sediment, etc. and the concentration of iron in the ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ رﺳﻮب و ﻏﻴﺮه و ﻏﻠﻈﺖ‬.‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
solution interfere with the pickling and result in
‫آﻫﻦ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﺰاﺣﻤﺖ ﻣﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﺪ و‬
deposits on the surface of the article.
‫ ﻣﺤﺘﻮاي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬.‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻪ ﻧﺸﺴﺖ روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
. ‫ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
This occurs when the specific gravity reaches ‫اﻳﻦ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻣﻲ آﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ وزن ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪود‬
about 1.18-1.20 or there is 1.6 percent of iron (Fe) ‫ ﮔﺮم در‬16) (Fe) ‫ درﺻﺪ اﻫﻦ‬1/6 ‫ ﻳﺎ‬، ‫ رﺳﻴﺪه‬1/20 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1/18
(16 g/litre) in the solution. After the article is
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ از ﺣﻤﺎم‬.‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ( در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
lifted from the acid bath it shall be allowed to
drain for 15-30 seconds before immersion in the ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻛﺮدن آن در ﺣﻤﺎم آب‬، ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ‬
water bath. .‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ اﺟﺎزه داد ﺗﺎ آب آن ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﻮد‬30 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬15 ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻤﺪت‬
6.5.3.2 Washing in warm water 60-65°C by ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻃﻲ‬65 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬60 ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ در آب ﮔﺮم‬2-3-5-6
immersing twice before passing to the final bath. ‫ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ‬.‫دو ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬
There shall be a very small flow of water through ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ درون ﺣﻤﺎم ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻛﻢ آب ﺑﺮﻗﺮار ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ‬
the water-wash bath to prevent the total acidity as
determined by titration against phenolphthalein,
‫اﺳﻴﺪﻳﺘﻪ ﻛﻞ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻴﺘﺮاﺳﻴﻮن ﺑﺎ ﻓﻨﻞ ﻓﺘﺎﻟﺌﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
from exceeding 0.1 g H2SO4 per 100 cm3. The ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ‫ ﮔﺮم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ در‬0/1 ‫ از‬،‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
necessary flow of water can be established after a ‫ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺟﺮﻳﺎن آب ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻫﻲ‬. ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺸﻮد‬
short experience of the process. . ‫از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﻮد‬
6.5.3.3 Immersing for 3-5 minutes in 2 percent 2 ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬3 ‫ ﺑﺮاي‬3-3-5-6
phosphoric acid solution maintained at a ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬85 ‫درﺻﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ دﻣﺎي‬
minimum temperature of 85°C. When the iron
(Fe) content exceeds 5 g/litre proportion of the
، ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻛﺮد‬5 ‫( از‬Fe) ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان آﻫﻦ‬.‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
bath shall be discarded and the bath restored by ‫ﻣﻘﺪاري از آب ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد و ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن‬
suitable additions of clean water and phosphoric ‫ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ و آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اول ﺑﺎز‬
acid.
.‫ﮔﺮداﻧﺪه ﺷﻮد‬
The lower phosphoric concentration and shorter ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦﺗﺮ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ و ﻣﺪت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﺗﺮ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬
immersion tends to produce thinner and less ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﻧﺎزكﺗﺮ و ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺘﺨﻠﺨﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬
porous phosphate coating. This type of coating is
. ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ رﻧﮕﻬﺎ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺷﻮد‬
an excellent base for most paint.

When removed from the hot phosphoric acid bath


‫( زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت و ﻏﻴﺮه از ﺣﻤﺎم‬Footner) ‫در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ‬
in the Footner process, the plates, etc. dry rapidly, ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ و‬،‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ داغ ﺧﺎرج ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬
and carry a protective dull grey phosphate film. . ‫ﻳﻚ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت ﺧﺎﻛﺴﺘﺮي ﻛﻢ رﻧﮓ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﻲ را ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮد دارﻧﺪ‬
No subsequent washing is required. Protective ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬. ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
coatings shall be applied immediately after the
pickled surfaces are dry and while they are still ً‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﻮرا‬،‫ﺷﺪه ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ و در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ ﻫﻨﻮز ﮔﺮم ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
warm. .‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

The process is also applicable to lighter material ‫اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮاد ﺳﺒﻚﺗﺮ از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬
than structural steel, but drying in an oven may be ‫ اﻣﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮاد ﺳﺒﻜﻲ ﻛﻪ از ﺣﻤﺎم‬،‫اﻋﻤﺎل اﺳﺖ‬
necessary for light materials that do not carry
،‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎي ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن در ﻫﻮا را ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮد ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ‬
sufficient heat from the bath to dry in air.
. ‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن در ﻳﻚ ﻛﻮره ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Fig. 3 shows a pickling setup for footner process. ‫ ﺑﺮﻗﺮاري اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﺗﻨﺮ را ﻧﺸﺎن‬3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
. ‫ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬

62
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.5.4 Sulfuric acid-sodium dichromate pickling ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ دي‬4-5-6
‫ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت‬
This method is often used in shipyards. The .‫اﻳﻦ روش اﻏﻠﺐ در ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪﻫﺎي ﻛﺸﺘﻲ ﺳﺎزي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
procedure is as follows: : ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
Pickling is performed by 5% (by volume) sulfuric ‫ درﺻﺪ )ﺣﺠﻤﻲ( در دﻣﺎي‬5 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
acid at 75-80°C, with sufficient inhibitor added to ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮاه اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه ﺟﻬﺖ‬،‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬80 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬75
minimize attack on the base metal, until all rust
‫ ﺗﺎ زدودن ﻫﻤﻪ زﻧﮓ‬،‫ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ رﺳﺎﻧﺪن ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪه‬
and scale is removed, followed by a two minute
rinse in hot water at 75-80°C. ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در‬2 ‫ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ‬.‫و رﺳﻮب اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
. ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺻﻮرت ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮد‬80 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬75 ‫آب داغ‬
Next, immerse the pickled and rinsed steel for at 2 ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﻓﻮﻻد اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه و ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه را ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺑﻤﺪت‬
least two minutes in a hot, inhibitive solution ‫ درﺟﻪ‬85 ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه داغ ﻛﻪ دﻣﺎي آن ﺑﺎﻻي‬
maintained above 85°C and containing about
‫ درﺻﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ‬0/75 ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻧﮕﻬﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد و ﺣﺎوي ﺣﺪود‬
0.75% sodium dichromate and about 0.5%
orthophosphoric acid. ،‫ درﺻﺪ اورﺗﻮﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬0/5 ‫دي ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت و ﺣﺪود‬
.‫ﻓﺮو ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮد‬
6.5.5 Alkaline pickling ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬5-5-6
Rust and scale may be removed and the surface ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ و رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ و آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
prepared for electroplating or painting of non- ‫ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬
ferrous metals by one of the following alkaline
. ‫ﻳﻜﻲ از روﺷﻬﺎي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ زﻳﺮ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
pickling method.

6.5.5.1 Remove of light rust ‫ زدودن زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬1-5-5-6


Immerse in a solution based on caustic soda and a ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را در ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺳﻮد ﺳﻮز آور و ﻣﺎده ﻛﻴﻠﻴﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
chelating agent such as sodium heptonate or .‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﭙﺘﻮﻧﺎت ﻳﺎ ﮔﻠﻮﻛﻮﻧﺎت ﻓﺮو ﺑﺮﻳﺪ‬
gluconate.

6.5.5.2 Remove of heavy rust ‫ زدودن زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ زﻳﺎد‬2-5-5-6


Electrolytic treatment in an alkaline solution ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﺎً ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
consisting essentially of sodium hydroxide in ‫ﻫﻴﺪرواﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ در آب ﺑﺎ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن از‬
water, the concentration being adequate to ensure
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻧﻬﺎ داراي‬.‫ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺪاﻳﺖ اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻛﻲ ﺧﻮب‬
good electrical conductivity. They may contain
substances which assist in the removal of the rust, ‫ﻣﻮادي ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ )ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﻟﻒ( و اﺳﻴﺪ ﺗﺘﺮا اﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬
such as sodium cyanide (solution a) and ‫اﺗﻴﻠﻦ دي آﻣﻴﻦ )ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ب( ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ زدودن زﻧﮓ ﻛﻤﻚ‬
ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (solution b).
Typical compositions are: : ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬.‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬

a) Sodium hydroxide 200 g/litre to 300 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬300 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬200 ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪرو اﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
Sodium cyanide 20 g/litre to 30 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬30 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬20 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬
Anionic surface active 1.0 g/litre to 1.5 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬1/5 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬1 ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﻄﺢ آﻧﻴﻮﻧﻲ‬
agent
b) Sodium hydroxide 100 g/litre to 200 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬200 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬100 ‫ب( ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪرواﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
Ethylene diamine 100 g/litre to 150 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬150 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬100 ‫اﺗﻴﻠﻦ دي آﻣﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﺮااﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬
tetracetic acid (EDTA)
(EDTA) ‫اﺳﻴﺪ‬
Non-ionic wetting agent 1.0 g/litre to 1.5 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬1/5 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬1 ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺮ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻲ‬

63
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

The solutions may be operated from room ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﻜﺎر‬60 ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ از دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﺗﺎ‬
temperature to 60°C, but it is recommended that 40 ‫ اﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ دﻣﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل )اﻟﻒ( ﺑﺎﻻي‬،‫ﺑﺮده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
solution (a) not taken above 40°C to prevent rapid
‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﺮده ﻧﺸﻮد ﺗﺎ از ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب‬
decomposition of the cyanide.
. ‫ﺷﻮد‬
The parts should be treated anodically or ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر آﻧﺪي ﻳﺎ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻜﻮس ﻧﻤﻮدن‬
cathodically or with periodic reversal of the ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ‬500 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬250 ‫دورهاي ﺷﺪت ﺟﺮﻳﺎن )در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن( در ﺣﺪود‬
current (at current) densities of the order of 250
. ‫ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
A/m2 to 500 A/m2.

After de-rusting, parts should be washed hroughly ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ در آب ﺟﺎري ﺷﺴﺘﻪ‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ از زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ‬
in running water, special attention being paid to . ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺷﻴﺎري دﻗﺖ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺷﻮد‬، ،‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
any crevices.

6.5.5.3 Remove of scale (descaling in molten ‫ زدودن رﺳﻮب )رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ در ﻗﻠﻴﺎي ﺳﻮد‬3-5-5-6
caustic alkali) (‫ﺳﻮز آور ﻣﺬاب‬
Molten caustic alkali descaling processes, which ‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺳﻮزآور ﻣﺬاب ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﺎي‬
are based on molten caustic alkalis containing
additives such as sodium hydride, have less ‫ﺳﻮزآور ﻣﺬاب ﻛﻪ داراي ﻣﻮاد اﻓﺰودﻧﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪرﻳﺪ‬
tendency to induce hydrogen embrittlement in ‫ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﻛﻤﺘﺮي ﺑﻪ اﻟﻘﺎء ﺗﺮدي ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ در ﻓﻮﻻد ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬،‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
steel than pickling but their use on high strength ‫ﺑﻪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ دارﻧﺪ اﻣﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آﻧﻬﺎ روي ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺤﻜﺎم‬
steel is not allowed. These processes are
particularly suitable for castings, and for parts in ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎَ ﺑﺮاي رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲﻫﺎ و ﺑﺮاي‬.‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﺠﺎز ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
heat resisting steel stress relieved after ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻣﻘﺎوم ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮارت ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺟﺮا ﺗﻨﺶ زداﻳﻲ‬
fabrication.
. ‫ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
Molten hydride is, however liable to embrittle ‫ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎل ﻫﻴﺪرﻳﺪ ﻣﺬاب ﺑﺎ ﺟﺬب ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺮدي‬
titanium alloys by hydrogen absorption. . ‫آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬

6.6 Electrochemical Pickling ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬6-6


It is possible to remove rust and scale by the ‫ زﻧﮓ و رﺳﻮب را از‬،‫اﻣﻜﺎن دارد ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ زﻳﺮ‬
following electrolytic methods: :‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮد‬
6.6.1 Cathodic treatment in acid solution ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﺎﺗﺪي در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ‬1-6-6
Removal of rust and scale may be accelerated ‫در ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻋﺎدي زدودن زﻧﮓ و رﺳﻮب ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬
compared with ordinary pickling, acid is ‫ در ﻣﺼﺮف اﺳﻴﺪ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﻮﺋﻲ و ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ‬، ‫اﺳﺖ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺷﻮد‬
economised and attack on the metal is reduced,
.‫ اﻣﺎ ﺷﻜﻨﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺟﺪي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬، ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬
but hydrogen embrittlement may be serious.

Inhibitors such as tin or lead salts shall be used. .‫ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪهﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎي ﻗﻠﻊ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮب ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
This process is useful for descaling irregular ‫اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ اﺟﺴﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﻈﻢ و‬
shaped objects and those with difficult recesses.
‫ اﻳﻦ ﻛﺎر در‬.‫آﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺗﻮرﻓﺘﮕﻲﻫﺎي ﺳﺨﺖ دارﻧﺪ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ‬
The work is made cathodic at 645 ampere/m2 in
hot 10 per cent v/v sulfuric acid containing a ‫ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺣﺎوي ﻣﻘﺪار‬/ ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ‬10 ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ داغ‬
small amount of lead or tin salts. ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻛﺎﺗﺪي‬645 ‫ﻛﻤﻲ از ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎي ﺳﺮب ﻳﺎ ﻗﻠﻊ در‬
. ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
Tin or lead plates on the descaled areas and the ‫روي ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ رﺳﻮب زداﺋﻲ ﺷﺪه ﻗﻠﻊ و ﺳﺮب روﻛﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و‬
action is diverted to other areas. The plated tin or ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻗﻠﻊ و ﺳﺮب‬.‫اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﮔﺴﺘﺮش ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬
lead is usually removed by electrolytic alkali
‫روﻛﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ از ﺑﻴﻦ‬
cleaning. Some organic inhibitors can
substantially reduce metal losses during cathodic ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪهﻫﺎي آﻟﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در ﺣﻴﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ‬. ‫ﻣﻲروﻧﺪ‬

64
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

pickling. .‫ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ زﻳﺎدي از ﻫﺪر رﻓﺘﻦ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﻜﺎﻫﻨﺪ‬


6.6.2 Cathodic treatment in alkaline solution ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﺎﺗﺪي در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬2-6-6
Hydrdogen embrittlement is less than with 6.6.1 ً‫ اﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ‬،‫ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ‬1-6-6 ‫ﺗﺮدي ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ روش‬
method but de-rusting is usually slower than in . ‫زﻧﮓ زداﺋﻲ آﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي اﺳﻴﺪي اﺳﺖ‬
acid solutions.

6.6.3 Anodic treatment ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻧﺪي‬3-6-6


Anodic treatment may be carried out in either acid ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻧﺪي ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ در ﻫﺮﻳﻚ از دو ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪي ﻳﺎ‬
or alkaline solutions. Passivating conditions are ‫ ﻧﻪ‬،‫ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮﻗﺮار و اﻛﺴﻴﮋن‬.‫ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
established and oxygen, not hydrogen, is
. ‫ﻫﻴﺪروژن در ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
produced at the surface.

Hydrogen embrittlement is usually avoided with ‫در ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ رﻳﺴﻚ ﻛﻤﻲ وﺟﻮد دارد ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً وﻗﺘﻲ ﻃﻲ‬
the anodic process where there is a slight risk, ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺑﺮق ﻗﻄﻊ و ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﻴﺮون آورده ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد و‬
especially with highly stressed parts of hydrogen
‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬،‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬
being formed in the acid process when the current
is switched off and while the work is being .‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ آﻧﺪي از ﺗﺮدي ﻫﻴﺪروژﻧﻲ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
removed from the bath.

Examples are: : ‫ﻣﺜﺎلﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺎرﺗﻨﺪ از‬


- An anodic process for parts entirely of steel ‫ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ آﻧﺪي ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻓﻮﻻدي در‬-
based on sulfuric acid solution (sp.gr : 1.22) ‫( در ﻣﺨﺰن‬1/22 :‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )وزن ﻣﺨﺼﻮص‬
used at a temperature not exceeding 25°C in a
‫ﺳﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﺎ اﻟﻜﺘﺮودﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺳﺮﺑﻲ در دﻣﺎي ﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از‬
lead tank with lead cathodes, with a high
anodic current directly maintained on the steel ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﺎ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن آﻧﺪي ﺑﺎﻻ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎً روي‬25
surfaces (not less than 1075 ampere/m2). ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ‬1075 ‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻد ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﻧﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
.‫ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ( ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻴﺮود‬
- An anodic alkaline process for parts entirely ‫ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ آﻧﺪي ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻮﻻدي‬-
of steel based on a solution of caustic soda ‫در ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻲ از ﺳﻮد ﺳﻮز آور داراي ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪه‬
containing cyanide or an organic complexing
‫آﻟﻲ‬
agent.

6.7 Treatment of Metal after Pickling ‫ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬7-6

6.7.1 Cold rinsing ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب ﺳﺮد‬1-7-6

When metal is removed from the pickle bath, a ‫ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎزﻛﻲ‬،‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ از ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻴﺮون آورده ﺷﺪ‬
thin film of pickling acid and salts, resulting from .‫ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ واﻛﻨﺶ اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﻪ آن ﻣﻲﭼﺴﺒﺪ‬،‫از اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎ‬
reaction of acid with metal, clings to it. The acid
‫اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از آﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﻪ از ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
and salts, with the exception of some produced
from phosphoric acid, actually stimulate rust ‫ در ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ زﻧﮓ را ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ و‬،‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
formation and must be completely removed ‫ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ زﻳﺎدي‬.‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
before they dry. An ample supply of clean water
must be available for rinsing, which may be ‫ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
accomplished by any convenient means. Steel, ‫ ﭼﻮﺑﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺘﻨﻲ‬،‫ ﻣﺨﺎزن ﻓﻮﻻدي‬.‫وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﮔﺮدد‬
wood, or concrete tanks provided with a
‫ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﺗﺸﻚ ﺳﺮﺑﺎره ﮔﻴﺮ ﺑﺮاي اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن از ﺳﺮ رﻳﺰ ﺷﺪن آب‬
skimming trough to take care of an ample
overflow of water are generally used, although ‫ ﮔﺮﭼﻪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ آب را ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار زﻳﺎد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
water can be applied liberally with a hose. .‫ﻳﻚ ﺷﻠﻨﮓ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
Pickled work should be rinsed promptly, ‫ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً اﮔﺮ‬، ‫ﻛﺎر اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻔﻮرﻳﺖ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺷﻮد‬
particularly if the acid is hot. If the film dries, it is ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻣﻮاد ﺑﺠﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه ﻛﻪ‬،‫ اﮔﺮ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد‬،‫اﺳﻴﺪ داغ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
65
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

difficult to rinse away residues that can cause ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻌﺪي ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺳﺎز ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ‬
trouble in many of the following operations.
.‫ﺑﻮد‬
6.7.2 Final (hot) rinsing - neutralizing ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎ آب )داغ(– ﺧﻨﺜﻲ ﺳﺎزي‬2-7-6
When pickling acid and iron salts are removed or ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎي آﻫﻦ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ‬
diluted, metal must be suitably treated in ‫ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎتﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬،‫رﻗﻴﻖ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬
preparation for operations that follow. Treatment
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت از زﻧﮓ زدن ﻓﻮﻻد ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ و‬.‫ﺑﻬﺴﺎزي ﺷﻮد‬
prevents steel from rusting and prepares it for
painting. Weak alkali solutions, such as 1.9 to 3.7 ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬. ‫آﻧﺮا ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي آﻣﺎده ﻣﻲﺳﺎزد‬
g/litre of sodium carbonate or trisodium ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت ﻳﺎ‬3/7 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1/9 ‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬
phosphate, are used in a boiling rinse following a
cold rinse, previously described. ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺗﺮي ﻓﺴﻔﺎت در آﺑﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺟﻮش و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن آﺑﻜﺸﻲ‬
. ‫ﺑﺎ آب ﺳﺮد ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼً ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
The alkaline surface does not rust rapidly, but it if ‫ اﻣﺎ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ زﻧﮓ ﻧﻤﻲ زﻧﻨﺪ‬
is to be stored indefinitely or exposed to weather, ‫ﺑﻤﺪت ﻧﺎﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﻲ اﻧﺒﺎر ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻫﻮا ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روﻏﻦ‬
it shall be oiled. Alkali cleaning solutions
‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ )ﺧﻨﺜﻲ ﺳﺎزي( ﺑﺮاي‬.‫ﻛﺎري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
(Neutralizing) are suitable for application of oil
but are not suited for application of paint. Also, ‫اﻋﻤﺎل روﻏﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺮاي اﻋﻤﺎل رﻧﮓ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
there are other treatments that can be used to ‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻋﻤﻞ آوري دﻳﮕﺮي ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي‬.‫ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
prevent rusting.
.‫از زﻧﮓ زدن ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
6.7.3 Preparing metal for painting (see ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬3-7-6
IPS-C-TP-102 painting) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬IPS-C-TP-102 ‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
Most paints do not adhere well and blister in a ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ رﻧﮕﻬﺎ اﮔﺮ در ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﺮﻃﻮب روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ‬
humid atmosphere if applied to an alkaline or
neutral surface. For best painting results the ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺧﻮب ﻧﻤﻲ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪ و ﺗﺎول ﻣﻲزﻧﻨﺪ‬
surface pH should be slightly acid. Best results .‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﻲ اﺳﻴﺪي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬pH ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
occur when the surface has a pH between 3 and 5. 3 ‫ ﺑﻴﻦ‬pH ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ وﻗﺘﻲ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد ﻣﻲ آﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ داراي‬
There are exceptions when using special paints,
such as inorganic zincs, which normally are ،‫ در ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺧﺎص ﻧﻈﻴﺮ رويﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬.‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬5 ‫ﺗﺎ‬
applied to neutral surfaces. In pickling processes ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻋﺎدي روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺧﻨﺜﻲ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﺎﺗﻲ‬
for inorganic zinc applications, no further
treatment is normally used after the hot water ‫ در ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮﻳﻬﺎي روي‬.‫ﻫﻢ وﺟﻮد دارد‬
rinse. ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻌﺪ از آﺑﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﺎ آب داغ ﻋﻤﻞ آوري دﻳﮕﺮي‬،‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬
.‫اﻧﺠﺎم ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﺮدد‬
For most paints, other than inorganic zincs, it is ‫ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮي درﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬،‫ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ از رويﻫﺎي ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ رﻧﮕﻬﺎ‬
important that proper be used to produce the ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي‬.‫ ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬pH ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ اﻳﺠﺎد‬
proper pH. Phophoric or chromic acids, or
‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ را ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬،‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ‬
mixtures, produce best results. Muriatic or
sulfuric acids shall not be used because their ‫ از آﻧﺠﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬.‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
residues stimulate rust under paint. ‫ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻮرد‬،‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ در زﻳﺮ رﻧﮓ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
.‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
It is desirable to further clean and treat pickled ‫ ﻓﻮﻻد اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه و‬،‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬
and rinsed steel in a phosphoric acid solution ‫ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي‬
prior to painting. Good results can be obtained by
‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ از ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ‬0/25 ً‫ ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
adding approximately 0.25% by weight of
concentrated phosphoric acid to the hot rinse bath, ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﻏﻠﻴﻆ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي داغ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﺨﺰن ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺮار‬
contained in a steel tank, and maintaining this ‫دارد و ﺣﻔﻆ آن ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻛﻢ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز در‬
rinse at a pH of 3 to 5 by additon of acid as small
quantities are needed. .‫ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آورد‬5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬3 pH

66
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

The cleanliness of the boiling rinse is important, ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﺎ آب ﺟﻮش ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ زﻳﺮا در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬
since it is here that a satisfactorily cleaned surface ‫اﻣﻜﺎن دارد ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ‬
can be spoiled for painting. For best results the
‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺼﻮل ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬. ‫ ﺧﺮاب ﺷﻮد‬،‫آﻣﻴﺰي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
bath should be discarded daily and the tank
cleaned before making a new bath. This is not ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روزاﻧﻪ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ و ﻣﺨﺰن ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ‬
practical for large scale structural pickling ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎتﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ﺣﻤﺎم ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
operations, and good painting results can be
obtained by merely maintaining a water rinse ‫ و ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬،‫ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي در ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﺑﺰرگ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻧﺒﻮده‬
temperature at 60°C or higher and painting ‫ درﺟﻪ‬60 ‫ﺧﻮب ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﺎ آب در دﻣﺎي‬
promptly while steel is warm and dry.
‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ و رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻓﻮري در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﮔﺮم و‬
.‫ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آﻳﺪ‬،‫ﺧﺸﻚ اﺳﺖ‬
6.8 Appearance of Pickled Surface ‫ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه‬8-6
6.8.1 The surface shall be pickled to a degree ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺗﺎ‬1-8-6
suitable for the specified painting system. .‫درﺟﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
6.8.2 Uniformity of color may be affected by the ،‫ ﻳﻜﻨﻮاﺧﺘﻲ ﻓﺎم رﻧﮓ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ درﺟﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻲ‬2-8-6
grade, original surface condition, and ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ و ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺎدهاي ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد و‬
configuration of the material being cleaned, as
well as by discolorations from mill or fabrication
‫ﺑﻌﻼوه ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت رﻧﮕﺒﺮي ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ ﮔﺬارﻳﻬﺎي ﻧﻮرد ﻳﺎ اﺟﺮا و ﺳﺎﻳﻪﻫﺎي‬
marks and the shadowing from pickling patterns. .‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ اﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ واﻗﻊ ﺷﻮد‬

6.8.3 Visual standards of surface preparation ‫ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي ﭼﺸﻤﻲ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬3-8-6
agreed upon by the contracting parties should be ‫ﻃﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻗﺮار داد ﺑﺮ روي آن ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﺪد‬
used to further define the surface.
.‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
6.9 Test Methods-Determining of Acid and ‫ روشﻫﺎي آزﻣﻮن ﺗﻌﻴﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ ﺣﻤﺎمﻫﺎي‬9-6
Iron Content of Pickle Baths ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
Methods regularly used in the laboratory shall be ‫روشﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻌﻤﻮل در آزﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
used to titrate pickle baths for both acid and iron. ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻴﺘﺮ ﻛﺮدن ﺣﻤﺎمﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ دو اﺳﻴﺪ و‬
It is recommended to install such apparatus near ‫ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻴﺸﻮد ﭼﻨﻴﻦ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻳﻲ در‬.‫آﻫﻦ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
the pickle or measuring tanks and to have
.‫ﻣﺠﺎورت ﻣﺨﺎزن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔﺮدﻧﺪ‬
titrations made at regular intervals, usually by the
pickle foreman, who sees to it that acid is added ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﺮ ﻛﺎرﮔﺮ اﺳﻴﺪ‬، ‫ﺗﻴﺘﺮاﺳﻴﻮن در ﻓﻮاﺻﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‬
in measured and recorded quantities to maintain ‫ ﻛﺴﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮاﻇﺐ اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار‬،‫ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
the proper strength. ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ و ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﺛﺒﺖ آن ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺪرت اﺳﻴﺪي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
.‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
6.9.1 Equipment required ‫ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز‬1-9-6
‫ ﻋﺪد‬1 ‫ ﻋﺪد ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺑﻮرت‬1 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬5 ‫ﭘﻴﭙﺖ‬
1-5 cm3 pipette 1- burette stand

‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬250 ‫ ﻋﺪد ﺑﺸﺮ ﺷﻴﺸﻪاي‬1 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ‬1 ‫ﭘﻴﭙﺖ‬


1-1 cm3 pipette 2- 250 cm3 glass beakers
‫ ﻋﺪد‬2 ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ‬
‫ ﻋﺪد‬2 ‫ ﻋﺪد ﻣﻴﻠﻪﻫﺎي ﻫﻤﺰن‬2 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ‬25 ‫ﺑﻮرت‬
2-25 cm3 burettes 2- stirring rods
1-5 cm3 measuring cylinder 1- gas indicator ‫ ﻋﺪد ﺑﻄﺮي ﻧﺸﺎن‬1 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ‬5 ‫اﺳﺘﻮاﻧﻪ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬
bottle
‫ ﻋﺪد‬1 ‫دﻫﻨﺪه ﻣﻘﺪار ﮔﺎز‬

67
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

6.9.2 Reagents required ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز‬2-9-6


- 1.0 normal sodium hydroxide solution ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬1/0 ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬-
- 0.1 normal potassium permanganate solution ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت‬0/1 ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬-
- Methyl orange -1 g/litre of H2O ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ آب‬1 – ‫ ﻣﺘﻴﻞ اوراﻧﮋ‬-

-C.P* sulfuric acid, concentrated C.P* ‫ ﻏﻠﻴﻆ‬،‫ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-

6.9.3 Determining acid and iron content in ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار اﺳﻴﺪ و آﻫﻦ در ﺣﻤﺎمﻫﺎي‬3-9-6
sulfuric and hydrochloric acid baths ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
6.9.3.1 Determining acid content ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار اﺳﻴﺪ‬1-3-9-6
a) Measurment ‫اﻟﻒ( اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬
- Measure a 5 cm3 sample of the pickling ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ را ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭙﺖ‬5 -
solution with a 5 cm3 pipette and transfer it to ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﺮده و ﺑﻪ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬5
a clean 250 cm3 beaker.
. ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬250
- Add about 100 cm3 (half a beaker) of clean, ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ )ﻧﺼﻒ ﺑﺸﺮ( آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺗﺎزه‬100 ‫ ﺣﺪود‬-
fresh tap or city water and 2 or 3 drops of ‫ ﻗﻄﺮ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﻌﺮوف‬3 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬2 ‫ﺷﻴﺮ ﻳﺎ آب ﺷﻬﺮي و‬
indicator solution (methyl orange).
. ‫)ﻣﺘﻴﻞ اوراﻧﮋ( را اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬
- Fill a burette exactly to the zero mark with 1.0 1/0 ‫ ﺑﻮرت را دﻗﻴﻘﺎً ﺗﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬-
normal sodium hydroxide. . ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﭘﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬

- Stir the test sample constantly with a stirring ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ آزﻣﻮن را ﺑﺎ ﻣﻴﻠﻪ ﻫﻤﺰن ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﺑﻬﻢ زده و ﺑﻪ آراﻣﻲ‬-
rod and slowly run in 1.0 normal sodium ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل را روي آن رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ رﻧﮓ‬1/0 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
hydroxide until the red color has changed to
‫ در ﻟﺤﻈﻪاي ﻛﻪ رﻧﮓ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬. ‫ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﺑﻪ زرد ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
yellow. Stop adding this titrating solution at
the moment the color of the test sample ‫ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻴﺘﺮاﺳﻴﻮن را‬، ‫آزﻣﻮن ﻛﺎﻣﻼً زرد ﺷﻮد‬
becomes pure yellow. . ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
- Record the reading taken on the graduated ‫ اﻳﻦ‬. ‫ ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه از ﺑﻮرت ﻣﺪرج را ﻳﺎد داﺷﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬-
burette. This is the number of cm3 of 1.0 1/0 ‫ﻋﺪد ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ و ﻣﻜﻌﺐ از ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
normal sodium hydroxide used.
. ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
b) Calculation ‫ب( ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬
The number of cm3 of 1.0 normal sodium ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﺮف‬1/0 ‫ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬
hydroxide used, multiplied by the appropriate ،10 ‫ ﺿﺮﺑﺪر ﺿﺮﻳﺒﻬﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﺷﺪه در ﺟﺪول‬،‫ﺷﺪه‬
factors shown in table 10, gives the desired **
Be ‫ درﺟﻪ‬60 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﻳﺎ‬66 ‫ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﻄﻠﻮب از ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
quantity of 66° or 60° Be ** sulfuric acid or 20°
or 18° Be* muriatic acid. .‫ ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ را اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬Be ‫ درﺟﻪ‬18 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﻳﺎ‬20 ‫ﻳﺎ‬

68
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 10 - CONVERSION FACTORS FOR SULFURIC AND HYDROCHLORIC (MURIATIC)


ACID CONCENTRATIONS
(‫ ﺿﺮاﻳﺐ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﺮاي ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻫﺎي ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ و ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ )ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬-10 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

66°Be 60°Be
SULFURIC SULFURIC
‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
PERCENT BY VOLUME....
‫درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬ 0.573 0.740

GRAMS PER 100 ml.....


‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ‫ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ‬ 1.053 1.263

POUNDS PER gal.......


‫ﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ‬ 8.771 10.525

20°Be 18°Be
MURIATIC MURIATIC
‫ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرﻳﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬
PERCENT BY VOLUME....
1.999 2.288
‫درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬
GRAMS PER 100 ml.....
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ‫ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ‬ 2.319 2.612

POUNDS PER gal.......


‫ﭘﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ‬ 19.353 21.796

*: C.P (chemically pure): without impurities ‫ ﺑﺪون ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟﺼﻲﻫﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬: (‫ )ﺧﻠﻮص ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬C.P : *
detectable by analysis. . ‫ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﻲ اﺳﺖ‬

**: Be ;(Baume hydrometer scale): A calibration ‫ ﻳﻚ درﺟﻪ ﺑﻨﺪي ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺎﺗﻲ‬: (‫ )ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺳﻨﺞ ﺑﻮﻣﻪ‬Be **
for liquids that is reducible to specific gravity by :‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻓﺮﻣﻮلﻫﺎي زﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ وزن ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺳﺎده ﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
the following formulas: for liquid heavier than
÷(145-n) (‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬60 ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺗﺮ از آب و )در‬
water specific gravity = 145 ÷ (145 - n) (at 60°C)
for liquid lighter than water specific gravity = 140 ‫ درﺟﻪ‬60 ‫ )در‬،‫ = وزن ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺗﺮ از آب‬145
÷ (130 + n ) (at 60°C). (n) is the reading and the ‫ ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و‬n ‫ = وزن ﻣﺨﺼﻮص‬140 ÷(130+n) (‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
Baume scale, in degrees Baume.
.‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﺑﻮﻣﻪ درﺟﺎت ﺑﻮﻣﻪ اﺳﺖ‬
6.9.3.2 Determining iron content ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ‬2-3-9-6
a) Measurement ‫اﻟﻒ( اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬
- Measure a 1 cm3 sample of the pickling 1 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ را ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭙﺖ‬1 -
solution, With the 1 cm3 pipette and transfer it ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﺮده و ﺑﻪ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
to a clean 250 cm3 beaker.
. ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬250
- Add about 100 cm3 (half a beaker) of fresh, ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ )ﻧﺼﻒ ﺑﺸﺮ( آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺗﺎزه‬100 ‫ ﺣﺪود‬-
clean water. Measure 5 cm3 of concentrated ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ از ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬5 .‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
sulfuric by means of the 5 cm3 measuring
cylinder and pour it slowly with constant ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬5 ‫ﻏﻠﻴﻆ را ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ اﺳﺘﻮاﻧﻪ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬
stirring into beaker. ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي و آﻧﺮا ﺑﻄﻮر آﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﻬﻢ‬
.‫زدن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ در ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﺮﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬
- Fill a burette exactly to the zero mark with 0.1 0/1 ‫ ﺑﻮرت را دﻗﻴﻘﺎً ﺗﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت‬-
normal potassium permanganate. . ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﭘﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬
- Stir the test sample continuously with a ‫ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ را ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻬﻢ زدن ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﺑﻬﻢ زده و‬-
stirring rod and slowly run in the ‫ﺑﻪ آﻫﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ روي آن رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ رﻧﮓ‬
permanganate solution until the color changes
‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬15 ‫آن ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻛﻢ رﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﮔﺎري ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬
to a faint pink, which persists at least fifteen
seconds. Stop adding solution when pink is ‫ وﻗﺘﻴﻜﻪ رﻧﮓ ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آﻣﺪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬.‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
obtained. . ‫ﻛﺮدن ﻣﺤﻠﻮل را ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
69
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

- Record the reading taken on the graduated . ‫ ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه از ﺑﻮرت ﻣﺪرج را ﻳﺎد داﺷﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬-
burette. This is the number of cm3 of 0.1 ‫اﻳﻦ ﻋﺪد ﻣﻘﺪار ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ از ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ‬
normal potassium permanganate used.
. ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬0/1
b) Calculation ‫ب( ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬
The number of cm3 of 0.1 normal potassium 0/1 ‫ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه از ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ‬
permanganate used, multiplied by 0.5580, equals
grams of iron (Fe) per 100 cm3 of pickling ‫( در‬Fe) ‫ ﻣﺴﺎوي اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮم از آﻫﻦ‬0/5580 ‫ ﺿﺮﺑﺪر‬، ‫ﻧﺮﻣﺎل‬
solution. . ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬100
6.9.4 Determination of iron content in ‫ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ در ﺣﻤﺎم ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬4-9-6
phosphoric acid bath

a) Measurement ‫اﻟﻒ( اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬


- Take 1 cm3 phosphoric acid bath sample ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ از ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﻤﺎم را ﺑﺎ‬1 -
measured accurately with pipette and add to ‫ﭘﻴﭙﺖ ﺑﺪﻗﺖ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﺮده و ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻮن ارﻟﻦ ﻣﺎﻳﺮ‬
125 cm3 Erlenmeyer flask.
. ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬125
- Add 1 cm3 of 50% C.P sulfuric acid and about ‫ درﺻﺪ و‬50 C.P ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬1 -
25 cm3 of distilled water. . ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ آب ﻣﻘﻄﺮ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬25 ‫ﺣﺪود‬
- Add 0.18 normal potassium permanganate ‫ ﻧﺮﻣﺎل را‬0/18 ‫ از ﺑﻮرت ﺗﻴﺘﺮاﺳﻴﻮن ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت‬-
from titration burette, with stirring, to ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬125 ‫ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ زدن ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ارﻟﻦ ﻣﺎﻳﺮ‬
solution in the 125 cm3 Erlenmeyer flask until
‫ﻣﻜﻌﺒﻲ ﺗﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺑﺮوز اوﻟﻴﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ رﻧﮓ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﻪ رﻧﮓ‬
the solution first turns a permanganate pink
color. Record number of cm3 of ‫ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬.‫ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬
permanganate solution used. . ‫از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه را ﻳﺎدداﺷﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬
b) Calculation ‫ب( ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬
Each cm3 of permanganate solution used is ‫ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﻣﺼﺮف ﺷﺪه ﻣﻌﺎدل ﺑﺎ‬
equivalent to 0.96 grams of iron per 100 cm3 of ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬100 ‫ ﮔﺮم از آﻫﻦ در‬0/96
phosphoric acid bath.
. ‫ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﺖ‬
If 3.0 cm3 were required to obtain the pink color ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ آوردن رﻧﮓ ﺻﻮرﺗﻲ ﻣﻮرد‬3 ‫اﮔﺮ‬
them 3.0 × 0.96 g/100 cm3 = 2.88 g/100 cm3 iron ‫ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻮد آﻧﮕﺎه ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ در ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺑﻮد ﺑﺎ‬
in pickle bath. A titration requiring 12 cm3 of
‫ در ﺗﻴﺘﺮاﺳﻴﻮﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ‬3×0/96 g/100 cm3=2/88 g/100 Cm3
permanganate solution would equal an iron
concentration of 12 g/100 cm3. ‫ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ آﻫﻦ‬، ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﺮ ﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﻧﻴﺎز دارد‬12
.‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ‫ ﮔﺮم در‬12 ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد ﺑﺎ‬
6.9.5 Records ‫ ﺳﻮاﺑﻖ‬5-9-6
With facilities to analyze the bath, pickling can be ‫ﺑﺎ وﺳﺎﺋﻠﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﻛﺎرآﻳﻲ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ را ﺑﺎﻻ‬
efficient. Complete records are essential. A ‫ ﻳﻚ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﺎده ﺑﺮاي‬.‫ ﺳﻮاﺑﻖ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺿﺮوري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬.‫ﺑﺮد‬
simple procedure for recording strength and
‫ زﻣﺎن و‬،‫ ﻣﻘﺪار آﻫﻦ آن‬،‫ﺛﺒﺖ ﻗﺪرت و دﻣﺎي ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
temperature of the pickle bath, its iron content,
when and how much acid is added, the number of ‫ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺗﻦ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه و ﻏﻴﺮه ﻻزم‬،‫ﻣﻘﺪار اﺳﻴﺪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺪه‬
tons pickled, etc., is to plot the data at regular . ‫اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ دادهﻫﺎ در ﻓﻮاﺻﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ روي ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮدار رﺳﻢ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
intervals on a chart.
‫ دﻳﮕﺮ دادهﻫﺎي‬.‫اﻳﻦ ﺳﻮاﺑﻖ ﻣﺼﺮف اﺳﻴﺪ در ﺗﻦ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ‬
These records show consumption of acid per ton.
Other pertinent data can be calculated. The graph ‫ ﻧﻤﻮدار دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﺪن‬.‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
indicates whether the bath has been discarded ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎ اﺳﻴﺪ زﻳﺎد و ﻳﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺣﻞ ﺷﺪن آﻫﻦ ﺑﻪ‬
with too much acid or before enough iron has
‫ ﺳﻮاﺑﻘﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ اﻳﻦ اﺛﺮ‬.‫ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
been dissolved. Records like this show the effect
70
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

of different pickling procedures over periods of ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ را روي دورهﻫﺎي زﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬
time.
. ‫ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
Other records help in cost accounting or ‫دﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻮاﺑﻖ در ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﻮه ﺑﺎ‬
comparing one practice with another. An example ‫ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ اﺛﺮ ﻳﻚ‬،‫ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬.‫دﻳﮕﺮي ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬
is comparing the effect of an inhibitor throughout
‫ داده ﻫﺎ و‬. ‫ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه در ﻃﻮل ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﺳﺖ‬
the life of a pickle bath. Data and calculation
sheets provide for calculation of the "necessary ‫ ﺑﺮآورد "ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺿﺮوري" ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ ﺗﻦ را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ‬،‫اوراق ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬
cost" per ton. When this figure is compared for ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻋﺪد ﺑﺮاي دو ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﻫﺎي اﺳﻴﺪ‬.‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
two or more pickling practices advantages can be
seen. . ‫ ﻣﺰﻳﺖﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ دﻳﺪه ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬

6.10 Precautionary Notes ‫ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬10-6

6.10.1 Do not stack pickled steel surfaces in ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺷﺪه را ﺗﺎ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن‬1-10-6
contact with one another until completely dry and ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ در ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ اﻧﺒﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ و ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻳﺠﺎد زﻧﮓ‬
apply paint before visible rusting occurs.
.‫ آﻧﻬﺎ را رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‬،‫زدﮔﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ‬
6.10.2 Water shall never be added to strong acids. ‫ ﺣﺘﻲ‬.‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ آب ﺑﻪ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎي ﻗﻮي اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﻮد‬2-10-6
Even when properly adding concentrated sulfuric ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻏﻠﻴﻆ را ﺑﻪ روش ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻪ آب اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬
acid to water, enough heat generates to boil and
blow the acid about.
‫ ﮔﺮﻣﺎي ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻮش آوردن و ﭘﺮﺗﺎب اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
. ‫اﻃﺮاف ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
6.10.3 Proper personnel protection, including face ،‫ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆﻫﺎي ﺻﻮرت‬3-10-6
shields, rubber gloves, and rubber protective ‫ در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬، ‫دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ و ﻟﺒﺎس ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬
clothing, must be provided when handling acids.
. ‫ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ آﻣﺎده ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
7. MANUAL CLEANING (HAND AND (‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ )ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ و ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬-7
POWER TOOL CLEANING)

7.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-7

Manual cleaning is the method of surface ، ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ روﺷﻲ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰات اﺳﺖ‬
preparation metals, using hand or powered tools ‫ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي‬،‫ﻛﻪ از اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬
such as wire brushes, chipping hammers, chisels,
‫ ﻟﻴﺴﻪﻫﺎ و ﺗﻔﻨﮓﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬،‫ ﻗﻠﻢ ﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺗﺮاﺷﻪ‬
scrapers and vibratory needle guns. It is the least
satisfactory method of preparation especially for ‫ اﻳﻦ روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ رﺿﺎﻳﺖﻣﻨﺪي را‬.‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
steelwork exposed to "severe" or "moderate" ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻮﻻد ﻛﺎري در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ "ﺳﺨﺖ" ﻳﺎ‬
conditions although the size of the areas or other
circumstances may preclude the use of more ‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ اﻧﺪازه ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ دﻳﮕﺮ‬،‫"ﻋﺎدي" داﺷﺘﻪ‬
effective methods. It does not provide a ‫ آن‬.‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﺎﻧﻌﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﻮﺛﺮﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
satisfactory base for many coatings.
‫اﺳﺎس رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺴﻴﺎري از ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
(See IPS-E-TP- 100 Tables 1 to 10)
. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1 ‫ ﺟﺪاول‬IPS-E-TP-100 ‫)ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
Hand cleaning is acceptable only for spot cleaning ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل اﺳﺖ‬
and power tool cleaning is acceptable where blast ‫و ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑـﺰار ﺑﺮﻗـﻲ در ﺟـﺎﻳﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛـﺎري ﺑـﻪ روش‬
cleaning is impractical or not economical. The
‫ اﻳـﻦ‬.‫ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷـﺪ‬،‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻳﺎ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
case shall be specified by the company. The
surface produced shall be in accordance with SIS ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳـﺪ‬.‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮد‬
05 59 00 St3 (see also 4.3). ‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬SIS 05 59 00 St3 ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-4

71
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

7.2 Surface Preparation Before and After ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ‬2-7
Manual Cleaning
7.2.1 Before manual cleaning, remove visible oil, ،‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ‬،‫ روﻏﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﺋﻴﺖ‬، ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ‬1-2-7
grease, soluble welding residues, and salts by ‫ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻞ و ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎ را ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬
degreasing methods and remove flux residues and
loose mill scale (see section 5).
‫ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﺳﺮﺑﺎره و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺳﺴﺖ ﺑﺮﻃﺮف‬،‫زداﻳﻲ ﺣﺬف ﺷﺪه‬
. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
7.2.2 After manual cleaning and prior to painting, ‫ اﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ‬، ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬2-2-7
reclean the surface if it does not conform to this .‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻧﺪاﺷﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺠﺪداً ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
specification.

7.2.3 After manual cleaning and prior to painting, ،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬3-2-7
remove dirt, dust, or similar contaminants from ‫ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲﻫﺎي ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ را از ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﻃﺮف‬،‫ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ‬
the surface. Acceptable methods include brushing
blow off with clean, dry air, or vacuum cleaning.
‫ دﻣﺶ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي‬،‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮس زدن‬.‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬
This type of mechanically cleaned surface shall ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬.‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺧﻼء ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
receive primer in the same day. .‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻫﻤﺎن روز آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﻮد‬
7.3 Hand Tool Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬3-7
7.3.1 Hand tool cleaning is one of the oldest ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬1-3-7
process for preparing surfaces prior to painting. ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎن ﺑﺎ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي اﺳﺖ‬
Hand cleaning does not remove tight mill scale
and all traces of rust, so it is only acceptable for ‫ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه و ﺗﻤﺎم آﺛﺎر زﻧﮓ را ﺑﺮﻃﺮف‬
extremely small areas, i.e. spot cleaning. The ‫ ﻟﺬا ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮق اﻟﻌﺎده ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل‬،‫ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
tools used for hand cleaning include wire brushes, ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬.‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬
non woven abrasive pads, scrapers, chisels,
knives, chipping hammer, and, in some instances, ‫ ﻻﺋﻲﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬،‫دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻴﺮوﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬
conventional coated abrasives. Specially shapes ‫ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه‬،‫ ﻛﺎردﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﻗﻠﻢﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه‬
or knives are sometimes necessary.
.‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻣﺘﺪاول ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬،‫و در ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎ‬
. ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي ﺑﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﻌﻀﻲ اوﻗﺎت ﺿﺮوري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
7.3.2 Wire brushed may be of any practical shape ‫ ﺑﺮس ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ در ﻫﺮ اﻧﺪازه و ﺷﻜﻠﻲ‬2-3-7
and size. Two general types are the oblong with a ‫ دو ﻧﻮع ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﺑﺎ دﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ و‬.‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
long handle and the Block type. Bristles are of
spring wire. Brushes shall be discarded when they
‫ در‬.‫ ﻣﻮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮ از ﻧﻮع ﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻨﺮي ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬.‫ﻧﻮع ﻗﺎﻟﺒﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
are no longer effective because of badly bent ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﺧﻢ ﺷﺪن ﻧﺎﺟﻮر ﻣﻮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮ ﺑﻴﺶ از‬
bristles. .‫اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دور رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
7.3.3 Non-woven abrasives are used in simple pad ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺳﺎده ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ‬3-3-7
form or applied to a backup holder with handle. ‫ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ‬.‫دﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮه ﻧﮕﺎه دارﻧﺪه ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎن اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
They are conformable and it can be cut to various
applicators.
‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و آﻧﺮا ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﻪ اﻧﺪازهﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺮاي اﻋﻤﺎل‬
.‫ﺑﺮش داد‬

7.3.4 Scrapers may be of any convenient design.


‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از‬،‫ ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬4-3-7
They should be made of tool steel, tempered and ‫ﻓﻮﻻد اﺑﺰار ﺗﻤﭙﺮ ﺷﺪه ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﻮدن ﺗﻴﺰ‬
kept sharp to be effective. Some scrapers are ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻟﺒﻪ ﻫﺎي ﺳﻮﻫﺎن ﺗﺨﺖ‬.‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
made by sharpening the ends of 3.5-5 cm wide ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻮب ﺳﺎبﻫﺎ و ﺑﺴﺘﻦ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‬5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬3/5 ‫ﺑﺎ ﭘﻬﻨﺎي‬
flat files or rasps and fastening them to a handle.
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬.‫ﻳﻚ دﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮه ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
The handle may be up to 1.5 m long to increase
‫ ﻣﺘﺮ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬1/5 ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮان ﺑﻪ آن رﺳﻴﺪ دﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮه ﺗﺎ‬
the area that can be reached. Other chipping and
‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﻗﻠﻢ و ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪه دﻳﮕﺮ از ﺳﻮﻫﺎنﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻮب‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
72
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

scraping tools made from old files or rasps a both .‫ﺳﺎﺑﻬﺎي ﻛﻬﻨﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ از ﻫﺮ دو اﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻴﺰ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
ends sharpened. Several centimeters from one ‫ ﺳﻮﻫﺎن ﺑﺎ زاوﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﻪ ﺧﻢ‬،‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﻪ اﻧﺘﻬﺎ‬
end, the file is bent at right angles. .‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
7.3.5 Hand -chipping hammers are advisable in ‫ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه در ﻛﺎر ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ‬5-3-7
maintenance work where rust scale has formed. A ‫ ﻳﻚ‬. ‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ اﺳﺖ‬
chipping hammer is about 10-15 cm long with
two wedge-shaped faces at either end of the head,
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎ‬15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬10 ‫ﭼﻜﺶ ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه داراي ﻃﻮﻟﻲ ﺣﺪود‬
one face perpendicular to the line of the handle ‫ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻮد ﺑﻪ‬،‫دو ﺳﻄﺢ ﮔﻮه اي ﺷﻜﻞ در ﻫﺮ ﻃﺮف راس‬
and the other at right angles to the first face. ‫ﺧﻂ دﺳﺘﮕﻴﺮه و دﻳﮕﺮي ﺑﺎ زاوﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ اول‬
.‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
7.3.6 Auxiliary equipment includes dust brushes, ،‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﻏﺒﺎر ﮔﻴﺮي‬،‫ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﻛﻤﻜﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬6-3-7
brooms, various sizes of putty knives and ‫ ﻛﺎردﻛﻬﺎي ﺑﺘﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪازهﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و رﻧﮓ ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي‬،‫ﺟﺎروبﻫﺎ‬
convenional painters, scrapers, coated abrasives,
and safety equipment such as goggles and dust
‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه و ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻳﻤﻨﻲ‬،‫ﻣﺘﺪاول ﺗﺮاﺷﻨﺪهﻫﺎ‬
respirators. . ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻋﻴﻨﻚﻫﺎي اﻳﻤﻨﻲ و ﻣﺎﺳﻚﻫﺎي ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬

7.3.7 Hand-cleaning of painted surfaces shall ‫ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺳﻄﻮح رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﺎم‬7-3-7
remove all loose non-adherent paint in addition to ‫ ﺑﻌﻼوه ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ زﻧﮓ ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮب ﺑﺮﻃﺮف‬،‫رﻧﮓ ﺳﺴﺖ ﻧﭽﺴﺒﻴﺪه‬
any rust or scale. If paint is thick, edges of the old
paint should be feather to improve the quality of
‫ ﻟﺒﻪﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ ﻛﻬﻨﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻬﺒﻮد‬،‫ اﮔﺮ رﻧﮓ ﺿﺨﻴﻢ اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
the paint job. After cleaning, the surface is ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬.‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻛﺎر رﻧﮓ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺎزك ﺷﻮد‬
brushed, swept, dusted and blown off with ‫ ﻏﺒﺎر ﮔﻴﺮي و دﻣﺶ ﻫﻮاي‬،‫ ﺟﺎرو‬،‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺮس زﻧﻲ‬
compressed air to remove all loose matter.
‫ﻓﺸﺮده ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﻤﭙﺮﺳﻮر ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮﻃﺮف ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺗﻤﺎم ذرات ﺳﺴﺖ‬
.‫ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮد‬
7.4 Power Tool Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬4-7

7.4.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-4-7

7.4.1.1 Power tool cleaning provides a better ‫ زﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮي را ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬1-1-4-7
foundation for the priming of paint than hand tool ،‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺮاي آﺳﺘﺮي رﻧﮓ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
cleaning, especially when surface are covered
with heavy rust, scale or other firmly adherent
‫ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ رﺳﻮﺑﺎت‬،‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ زﻧﮓ زﻳﺎد‬
deposits. Generally power tool cleaning is suitable ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬.‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
only for small area because it is relatively slow. ً‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎ‬
Power tool do not leave as much residue or
produce as much dust as abrasive blasting and ‫ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي زﻳﺎد ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ روش‬.‫آﻫﺴﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ‬
they are frequently used where blasting dust could ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﺎﻳﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻧﻤﻴﮕﺬارد و آﻧﻬﺎ اﻏﻠﺐ در ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮد‬
damage sensitive surrounding.
‫و ﻏﺒﺎر ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﺠﺎور آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﺰﻧﺪ‬
.‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
7.4.1.2 However they may polish and/or damage ‫ ﺑﻬﺮ ﺣﺎل اﮔﺮ آﻧﻬﺎ در ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻳﺎ در ﻳﻚ‬2-1-4-7
the surface if they are used at too high a speed or ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ را‬،‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪت ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
kept in one spot for too long.
.‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ داده و ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ آن آﺳﻴﺐ وارد ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬
7.4.1.3 Power tool cleaning shall overlap by a ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ‬25 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬3-1-4-7
minimum of 25 mm into any adjacent coated ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫در ﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻣﺠﺎور را ﻫﻤﭙﻮﺷﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬
surfaces. Power tool cleaning shall produce the
surface of grade st3 in accordance with
‫ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺑﺎ‬SIS 05 59 00 ‫ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ‬
SIS 05 59 00 (see also 4.3). . (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-4 ‫ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬St3 ‫درﺟﻪ‬

73
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

7.4.1.4 Power tools used for surface cleaning fall ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬4-1-4-7
into three basic families: : ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ در ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮوه ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
-Impact cleaning tools (see 7.4.2) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2-4-7 ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي )ﺑﻪ‬-

-Rotary cleaning tools (see 7.4.3) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-4-7 ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬-

-Rotary impact cleaning tools (see 7.4.4 and ‫ و ﻳﺎدآوري‬4-4-7 ‫ اﺑﺰار ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬-
note in paragraph 7.4.4.2) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2-4-4-7 ‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬

Tools in each family have unique characteristics ‫در ﻫﺮ ﮔﺮوه اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ داراي وﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎي ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺑﻮده ﻛﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺎ‬
that make them adaptable to different cleaning .‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت و اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻴﺴﺎزد‬
operations and requirements.

The type of power tools to be used depends upon ‫ﻧﻮع اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﻛﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻬﺮ ﺻﻮرت ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ‬
whether or not an acceptable profile exists on the ‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل ﻣﻮﺟﻮد روي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد دارد‬
surface to be cleaned (see 4.4).
. (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4-4 ‫)ﺑﻪ‬
7.4.1.5 Rotary cleaning tools produce a profile of ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬5-1-4-7
approximately 10-15 microns, whereas impact ‫ در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي‬،‫ ﻣﻴﻜﺮون را ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬15-10
and rotary impact tools produce a profile of 25
microns or more. The profile depends on the
،‫ ﻣﻴﻜﺮون ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ را ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬25 ‫و ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ زﺑﺮي‬
abrasive embedded in the rotary flaps or the ‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺟﺎﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ اﻧﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ‬
diameter of the needles in needle guns. . ‫ﺳﻮزنﻫﺎ در ﺗﻔﻨﮓﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
7.4.2 Impact cleaning tools ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي‬2-4-7
7.4.2.1 Impact cleaning tools are characterized by ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮان ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي‬1-2-4-7
chipping and scaling hammers. With these tools, a ‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬،‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ‬.‫ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه و رﺳﻮبﺑﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
chisel is struck by an internal piston and strikes
the work surface. .‫ﭘﻴﺴﺘﻮن داﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻠﻢ و ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﺎر ﺿﺮﺑﻪ وارد ﻣﻲ آﻳﺪ‬

7.4.2.2 Chisels can be adapted for scraping and ‫ ﻗﻠﻢﻫﺎ را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪن و ﺧﺮاﺷﻴﺪن‬2-2-4-7
chipping. This type of tool is useful when heavy ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع اﺑﺰار زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ رﺳﻮﺑﻬﺎي ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬.‫ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
deposits of rust scale, mill scale, thick old paint,
weld flux, slag and other brittle products must be
‫ ﺳﺮﺑﺎره و دﻳﮕﺮ‬،‫ رواﻧﺴﺎز ﺟﻮش‬،‫ رﻧﮓ ﺿﺨﻴﻢ ﻛﻬﻨﻪ‬،‫زﻧﮓ‬
removed from metal. Chisels have different ‫ ﻗﻠﻢﻫﺎ‬.‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺗﺮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻓﻠﺰ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
shapes and are made of various materials. .‫داراي ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻮده و از ﻣﻮاد ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه اﻧﺪ‬
7.4.2.3 Cleaning surface with scaling and ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎي رﺳﻮبﺑﺮ و ﺗﺮاش‬3-2-4-7
chipping hammers is comparatively slow. When ‫ در ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ رﺳﻮب‬.‫دﻫﻨﺪه ﺑﻄﻮر ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪاي آﻫﺴﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ‬
considerable rust scale or heavy paint formation
must be removed, it may be the best and most
‫زﻧﮓ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ اﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺷﻜﻞﮔﻴﺮي رﻧﮓ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ زدوده‬
economical method. . ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ و روﺷﻲ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﺷﻮد‬

7.4.2.4 The other impact power cleaning tools ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬4-2-4-7
included in needle gun scalers and piston scalers. ‫ ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﭘﻴﺴﺘﻮﻧﻲ‬،‫رﺳﻮب ﺑﺮﻫﺎي ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ‬
Needle scalers are most effective on brittle and
loose surface contaminations.
‫ ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه ﺳﻮزﻧﻲ روي آﻟﻮدﮔﻴﻬﺎي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺗﺮد و‬.‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
. ‫ﺳﺴﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ اﺛﺮ را دارﻧﺪ‬
7.4.2.5 Piston scaler can be used for cleaning of ‫ رﺳﻮب ﺑﺮﻫﺎي ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه ﭘﻴﺴﺘﻮﻧﻲ را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان‬5-2-4-7
large surface area. . ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﺑﺰرگ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
7.4.2.6 The impact cleaning tools may be used to ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي‬6-2-4-7
remove tight mill scale and surface rusting, but ،‫زدودن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮرد ﺳﺨﺖ و زﻧﮓ ﺳﻄﺢ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
74
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

they are not the most practical or economical ‫اﻣﺎ آﻧﻬﺎ اﺑﺰار ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﻳﺎ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ زﻳﺮا ﻛﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ‬
tools because they gauge metal which must be
‫اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ ﻓﻠﺰي را ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺠﺎم ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎر ﻛﻠﻲ‬
smoothed to do a through job. Tools must be
sharp or they may drive rust and scale into the ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ در ﻏﻴﺮ اﻳﻨﺼﻮرت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺻﺎف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
surface. .‫زﻧﮓ رﺳﻮب را ﺑﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاﻧﻨﺪ‬
7.4.3 Rotary cleaning tools ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ‬3-4-7
7.4.3.1 Rotary power tools do most hand cleaning ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬1-3-4-7
jobs rapidly. There are three basic types of ‫ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ اﺻﻠﻲ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬. ‫دﺳﺘﻲ را ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
cleaning media for these tools:
:‫ﻛﺎري ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ وﺟﻮد دارﻧﺪ‬
- Non-woven abrasive, ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه‬-

- Wire brushes, ‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬-

- Coated abrasive, ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه‬-

These media can be used on two basic types of :‫اﻳﻦ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان روي دو ﻧﻮع اﺻﻠﻲ از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
tools:

- Straight or in-line machine, ،‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺮاﺳﺘﺎ‬-

- Vertical or right angle machines. .‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎهﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻮدي ﻳﺎ زاوﻳﻪ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﻪ‬-

7.4.3.2 The straight or in -line machine style is ‫ روش دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻤﺮاﺳﺘﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي‬2-3-4-7
used with radial wire brushes, coated abrasive ‫ ﺻﻔﺤﻪﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ اﻧﺘﻬﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه و‬،‫ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬
flap wheels and nonwoven abrasive wheels. The
vertical machine style is suited for cup wire
‫ روش دﺳﺘﮕﺎه‬.‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
brushes, coated abrasive discs, non-woven ‫ دﻳﺴﻚ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬، ‫ﻋﻤﻮدي ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ اﻧﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
abrasive discs, cup wheels and wheels. The type ‫ ﺑﺮس اﺳﺘﻜﺎﻧﻲ و ﺻﻔﺤﺎت‬،‫ دﻳﺴﻚ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه‬،‫ﺷﺪه‬
of machine varies with job conditions. It is
advisable to have both types on hand and ‫ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬.‫ ﻧﻮع دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻛﺎر ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﺳﺖ‬
generally both are used on field jobs. ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ دو ﻧﻮع در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ و ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً ﻫﺮ دو در‬
. ‫ﻛﺎرﻫﺎي ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
7.4.3.3 Rotary cleaning machines may be ‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬3-3-4-7
operated by pneumatic or electric motor. . ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﺸﺎر ﻫﻮا ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮﺗﻮر اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻛﺎر ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
The machine should be compatible with the size ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪازه و ﻣﻴﺰان ﺳﺮﻋﺖ وﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر‬
and speed rating of the cleaning media and should .‫ﺑﻮده و ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺮاي اﺟﺮاي ﻛﺎرآﻣﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
produce enough power to perform the operation
‫اﻛﺜﺮ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﻣﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﻫﻮاﻳﻲ داراي دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻓﺮﻣﺎن‬
efficiently. Most air powered machines contain
governors to limit the free operating speed. . ‫ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر ﺟﻬﺖ ﻣﺤﺪود ﻛﺮدن ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺠﺎز ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
Governors respond to tool load resulting from ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎهﻫﺎي ﻓﺮﻣﺎن ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎر اﺑﺰار ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬
thrust applied to the work surface and supply
more air to the motor, increasing power output ،‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﺎر و ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻫﻮاي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮﺗﻮر‬
and maintaining its rated speed while under load. ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﺧﺮوﺟﻲ و ﺣﻔﻆ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺠﺎز آن در ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ‬
Electrically driven machines operate at a fixed
‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي‬.‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺑﺎر اﺳﺖ واﻛﻨﺶ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
speed.
.‫ﻣﺤﺮﻛﻪ اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻛﺎر ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬
7.4.3.4 Non-woven abrasive come in cup wheel, ،‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه در ﮔﺮوه ﺑﺮس اﺳﺘﻜﺎﻧﻲ‬4-3-4-7
radial (wheel) and disc form. . ‫ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ )ﺻﻔﺤﻪ( و ﺷﻜﻞ دﻳﺴﻚ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮد‬
Non-woven abrasive wheels are recommended ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ از ﺑﻴﻦ‬

75
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

where base metal should not be removed but ‫ﺑﺮود ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎي ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺪازه ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻓﻌﺎل‬
where wire brushes are not aggressive enough.
‫ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه در‬.‫ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
Non-woven abrasive wheels wear at a controlled
rate. Fresh working abrasive provides a constant ‫ اﺑﺰار‬.‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺷﺪه ﻓﻠﺰ را ﺗﺤﺖ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
rate of surface cleaning with minimal loading. ‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻧﻮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﺢ را ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ و ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬
Non-woven abrasives are also recommended for
removal of light mill scale and coatings because ‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه در‬.‫ﺑﺎرﮔﺬاري ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
of lowered susceptibility to loading, as compared ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﮓ ﺳﻤﺒﺎده ﺑﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎرﮔﺬاري‬
to coated abrasive.
. ‫ﺑﺮاي زدودن ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎ و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻧﻮرد ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
7.4.3.5 Wire brushes come in radial (wheel) and ‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ در ﮔﺮوه ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ )ﺻﻔﺤﻪ( و ﺷﻜﻞ‬5-3-4-7
cup form. Wire brushes can be composed of ‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ از ﻣﻮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮ‬.‫اﺳﺘﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ‬
differently shaped and sized wire bristles. Bristles
may be crimped (crinkled) or knotted. Selection
‫ ﻣﻮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮ‬.‫ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ و اﻧﺪازه ﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
of style and type of bristle or non-woven abrasive ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش و‬.‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﭽﺎﻧﺪه )ﺗﺎب دار( ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮهدار ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
composition should be based on trials. ‫ﻧﻮع ﻣﻮي زﺑﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺳﻌﻲ و‬
. ‫ﺧﻄﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
‫زدودن ﺑﺮﺧﻲ از رﺳﻮﺑﺎت ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺑﺮس ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬
In power wire brushing it is possible to cut
through some mill scale by using the toe of a very ‫ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮس ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺳﺨﺖ ﻫﻤﺮاه ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر زﻳﺎد‬
stiff brush and bearing down hard. It is ‫ زدودن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺳﺨﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮس ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬.‫اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻧﺪ‬
impractical to remove tight mill scale by power ‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮاي زدودن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد و زﻧﮓ‬.‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
wire brushing. Generally, removal of only loose ‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ را‬.‫ﺳﺴﺖ ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮد‬
mill scale and rust is required. Too high a speed
‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ زﻳﺎد اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﺮد و ﺑﺮس ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ روي ﻳﻚ‬
shall not be used with rotary wire brushes and the
brush shall not be kept on one spot for too long. ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﭘﺮداﺧﺖ‬.‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪت ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﻧﮕﻬﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Detrimental burnishing of the surface may occur. ‫ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ‬.‫ﻛﺎري ﺳﺒﺐ آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺷﻮد‬
Under such circumstances the surface is smooth ‫ﺻﺎف اﺳﺖ و ﻇﺎﻫﺮي ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ و ﺑﺮاق اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﮔﺎه‬
and develops a polished, glossy appearance that ‫ واﺿﺢ اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻛﺎر‬.‫ﺿﻌﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
provides a poor anchor for paint. It is clear that
‫ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ‬.‫ زﻳﺎن آور اﺳﺖ‬،‫اﺿﺎﻓﻲ روي ﺳﻄﺢ‬
doing too much surface work is detrimental.
Rotary wire brushes are particularly notorious for
‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻛﺮدن روﻏﻦ و ﭼﺮﺑﻲ روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
spreading oil and grease over the surface. Oily or ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭼﺮب و روﻏﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮس زدن ﺑﺮﻗﻲ ﺑﺎ‬.‫ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
greasy surfaces must be cleaned with solvent (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ﺣﻼل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
before power brusing (see section 5).

7.4.3.6 Coated abrasives are used in Discs and ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺳﻤﺒﺎده ﺑﺎ اﺷﻜﺎل دﻳﺴﻚﻫﺎ و ﺻﻔﺤﺎت‬6-3-4-7
flap wheels forms. Coated abrasives are used for ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داده ﺷﺪه‬.‫ﺑﺎ ﻟﺒﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
metal removal such as weld grinding. Tight mill
scale cannot be removed with such media, but
‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮﻃﺮف ﻛﺮدن ﻓﻠﺰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن ﺟﻮش‬
loose scale can be. ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد ﺳﺨﺖ ﺗﺤﺖ اﻳﻦ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ زدوده ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮد‬.‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
.‫اﻣﺎ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺳﺴﺖ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ زدود ﺷﻮد‬
Discs and flap wheels are used to remove loose ‫از دﻳﺴﻚ ﻫﺎ و ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﺑﺎ ﻟﺒﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺟﻬﺖ زدودن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد‬
mill scale, old paint, etc. similar to wire brush ‫ رﻧﮓ ﻛﻬﻨﻪ و ﻏﻴﺮه ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮي ﺑﺮس ﺳﻴﻤﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬،‫ﺳﺴﺖ‬
application.
.‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
7.4.4 Rotary impact tools ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ‬4-4-7

7.4.4.1 Rotary impact tools operate on the same ،‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻫﻤﺎن اﺻﻮل ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‬1-4-4-7
basic principle as other impact tools, through ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮرت ﺑﺮش ﺳﺮاﺳﺮي ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
cutting or chipping action, but rotary tools use a
76
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

centrifugal principle where cutters or hammers ‫ ﻟﻴﻜﻦ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ از اﺻﻮل ﮔﺮﻳﺰ‬، ،‫ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪن ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
are rotated at high speed and thrown against the
‫ﺮﻧّﺪهﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ زﻧﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ در‬‫ در اﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑ‬.‫از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬
surface.
.‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﭼﺮﺧﻴﺪه و ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
7.4.4.2 Rotary chipping tools use three major ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺗﺮاش دﻫﻨﺪه ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ در ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع اﺻﻠﻲ‬2-4-4-7
types of media: :‫ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲرود‬
cutter bundles (or stars), rotary hammers, and ‫ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ‬،‫ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ زﻧﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ‬،‫ﺮﻧّﺪهﻫﺎي ﺳﺘﺎرهاي‬‫ﺑ‬
heavy duty rotary flaps. All three can be used on ‫ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻪ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬.‫ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺮاي ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﺳﺨﺖ‬،‫ﺑﺎ اﻧﺘﻬﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬
pneumatic or electric powered tools.
.‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ در اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر ﻫﻮا ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
Note: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
Surface preparation using rotary impact tools is ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪ اي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ در‬
not allowed in this standard. .‫اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﺠﺎز ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
7.5 Manual Cleaning of Non-Ferrors Metals ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮآﻫﻨﻲ‬5-7

7.5.1 Adhesion of paint to non-ferrous metals may ‫ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ رﻧﮓ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮآﻫﻨﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ‬1-5-7
be assisted by abrading the surface with fine ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه و‬،‫ﻛﻤﻚ ﺳﺎﺋﻴﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺳﻨﺒﺎده ﻧﺮم‬
emery cloth, or abrasive paper, and white spirit;
this method may be used for small areas prepared
‫ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي وﻳﮋه اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد؛ اﻳﻦ روش ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ در ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬
on site. .‫ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻛﻮﭼﻚ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
Care shall be taken not to abrade through thin ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﻻﻳﻪﻫﺎي ﻧﺎزك ﺳﺮﺗﺎﺳﺮي از آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺧﺎﻟﺺ‬
films of pure aluminium on composite ("clad") ‫ ﺳﺎﺋﻴﺪه ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ؛‬،‫روي ورﻗﻪﻫﺎي )"روﻛﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي"( ﻣﺮﻛﺐ‬
sheets; steel wool or hard abrasives shall never be
used on these surfaces. ‫ﺑﺮاده ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺳﺨﺖ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ روي اﻳﻦ‬
.‫ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
7.5.2 Unless metal sprayed coatings receive a ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺰ ﻣﻮاردﻳﻜﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻓﻠﺰي ﻳﻚ‬2-5-7
protective coating corrosion products may ‫ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً در‬،‫ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
develop fairly rapidly, especially in damp or
chemically-charged atmospheres. Although they
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎي ﻧﻢدار ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎردار ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬
are not necessarily detrimental to the metal ‫ ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﺰوﻣﺎً ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰ زﻳﺎن‬.‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ‬
coating, they may affect paint adhesion and shall ‫ و‬،‫ اﻣﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ روي ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ رﻧﮓ اﺛﺮ ﮔﺬارﻧﺪ‬،‫آور ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
be removed before painting. Scrubbing with clean
water, and stiff bristle or nylon (not wire) brushes, ‫ و‬،‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
followed by rinsing with clean water is usually ‫ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﻣﻮي زﺑﺮ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮﻧﻲ )ﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻤﻲ( و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن‬
effective.
.‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﻮﺛﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
7.5.3 Removal of the layer of corrosion products ‫ زدودن ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ‬3-5-7
which may form on aluminium after several years ‫از ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﺎل در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﻮدن روي آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﻮد‬
exposure can be difficult and abrasion may be ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
necessary, e.g. with stainless steel wire wool or
‫ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺮاده ﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﻻدي زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﻳﺎ ﻻﻳﻲ ﻫﺎي ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮﻧﻲ‬
nylon pads, using water or white spirit as a
lubricant. Mild steel, brass or copper wire should .‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آب ﻳﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي وﻳﮋه ﺑﻌﻨﻮان رواﻧﺴﺎز ﺳﺎﺋﻴﺪه ﺷﻮد‬
not be used as broken strands may be come ‫ ﭼﻮن ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬،‫ ﺑﺮﻧﺠﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﻻدي‬
embedded in the surface and stimulate corrosion. ‫اﺳﺖ رﺷﺘﻪﻫﺎي ﭘﺎره ﺷﺪه در ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﺮو روﻧﺪ و ﺟﺎﺳﺎزي ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و‬
.‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ را ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
7.5.4 If non-ferrous metal coatings on iron and ‫ اﮔﺮ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي ﻏﻴﺮآﻫﻨﻲ روي آﻫﻦ و ﻓﻮﻻد در‬4-5-7
steel are damaged or become eroded on long ‫اﺛﺮ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ دراز ﻣﺪت آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪه ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﺋﻴﺪه‬
exposure, rusting of the exposed base metal is
likely to occur. Rusted areas should be cleaned to
.‫ اﺗﻔﺎق اﻓﺘﺪ‬،‫ اﺣﺘﻤﺎل دارد زﻧﮓ زدن ﻓﻠﺰ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض‬،‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
77
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

bright metal by wire-brushing or abrasion, care ‫ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ زﻧﮓ زده ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮس زدن ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﺎ‬
being taken to avoid damage to adjacent sound
‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﺗﺎ از آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‬،‫رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺑﺮاق ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
zinc or aluminium.
.‫روي ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدد‬
7.6 Precautionary Notes ‫ ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬6-7

7.6.1 Safety practices include the following .‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﻫﺎي اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت زﻳﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬1-6-7
considerations. Tool users and other people in the ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان اﺑﺰار و دﻳﮕﺮ اﺷﺨﺎص در ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ در‬
area should wear eye protection to guard against
flying particles. Ear protection should be
‫ در ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي‬.‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ذرات ﻣﻌﻠﻖ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ‬
considered when impact tools are used. Particular ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ از ﮔﻮش ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬
attention should be paid when using several tools ‫ در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﻣﺘﻌﺪد ﺑﻄﻮر ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎن در‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
simultaneously in close proximity.
.‫ﻣﺠﺎورت ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
7.6.2 Hand tools shall be properly selected for the ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي دﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺪف ﺑﻄﻮر ﺻﺤﻴﺢ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬2-6-7
purpose and properly maintained. Hammers shall ‫ ﭼﻜﺶﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬.‫ﺷﺪه و ﺑﻄﻮر ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
be properly heat treated and striking faces
maintained to eliminate "mushrooming" and
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﺮارﺗﻲ ﺷﺪه و ﺳﻄﻮح اﻋﻤﺎل ﺿﺮﺑﻪ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي‬
flying fragments. All sharp-edged tools deserve ‫از "ﻗﺎرﭼﻲ ﺷﺪن" و ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺗﻜﻪ ﻫﺎي آن ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬
respect and proper consideration. ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﻟﺒﻪ ﺗﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت و رﺳﻴﺪﮔﻲ‬.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
.‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
7.6.3 Electrical tools should be run in dry ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎي ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺎر‬3-6-7
environments. They should be grounded or double .‫ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ زﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ ﻋﺎﻳﻘﻜﺎري دوﺑﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬.‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
insulate. Power cords should be kept in good
repair.
.‫ﺳﻴﻤﻬﺎي ﺑﺮق ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﺧﻮب ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

7.6.4 Impact tools shall be operated only when the ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺿﺮﺑﻪاي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ اﺑﺰار رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ‬4-6-7
scaling tool is in position and in contact with the ‫ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ‬.‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ و در ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر اﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
work piece. Tools shall not be used if ejection of
an accessory might endanger personnel.
‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ اﮔﺮ اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﻟﻮازم ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ و ﺑﻪ ﺧﻄﺮ اﻓﺘﺎدن‬
.‫ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
7.6.5 Rotary wire brushes shall be run at or below ‫ ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻳﺎ زﻳﺮ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬5-6-7
manufacturer’s rated maximum operating speed. .‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺠﺎز ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻃﺒﻖ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه ﻛﺎر ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
Gloves and leather aprons are additional
safeguards to avoid injury from loose wires.
‫دﺳﺘﻜﺶﻫﺎ و ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﻣﻲ ﺣﻔﺎظ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
Recommended guards shall always be used. ‫ ﺣﻔﺎظﻫﺎي‬.‫ﺗﺎ از ﺟﺮاﺣﺖ در اﺛﺮ ﺳﻴﻢﻫﺎي ﺳﺴﺖ ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
.‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
7.6.6 Coated and non-woven abrasives shall be ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻳﺎ زﻳﺮ‬6-6-7
run at or below manufacturer’s rated maximum ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﺠﺎز ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻃﺒﻖ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه ﻛﺎر‬
operating speed . Nonwoven abrasive wheels shall
be operated in the proper direction of rotation.
‫ ﭼﺮخﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﺟﻬﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬.‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
The wheel or disc shall be put on the tool and ‫ در ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ اﺑﺰار ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬.‫ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻛﺎر ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
tightened securely while the tool is disconnected ‫ ﭼﺮخ ﻳﺎ دﻳﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي اﺑﺰار ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد و ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ‬،‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
from the power supply. Guards shall be used.
Protective clothing shall be considered. Proper air ‫ روﭘﻮش ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ ﺣﻔﺎظﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬.‫ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﺷﻮد‬
pressure to pneumatic tools is important. Proper ‫ ﻓﺸﺎر ﻫﻮاي ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺟﻬﺖ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺎدي‬.‫در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
rpm should be checked with a tachometer on all
tools before use. ‫ در ﺗﻤﺎم اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ دور در دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ‬.‫ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ‬
.‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺳﻨﺞ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺷﻮد‬

78
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

7.6.7 Respirators shall be used if contaminants in ‫ اﮔﺮ آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ در ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺑﻴﺶ از ﺣﺪ آﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬7-6-7
the breathing zone exceed applicable threshold ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺗﻨﻔﺲ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﻲ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
limits (see Table 5).This is of particular
importance when cleaning paints containing lead,
‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮدن‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
chromate or coal tar products. ‫ ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت ﻳﺎ ﻛﻮﻟﺘﺎر ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬،‫رﻧﮕﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ داراي ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺳﺮب‬
.‫از اﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Note 1: :1 ‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
The use of paints containing lead is forbidden but ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺣﺎوي ﺳﺮب ﻣﻤﻨﻮع اﻣﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از رﻧﮕﻬﺎي‬
the use of paint containing chromate and coal-tar ‫ﺣﺎوي ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت و ﻛﻮﻟﺘﺎر ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺴﺖ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬
because of the environment cases is not
.‫ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺮدد‬
recommended.

7.6.8 Since the cleaning operations can produce ‫ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﺟﺮﻗﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬8-6-7
sparks, care must be exercised when cleaning in ‫ زﻣﺎن ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري در ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺑﺨﺎرات ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺣﺘﺮاق و ﻓّﺮار ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬،‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬
the area of combustibles and volatile vapors.
When such conditions cannot be avoided, only
‫ در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ از ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮان‬.‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺖ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
special nonsparking tools shall be used. .‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺑﺪون ﺟﺮﻗﻪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي ﻛﺮد‬

7.6.9 If fire or explosive hazards are present, ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از‬،‫ اﮔﺮ ﺧﻄﺮات آﺗﺶ ﺳﻮزي ﻳﺎ اﻧﻔﺠﺎر وﺟﻮد دارد‬9-6-7
proper precaution shall be taken before any work ‫ اﮔﺮ‬.‫اﻧﺠﺎم ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
is done. If the structure previously contained
flammable materials it shall be purged of
‫ﺳﺎزه ﻗﺒﻼً داراي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل ﺑﻮده ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻏﻠﻈﺖﻫﺎي‬
dangerous concentrations. If the structure being ‫ اﮔﺮ ﺳﺎزهي در ﺣﺎل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪن در‬.‫ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك ﭘﺎﻛﺴﺎزي ﺷﻮد‬
cleaned is near flammable material or fumes non- ‫ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬،‫ﻧﺰدﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺨﺎرات ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل‬
sparking tools shall be used.
.‫ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
8. BLAST CLEANING ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬-8
8.1 General ‫ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ‬1-8
8.1.1 Blast cleaning is a method of surface ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ روﺷﻲ از آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ‬1-1-8
preparation in which abrasive particles are ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ ذرات ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ زﻳﺎد ﺑﺴﻮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ‬
directed at high velocity against the metal surface.
They may be carried by compressed air or high-
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ آب‬.‫ﻫﺪاﻳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
pressure water, or thrown by centrifugal force ‫ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ از ﻳﻚ‬،‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﺑﺎﻻ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
from an impeller wheel (see Appendix B). .(‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﭘﺮهدار ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Application methods of blast cleaning. Unless ‫ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ‬.‫روﺷﻬﺎي اﻋﻤﺎل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
otherwise specified by the company the contractor
shall choose a suitable method for blast cleaning ‫روش ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ را ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
(see 8.2). 2-8 ‫ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮ دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
8.1.2 Blasting operations shall never be allowed ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎتﻫﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ در ﻣﺠﺎورت ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬2-1-8
in the vicinity of painting work or near to a wet ،‫ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ذرات ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬،‫ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ رﻧﮓ ﺗﺮ‬
paint surface, or anywhere that blast abrasive, grit
or fall-out shall impinge on a freshly painted
‫ روي ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎزﮔﻲ رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ‬،‫ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻳﺎ رﻳﺨﺖ و رﻳﺰ‬
surface, or on any uncovered primed surface. ‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﻣﺠﺎز‬،‫روي ﺳﻄﺢ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﺪه ﺑﺪون روﻛﺶ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب ﮔﺮدد‬
.‫ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
8.1.3 Blast cleaning operations shall not be ‫ روي ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬3-1-8
conducted on surfaces that will be wet after ‫ وﻗﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ دﻣﺎي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬،‫ ﺗﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮد‬،‫و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
blasting and before coating, when the surfaces
temperature are less than 3°C above the dew
‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ‬،‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﺎﻻي ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺷﺒﻨﻢ اﺳﺖ‬3 ‫از‬

79
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

point, when the relative humidity of the air is ‫ ﻳﺎ وﻗﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ دﻣﺎي‬،‫ درﺻﺪ اﺳﺖ‬85 ‫رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ ﻫﻮا ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از‬
greater than 85%, or when the ambient
‫ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎتﻫﺎي‬،‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد اﺳﺖ‬3 ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ زﻳﺮ‬
temperature is below 3°C.
.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.1.4 Blast cleaning is permitted only during the ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻓﻘﻂ در روﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ روز ﻣﺠﺎز‬4-1-8
day light. .‫اﺳﺖ‬
8.1.5 Where rectification has been necessary on ‫ در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ اﺻﻼﺣﺎت روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش‬5-1-8
blast-cleaned surface, the particular area shall be ‫ ﺑﺮاي زدودن ﺗﻤﺎم زﻧﮓ و ﺳﺮﺑﺎره و ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ‬،‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺿﺮورت دارد‬
re-blasted to remove all rust and slag, and to
provide adequate paint adhesion.
ً‫ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺠﺪدا‬،‫ﺷﺪن ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب رﻧﮓ‬
.‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﻮد‬
8.1.6 Blast cleaning shall overlap by a minimum ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ‬25 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬6-1-8
of 25 mm into any adjacent coated areas. Any ‫ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎزه‬.‫ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﻮح ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻣﺠﺎور ﻫﻤﭙﻮﺷﺎﻧﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
steel work not primed and/or wetted by rain or
moisture shall be re-blasted prior to being painted
‫ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮ ﺷﺪه ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎران ﻳﺎ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ اﮔﺮ زﻧﮓ‬/ ‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﻧﺸﺪه و‬
if rust develops. ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪداً ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬،‫زدﮔﻲ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﻮد‬
.‫ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﻮد‬
8.1.7 Steel may be blast-cleaned either before or ‫ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺟﺮا ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬7-1-8
after fabrication. Sometimes it may be necessary ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ اوﻗﺎت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻫﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ و‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺷﻮد‬
both before and after.
.‫ﻫﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
Where steel is cleaned before fabrication it shall ‫در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﺳﺎزه ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ‬
be protected with a suitable blast-primer to avoid ‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از زﻧﮓ زدن‬
rusting before fabrication is completed. During
،‫ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬.‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﺪن اﺟﺮا ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﺷﻮد‬
fabrication, the blast-primer will inevitably be
destroyed or damaged in places, e.g. by welding. ‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ در ﻣﻜﺎنﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﺎﮔﺰﻳﺮ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ‬
Such areas shall be cleaned and re-primed as soon ‫ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬،‫ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬،‫رﻓﺖ ﻳﺎ آﺳﻴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﺪ‬
as possible.
.‫ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه و ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺠﺪداً آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
Where steel is cleaned after fabrication it may still ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻨﻮز اﻋﻤﺎل‬،‫ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
be necessary to apply a blast-primer, but often the ‫ اﻣﺎ اﻏﻠﺐ ﻻﻳﻪ اول از‬،‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
first coat of the full protective system can be
.‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان اﻋﻤﺎل ﻧﻤﻮد‬
applied.

8.1.8 Roughness (surface profile) (‫ زﺑﺮي )ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ‬8-1-8


The roughness of a prepared surface results from ‫زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺣﺎﺻﻞ از زﺑﺮي ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼً در‬
primary roughness already present in the initial ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ و ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روﺷﻬﺎي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي‬
state and which is exposed by the mechanical
‫ ﺗﺤﺖ‬، ‫ ﺑﺨﺼﻮص ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻲ‬
preparation methods, in particular by blasting.
The roughness parameters (the peak-to valley (‫ ﺑﻪ دره‬- ‫ ﭘﺎراﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎي زﺑﺮي )ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻗﻠﻪ‬.‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮد‬
height) give some basis for determining the ‫زﻣﻴﻨﻪاي را ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻻزم ﺑﺮاي ﻗﺮار دادن و‬
minimum coat thickness necessary for satisfactory
embedment and covering of roughness peaks. .‫ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪن رﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ ﻗﻠﻪﻫﺎ را اراﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬

The surface roughness of steel work shall be 0/005 ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺎ‬0/1 ‫زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﺣﺪ‬
within 0.1 mm to 0.03 ± 0.005 mm for painting, ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﻲ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬،‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬0/03±
coating and lining.
.‫داﺧﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
For methods of measuring peak to valley height 4-4 ‫ﺑﺮاي روش ﻫﺎي اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ارﺗﻔﺎع ﻧﻮك ﺗﺎ دره ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
see section 4.4. .‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

80
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

8.1.9 Standard level of cleanliness (see 4.3.2.2) ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬2-2-3-4 ‫ درﺟﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري )ﺑﻪ‬9-1-8
unless otherwise specified by the company, the ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي آﻣﺎده ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي‬.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
level of cleanliness for prepared steel surfaces
shall be Sa3 for zinc silicate and zinc rich epoxy
‫ و‬Sa3 ‫آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻠﻴﻜﺎت روي و اﭘﻮﻛﺴﻲ ﻏﻨﻲ از روي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
primers and Sa2½ for other primers, organic ،‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي‬،‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي آﻟﻲ‬،‫ﺑﺮاي دﻳﮕﺮ آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎ‬
coatings, for metal coatings, claddings and lining. ‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﺑﻨﺤﻮ‬.‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Sa2½ ‫روﻛﺶ ﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﺰي و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ‬
.‫دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
8.1.10 For inspection and controlling the quality ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ و ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﺮدن ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ‬10-1-8
of surface finish see 8.5 and section 19. .‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬19 ‫ و ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬5-8
8.1.11 A qualified well trained operator shall be ‫ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ واﺟﺪ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ورزﻳﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎر‬11-1-8
employed for the blast-cleaning job. The ‫ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺖ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﺮد‬
qualification of operator must be approved by
Company.
.‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ ﺷﻮد‬

8.1.12 When sheets of less than 4 mm thickness ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬4 ‫ وﻗﺘﻲ ورقﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬12-1-8
are blasted, deformation may occur. This shall be ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ‬،‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
avoided by:
:‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺷﻮد‬.‫رخ دﻫﺪ‬
a) Low air pressure, small grain sizes and the ‫ اﻧﺪازهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﭼﻚ داﻧﻪ و اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از‬،‫اﻟﻒ( ﻓﺸﺎر ﻫﻮاي ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬
use of a blasting abrasive of low bulk .‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻛﻢ‬
density;

b) A low angle of blasting with sharp edged ‫ب( اﻧﺠﺎم ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ زاوﻳﻪ ﻛﻢ و ﺑﺎ داﻧﻪ داراي ﻟﺒﻪ ﺗﻴﺰ و زﻣﺎن‬
grain and a short duration of blasting. With ‫ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ زﻧﮓ‬. ‫ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه‬
adhesive scale or fairly thick rusting it may
be necessary to carry out preparatory work
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬،‫ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﺿﺨﻴﻢ‬
by some other methods, e.g. manual ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ روشﻫﺎي دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ‬
cleaning or pickling, before cleaning, ‫ اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت‬،‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬.‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺷﻮد‬،‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
measures a) and b) will result in less
efficient blasting. .‫اﻟﻒ و ب ﻛﺎرآﻳﻲ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ را ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻧﻤﻮد‬

8.1.13 All blasted steel surfaces shall be primed ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از روﻳﺖ‬13-1-8
before visible rerusting occure. .‫ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ﻣﺠﺪد زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ‬
8.2 Choice of Method of Blast-Cleaning ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬2-8

The choice will be determined mainly by the .‫ اﺻﻮﻻً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬،‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬
following factors:

8.2.1 Shape and size of steelwork ‫ ﺷﻜﻞ و اﻧﺪازه ﺳﺎزه ﻓﻮﻻدي‬1-2-8

Centrifugal methods are economic for plates and ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺮاي ورﻗﻬﺎ و ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﺳﺎده اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
simple sections; they can also be used for large ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺘﻮان آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺮاي ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﭘﻴﺶ اﺟﺮا‬
prefabricated sections, e.g. bridge sections, but
‫ ﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ در واﺣﺪﻫﺎي‬،‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﺰرگ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎي ﭘﻞ‬
only in specially designed plants. Misses
discovered by inspection can be cleaned with air ‫ ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎي ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﺸﺪه‬.‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﺷﺪه ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
blast techniques. For large throughput of shaped .‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ روش ﻫﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻮا ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
items, e.g. pipes, both pressure and vacuum air-
blasting techniques can be used in continuous and ‫ روشﻫﺎي‬،‫ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺮاي اﻗﻼم ﺷﻜﻞ دار ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ‬
automatic plants (See Appendix B). ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎر و ﺧﻼء را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان در دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي‬
.(‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ و ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻧﻤﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

81
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

8.2.2 Effect of the stage at which is carried out .‫ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ در آﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ در آن اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬2-2-8

For blast-cleaning on site, pressure or vacuum air- ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﻮا‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري در ﻣﺤﻞ‬
blasting methods have to be used as on large - ‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻳﺎ ﺧﻼء ﺑﺎﻳﺪ روي ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺰرگ ﺑﻜﺎر‬
fabricated sections, it may be impracticable to use
‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از روش ﻫﺎي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻏﻴﺮ‬،‫روﻧﺪ‬
centrifugal methods.
.‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
8.2.3 Throughput ‫ ﺑﺎزده‬3-2-8

Centrifugal plants are economic for a high ‫ اﻣﺎ‬،‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزده ﺑﺎﻻ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
throughput, but even with a low throughput the ‫ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎزده ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﻳﻦ روش ﻫﻨﻮز ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
method may still be preferable to large-scale air
.‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻮا در ﻣﻘﻴﺎس ﺑﺰرگ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ داده ﺷﻮد‬
blasting.

8.2.4 Environmental conditions ‫ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ‬4-2-8

Despite its relatively high costs, vacuum air- ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻮاي ﺧﻼء ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺑﺮﺧﻼف ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﺑﺎﻻ‬
blasting may be necessary to avoid contamination ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺿﺮوري‬
of the immediate area with abrasive. It shall be
‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺮ روي‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
ensured that the blast-cleaning process does not
affect adjacent materials. .‫ﻣﻮاد ﻣﺠﺎور اﺛﺮ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﺬارد‬

8.2.5 Types of surface deposit to be removed .‫ اﻧﻮاع رﺳﻮﺑﻬﺎي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬5-2-8

Water blasting methods, with abrasives are ‫ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﺮاي زدودن‬،‫روش ﻫﺎي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آب‬
particularly suitable for removing entrapped salts ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺳﻄﻮح رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه دﺳﺘﻲ‬،‫ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺒﻮس و زﻧﮓ‬
in rust and for abrading hand-painted surfaces,
‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺠﺪد ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬،‫ اﭘﻮﻛﺴﻲ ﻫﺎي دو ﺟﺰﺋﻲ‬،‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬
e.g. two-pack epoxies, before recoating. Various
methods are listed in table 11 with notes on their ‫ ﺑﺎ ﻳﺎدآوريﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬11 ‫ روشﻫﺎي ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻧﻲ در ﺟﺪول‬.‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
advantages and disadvantages. .‫درﺑﺎره ﻣﺰاﻳﺎ و ﻣﻀﺮات آﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
8.3 Abrasive (See also Appendix B) (‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-8

The grades of metallic and non-metallic abrasive ‫اﻧﻮاع ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻠﺰي و ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪف زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪه‬
have been selected with the target of surface ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ و ﻧﻮع ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻠﺰي‬0/1 ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﻚ داﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬
roughness defined by a maximum amplitude of
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬4-4 ‫ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪف زﺑﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪه )ﺑﻪ‬
0.1 mm and the grade of non-metallic abrasive
have been selected with the target of a surface ‫ ﺑﺮاي اﻧﻮاع‬.‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ‬0/18 ‫ﻳﻚ داﻣﻨﻪ ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬
roughness (see also 4.4) defined by a maximum ‫ ﺿﺮورت دارد از‬.‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1-‫اﻧﺪازه ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب‬
amplitude of 0.18 mm. For size grades of
abrasives see Appendix B.1. It is essential to ‫ ﺳﻪ ﻧﻮع آﻻﻳﻨﺪه‬،‫ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي آﻟﻮده اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺷﻮد‬
avoid the use of contaminated abrasives, as the .‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ رخ دﻫﺪ‬
following three types of contamination may
occur.

a) Dry dust and detritus from the surface and ‫اﻟﻒ( ﮔﺮدو ﻏﺒﺎر ﻣﻮاد ﺧﺮد و رﻳﺰ و ﺧﺸﻚ از ﺳﻄﺢ و ذرات‬
the smaller fines from the breakdown of ‫ آﻧﻬﺎ را‬.‫رﻳﺰ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺷﻜﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪن ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ‬
abrasives. They can be removed by
automatic and recirculatory plants. Without
‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر و ﺑﺎز ﮔﺮدﺷﻲ‬
such a cleaning process, abrasives shall not ‫ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺑﺪون ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬.‫ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﻮد‬
be re-used. .‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ دوﺑﺎره اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
b) Water, either on the surface, in the ‫ ﻳﺎ از ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬،‫ در ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬،‫ ﻳﺎ روي ﺳﻄﺢ‬،‫ب( آب‬
compressed air, or from conditions of very ‫ ﻫﺴﺘﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲ از ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر و ذرات‬،‫رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ‬
high humidity, forms agglomerates of dust
82
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

and abrasive particles, which will inhibit ‫ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي‬،‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه را ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲدﻫﻨﺪ‬
cleaning processes. In this case the abrasive
‫ در اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
shall be dry before cleaning.
.‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد‬
c) Oil and grease on the surface or from the ‫ج( روﻏﻦ و ﭼﺮﺑﻲ روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻳﺎ از ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﻣﺎﻧﻊ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬
equipment preclude the re-use of abrasives. ‫ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ روﻏﻦ و ﭼﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ﻣﺠﺪد از ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
Such oil and grease shall be removed
before blast-cleaning.
.‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ زدوده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

The choice of abrasive will be determined mainly ،‫اﺳﺎﺳﺎً ﺑﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺶ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
by economic considerations, but cast iron grit is ‫اﻣﺎ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ ﭼﺪن ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎً ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي‬
recommended, particularly for surfaces to be
.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
metal-coated.

83
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 11 - METHODS OF BLAST-CLEANING


‫ روشﻫﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬-11 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
METHODS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
‫روش ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ‬
Dry Methods Using Compressed Air Or Centrifugal Force ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﺮوي ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
Centrifugal Blasting (SEE B.2.2) High Production Rates, Lowest Costs, No High capital cost, high maintenance cost,
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2-2-‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ )ﺑﻪ ب‬ Moisture Problems, Can Be Coupled To lack of flexibility, i.e. Not suitable for
Automatic Application Of Primer, Dust recessed areas etc.
Problems Contained ،‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﮔﺬاري و ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺑﺎ ﻻﺋﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ‬
‫ ﺑﺪون ﻣﺸﻜﻼت‬،‫ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮي ﻧﺒﻮده‬
‫ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ اﻋﻤﺎل آﺳﺘﺮي ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﻮد‬،‫رﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬ ...‫ ﻏﻴﺮه‬، ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻬﺎي ﺗﻮ رﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
.‫وﺟﻮد ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎراز ﻣﺸﻜﻼت آن اﺳﺖ‬
Air Blasting (Pressur And Suction Type) (See Simple To Operate, Very Flexible And High cost of compressed air, low efficiency,
B.2.1.2 And B.2.1.3) Mobile In Use In Both Indoor Cabinet Or liable to moisture entrainment from the
-2-‫ و ب‬2-1-2-‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻮا )ﻧﻮع ﻓﺸﺎري و ﻣﻜﺸﻲ )ﺑﻪ ب‬ Special Rooms Or On Site, Low Capital compressed air, manually operated and a
And Maintenance Costs variable profile can result, operator requires
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-1 protective clothing, serious dust problems.
‫ اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮ و ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺟﻬﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬،‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ در اﺟﺮا‬
‫در داﺧﻞ ﻣﺤﻔﻈﻪ و ﻳﺎ اﺗﺎقﻫﺎي ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻳﺎ در ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪ ﻛﺎر‬ ‫ اﺣﺘﻤﺎل اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬، ‫ راﻧﺪﻣﺎن ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬، ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻪ ﺑﺎﻻي ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬
.‫ﺑﺎ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ ﻛﺎرﻛﺮد دﺳﺘﻲ و ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ‬، ‫رﻃﻮﺑﺖ از ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬
‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻴﺎز دارد‬،‫ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬
Air Blasting (Vacuum Type) (SEE B.2.1.4) No Dust Problems, No Special Protective can be very slow and therefore expensive on
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4-1-2-‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻮا )ﻧﻮع ﺧﻼء( )ﺑﻪ ب‬ Clothing For Operators, Fairly Low Capital awkward profiles and girder sections. Where
Costs flat-plate or gun-head automation is possible it
‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان‬،‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﻧﺪارد‬ may be
considered, but liable to moisture entrainment
‫ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎي ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪاي ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬،‫ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻧﻴﺎز ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ from the compressed air
.‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ روي ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﺷﺎه ﺗﻴﺮ و‬،‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﺟﺪي ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر‬
‫ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞﻫﺎي ﻧﺎﺟﻮر ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ آﻫﺴﺘﻪ و ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ دﻟﻴﻞ ﭘﺮ‬
‫ ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ اﻣﻜﺎن ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺗﺨﺖ ﻳﺎ راس ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺗﺰرﻳﻖ‬.‫ﺧﺮج ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
‫ اﻣﺎ‬،‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد‬، ‫ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
. ‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮل ﺣﻤﻞ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ از ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده اﺳﺖ‬
Water Blasting (HYDROBLASTING) (SEE B.2.3) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-2-‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب )ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﻴﺪرو( )ﺑﻪ ب‬
Water Blasting (Based On Projecting Water Simple To Operate, Very Flexible And Mobile Slow if firmly held contaminants are to be
At Very High Pressure) In Use, Suitable For Removing Soluble removed, dangerous at very high pressure if
(‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب )ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب آب ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ‬ Contaminants, At Very High Pressure Can proper precautions are not taken, limitation
Remove Mill-Scale, No Dry Dust Hazards of drying surface before painting unless
‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده و ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬،‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ در اﺟﺮا‬ approved water- based or water miscible
primers are used, requires availability of
‫ ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ water and drainage, operators require
‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد را ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ در ﻓﺸﺎر ﺧﻴﻠﻲ زﻳﺎد ﺣﺬف‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬ protective colthing
.‫ ﺧﻄﺮات ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﺧﺸﻚ ﻧﺪارد‬.‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﻧﮕﻬﺪاﺷﺘﻪ‬
‫ اﮔﺮ اﺣﺘﻴﺎطﻫﺎي ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬،‫ آﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬، ‫ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
. ‫ در ﻓﺸﺎرﻫﺎي ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك اﺳﺖ‬،‫اﺗﺨﺎذ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﮕﺮ از‬
‫آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ آﺑﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه‬
،‫ ﺑﻪ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮدن آب و ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻴﺎز اﺳﺖ‬،‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
. ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺎك ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻧﺪ‬
Water Blasting Based On Projecting Water At Simple To Operate, Very Flexible And Dangerous at very high pressure if proper
High Pressure And Entraining Abrasive Into Mobile In Use Suitable For Removing All precautions are not taken, limitation of
The Water Stream Firmily Held Contaminants As Well As drying surface before painting unless
‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﭘﺮﺗﺎب آب ﺑﺎ ﻓﺸﺎر ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ و ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﻮاد‬ Soluble Contaminants approved water-based or water-miscible
‫ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده و ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬،‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ در اﺟﺮا‬ primers are used, particulate dust hazard
‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن آب‬ remains, requires availability of water and
‫ ﺑﺮاي از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﺗﻤﺎم آﻻﻳﻨﺪهﻫﺎي ﻧﮕﺎﻫﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬ drainage, operators require protective clothing
‫ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﻼوه آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ اﺣﺘﻴﺎطﻫﺎي ﺻﺤﻴﺢ اﺗﺨﺎذ ﻧﺸﻮد در ﻓﺸﺎرﻫﺎي ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ‬
‫ ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ‬،‫ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك اﺳﺖ‬
‫آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﮕﺮ آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ آﺑﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ آب‬
‫ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪن ﺧﻄﺮ ذرات ﻣﻌﻠﻖ ﮔﺮد‬،‫ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان‬،‫ در دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮدن آب و ﻓﺎﺿﻼب ﻧﻴﺎز اﺳﺖ‬، ‫و ﻏﺒﺎر‬
.‫ﺑﻪ ﻟﺒﺎس ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻧﺪ‬

84
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

METHODS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES


‫روش ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ‬
Water Blasting Based On Injecting Low As Above High cost of compressed air, low efficiency,
Pressure Water Into A Compressed Air ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻮق‬ limitaion of drying surface before painting
Stream Which Is Carrying An Abrasive unless approved water-based or water-
‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺗﺰرﻳﻖ آب ﻓﺸﺎر ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ داﺧﻞ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬ miscible primers are used, dust hazard
reduced, operators require protective clothing
‫ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
‫ ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ‬،‫ راﻧﺪﻣﺎن ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬،‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻻي ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬
‫ﺷﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﮕﺮ آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ آﺑﻲ‬
‫ ﺧﻄﺮ‬.‫ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺎﺋﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان ﺑﻪ ﻟﺒﺎس‬،‫ذرات ﻣﻌﻠﻖ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬
.‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻧﺪ‬
Water Blasting (See 5.6) Using Steam- As Above Similar To The Above According To
Cleaning ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻮق‬ Whether Abrasive Is Or Not Entrained
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬6-5 ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب )ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻ و ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ آﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻣﺤﺒﻮس ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺮ‬

8.4 Before and After Blast Cleaning ‫ اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت ﻻزم ﻗﺒﻞ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش‬4-8
‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
8.4.1 Before blast cleaning ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬1-4-8

8.4.1.1 The steel to be blast-cleaned by dry ‫ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬1-1-4-8
methods shall be dry and the operating conditions ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﻮده و ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
shall be such that condensation does not occur on
it during the work. When compressed air is used,
.‫ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪاي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻛﺎر ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﺑﺮ روي آن رخ ﻧﺪﻫﺪ‬
this shall be dry and free from oil. ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﺸﻚ و ﻋﺎري‬،‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ از ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
.‫از روﻏﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
8.4.1.2 Weld defects such as pin holes and ‫ ﻧﻮاﻗﺺ ﺟﻮش ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﻮراﺧﻬﺎي رﻳﺰ و ﻧﺎﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﮕﻲﻫﺎ‬2-1-4-8
discontinuities shall be rectified. .‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺻﻼح ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.4.1.3 Weld undercutting shall be filled or ‫ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﮔﻲﻫﺎي ﻛﻨﺎر ﺟﻮشﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﭘﺮ ﺷﺪه و‬3-1-4-8
dressed. .‫ﺻﺎﻓﻜﺎري ﮔﺮدد‬
8.4.1.4 Excessive weld spatter shall be dressed off ‫ زاﺋﺪه اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد )ﻓﻘﻂ‬4-1-4-8
(Only light spatter will be adequately removed by ‫زاﺋﺪهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﭼﻚ و ﺳﺒﻚ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
blast cleaning). .(‫ﺑﻘﺪر ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
8.4.1.5 Welding slag shall be cleaned off. .‫ ﺳﺮﺑﺎره ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬5-1-4-8

8.4.1.6 Laminations, laps and shelling shall be ‫ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺷﺪن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر‬،‫ روﻳﻬﻢ اﻓﺘﺎدﮔﻲﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺗﻮرقﻫﺎ‬6-1-4-8
dressed off completely. .‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.4.1.7 Sharp edges shall be smoothed off. .‫ ﻟﺒﻪﻫﺎي ﺗﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺻﺎف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬7-1-4-8

8.4.1.8 Burrs shall be removed. .‫ ﻧﺎﺻﺎﻓﻲ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬8-1-4-8


8.4.1.9 Grease or oil contamination shall be ‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺲ و روﻏﻦ آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ روش ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬9-1-4-8
removed by appropriate method described in
section 5. .‫ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮوﻧﺪ‬5 ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

8.4.2 After blast cleaning ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬2-4-8


The following shall be done after blast cleaning: :‫ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

8.4.2.1 Residual shot, grit and dust shall be ‫ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ و ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬،‫ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﺳﺎﭼﻤﻪ‬1-2-4-8
completely removed after blasting, preferably by
85
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

vacuum cleaning, but otherwise by oil and water ‫ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﺎً ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري‬،‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
free air blast or fibre brush.
‫ ﻣﮕﺮ ﻃﻮري دﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﻮاي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻋﺎري از آب و‬،‫ﺧﻼء‬
.‫روﻏﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮس اﻟﻴﺎﻓﻲ‬
8.4.2.2 Care shall be taken not to contaminate ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش‬2-2-4-8
blast cleaned surfaces prior to painting. .‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي آﻟﻮده ﻧﺸﻮد‬
8.4.2.3 Blast cleaned surfaces may be protected ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬3-2-4-8
for short periods by a thin coat of pre-treatment or ‫ﺑﺮاي دورهﻫﺎي ﻛﻮﺗﺎه ﺑﺎ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎزك از آﺳﺘﺮي ﭘﻴﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻳﺎ‬
pre-fabrication primer (see IPS-C-TP-102). It is
IPS-C-TP-102 ‫ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
imperative that such primers should be applied as
a continuous coating in an even manner to ‫ اﻋﻤﺎل ﭼﻨﻴﻦ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻫﻤﻮار ﺑﻌﻨﻮان‬.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
achieve a minimum film thickness of 20 microns. ‫ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﻧﻲ اﻟﺰاﻣﻲ‬20 ‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺋﻤﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻴﺪه ﺑﻪ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻻﻳﻪ‬
Such primers do not replace the full thickness of
permanent primer. ‫ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ آﺳﺘﺮي‬.‫اﺳﺖ‬
.‫داﺋﻤﻲ ﻧﻤﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.4.2.4 The prepared blast cleaned surface shall ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح آﻣﺎده ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در‬4-2-4-8
be completely primed the same day as blasted, ‫ﻫﻤﺎن روزي ﻛﻪ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺑﺮوز زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬
and before any visible rusting or deterioration of
the surface occurs. No blasted surface shall stand
‫ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬.‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﻮد‬،‫روﻳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬
overnight before coating. If such surfaces are not ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﺸﺪه ﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬،‫ﺷﺪهاي ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺮا رﺳﻴﺪن ﺷﺐ‬
primed in accordance with the above they shall be ‫ اﮔﺮ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮارد ﻓﻮق‬.‫ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
reblasted
.‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺠﺪداً ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.4.2.5 Care should be taken not to contaminate ‫ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد دﻗﺖ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬5-2-4-8
blast cleaned surfaces prior to painting. .‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي آﻟﻮده ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.5 Testing the Cleanliness of Blasted Surface ‫ آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه‬5-8

8.5.1 Visual or field tests ‫ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻴﺪاﻧﻲ‬1-5-8

8.5.1.1 Photographs (See SIS 05 59 00, ISO ‫ و‬ISO 8501-1 ‫ ﻋﻜﺴﻬﺎ )ﺑﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬1-1-5-8
8501-1) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬SIS 05 59 00
The rust grades for steel surfaces and preparation ‫درﺟﺎت زﻧﮓ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي و درﺟﻪ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻗﺒﻞ از‬
grade prior to protective Coating, are useful for ‫ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬.‫ ﺑﺮاي ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬
assessing cleanliness. See section 4.3 (grade of
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد )درﺟﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي‬3-4
cleanliness).

8.5.1.2 Wipe tests ‫ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن‬2-1-5-8


Rubbing of a surface with a clean, lint-free, white ،‫ﺮز ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻣﺎﻟﺶ دﻫﻴﺪ‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ را ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﭘﻨﺒﻪ اي ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺪون ﭘ‬
cotton cloth, commercial paper product, or filter ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺻﺎﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﺷﺪه )اﻣﺎ اﺷﺒﺎع‬،‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮل ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﺗﺠﺎري‬
paper moistened (but not saturated) with high-
‫ ﺑﺮاي ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ‬،‫ﻧﺸﺪه( ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺧﻠﻮص ﺑﺎﻻ‬
purity solvent, may be used for evaluating the
cleanliness of surfaces not accessible for direct ‫دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﭼﺸﻤﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻧﺪارد ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬
visual inspection. Wipe tests of small diameter ‫ در ﻳﻚ‬،‫ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻴﻮب ﻗﻄﺮ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬.‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
tubing are made by blowing a clean white felt
plug, slightly larger in diameter than the inside ‫ ﻛﻪ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﺮ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺗﻴﻮب‬،‫ﺗﻮﭘﻲ ﻧﻤﺪي ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
diametere of the tube, through the tube with clean, ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬،‫ ﺧﺸﻚ‬،‫ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺷﺪه‬،‫ﻗﻄﺮ ﺑﺰرﮔﺘﺮي دارد‬
dry, filtered compressed air. Cleanness in wipe
‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰي در آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻮع‬.‫دﻣﻴﺪه ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
tests is evaluated by the type of contamination
rubbed off on the swab or plug. The presence of a .‫آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻣﺎﻟﺶ ﺷﺪه روي ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﭘﺎﻛﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﭘﻲ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬
sludge on the cloth is evidence of contamination. ‫ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬.‫وﺟﻮد ﻟﺠﻦ روي ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ دﻟﻴﻞ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ اﺳﺖ‬
In cases of dispute concerning the harmful nature
86
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

of the contamination, a sample of the sludge may ‫اﺧﺘﻼف ﻧﻈﺮ در ﺧﺼﻮص ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻣﻀﺮ ﺑﻮدن آﻻﻳﻨﺪه وﺟﻮد دارد‬
be transferred to a clean quartz microscope slide
‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ از ﻟﺠﻦ ﺑﺮ روي ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﻛﻮارﺗﺰ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
for infrared analysis. The wipe test is sometimes
supplemented by repeating the test with a black .‫اﺳﻼﻳﺪ ﻣﻴﻜﺮوﺳﻜﻮپ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻣﺎوراء ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺷﻮد‬
cloth to disclose contaminants that would be ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ اوﻗﺎت آزﻣﻮن ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻜﺮار آزﻣﻮن‬
invisible on a white cloth.
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﺳﻴﺎه ﺗﺎ آﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ روي ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ روﻳﺖ‬
.‫ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد آﻻﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ را آﺷﻜﺎر ﺳﺎزد‬
8.5.1.3 Water-wetting and drying ‫ ﺗﺮ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ آب و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن‬3-1-5-8

Formation of rust stains may be accelerated by ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻟﻜﻪ ﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮ ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻄﻮر‬
periodically wetting the surface with preferably ،‫ ﺗﺎزه‬،‫دورهاي ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﺎً آب ﻣﻘﻄﺮ ﻳﺎ آب ﻏﻴﺮ ﻳﻮﻧﻴﺰه ﻳﺎ آب ﺷﺮب‬
distilled or deionized water or clean, fresh,
‫ دورهﻫﺎي ﺗﺮ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﻮري‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
potable tap water. The wet-dry cycles shall be
such that the sample remains dry for a total of 8 ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬8 ً‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺟﻤﻌﺎ‬24 ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ در ﻳﻚ دوره آزﻣﻮن‬
hr. in a 24 hr. test period. After completion of this ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻴﭻ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ اﻳﻦ آزﻣﻮن‬.‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬
test, the surface shall show no evidence of rust
stains or other corrosion products. .‫ﻣﺪرﻛﻲ از ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ را ﻧﺸﺎن دﻫﺪ‬

8.5.1.4 Test for detecting soluble rust- ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﺑﺮاي ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎي ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬4-1-5-8
producing salts remaining on blast-cleaned ‫زﻧﮓ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﺮ روي ﻓﻮﻻد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
steel
When blast-cleaning heavily rusted and rust-pitted ‫در ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ زده و داراي ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺣﻔﺮهاي‬
steel a surface appearance suggesting a standard
Sa2½ ، ISO 8501 ‫ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬،‫ ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫زﻳﺎد‬
of cleanness equivalent to white metal or Swedish
Standard ISO 8501, Sa2½ or Sa3 can be obtained, ‫ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻛﻪ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﻣﻌﺎدل ﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﺰ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ‬Sa3 ‫ﻳﺎ‬
which, after an hour or two and sometimes after ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ دو‬،‫را ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آورد ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
standing overnight, develops rust-spotting at
points corresponding to the rust-pitting. In such ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ و ﺑﻌﻀﻲ وﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﮕﻬﺪاﺷﺘﻦ ﺑﻤﺪت ﻳﻚ ﺷﺐ زﻧﮓﻫﺎي‬
circumstances it is not allowed to apply protective ‫ در‬.‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ در ﻧﻘﺎط ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ زﻧﮓ ﺣﻔﺮهاي آﺷﻜﺎر ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
coatings until the cause of the rust-spotting has
been eliminated. The cause is the presence of rust-
‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻠﺖ زﻧﮓ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮف ﻧﺸﻮد اﻋﻤﺎل‬
producing soluble salts of iron which are ‫ ﻋﻠﺖ وﺟﻮد ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻣﺠﺎز ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
practically color less and are located at the lowest -‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه زﻧﮓ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻼً ﺑﻲ رﻧﮓ ﺑﻮده و در ﭘﺎﺋﻴﻦ‬
point of the rust pits. In the presence of moisture
they hydrolyze to iron oxides and acids; the acids ‫ در ﺣﻀﻮر رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﻪ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬.‫ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺣﻔﺮه ﻫﺎ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
dissolve more iron to form more iron salts thus ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ‬،‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫آﻫﻦ و اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
producing, in time, large volumes of rust which
will break the adhesion bond of protective ‫ ﻟﺬا ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺣﺠﻢ‬، ‫آﻫﻦ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي را ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎ ﺣﻞ ﻛﺮده‬
coatings if applied before the salts are removed. ‫زﻳﺎدي از زﻧﮓ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶﻫﺎي‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ را اﮔﺮ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ‬
.‫ﺷﻜﺴﺖ‬
Using potassium ferricyanide test papers any ‫ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻛﺎﻏﺬﻫﺎي آزﻣﻮن ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻫﺮ آﻻﻳﻨﺪه‬
remaining soluble ironsalt contaminants can be ‫ﻧﻤﻚ آﻫﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه را ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ‬
detected as follows:
:‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
a) Spray a fine mist of water droplets on to a ‫اﻟﻒ( ﻧﻢ ﻇﺮﻳﻔﻲ از ﻗﻄﺮات آب را روي ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ از ﺳﻄﺢ‬
small area of the blast-cleaned surface ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ دﺳﺘﻲ )ﻧﻮع ﺑﻄﺮي‬
using a hand spray (a scentspray type of
bottle if satisfactory).
.‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻋﻄﺮ اﮔﺮ رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ اﺳﺖ( ﺗﺰرﻳﻖ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬

b) Allow the water droplets to evaporate and ‫ب ( اﺟﺎزه دﻫﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﻄﺮات آب ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﺷﻮد و در ﻟﺤﻈﻪاي‬
at the moment when they have
87
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

disappeared but the sufrace is just ‫ ﻳﻚ‬،‫ﻛﻪ ﻣﺤﻮ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد اﻣﺎ ﺗﺮي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ درك اﺳﺖ‬
perceptibly wet apply a small piece of test
‫ﺗﻜﻪ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ از ﻛﺎﻏﺬ آزﻣﻮن را اﻋﻤﺎل ﻛﺮده و ﺑﺎ اﻧﮕﺸﺖ‬
paper and press with the thumb for 2 to 5
seconds. .‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻓﺸﺎر دﻫﻴﺪ‬5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬2 ‫ﺷﺴﺖ ﺑﺮاي‬

If soluble salts remain, these will be drawn by ‫ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﺛﺮ ﻣﻮﻳﻴﻨﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ‬،‫اﮔﺮ ﻧﻤﻚﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
capillary action into the test paper and will react ‫داﺧﻞ ﻛﺎﻏﺬ آزﻣﻮن ﻛﺸﻴﺪه ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ و ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ ﻓﺮﻳﻚ‬
with the potassium ferricyanide to give a
‫ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ واﻛﻨﺶ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داﺷﺖ ﺗﺎ وﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻛﻤﭙﻠﻜﺲ آﺑﻲ ﭘﺮوس‬
characteristic prussian blue complex as blue dots
on the paper corresponding to the contaminated ‫ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻫﺎي آﺑﻲ روي ﻛﺎﻏﺬ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻔﺮهﻫﺎي آﻟﻮده‬
pits on the blast-cleaned steel. .‫ﺷﺪه روي ﻓﻮﻻد ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه اراﺋﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
8.5.2 Instrumental or laboratory test ‫ آزﻣﻮن آزﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﻳﺎ اﺑﺰار دﻗﻴﻖ‬2-5-8

8.5.2.1 Electrical testing ‫ آزﻣﻮن اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬1-2-5-8

The contact resistance between the blasted steel ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار‬
surface to be tested and a probe (sprung contact in ‫اﺳﺖ آزﻣﻮن ﺷﻮد و ﭘﺮوب )ﮔﻴﺮه ﻓﻨﺮي ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺮهاي‬
the form of a sphere of 1 mm diameter) is
‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ( ﺑﺎ اﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﺪون ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ اﻧﺪازه‬1 ‫ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺮ‬
measured with an ohmmeter not requiring a mains
supply and which provides the highest possible ‫ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ دﻗﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ از ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ در داﻣﻨﻪ‬،‫ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
accuracy of reading in the range 0 to 1Ω. The ‫ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬.‫ اﻫﻢ را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬1 ‫ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ‬
position of the measurement points is selected
arbitrarily and the number of such points shall be ‫ از‬.‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎري اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﺗﻌﺪاد ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﻮد‬
agreed. The arithmetic mean is calculated from ‫ ﻫﺮﮔﺎه‬.‫ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﺷﺪه ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ آﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
the individual measured values. Reproducible
‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ ﻇﺎﻫﺮي ﻣﺪار اﺻﻠﻲ از ﻣﺪار اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد‬
measured values can only be obtained if the
inherent short circuit impedance of the measuring .‫ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﺷﺪه ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲآﻳﺪ‬
circuit is eliminated. The information provided by ‫ اﮔﺮ‬،‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪه از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻳﻦ روش اﺻﻼح ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
this method will be improved if, instead of
reading the measured values and calculating the ‫ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي‬،‫ﺑﺠﺎي ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﺷﺪه و ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬
mean value, a determination is made, using an ‫ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﻧﻘﺎﻃﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺮوب ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺷﻤﺎرﺷﮕﺮ اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
electric counter, of the number of points of
‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﺗﻤﻴﺰ اﺳﺖ( ﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﻮر‬،‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ ﻛﻢ ﺗﻤﺎس)ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬
application of the probe at which the contact
resistance is so small (i.e. the surface is so clean) ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﺪار اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﻣﺨﺼﻮص ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ اﻧﺪازهﮔﻴﺮي‬
that a current flows in a particular measurement .‫ﺷﻮد ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
circuit.

The measured results are affected by the blasting ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي ﺷﺪه ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﻼﺳﺖ و روش‬
abrasive and the blasting method (type and ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ )ﻧﻮع و ﻣﻘﺪار ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﻫﺎ( و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ‬
number of impacts) and also by the initial state of
.‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه دارﻧﺪ‬
the blasted surface.

8.5.2.2 High-humidity test ‫ آزﻣﻮن رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ‬2-2-5-8

Subject the surface to a 95 to 100% humidity at ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬26 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬24 ‫ﺳﻄﺢ را در ﻳﻚ اﻃﺎﻗﻚ ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت‬
(38 to 46°C) in a suitable humidity cabinet for 24 (‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬46 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬38) ‫ درﺻﺪ‬100 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬95 ‫در ﻣﻌﺮض رﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬
to 26 hr. After completion of this test, the surface
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻜﻤﻴﻞ آزﻣﻮن ﺳﻄﺢ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ اﺛﺮي از ﻟﻜﻪ ﻫﺎي‬.‫ﻗﺮار دﻫﻴﺪ‬
show no evidence of rust stains or other corrosion
products. .‫زﻧﮓ زدﮔﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻧﻤﻲ دﻫﺪ‬

8.5.2.3 Residual pattern ‫ اﻟﮕﻮي ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه‬3-2-5-8

Dry the cleaned surface after finish-cleaning at ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬20 ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه را ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت‬
49°C for 20 minutes. The presence of stains or ‫ ﺣﻀﻮر ﻟﻜﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ )ﻧﻘﺎط‬.‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬49 ‫در‬
water spots on the dried surfaces indicates the
‫ ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎي آب( روي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪه ﺣﻀﻮر ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي‬/‫ﺧﻴﺲ‬
88
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

presence of residual soil and incomplete cleaning. ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻮده‬.‫ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻲ و ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻧﺎﺗﻤﺎم را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
The test is rapid but not very sensitive.
.‫اﻣﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺣﺴﺎس ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
8.5.2.4 Copper sulfate test for passivated ‫ آزﻣﻮن ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت ﻣﺲ ﺑﺮاي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل‬4-2-5-8
surfaces ‫ﺷﺪه‬
a) Swab the component for a few minutes ‫اﻟﻒ( ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را ﺑﺮاي ﭼﻨﺪ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﺪار ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬
with an aqueous solution containing: :‫زﻳﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬
Copper sulfate (CuSO4 . 5H2O) 4 g/l ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬4 (CuSO4 5H2O) ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت ﻣﺲ‬
(approx.) (‫)ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬
Sulfuric acid (d=1.84) 1.5 ml/l (approx.) ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬1/5 (d =1/84) ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
(‫)ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬
After drying, the presence of any areas of ‫ ﺣﻀﻮر ﻣﺲ رﺳﻮب ﺷﺪه در ﻫﺮ‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن‬
deposited copper will con firm that the ‫ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح رﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ ﻧﺒﻮده و‬
surfaces is unsatisfactory and shall be re-
‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﺠﺪد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺠﺪداً ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل‬
passivated before being submitted for re-
approval. .‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

b) Alternative test; an altrnaive test may be ‫ ﻳﻚ آزﻣﻮن ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ب ( آزﻣﻮن ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ‬
carried out on a component, if suitable, or ‫روي ﻗﻄﻌﻪاي ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮض ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻮدن ﻳﺎ روي ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬
on a test piece with a flat smooth surface
made from material of similar
‫آزﻣﻮن ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺻﺎف ﺗﺨﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه از ﻣﻮاد‬
composition to the parts being processed. .‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺷﺪه اﻧﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬

Within 30 minutes of processing, place ‫ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل زﻳﺮ‬،‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬30 ‫در ﻇﺮف‬
one spot of the following solution on a ‫را روي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺷﺪه ﻗﺮار دﻫﻴﺪ و اﺟﺎزه دﻫﻴﺪ‬
flat passivated surface and allow it to
.‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬3 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت‬
remain for 3 minutes.

Palladium chloride 0.5 g ‫ ﮔﺮم‬0/5 ‫ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﭘﺎﻻدﻳﻮم‬


Hydrochloric acid (d=1.16) 20 cm3 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬20 (d = 1/16) ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪرﻳﻚ‬
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬98 ‫آب‬
Water 98 cm3

Wash off the spot with cold running .‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ‬.‫ﻧﻘﻄﻪ را ﺑﺎ آب ﺳﺮد ﺟﺎري ﺑﺸﻮﻳﻴﺪ‬
water. Do not swab.

If passivation has been effected no trace ‫اﮔﺮ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﻛﻨﻨﺪه اﺛﺮ ﻛﺮده ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻫﻴﭻ اﺛﺮ ﻳﺎ اﺛﺮ‬
or only a slight trace of a dark deposit ‫اﻧﺪﻛﻲ از ﺗﻪ ﻧﺸﻴﻨﻲ ﺳﻴﺎه روي ﺳﻄﺢ آزﻣﻮن ﺷﺪه‬
will be evident on the area tested.
.‫آﺷﻜﺎر ﻧﺨﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬
8.5.2.5 Refractometric method (surclean) (‫ روش اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ﺳﻨﺠﻲ )ﻧﺎﭘﺎك‬5-2-5-8

Grades of blast-cleaning are selected by the


‫درﺟﺎت ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه در راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ‬
specified in relation to the conditions of use and .‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺐ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
the protective system chosen. Specifications for ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬
blast-cleaning include pictorial standards
BS EN ) ‫( ﻳﺎ ﻃﺮح ﻫﺎي‬SIS 05 59 00 ‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮي )اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
(Swedish Standard SIS 05 59 00) or sketches (BS
EN ISO 8501-1) but these can be used for site ‫( ﺑﻮده اﻣﺎ اﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻣﺤﻞ‬ISO 8501-1
control only if the lighting is good and the ‫ ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺷﺮط ﻛﻪ روﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺧﻮب ﺑﻮده و ﺑﺎزرس از‬،‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
inspectors are highly experienced. Steel coupons ‫ ﻛﻮﭘﻦﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه‬.‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮردار ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
blast-cleaned to an agreed standard are better but

89
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

should be carefully stored and handled to prevent ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﻗﺖ‬
deterioration. .‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺷﺪه و ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
For convenience and to reduce disputes it is best ‫ﺑﺮاي راﺣﺘﻲ و ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺑﺤﺚ و ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ اﺳﺖ از اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي‬
to use instruments which enable figures to be ‫ ﻳﻚ اﻧﻜﺴﺎر‬.‫دﻗﻴﻖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﻪ ﺛﺒﺖ ارﻗﺎم ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
recorded. A light reflectometer can be used to
‫ﺳﻨﺞ ﻧﻮري ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ اﺛﺮ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮدن ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ‬
assess effectiveness of removal of mill-scale,
freedom from rust, and general approach to ‫ ﻋﺎري ﺳﺎزي از زﻧﮓ و ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﻠﻲ رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ وﺿﻌﻴﺖ "ﻓﻠﺰ‬،‫ﻧﻮرد‬
"white metal" condition. .‫ﺳﻔﻴﺪ" ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
This instrument measures the amount of blue light ‫اﻳﻦ اﺑﺰار ﻣﻘﺪار ﻧﻮر آﺑﻲ ﻣﻨﻌﻜﺲ ﺷﺪه از ﺳﻄﺢ را در ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ‬
reflected from the surface compared with that ‫آﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ از ﻣﻮزاﺋﻴﻚ ﺧﺎﻛﺴﺘﺮي اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﺳﺖ اﻧﺪازه ﮔﻴﺮي‬
from a standard grey tile. Repeatedly blasting the
‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﻣﻜﺮر ﻫﻤﺎن ﺳﻄﺢ از ﻓﻮﻻد ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬.‫ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
same area of steel causes an increase in reflection
until a steady value Rmax is reached corresponding ‫ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﺎدل‬Rmax ‫در اﻧﻌﻜﺎس ﺷﺪه ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻘﺪار ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬
to white metal (dependent on the abrasive and the ‫ﻓﻠﺰ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ )ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه و ﻓﻮﻻد دارد( ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﺷﺪه در‬
steel) as shown in Fig. 4. The acceptance level
shall be fixed as a percentage of Rmax for Sa2½, ‫ ﺑﺮاي‬Rmax ‫ درﺟﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل ﺑﻌﻨﻮان درﺻﺪ‬.‫ اﺳﺖ‬4 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
the average of all readings on the work shall be at ‫ و ﻣﻌﺪل ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﻫﺎي روي ﻛﺎر‬،‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺷﻮد‬Sa2½
least 90% of Rmax and not more than one reading
‫ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و از ﻫﺮ ده ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ‬Rmax ‫ درﺻﺪ‬90 ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﺳﺖ ﻛﻢ‬
in ten shall be below 80% of Rmax.
.‫ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد‬Rmax ‫ درﺻﺪ‬80 ‫ﺑﻴﺶ از ﻳﻚ ﻣﻮرد زﻳﺮ‬
When using this control method the value of Rmax ‫ و‬Rmax ‫ ﻣﻘﺪار‬،‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ اﻳﻦ روش ﻛﻨﺘﺮل اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
and the acceptance levels shall be defined by the ‫درﺟﺎت ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ در ﺷﺮوع ﻛﺎر ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
company at the start of the work.
.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺋﺖ اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ﺳﻨﺞ‬

Time of blasting
‫زﻣﺎن ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
Fig. 4- ASSESSMENT OF STEEL CLEANING
‫ ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻓﻮﻻد‬-4 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

8.6 Precautionary Notes ‫ ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎي اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ‬6-8

8.6.1 Dry blasting ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ‬1-6-8

8.6.1.1 If fire or explosion hazards are present, ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬، ‫ اﮔﺮ ﺧﻄﺮات آﺗﺶ ﺳﻮزي ﻳﺎ اﻧﻔﺠﺎر وﺟﻮد دارد‬1-1-6-8
proper precautions shall be taken before any work ‫ اﮔﺮ‬.‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻧﺠﺎم ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎري اﺣﺘﻴﺎطﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ اﺗﺨﺎذ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
is done. If the structure previously contained
flammable materials, it shall be purged of
‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻣﺎده‬،‫ﺳﺎزه ﻗﺒﻼً داراي ﻣﻮاد ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺷﺘﻌﺎل داﺷﺘﻪ‬
90
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

dangerous concentrations. .‫ﻫﺎي ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك ﭘﺎﻛﺴﺎزي ﺷﻮد‬


8.6.1.2 Nozzle blast operators exposed to blast ‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان ﻧﺎزل ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر‬2-1-6-8
dust shall wear a suitable helmet. .‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﭙﻮﺷﻨﺪ‬،‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
8.6.1.3 Filter type air respirators shall be worn by ‫ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻫﺎي ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻫﻮا از ﻧﻮع ﺻﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬3-1-6-8
all others who are exposed to blast dust ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﮔﺮد و ﻏﺒﺎر ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻗﺮار دارﻧﺪ‬
environment. Adequate protection for personnel
from flying particles shall also be provided in any
‫ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن از ذرات‬.‫ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪه ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
blasting operation. .‫ﭘﺮواز ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻫﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺷﻮد‬

8.6.1.4 Safety goggles shall be worn by all ‫ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻛﺎرﻛﻨﺎن ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬4-1-6-8
persons near any blasting operation. .‫ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻫﺎي اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﭙﻮﺷﻨﺪ‬
8.6.1.5 Blast nozzle shall be properly grounded ‫ ﻧﺎزل ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر اﺻﻮﻟﻲ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي‬5-1-6-8
through use of hose with anti-static lining. ‫ﺷﻠﻨﮓ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺿﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺮﺳﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ اﺗﺼﺎل زﻣﻴﻦ‬
Blasting pot will be equipped with ground wire.
.‫ دﻳﮕﭽﻪ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﻢ اﺗﺼﺎل زﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺷﻮد‬. ‫ﺑﺸﻮد‬
8.6.2 Water blasting ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب‬2-6-8

8.6.2.1 Hydroblast cleaning use high pressures. ‫ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻫﻴﺪروﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻓﺸﺎرﻫﺎي ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر‬1-2-6-8
Extreme caution shall be exercised with the ‫ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط ﻓﻮق اﻟﻌﺎده زﻳﺎدي ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل‬.‫ﻣﻴﺒﺮد‬
equipment.
.‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
8.6.2.2 Instruction and training of operators about ‫ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ و آﻣﻮزش ﻛﺎرﺑﺮان درﺑﺎره اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬2-2-6-8
correct use and equipment operation is essential. . ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ و ﺑﻜﺎر اﻧﺪاﺧﺘﻲ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات اﻟﺰاﻣﻲ اﺳﺖ‬
8.6.2.3 Surfaces, other than metal, can be ‫ ﺑﺎ آب ﻓﺸﺎر ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ آﺳﻴﺐ‬،‫ ﻏﻴﺮ از ﻓﻠﺰ‬،‫ ﺳﻄﻮح‬3-2-6-8
damaged with high pressure water and shall be .‫دﻳﺪه و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از اﺛﺮات ﻓﺸﺎر ﺑﺎﻻي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آب ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
protected from effects of the high pressure water
blast.

8.6.2.4 The operator of a hydroblast unit must ‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه ﻫﻴﺪرو ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داراي ﺟﺎﭘﺎي‬4-2-6-8
have sound, safe footing. Extra caution shall be ‫ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط زﻳﺎدي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﻮرد دارﺑﺴﺖ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ‬.‫اﻳﻤﻦ و ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
taken on rigid scaffolding. Swinging stages and
bosun chairs are not normally recommended for
‫ دارﺑﺴﺖ ﻫﺎي ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻧﻲ و ﺻﻨﺪﻟﻲ ﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﺧﺸﻲ ﺑﻄﻮر‬.‫اﺗﺨﺎذ ﺷﻮد‬
use with hydroblasting. The operator shall wear a ‫ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ‬،‫ﻋﺎدي ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺑﺎ ﻫﻴﺪرو ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
rain suit, face shield, hearing protection and ‫ ﺣﻔﺎظ ﺷﻨﻮاﺋﻲ و دﺳﺘﻜﺶ داﺷﺘﻪ‬،‫ ﺣﻔﺎظ ﺻﻮرت‬،‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎراﻧﻲ‬
gloves.
. ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
8.6.2.5 The blast gun shall have automatic control ‫ ﺗﻔﻨﮓ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ ﻣﺎﺷﻪ را آزاد ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬5-2-6-8
to release pressure when the operator releases the ‫ اﻳﻦ‬.‫ﺑﺮاي آزاد ﻛﺮدن ﻓﺸﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ داراي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﺧﻮدﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
trigger. A dump valve on the gun serves this
purpose.
. ‫ﻫﺪف را ﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻫﻨﺪه روي ﺗﻔﻨﮓ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ‬

8.6.2.6 Everyone within 17 meters of the work ‫ ﻣﺘﺮي از ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬17 ‫ ﻫﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ در ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬6-2-6-8
area should be warned of hazards associated with . ‫از ﺧﻄﺮات ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻫﻴﺪرو ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آﮔﺎه ﺷﻮد‬
hydroblast cleaning.
No electrical power shall be in the work area. . ‫ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺮوي اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

91
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

9. SURFACE PREPARATION OF IRON ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻫﻦ و ﻓﻮﻻد‬-9


AND STEEL

9.1 Cast Irons ‫ ﭼﺪن‬1-9

9.1.1 Cleaning prior to phosphating and ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن و رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬1-1-9
painting ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ روش ﻫﺎي ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
The parts should be cleaned with one or more ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و‬،(6 ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬، (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5
method of degreasing (see section 5), pickling
‫( اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي‬8 ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬،(7 ‫اﺑﺰاري )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(section 6), hand and tool cleaning (section 7),
blasting (section 8), anodic etching (9.4) and (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-9 ‫( و ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﻤﻮار ﺳﺎزي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬4-9)
chemical smoothing process (see 9.3). If inhibited ‫ اﮔﺮ از ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاي اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
solution are used for acid pickling (section 6), it
shall be necessary to remove absorbed inhibitor ‫ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن‬،(6 ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮد )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
before phosphating or application of painting. .‫ﻳﺎ اﻋﻤﺎل رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺑﺎز دارﻧﺪه ﺟﺬب ﺷﺪه ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد‬
*: Re 6 is taken from "Echelle Europeenne de ‫ از ﺟﻤﻠﻪ زﻳﺮ‬Re 6 : *
degres d’enrouillement pour peinture antrioulle" “Echelle Europeeue de degves d’enroul llemeut
pure pelinture antrioulle”
obtainable from the paint makers Association, ،‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪه و از اﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﺳﺎزﻧﺪﮔﺎن رﻧﮓ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ آﻣﺪن اﺳﺖ‬
Alembic House, 93 Albert Embankment, London Alembic House, 93 Albevt Embamkment, London
S1, 7TY. S1 , 7TY.
9.1.2 Cleaning and preparation for hot dip ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬2-1-9
galvanizing
‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري ﮔﺮم‬
Preparation shall be carried out using one of the : ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
following procedures:
a) Abrasive blasting with chilled iron or 8 ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎ آﻫﻦ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻮﻻد ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪي )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
steel, (see section 8) to remove moulding ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﮔﻴﺮي و رﺳﻮب‬
sand and iron scale. After blasting,
pickling (see section 6) may be used and
‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬.‫آﻫﻦ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
where necessary a flux coating should be ،‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
applied. ‫ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﮔﺪاز آور ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل‬
.‫ﺷﻮد‬
b) Hydrofluoric acid (30% HF) diluted to ‫ درﺻﺪ‬10 ‫ ﺳﻲ درﺻﺪ( ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ‬HF) ‫ب( ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
10% by volume aqueous solution may be ،‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺣﺠﻤﻲ از آب رﻗﻴﻖ ﺷﺪه‬
used, followed by hosing with water to
remove any gelatinous products. After
‫ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﻠﻨﮓ آﺗﺶ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻲ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل‬
hosing, pickling (section 6) is used and if ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ‬،‫ژﻻﺗﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ آب از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺮود‬
necessary a flux should be applied. ‫ و اﮔﺮ ﻻزم ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎده‬.‫( ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬6 ‫ﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
.‫ﮔﺪاز آور اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
9.1.3 Cleaning prior to metal spraying (for ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي )ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ در‬3-1-9
protection against corrosion and high (‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و اﻛﺴﺎﻳﺶ در دﻣﺎي ﺑﺎﻻ‬
temperature oxidation)
The surface should be degreased, (see section 5) ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( و‬5 ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
and then roughened by compressed air or ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﮕﺮﻳﺰ‬
centrifugal blasting with a suitable abrasive grit
(see section 8). Immediately before spraying it ‫ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه زﺑﺮ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
should be free from grease, scale, rust, moisture ‫ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺎده‬،‫ زﻧﮓ‬،‫ رﺳﻮب‬،‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬،‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ آن‬
or other foreign matter. It should be comparable
in roughness with a reference surface produced in ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در زﺑﺮي ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه‬.‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﻋﺎري ﺷﻮد‬
92
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

accordance with Appendix F and should provide ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ﻫ( ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﻮده و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ رﻫﻨﻤﻮد ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ‬
an adequate key for the subsequent sprayed metal
.‫را ﺑﺮاي ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﻌﺪي ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
coating.

9.1.4 Cleaning prior to electroplating ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري‬4-1-9


The part shall be cleaned according to 9.2.4. .‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬4-2-9 ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬

9.2 Steels, Non-Corrosion-Resisting ‫ ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬2-9


9.2.1 Cleaning prior to phosphating and ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﺮدن‬1-2-9
coating
The parts shall be cleaned by one or more of the .‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ روﺷﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
following methods:

a) Degreasing in an organic solvent (see 5 ‫اﻟﻒ( در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﻟﻲ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
section 5). (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
b) Degreasing in an aqueous alkaline solution ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺎ‬5 ‫ب( در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(see section 5) with applied anodic direct ‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ آﻧﺪي ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬
current of desired. Neither cathodic nor
alternating current treatment should be
‫ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻳﻚ از اﻳﻦ دو ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻛﺎﺗﺪي و ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬
used. .‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬

c) Alkaline de-rusting (see 6.5.5). .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5-5-6 ‫ج ( ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ زﻧﮓ )ﺑﻪ‬

d) Blast cleaning (section 8) with grit ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬8 ‫د ( ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
abrasive (It is preferred for high tensile ‫ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﮔﺮﻳﺖ )ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ ﻛﺸﺶ ﺑﺎﻻ‬
steels and some alloy steels).
.(‫و ﺑﺮﺧﻲ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ دارد‬
e) Anodic etching (see 9.4). .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4-9 ‫ﻫ( اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي )ﺑﻪ‬

f) Acid pickling is an inhibited acid solution ‫و ( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪي داراي ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪه )ﺑﻪ‬
(see section 6), is, followed with rinsing ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ‬6 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
prior to phosphating.
.‫آب ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
9.2.2 Cleaning and preparation for hot dip ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري و آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﮔﺎﻟﻮاﻧﻴﺰه‬2-2-9
galvanizing ‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري ﮔﺮم‬
9.2.2.1 Steel (other than castings) (‫ ﻓﻮﻻد )ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ‬1-2-2-9
Preparation shall be carried out using one of the ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮدن ﻳﻜﻲ از دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞﻫﺎي زﻳﺮ‬
following procedures: :‫اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
a) The degreasing procedures described in ‫ و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن‬5 ‫اﻟﻒ( دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
section 5 followed by acid pickling ‫ ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ‬.‫( ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬6 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ در )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(section 6). Where necessary a flux
coating of dried iron salts, zinc
‫ﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﻤﻚ ذوب از ﻧﻤﻜﻬﺎي آﻫﻦ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪه‬
ammonium chloride, or a proprietary flux, ‫ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ آﻣﻮﻧﻴﻢ و روي ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻤﻚ ذوب‬،‫ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
shall be applied. .‫اﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬

b) Abrasive blasting with chilled iron or steel


‫ب( ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آﻫﻦ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪي ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ‬
grit (see section 8). To remove welding ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف‬8 ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
slag or paint. After blasting, the pickling ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺳﺮﺑﺎره ﺟﻮش ﻳﺎ رﻧﮓ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
methods in section 6 may be used and ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬6 ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ در ﻗﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎي‬،‫ﻛﺮدن‬

93
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

where necessary a flux shall be applied. ‫ﺑﻜﺎر رود و ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻤﻚ ذوب اﻋﻤﺎل‬
.‫ﺷﻮد‬
9.2.2.2 Steel castings ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻮﻻدي رﻳﺨﺘﮕﻲ‬2-2-2-9
Preparation shall be carried out using one of the ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﻳﻜﻲ از دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ اﻧﺠﺎم‬
following procedures: :‫ﺷﻮد‬
a) Abrasive blasting with chilled iron or steel ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آﻫﻦ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺪي ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ‬
grit, (section 7), to remove moulding sand -‫ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ رﻳﺨﺘﻪ‬،(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫ﻓﻮﻻدي )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
and iron scale. After blasting, the
methods in section 7 may be used and
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬.‫ﮔﺮي و رﺳﻮب آﻫﻦ را ﺣﺬف ﻣﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
where necessary a flux coating shall be ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر رود و‬7 ‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬،‫ﻛﺮدن‬
applied. ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻻزم اﺳﺖ ﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﻤﻚ ذوب ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
b) Hydrofluoric acid (30% HF) diluted to 2% ‫ ﺗﺎ‬2 ‫ ﺳﻲ درﺻﺪ( رﻗﻴﻖ ﺷﺪه‬HF) ‫ب( اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ‬
to 10% by volume aqueous solution may ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر‬10
be used, followed by hosing with water to
remove any gelatinous products.
‫ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺷﻠﻨﮓ آب ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت‬،‫رود‬
.‫ژﻻﺗﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
9.2.3 Cleaning prior to metal spraying (for ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي )ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ در‬3-2-9
protection against corrosion and high (‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و اﻛﺴﺎﻳﺶ دﻣﺎي ﺑﺎﻻ‬
temperature oxidation)

The surface shall be degreased, (see section 5) ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( و‬5 ‫ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬،‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
and then roughened by compressed air or ‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده ﻳﺎ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﮔﺮﻳﺰ از ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه‬
centrifugal blasting with a suitable abrasive grit
‫ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ از‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ زﺑﺮ ﮔﺮدد )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(see section 8). Immediately before spraying it
shall be free from grease, scale, rust, moisture, or ‫ ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺎده‬،‫ رﻃﻮﺑﺖ‬،‫ رﺳﻮب‬،‫ﭘﺎﺷﺶ آن را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬
other foreign matter. It shall be comparable in ‫ زﺑﺮي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﺪه ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬.‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ ﭘﺎك ﺷﻮد‬
roughness with a reference surface produced in
accordance with Appendix F, and shall provide an ‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )و( ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺷﺪه ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬
adequate key for the subsequent sprayed metal .‫ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻌﺪي را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺳﺎزد‬
coating.

For sheet steel of thickness up to and including ،‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ و ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از آن‬1/6 ‫ﺑﺮاي ورق ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺑﺎ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬
1.6 mm, some relaxation on the degree of ‫ﻣﻘﺪاري ﭼﺸﻢ ﭘﻮﺷﻲ ﺑﺮ روي درﺟﻪ زﺑﺮي ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬
roughness may be agreed between the Company
‫رﺳﺎﻧﺪن اﻧﺤﺮاف در ﺣﻴﻦ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ‬
and contractor in order to minimize distortion
during surface preparation. Distortion can be ‫ اﻧﺤﺮاف را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬.‫ﺷﺮﻛﺖ و ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﺷﻮد‬
reduced by blast cleaning on both sides. .‫ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ در دو ﻃﺮف ﻛﺎﻫﺶ داد‬
9.2.4 Cleaning prior to electroplating ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬4-2-9
The part shall be cleaned as follows: :‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد‬

a) Degreasing with cold solvent (see 5.3), hot ‫ ﺣﻼل داغ‬،(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-5 ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل ﺳﺮد )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
solvent (see 5.2) emulsifiable solvent (see ‫ ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬2-5 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
5.4), detergent cleaning (see 5.5) or steam
cleaning with or without alkaline or solvent
5-5 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬،(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4-5
emulsion (see 5.6) ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪون ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ‬
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬6-5 ‫ﺣﻼل اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮﻧﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
.‫ﺷﻮد‬

94
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

b) Alkaline cleaning (Intermediate cleaning) (‫ب( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ )ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ‬
Intermediate alkaline cleaning removes ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي ﺣﻼل و ﺧﺎك را ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬
solvent residues and residual soil which has ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﺮم ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ دادهﻫﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ‬
been softened by degreasing the operation
.‫ را ﺣﺬف ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬5-5 ‫ﺷﺪه در ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
data are described in section 5.5.

c) Rinse ‫ج( ﺑﺎ آب ﺷﺴﺘﻦ‬


Double rinses are desirable to reduce the ‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻒ ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه در آب‬
concentration of cleaner in the rinse. .‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Warm rinse (60°C) is desirable following ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد( ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬60) ‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب ﮔﺮم‬
alkaline immersion cleaning. In any case, ‫ در ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﻬﻢ زدن آب‬.‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ‬
agitation of the rinse water is desirable, and,
‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ و در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﺮد ﺑﻮدن آب ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﻪ‬
in the case of cold-water rinses, a spray upon
leaving the tank is beneficial. The time of .‫ﻣﺤﺾ ﺧﺎرج ﺷﺪن از ﻣﺨﺰن اﻧﺠﺎم ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ اﺳﺖ‬
rinsing depends in part upon the shape of the ‫ اﻣﺎ‬،‫زﻣﺎن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ اﻧﺪازهاي ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ دارد‬
part, but shall be no less than 10s.
.‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬10 ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
d) Anodic etching according to section 9.4 4-9 ‫د( اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

e) Acid pickling according to section 6 6 ‫ﻫ( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬


The part shall be rinsed in cold water after .‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺳﺮد ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
pickling.

f) Activation ‫و( ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي‬


If electroplating is to be done in alkaline ،‫اﮔﺮ آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻛﺎدﻣﻴﻢ‬
solutions, such as cadmium, copper, tin, or .‫ ﻳﺎ روي اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻌﺪي ﻻزم ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬،‫ ﻗﻠﻊ‬،‫ﻣﺲ‬
zinc, no further treatment shall be necessary.
‫ ﺑﻬﺮ ﺣﺎل‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي آﺑﻜﺎري ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺧﻨﺜﻲ ﻳﺎ اﺳﻴﺪي‬
For nearly neutral or acid electroplating
processes, however, parts shall be immersed. ‫ در دﻣﺎي ﻣﺤﻴﻂ در‬،‫ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬
For 5 to 15 seconds, in a room-temperature, ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ اﺳﻴﺪﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬100 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬50 ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺎوي‬
in solution containing 50 to 100 ml of sulfuric ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻌﺎل ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ آب ﺳﺮد‬.‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
acid. Activated parts shall be rinsed in cold
water. .‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

9.3 Chemical Smoothing Process for Steel ‫ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻮﻻد‬3-9
(RARDE Process) (RARDE ‫)ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
The parts shall be treated as follows: :‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ زﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﻮد‬

a) Degreased with solvents or alkaline. (see ‫ )ﺑﻪ‬.‫اﻟﻒ( ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
section 5). .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
b) Acid dipped using sulfuric acid (see .‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬،‫ب( ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮو ﺑﺮدن در اﺳﻴﺪ‬
section 6) .(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
c) Rinsed thoroughly in cold water. .‫ج( ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻛﺎﻣﻞ در آب ﺳﺮد‬

d) Immersed in an aqueous solution :‫د( ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﺪار ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎوي‬


containing:

Oxalic acid (C2O4H2. 2H2O). 25 g/litre ‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/‫ ﮔﺮم‬25 (C2O4H2.2H2O) ‫اﻛﺰاﻟﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬

95
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Hydrogen peroxide. 13 g/litre, e.g. 40 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬40 ‫ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬/‫ ﮔﺮم‬13 ‫ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﭘﺮوﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
cm3/litre of "100 vols" hydrogen peroxide. .‫ ﺣﺠﻢ " ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﭘﺮوﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬100 ‫ﻣﻜﻌﺐ "از‬
Sulfuric acid, 0.053 cm3/litre ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬/‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬0/053 ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
The solution shall be used at room temperature. ‫ زﻣﺎن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
The time of treatment may be a few minutes or
several hours depending on the application. The
.‫ﭼﻨﺪ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت دارد‬
rate of metal dissolution, for mild steel, is ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﺰ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬1/5 ً‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻮﻻد ﻧﺮم ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺰان اﻧﺤﻼل ﻓﻠﺰ‬
approximately 1/5 mils per hour. The process is ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬.‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
ineffective on corrosion resisting steels and on
low alloy steels containing more than about 1% ‫ درﺻﺪ ﻛﺮوم‬1 ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﻛﻢ آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎوي ﺑﻴﺶ از‬
chromium. .‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻲ اﺛﺮ اﺳﺖ‬
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes quite rapidly so ‫ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﭘﺮوﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ‬
additions equal to the original quantity need to be ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬20 ‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪار اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻻزم ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﺮ‬
added for every 20 minutes of use. The complete
‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان اﻧﺤﻼل‬.‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺼﺮف اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
solution shall be replaced when the rate of
dissolution falls to an unacceptable level. .‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻟﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ آﻣﺪ ﻋﻮض ﺷﻮد‬

9.4 Anodic Etching for Ferrous Metals ‫ اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي ﺑﺮاي ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ‬4-9
Etching of ferrous metals shall be carried out ‫اچ ﻛﺮدن ﻓﻠﺰات آﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻳﻜﻲ از روﺷﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ اﻧﺠﺎم‬
using one of the following methods: :‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
9.4.1 Method A (preferred method, suitable for ‫ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﺎم‬،‫ روش اﻟﻒ )روش ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﻲ‬1-4-9
all parts) (‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬
The parts shall be immersed in an aqueous ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﺪار ﻛﻪ از ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت زﻳﺮ درﺳﺖ‬
solution of the following make-up composition:
:‫ﺷﺪه ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺷﻮد‬
Sulfuric acid (d=1.84) 300 cm3/litr ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬300 ‫( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬d=1.84)
The solution strength is maintained by periodic ‫ﻗﺪرت ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر‬
additions of sulfuric acid to keep the relative
density d>1.30.
.‫ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﻮد‬d>1/3 ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ‬

The voltage shall be set so that the initial current ‫وﻟﺘﺎژ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ اي ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اوﻟﻴﻪ‬
density is not less than 1000 A/m2 (4 to 8 volts) ‫ وﻟﺖ( ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ و ﻣﻘﺪار‬8 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬4) ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬1000 ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
and is preferably twice this. The temperature shall
‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬25 ‫ دﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﺎً از‬.‫ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﻲ دو ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ‬
preferably not exceed 25°C. but for removal of
scale a temperature of up to 70°C may be used. ‫ درﺟﻪ‬70 ‫ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻧﻨﻤﺎﻳﺪ اﻣﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﺳﻮب دﻣﺎي ﺗﺎ‬
An inhibitor which is stable in the solution may ‫ اﮔﺮ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ زﻧﮓ و‬.‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
be added, if desired, to reduce formation of smut
and absorption of hydrogen by the steel, but ‫ﺟﺬب ﻫﻴﺪروژن ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎزدارﻧﺪهاي ﭘﺎﻳﺪار‬
wetting agents shall be avoided as they promote ‫ اﻣﺎ از ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺧﻴﺲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬،‫در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
absorption of hydrogen.
.‫ﻛﻪ ﺟﺬب ﻫﻴﺪروژن را ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﮔﺮدد‬
Removal of scale can be made easier by prior ‫ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﺳﻮب را ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬
soaking in an alkaline solution of sodium ‫ داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ‬.‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﮔﻠﻮﻛﻮﻧﺎت ﺗﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺟﻮش ﺑﻪ راﺣﺘﻲ اﻧﺠﺎم داد‬
gluconate at up to boiling point. The current
‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﺳﻮب را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ‬
density required to remove scale can be reduced
by interrupting the current for a few seconds from .‫ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺑﺮاي ﭼﻨﺪ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ وﻗﺖ ﻳﻜﺒﺎر ﻛﺎﻫﺶ داد‬
time to time. If current interruption is to be used 1400 ‫اﮔﺮ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن روي ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﺤﻜﺎم ﻛﺸﺸﻲ‬
on steels of tensile strength 1400 N/mm2 and
stronger, a safe procedure shall be established to ‫ ﻳﻚ‬،‫ﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ و ﻗﻮي ﺗﺮ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
the satisfaction of the purchaser. .‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺑﺮاي رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺧﺮﻳﺪار ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﮔﺮدد‬

96
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

9.4.2 Method B ‫ روش ب‬2-4-9


The parts shall be immersed in an aqueous ‫( ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮاد زﻳﺮ‬d= 1/74) ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﻫﺎي آﺑﻲ‬
solution (d=1.74) containing: :‫ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺷﻮد‬
a) Sulfuric acid (d=1.84), 750 cm3/litre with ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬750 ،(d= 1/84) ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
or without a small addition of chromic acid. .‫ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪون اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻘﺪار ﻛﻤﻲ ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
b) The solution strength is maintained by ‫ب( ﻗﺪرت ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
periodic additions of sulfuric acid to keep the .‫ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﻮد‬d>1/70 ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ‬
relative density d >1.70.

c) An initial current density of at least 1000 ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ‬1000 ‫ج( داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اوﻟﻴﻪاي دﺳﺖ ﻛﻢ‬
A/m2 (4 to 12 volts) shall be applied. The 25 ‫ اﻣﺎ دﻣﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ از‬.‫ وﻟﺖ( ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﮔﺮدد‬12 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬4) ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬
temperature shall not exceed 25°C.
.‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
9.4.3 Method C ‫ روش ج‬3-4-9
An alternative aqueous solution (d= 1.22) for use
on stainless steel prior to a nickel strike, shall ‫( ﺑﺮاي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده روي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ‬d=1/22) ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮلﻫﺎي آﺑﻲ دﻳﮕﺮ‬
contain: :‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺎوي‬،‫ﻧﺰن ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬
Sulfuric acid (d=1.84), 200 cm3/litre ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬200 ،(d=1/84) ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
The solution strength is maintained by periodical ‫ﻗﺪرت ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮر ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬
additions of sulfuric acid to keep the relative
density d >1.20
.‫ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬d>1/20 ‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ‬

A current density of 2000 A/m2 to 2500 A/m2 ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ‬2500 ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺗﺎ‬2000‫داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬
(approximately 6 volts) shall be applied. The ‫ درﺟﻪ‬20 ‫ دﻣﺎ از‬.‫ وﻟﺖ( ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬6 ً‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
temperature shall not exceed 20°C .
.‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺸﻮد‬
Immersion time 1 minute to 3 minutes. .‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ اﺳﺖ‬3 ‫زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻳﻚ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺗﺎ‬

Notes on anodic etching: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎي روي اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي‬

1) Contamination of the solutions with chloride .‫( از آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺷﻮد‬1
shall be avoided.

2) The essential requirement of anodic etching ‫ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﻧﻤﻮدن آن‬،‫( اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت اﺳﺎﺳﻲ اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي ﻓﻮﻻد‬2
of steel, is to render the steel passive, a :‫ ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻮارد زﻳﺮ ﻧﺸﺎن داده ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬
condition that will be indicated by:

a) A sharp rise in voltage between the part .‫اﻟﻒ( ﺑﺎﻻ رﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ وﻟﺘﺎژ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ و ﻛﺎﺗﺪ‬
and the cathode.

b) A corresponding fall in current and ‫ب( اﻓﺖ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻇﺮ در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن و‬

c) The onset of gas evolution from the part. .‫ج( ﺷﺮوع ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻲ ﺧﺮوج ﮔﺎز از ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‬

3) Passivity shall be maintained until the ‫( ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي ﺗﺎ رﺳﻴﺪن ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ رﻧﮓ ﺧﺎﻛﺴﺘﺮي‬3
surface has acquired a light grey colour, free .‫ ﻋﺎري از ﻟﻜﻪ ﺳﻴﺎه ﺣﻔﻆ ﮔﺮدد‬،‫روﺷﻦ‬
from dark smut.

4) The parts may be withdrawn for ‫ و در‬،‫( ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺮاي آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺧﺎرج ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬4
examination, and if necessary, replaced in .‫ﺻﻮرت ﻟﺰوم ﺑﺮاي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻌﺪي در ﺣﻤﺎم ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
the bath for further treatment.

97
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

5) Anodic etching may not be effective and may ‫( اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ و ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬5
cause pitting on the inner surfaces of tubular ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺣﻔﺮهاي در روي ﺳﻄﻮح داﺧﻠﻲ‬
parts unless auxiliary cathodes are
employed. Where it is desired to clean only
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻟﻮﻟﻪاي ﺷﻮد ﻣﮕﺮ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻛﺎﺗﺪﻫﺎي ﻛﻤﻜﻲ ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬
the external surfaces, the part shall be ‫ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺮدن ﺳﻄﻮح داﺧﻠﻲ‬.‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
plugged to prevent ingress of the electrolyte. ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ را ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از داﺧﻞ‬،‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮب اﺳﺖ‬
.‫ﺷﺪن اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺖ درﭘﻮش ﺷﻮد‬
9.5 Cleaning of Shop Primed Steel Surfaces ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﺪه ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ‬5-9
Prior to Over Coating ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
9.5.1 Any primed surface which has been exposed ‫ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺷﺪه ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺶ از ﭼﻨﺪ روز در ﻣﻌﺮض‬1-5-9
for more than a few days will have become ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ آﻟﻮده ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺷﺪه و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺎزه ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮد و ﻗﺒﻞ از‬
contaminated and shall be cleaned down with
fresh water and allowed to dry before
.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪن داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
overcoating.

9.5.2 Prefabrication primer or blast primer 6 ‫ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺟﺮا ﻳﺎ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از‬2-5-9
exposed longer than 6 months to the atmosphere ‫ﻣﺎه در ﻣﻌﺮض اﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ‬
shall be removed by blast cleaning before
applying the specified Coating system.
.‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ زدوده ﺷﻮد‬

9.5.3 Prefabrication primer or blast primer less ‫ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺟﺮا ﻳﺎ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از ﺷﺶ‬3-5-9
than 6 months old and still in a good condition ‫ﻣﺎه ﻛﻪ ﻫﻨﻮز در وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺧﻮب ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ آب اوﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﺎزه‬
shall be cleaned thoroughly with clean fresh water
before applying the paint system and shall only be
‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ رﻧﮓ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه و ﻓﻘﻂ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬
removed if they are not compatible with the ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺬف ﺷﻮد ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ رﻧﮓ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻌﺪي ﺳﺎزﮔﺎر‬
subsequently specified paint system. .‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
9.5.4 If it is necessary to protect austenitic ‫ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ از ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻدي زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن آﺳﺘﻨﻴﺘﻲ‬4-5-9
stainless steel surfaces during transport and ‫ از ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎده ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ‬،‫ﺣﻴﻦ ﺣﻤﻞ و ﻧﻘﻞ و اﻧﺒﺎﺷﺖ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
storage at site, a proofed material, e.g. plastic
sheeting shall be used, unless the surfaces are
‫ ﻣﮕﺮ آﻧﻜﻪ ﺳﻄﻮح‬،‫ ﻣﺜﻞ ورق ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺷﺪه‬
provided with a prefabrication primer or blast ‫ﺑﺎ آﺳﺘﺮي ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺟﺮا ﻳﺎ آﺳﺘﺮي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ‬
primer (see Appendix B of IPS-E-TP-100) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬IPS-E-TP-100‫ب از‬
9.5.5 Shop-primed surfaces shall be cleaned ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح آﺳﺘﺮ ﺷﺪه ﻛﺎرﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﻻﻳﻪ‬5-5-9
thoroughly with clean fresh water before applying .‫ﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
the subsequent layers.

9.5.6 The cleaning and patch painting of damage ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري و ﻟﻜﻪ ﮔﻴﺮي رﻧﮓ ﻧﻘﺎط آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪه و‬6-5-9
spots and weld areas shall be in addition to the ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪه‬
complete specified Coating system.
.‫ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد‬
9.5.7 If previously Coated pipework is to be cut ‫ ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻛﺸﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ در‬7-5-9
and welded on site, all Coatings must first be ‫ اﺑﺘﺪا ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﺎم ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ‬،‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﺑﺮﻳﺪه و ﺟﻮش ﺷﻮد‬
removed from the area of welded joint.
.‫اﺗﺼﺎل ﺟﻮش ﺷﺪه ﺟﺪا ﺷﻮد‬
9.5.8 Primed and Coated surfaces which have ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح آﺳﺘﺮي و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎم ﻛﺎﻻي ﺣﻤﻞ‬8-5-9
been exposed to marine environments including ‫ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﻛﺸﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻫﺎي درﻳﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻮدهاﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ‬
shipment, will be contaminated with salt and shall
be lightly wire brushed, then washed with fresh
‫ﻧﻤﻚ آﻟﻮده ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ آراﻣﻲ‬
water before overcoating. .‫ﺑﺮس ﺳﻴﻤﻲ زده و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺎزه ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

98
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

9.5.9 Although zinc rich primers are very ‫ ﺑﺎ وﺟﻮد اﻳﻨﻜﻪ آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﻏﻨﻲ از روي در ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از‬9-5-9
effective in preventing rusting, extended exposure ‫ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ‬،‫ ﺗﺪاوم در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﻮدن‬،‫زﻧﮓ زدن ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
develops a surface contaminated of zinc-corrosion
products which can impair the adhesion of
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ روي را ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ داده ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ‬
subsequent coats. Zinc rich primers, both organic .‫اﻣﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﺑﻌﺪي آﺳﻴﺐ رﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬
and inorganic, which have been exposed long ‫ ﻫﻢ آﻟﻲ و ﻫﻢ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻤﺪت ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬،‫آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي ﻏﻨﻲ از روي‬
enough to develop white surface staining, shall be
prepared for overcoating by one of the following ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫در ﻣﻌﺮض ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻟﻜﻪ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ روﺷﻦ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
methods: :‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺑﻌﺪي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﻜﻲ از روﺷﻬﺎي زﻳﺮ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺷﻮد‬
a) Light blast cleaning and dust removal. ‫اﻟﻒ( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ و ﺣﺬف ﻏﺒﺎر‬
b) Wire brushing, followed by water washing. ‫ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ آب‬،‫ب ( ﺑﺮس زدن ﺳﻴﻤﻲ‬
c) Scrubbing with fresh water, using bristle ‫ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﻣﻮﻳﻲ‬،‫ج ( ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺎزه‬
brushes.

9.5.10 Damaged surfaces should be repaired with ‫ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻫﻤﭙﻮﺷﺎﻧﻲ‬0/1 ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰان‬10-5-9
0.10 m. overlap. .‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
10. SURFACE PREPARATION OF ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬-10
STAINLESS STEEL
For preparation of stainless steel prior to metal ‫ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي و رﻧﮓ‬
spraying, and painting, parts shall be cleaned by ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ روش ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ‬،‫آﻣﻴﺰي‬
one or more of the following methods as
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد و‬
appropriate with regards to the requirements of
the Coating to be applied and the surface ‫ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد‬.‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر را ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
condition of the substrate. For preparation of .‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7-10 ‫زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
stainless steel prior to electroplating see 10.7.

10.1 Degreasing (See Section 5) of Stainless 5 ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ از ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬1-10
Steel (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
Prior to descaling, degreasing of stainless steel ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ از ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬،‫ﻗﺒﻞ از رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ‬
shall be applied according to section 5. The
degreasing material e.g alkaline, emulsion, ،‫ ﻣﻮاد ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زدا ﻣﺜﻞ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬.‫ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
solvent (cold, hot and vapor forms) synthetic ‫ داغ و اﻧﻮاع ﺑﺨﺎر( ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه‬،‫ ﺣﻼل )ﺳﺮد‬،‫اﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﻮن‬
detergent, steam and cleaning agents can be used. .‫ ﺑﺨﺎر و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه را ﻣﻲﺗﻮان اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻧﻤﻮد‬،‫ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﻲ‬
For effectiveness of preparation the cleaned ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﻮدن آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه را ﺑﺎ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي‬
surfaces shall be inspected with tests of freedom ‫( و آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰي ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه‬7-5) ‫ﻋﺎري از ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬
from grease (5.7) and tests of cleanliness for
.‫( ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬5-8)
blasted surfaces (8.5).

10.2 Cleaning of Welds and Weld-Joint Areas ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ و اﺗﺼﺎل ﺟﻮﺷﻲ‬2-10
The joint area and surrounding metal for several ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﻣﺤﻞ اﺗﺼﺎل و ﻓﻠﺰ اﻃﺮاف ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده‬
centimeters back from the joint preparation, on ،‫ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻋﻘﺐ ﺗﺮ از ﻫﺮ دو ﻃﺮف ﺟﻮش‬،‫ﺳﺎزي اﺗﺼﺎل‬
both faces of the weld, shall be cleaned
‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮس زدن ﺑﺎ‬.‫ﻓﻮراً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
immediately before starting to weld. Cleaning
may be accomplished by brushing with a clean ‫ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺪون‬،‫ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮس ﻓﻮﻻدي زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﭘﺎﻛﻴﺰه‬
stainless steel brush or scrubbing with a clean, ‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم اﺗﺼﺎل‬.‫ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ دو اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺮز ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼل‬‫ﭘ‬
lint-free cloth moistened with solvent, or both.
When the joint has cooled after welding, remove ‫ ﮔﺪاز آور‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺳﺮد ﺷﺪن ﺟﻮش ﺗﻤﺎم ﭘﺎﺷﺶﻫﺎي ﺟﻮش‬
all accessible weld spatter, welding flux, scale, ‫ رﮔﻪﻫﺎي ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ دﺳﺘﺮس و ﻏﻴﺮو ﺑﺎ ﺳﻨﮓ‬،‫ رﺳﻮب ﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺟﻮش‬
arc strikes, etc., by grinding. According to the
‫ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد ﻣﻘﺪاري رﺳﻮب ﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﭙﺮ‬،‫زدن ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
application, some scale or heat temper may be
99
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

permissible on the nonprocess side of weld, but ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ روي ﺳﻤﺖ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪي ﺟﻮش ﻣﺠﺎز‬
shall be removed from the process side if
.‫ اﻣﺎ در ﺻﻮرت اﻣﻜﺎن از ﺳﻤﺖ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
possible. If chemical cleaning of the process side
of the weld is deemed necessary, all precautions ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﻤﺖ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪي ﺟﻮش ﺑﻨﻈﺮ ﻻزم‬
must be observed. Austenitic stainless steels in ‫ ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬.‫ ﺗﻤﺎم اﺣﺘﻴﺎطﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ رﻋﺎﻳﺖ ﮔﺮدد‬،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
the sensitized condition shall not be descaled with
nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution. Welds shall be ‫آﺳﻨﺘﻴﺘﻲ در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﺣﺴﺎس ﺷﺪه ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬
cleaned as described in Table 12. ‫ ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬.‫ ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬-
.‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬12 ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت ﺟﺪول‬

TABLE 12 - CLEANING WITH CHEMICAL SOLUTION


‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬- 12 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
TREATMENT
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
Alloy Condition
Temperature,
‫آﻟﻴﺎژ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ Code Solution, Volume, %A Time,
°F (°C)
‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬،‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬
‫دﻣﺎ‬
200, 300, and 400 series (except free-
machining alloys), precipitation hardening Purpose-general Citric acid, 1 weight% plus, NaNO3, 1
and managing alloys cleaning fully weight%
annealed only ،NaNo3 ‫ ﻳﻚ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬،‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬ 70 60
‫ )ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬400 ‫ و‬300 ،200 ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻬﺎي‬ N
‫ﻫﺪف ﻛﻠﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬ (21) ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻪ‬،(‫ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻜﺎري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬
‫ ﻓﻘﻂ آﻧﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬،‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺴﺖ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬
Same Same Ammonium citrate, 5-10 weight % 120-160 10-60
O
‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫آﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮم ﺳﻴﺘﺮات‬ (49-71) ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
Assemblies of stainless and carbon steel
(for example, heat exchanger with stainless Inhibited solution of hydroxyacetic acid, 2 200
steel tubes and carbon steel shell) weght % and formic acid, 1 weght % (93)
Sensitized 6h
‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن و ﻓﻮﻻد ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ )ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎس‬ P 2 ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﺪه اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻲ اﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬ 200 ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬6
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﻣﺒﺪﻟﻬﺎي ﺣﺮارﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺎي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن و‬ ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬1 ‫درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ و اﺳﻴﺪ ﻓﺮﻣﻴﻚ‬ (93)
(‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ ﻓﻮﻻد ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ‬
Inhibited ammonia- neutralized solution of
EDTA (ethylene diamene-tetraacetic acid)
followed by hot-water rinse and dip in
solution of 10 ppm ammonium hydroxide
plus 100 ppm hydrazine Up to 250
Same Same ‫ ﺧﺘﺜﻲ ﺷﺪه از‬- ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﻣﻮﻧﻴﺎك ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﺪه‬ 6h
Q (121)
‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬6
‫ )اﺗﻴﻠﻦ دي آﻣﻴﻦ ﺗﺘﺮا اﺳﺘﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ( ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل‬EDTA (121) 250 ‫ﺗﺎ‬
‫آن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب ﮔﺮم و ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
100ppm ‫ آﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮم ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬10ppm
‫ﻫﻴﺪرازﻳﻦ‬

10.3 Acid Pickling of Stainless Steel (See also 6 ‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬3-10
Section 6)
(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
10.3.1 Suggested solution contact times and ‫ زﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﺎس ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه و دﻣﺎﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬1-3-10
solution temperatures for descaling of various
types of stainless steel are given in Table 13. ‫ اراﺋﻪ‬13 ‫ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ اﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن در ﺟﺪول‬
.‫ﮔﺮدﻳﺪه اﺳﺖ‬

100
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 13 - ACID PICKLING OF STAINLESS STEEL


‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬- 13 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
TREATMENT
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
Alloy1 Condition Temperature, Time,
(1)
‫آﻟﻴﺎژ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ Code Solution, Volume, % 2 °F (°C) Minutes
‫ﻛﺪ‬ (2)
‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬،‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫ ﻓﺎرﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬،‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬
(‫)ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
200, 300, and 400 series, precipitation H2SO4, 8-11%3
hardening, and maraging alloys (except free- Follow by treatment D or F, Annex
machining alloys) A2, as appropriate
fully annealed only 150-180 5-45
‫ ﺳــﺨﺖ ﻛــﺮدن ﺗــﻪ ﻧﺸــﺴﺖ و‬،400 ،300 ،200 ‫ﺳــﺮﻳﻬﺎي‬ A ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن‬11 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬8،‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻂ آﻧﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ (66-82) MAX4
‫آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﻨﻨﺪه )ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺜﻨﺎي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫـﺎﻳﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺑﺮاﺣﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ‬2 ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت د ﻳﺎ و ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ‬
(‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻜﺎري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ .‫ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
200 and 300 series; 400 series containing cr
16% or more; precipitation- hardening alloys 70-140 max
(except free-machining alloys) HNO3, 15-25 % plus HF, 1-8 %5,6
fully annealed only ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬25 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬15 ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬HNO3
‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬
16 ‫ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫــﺎي ﺣــﺎوي ﻛــﺮوم‬،400 ‫ و‬300 ،200 ‫ﺳــﺮﻳﻬﺎي‬ B 5-304
‫ﻓﻘﻂ آﻧﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ 6‫ و‬5 (21-60)
‫ﺳﺨﺖ ﻛـﺮدن رﺳـﻮﺑﻲ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫـﺎ )ﺑﺎﺳـﺘﺜﻨﺎي‬،‫درﺻﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ درﺻﺪ‬8 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1 ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ‬HF
(‫آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻜﺎري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
all free-machining alloys and 400 series HNO3, 10-15 % plus HF ½ - 1½%5,6 70 (up to 140
containing less than cr 16% with caution)
‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﺑـﻞ‬400 ‫ و‬300 ،200 ‫ﺗﻤﺎم ﺳﺮﻳﻬﺎي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي‬ fully annealed only ‫ﺗﺎ‬ 1
HF ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬15 ‫ﺗﺎ‬10 HNO3 ‫ ﺑﺎ‬140 ‫ )ﺗﺎ‬70
‫ﻓﻘﻂ آﻧﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ C 2 5-304
‫ درﺻـﺪ ﻣـﻲ‬16 ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻜﺎري ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺣﺎوي ﻛـﺮم ﻛﻤﺘـﺮ از‬ (‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎط‬
.‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ 6 ‫ و‬5 ‫ درﺻﺪ‬1 1
2

1) This table is also applicable to the cast ‫( اﻳﻦ ﺟﺪول ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت رﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﮔﺮي‬1
grades equivalent to the families of ‫ﻣﻌﺎدل ﺑﺎ ﺧﺎﻧﻮاده ﻣﻮاد ﻛﺎر ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺷﺪه ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬
wrought materials listed.
.‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
2) Solution prepared from reagents of ‫( ﻣﺤﻠﻮل از واﻛﻨﺸﮕﺮﻫﺎي ﺑﺎ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ زﻳﺮ آﻣﺎده‬2
following weight %; H2SO4, 98; HNO3, . %; H2SO4, 98; HNO3, 67; HF, 70 ‫ﺷﺪه اﻧﺪ‬
67; HF, 70.

3) Tight scale may be removed by a dip in ‫( رﺳﻮب ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪه ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در اﻳﻦ‬3
this solution for a few minutes followed by ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﻤﺪت ﭼﻨﺪ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب‬
water rinse and nitric-hydrofluoric acid
treatment as noted.
‫ ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﻤﺎﻧﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ‬- ‫و ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬
.‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﮔﺮدﻳﺪ ﺣﺬف ﮔﺮدد‬
4) Minimum contact times necessary to ‫( ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ زﻣﺎن‬4
obtain the desired surface should be used ‫ﺗﻤﺎس ﻻزم ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر‬
in order to prevent over-pickling. Tests
should be made to establish correct
‫ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺮﻗﺮاري دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎي ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬.‫رود‬
procedures for specific applications. .‫ﻣﻌﻴﻦ آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

5) For reasons of convenience and handling ،‫( ﺑﻪ دﻻﻳﻞ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ و ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺷﺪن اﻳﻤﻨﻲ در ﺣﻤﻞ و ﻧﻘﻞ‬5
safety, commercial formulations ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﺗﺠﺎري ﺣﺎوي ﻧﻤﻚ ﻫﺎي ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬
containing fluoride salts may be found
useful in place of HF for preparing nitric-
‫ ﺑﺮاي آﻣﺎده ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎي ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬HF ‫اﺳﺖ ﺑﺠﺎي‬
hydrofluoric acid solutions. .‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ داده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬-‫ ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ‬-

6) After pickling and water rinsing, an ‫( ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و آب ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﻲ‬6
aqueous caustic permanganate solution 10 ‫ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت ﺣﺎوي ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
101
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

containing NaOH, 10 weight % and 71) ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬4 ‫درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ و ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﭘﺮﻣﻨﮕﻨﺎت‬
KMnO4, 4 weight %, (71 to 82°C) 5 to 60
min, may be used as a final dip for
‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬60 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد( ﺑﻤﺪت‬82 ‫ﺗﺎ‬
removal of smut, followed by thorough ،‫اﺳﺖ ﺑﻌﻨﻮان ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺬف زﻧﮓ ﺳﻴﺎه‬
water rinsing and drying. .‫ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﺴﺘﻦ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
10.3.2 For removing light scale from austenitic ‫ ﺑﺮاي زدودن رﺳﻮب ﺳﺒﻚ از ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬2-3-10
stainless steel suggested solution, given as :‫آﺳﺘﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﺷﺪه در زﻳﺮ آﻣﺪه اﺳﺖ‬
follows:

-Ferric sulfate liquor (40% by weight) (d=1.5) (d=1/5) (‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬40) ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻓﺮﻳﻚ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت‬-
200-300 cm3/litre ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬300-200
-Hydrofluoric acid (40% by weight) (‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬40) ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-
50-75 cm3/litre ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬75-50

-Temperature 60-70°C ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬70-60 ‫دﻣﺎ‬-

-Time 2-30 minutes ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬30-2 ‫زﻣﺎن‬-

10.3.3 Over pickling must be avoided continuous ‫ از اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺷﻮد در ﻣﻌﺮض‬3-3-10
exposure to pickling solution for more than 30 ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬30 ‫ﺑﻮدن ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺶ از‬
minutes not recommended. The item shall be
drained and rinsed after 30 minutes and examined
‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ و ﺷﺴﺘﻪ‬30 ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬.‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
to check the effectiveness of the treatment. Most ‫ ﺑﻴﺶ از ﻫﻤﻪ‬.‫ﺷﺪه و ﺑﺮاي ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻛﺎرآﻳﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
pickling solution will loosen weld and heat ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ رﺳﻮب ﺟﻮش و ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﺮارﺗﻲ را ﺳﺴﺖ‬
treating scale but many not remove them
completely. ‫ اﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از اﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﻃﺮف‬.‫ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﻛﺮد‬
.‫ﻧﻤﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬

10.3.4 After chemical descaling, surface must be


‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬4-3-10
thoroughly rinsed to remove residual chemicals, a ،‫زدودن ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﮔﺮدد‬
neutralization step is sometimes necessary before ‫ﮔﺎﻫﻲ اوﻗﺎت ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﻳﻚ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ‬
final rinsing. To minimize staining, surfaces must ‫ ﺧﺸﻚ‬،‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺤﺪاﻗﻞ رﺳﺎﻧﺪ زﻧﮓ‬.‫ﺳﺎزي ﻧﻴﺰ ﻻزم ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
not be permitted to dry between successive steps
‫ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻄﻮح ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﭘﻴﺎﭘﻲ رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ اﺳﻴﺪي و ﺷﺴﺘﻦ‬
of the acid descaling and rinsing procedure and
‫ﺑﺎ آب ﻣﺠﺎز ﻧﺒﻮده و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﺴﺘﻦ‬
thorough drying shall follow the final water rinse.
(see also 6.7.2). ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬2-7-6 ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ آب ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
.(‫ﺷﻮد‬
10.4 Manual Cleaning of Stainless Steel (See 7 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬4-10
Section 7) (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
10.4.1 Manual cleaning methods include power ،‫ روﺷﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮس زدن ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬1-4-10
brushing, abrasive with coated abrasive tools, ‫ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن و‬،‫ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داده ﺷﺪه‬
grinding and chipping are used for descaling of
stainless steel surfaces. Grinding is usually the
‫ﺗﺮاﺷﻴﺪن ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﺳﻮب ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ‬
most effective means of removing localized scale ‫ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺆﺛﺮي ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﺳﻮب‬.‫رود‬
such as that which result from welding (see 10.2). 2-10‫ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
10.4.2 Particular care must be taken to avoid ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ دﻗﺖ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ در روﺷﻬﺎي دﺳﺘﻲ از آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ‬2-4-10
damage by manual methods when descaling thin ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﺷﺪه و ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ رواداري‬،‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎي ﻧﺎزك‬
section, polished surfaces and close tolerance
102
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

parts. After manual descaling, surfaces should be ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از‬.‫ﻧﺰدﻳﻚ دارﻧﺪ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
cleaned by scrubbing with hot water and fiber
‫ ﺳﻄﻮح را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب داغ و‬،‫رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ دﺳﺘﻲ‬
brushes, followed by rinsing with clean hot water.
.‫ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺑﺎ آب داغ ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي اﻟﻴﺎﻓﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮده‬
10.4.3 Grinding wheels shall not contain iron, ‫ ﻳﺎ‬،‫ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ آﻫﻦ‬،‫ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﺳﻨﮓ زﻧﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﺎوي آﻫﻦ‬3-4-10
iron oxide, zinc, or other undesirable materials .‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻮاد ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
that may cause contamination of the metal
surface.

Grinding wheel, abrasive material and wire ً‫ ﻣﺎده ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه و ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ‬،‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت ﺳﻨﮓ زﻧﻲ‬
brushes previously used on other metals shall not ‫روي ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻓﻠﺰات ﺑﻜﺎر رﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ را ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ روي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬
be used on stainless steel.
.‫ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮد‬
Wire brushes shall be of a stainless steel which is ‫ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﺳﻴﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از ﺟﻨﺲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﺮده ﻛﻪ از ﻟﺤﺎظ‬
equal in corrosion resistance to the material being ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده اي ﻛﻪ روي آن ﻛﺎر ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬
worked on.
.‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
10.5 Abrasive Blasting of Stainless Steel (See ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬5-10
also Section 8) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
Clean, previously unused glass beads or iron-free ‫داﻧﻪﻫﺎي ﺷﻴﺸﻪاي ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﻠﻴﺲ ﻋﺎري از آﻫﻦ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
silica or alumina sand are recommended for
abrasive blasting. Steel shot or grit is not ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ ﻗﺒﻼً ﺑﻜﺎر ﻧﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﻛﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻮده‬
recommended because of the possibility of ‫ ﺳﺎﭼﻤﻪ ﻓﻮﻻدي ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﺳﻨﮓ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ‬.‫ﺳﺎﻳﺸﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ‬
embedding iron particles. .‫اﻣﻜﺎن ﺟﺎﺳﺎزي ذرات آﻫﻨﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
After blasting, surfaces shall be cleaned by ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب داغ‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
scrubbing with hot water and fiber-brushes, ‫و ﺑﺮسﻫﺎي اﻟﻴﺎﻓﻲ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮده و ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﺑﺎ آب داغ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬
followed by rinsing with clean, hot water.
.‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺷﻮد‬
10.6 Final Cleaning ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬6-10
If proper care has been taken in earlier fabrication
and cleaning, final cleaning may consist of little ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬،‫اﮔﺮ در اﺟﺮا و ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اوﻟﻴﻪ دﻗﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
more than scrubbing with hot water or hot water ‫ﻛﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﺎ آب داغ ﻳﺎ آب‬
and detergent (such as trisodium phosphate, TSP)
‫( ﺑﺎ‬TSP،‫داغ و ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه )ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺗﺮي ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻓﺴﻔﺎت‬
using fiber brushes.
.‫ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي اﻟﻴﺎﻓﻲ ﻛﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Detergent washing must be followed by a hot ‫ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل ﻳﻚ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﺎ آب داغ ﺟﻬﺖ‬
water rinse to remove residual chemicals, spot ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺮدن ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ‬،‫زدودن ﻣﻮاد ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
cleaning to remove localized contamination may
‫ﺣﺬف آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﭘﺎك ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ‬
be accomplished by wiping with a clean solvent-
moistened cloth. .‫ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬، ‫ﭘﺎرﭼﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ آﻏﺸﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻼل‬

10.7 Passivation* of Stainless Steel ‫ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬7-10


When the stainless steel parts are to be used for ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ از ﻛﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﺮاي ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ‬
applications where corrosion resistance is a prime ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺖ در ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻳﻚ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺑﺮاي رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ‬
factor to achieve satisfactory performance and
‫ ﻳﺎ‬،‫اﺟﺮاي رﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ و اﻟﺰاﻣﺎت ﻛﺎرﺑﺮي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
service requirements, or where product
contamination must be avoided, passivation ‫ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ از آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺟﺘﻨﺎب ﺷﻮد ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي‬
followed by thorough rinsing several times with ‫ﭘﺲ از ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎر ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺎ آب داغ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻌﺪ‬
hot water and drying thoroughly after the final
water rinse is recommended, whenever practical. -‫ ﻫﺮ زﻣﺎن ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ‬،‫از ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ آب‬
.‫ﮔﺮدد‬

103
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

This treatment may be essential if iron or iron ‫ از ﺳﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ‬،‫اﮔﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل آﻫﻦ ﻳﺎ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ آﻫﻦ‬
oxide remains embedded in the surface e.g. from ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬،‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
abrasive blasting or from pickling.
.‫اﺳﺖ اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺿﺮوري ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
A suitable process consists of immersion for 10 to 30 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬10 ‫ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺑﺮاي‬
30 minutes at 20-50°C in a solution made up to ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬50 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬20 ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در‬
contain:
:‫ﺷﺪه ﺣﺎوي‬
Nitric acid (d=1.42) 200 to 300 cm3/litre (d=1/42) ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬300 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬200
.‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬
Sodium dichromate (Na2Cr2O7, 2H2O) 25 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬25 (Na2 Cr2 O7, 2H20) ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ دي ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت‬
(which may be omitted when "passivating" ‫)ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم "ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي" ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن‬
austenitic stainless steels).
.‫آﺳﺘﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﺻﺮﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﺷﻮد‬
This treatment shall be followed by rinsing in ‫اﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ در آب و در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﻮﻻدﻫﺎي ﻓﺮﻳﺘﻲ‬
water and, in the case of ferritic and martensitic ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬30 ‫ ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﺳﺎزي ﺣﺪود‬،‫و ﻣﺎرﺗﻨﺰﻳﺘﻲ‬
steels, by immersion for approximately 30
65 ‫ ﮔﺮم در ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ دي ﻛﺮﻣﺎت در دﻣﺎي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ‬50 ‫ﺣﺎوي‬
minutes in a solution containing 50 g/litre of
sodium dichromate at approximately 65°C and .‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد و ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ در آب دﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
final rinsing in water.

10.8 Preparation of Stainless Steel for ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري‬8-10
Electroplating ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
Parts shall be cleaned by one or more of the ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ روش زﻳﺮ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﻲ‬
following methods as appropriate:
.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
10.8.1 Degreasing (See Section 5) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬1-8-10
With applied anodic direct current if desired. ‫ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬.‫اﮔﺮ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ آﻧﺪي اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
Neither cathodic nor alternating current .‫ﻛﺎﺗﺪي و ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬
treatments shall be used.

10.8.2 Alkaline pickling (see 6.5.5) ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬5-5-6 ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬2-8-10
(‫ﺷﻮد‬
10.8.3 Blast cleaning (see section 8) ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬8 ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬3-8-10
(‫ﺷﻮد‬
This method, especially blasting, with grits leaves ‫ ﺑﺨﺼﻮص روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﻳﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ را‬،‫اﻳﻦ روش‬
the surface very readily corrodible, and further
processing shall be given without any delay. ‫ و ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺪي‬،‫ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ آﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻮرده ﺷﺪن ﻣﻲﺳﺎزد‬
.‫ﺑﺪون ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
10.8.4 Anodic etching ‫ اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي‬4-8-10
Anodic etching in a sulfuric acid solution (see 4-9 ‫اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻧﺪي در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
9-4), subject to close control. Additionally, parts ‫ ﺑﻌﻼوه ﻗﻄﻌﺎت‬.‫ ﻣﺸﺮوط ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮل دﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
shall be connected and the current switched on
‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻬﻢ وﺻﻞ ﺷﺪه و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﺷﺪن در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬
before the parts are immersed in the solution, and
after treatment the parts shall be withdrawn ‫ و ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻗﻄﻊ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬،‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮار ﺷﻮد‬
rapidly before the current is finally switched off, ‫ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ‬.‫ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻴﺮون آورده و ﻓﻮراً ﺷﺴﺖ‬
and washed immediately. The sulfuric acid shall
at no time contain more than 11ppm oxidizable ‫ ﻣﻮاد ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺷﺪن ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﮔﻮﮔﺮد دي‬11 ppm ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ از‬
material calculated as sulfur dioxide. (This ‫ )ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل اﺣﻴﺎء ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎت‬.‫اﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺪه ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
precaution is necessary because reduced sulfur,
104
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

phosphorus and arsenic compounds in the acid ‫ ﻓﺴﻔﺮ و ارﺳﻨﻴﻚ در اﺳﻴﺪ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺟﺬب‬،‫ﮔﻮﮔﺮد‬
promote hydrogen absorption during washing.)
.(‫ ﻟﺬا ﻻزم اﺳﺖ اﺣﺘﻴﺎط ﺷﻮد‬،‫ﻫﻴﺪروژن را ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻴﺒﺮد‬
10.8.5 Acid pickling ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬5-8-10
Acid pickling in an inhibited acid solution, (see ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬3-10 ‫ )ﺑﻪ‬،‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺎزداري ﺷﺪه‬
10.3) and then by baking prior to further ‫ﺷﻮد( و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺧﻨﺜﻲ ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده ﻗﻠﻴﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﻌﺪي‬
treatment, at not less than 190°C for not less than
‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﻤﺪت ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﭼﻬﺎر ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬190 ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
four hours.
.‫اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
* The term passivation is used to indicate a ‫* واژه ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﻧﺸﺎن دادن وﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ‬
chemically inactive surface condition of .‫ﺑﻲ اﺛﺮ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﻮﻻد زﻧﮓ ﻧﺰن ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
stainless steel.

10.8.6 Electrolytic de-rusting ‫ زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ‬6-8-10


Electrolytic de-rusting using an alkaline ‫ﺑﺮاي زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ ﻳﻚ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺖ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ و ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬
electrolyte and anodic current. Cleaning should ‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻋﺎدي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶ آﺑﻜﺎري‬.‫آﻧﺪي ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
normally be followed by a nickel strike. (See
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻣﻮرد‬7-8-10 ‫ﻧﻴﻜﻞ )ﺑﻪ‬
10.8.7) before plating with the metal(s) required.
.‫ﻧﻴﺎز دﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
10.8.7 Nickel strike ‫ ﭘﻴﺶ آﺑﻜﺎري ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬7-8-10
One of the following treatments shall be applied: :‫ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬

a) Parts should preferably be etched anodically, ‫اﻟﻒ( ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر آﻧﺪي‬
(see 9.4) for not more than two minutes and ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬5 ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺮاي‬4-9 ‫اچ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ‬
then treated cathodically for five minutes at
approximately 1500 A/m2 to 2000 A/m2 in an ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ‬2000 ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺗﺎ‬1500‫ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً در‬
aqueous solution containing approximately: :ً‫ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﺪار ﺣﺎوي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
Nickel sulfate (NiSO4 . 6H2O) 225 g/litre ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬225 ‫( ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬NiSO4, 6H2O)
Sulfuric acid (d=1.84) 27 ml/litre ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬27 ‫( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬d=1/84)
Maintain the temperature of the electrolyte at ‫ دﻣﺎي اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺖ در‬.‫ﻣﻮرد ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬
35°C to 40°C. Insoluble anodes, e.g. lead, ‫ آﻧﺪيﻫﺎي ﻏﻴﺮ‬.‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﻮد‬40 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬35
should normally be used, the use of nickel
anodes or a proportion thereof is also ،‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻋﺎدي ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬،‫ ﺳﺮب‬:‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻣﺜﻞ‬
permissible. ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آﻧﺪﻫﺎي ﻧﻴﻜﻞ ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻲ از آن‬
.‫ﻣﺠﺎز ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
b) The parts shall be made anodic in an ‫ب( ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ زﻳﺮ‬
aqueous solution of the following approximate ‫ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ آﻧﺪي ﺷﻮد و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻌﻜﻮس‬
composition for not more than two minutes,
and the current then reversed, so that they are .‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬5 ‫ ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪت‬،‫ﺷﺪن ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬
cathodic, for about five minutes:
Nickel chloride (NiCl2 . 6H2O) 250 ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬250 ‫( ﻧﻴﻜﻞ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ‬NiCl2, 6H2O)
g/litre ‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 ‫( ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/16)
Hydrochloric acid (d=1.16) 100 ml/litre
Nickel electrodes to BS 558 shall be used. The .‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬BS 558 ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮودﻫﺎي ﻧﻴﻜﻞ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬
solution shall be maintained at room ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﻧﮕﻬﺪارﻧﺪه ﺷﺪه و داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ‬
temperature and a current density of about 300
A/m2 employed. .‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬300 ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺣﺪود‬
c) When current reversal is not feasible, the ‫ج( وﻗﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﻜﻮس ﺷﺪن ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اﻣﻜﺎن ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬
short anodic treatment described in (b) may be
105
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

replaced by immersion in the solution without ‫اﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﻮﺗﺎه آﻧﺪي ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه در )ب( ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ‬
current flow for 15 minutes. The work then
15 ‫وري در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺪون ﻋﺒﻮر ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺪت‬
being made cathodic for about five minutes.
‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬5 ‫ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺣﺪود‬.‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺷﻮد‬
.‫ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
Separate tanks may be used with advantage for ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻣﺨﺎزن ﺟﺪا ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻧﺪي‬
the anodic (or immersion) and the cathodic .‫)ﻳﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري( و ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﺑﻜﺎر روﻧﺪ‬
treatments.
After treatments a, b, or c, rinse the parts and ‫ ب و ج ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺷﺴﺘﻪ و ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم‬،‫ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﻒ‬
transfer them to the final plating bath .‫آﺑﻜﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل داده ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
11. SURFACE PREPARATION OF NON- BS ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬-11
FERROUS METALS (See also BS 7773) (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7773
Surface Preparation of Non-Ferrous Metals shall 29 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬14 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻓﻠﺰات ﻏﻴﺮ آﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺟﺪاول‬
be according to Tables 14 to 29 as follows:
:‫ﺑﺸﺮح زﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Table 14 Surface Preparation of Aluminum ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬14 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
and its Alloys

Table 15 Etching Treatment of Aluminum ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬15 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
and its Alloys

Table 16 Acid Pickling of Aluminum and ‫ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬16 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
its Alloy

Table 17 Polishing of Aluminum and its ‫ ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬17 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
Alloys

Table 18 Pickling and Zincate Treatment ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﻋﻤﻞ آوري آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺑﺎ‬18 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
of Aluminum Prior to ‫زﻳﻨﻜﺎت ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
electroplating

Table 19 Surface Preparation of Zinc Plate ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ورق روي و ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه‬19 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
and Zinc Coated Parts ‫ﺑﺎ روي‬

Table 20 Surface Preparation of Copper ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺲ و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬20 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
and its Alloy

Table 21 Treatment of Copper and its ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻣﺲ و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬21 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
Alloys

Table 22 Surface Preparation of Nickel and ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬22 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
its Alloys

Table 23 Treatment of Nickel and its ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬23 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
Alloys

Table 24 Surface Preparation of Titanium ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬24 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
and its Alloys

Table 25 Treatment of Titanium and its ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬25 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
Alloys

106
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪Table 26‬‬ ‫‪Surface‬‬ ‫‪Preparation‬‬ ‫‪of‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ 26‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬
‫‪Magnesium Alloys‬‬

‫‪Table 27‬‬ ‫‪Treatments of Magnesium Alloys‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ 27‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬

‫‪Table 28‬‬ ‫‪Surface Preparation of Tin and its‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ 28‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻠﻊ و آﻟﻴﺎژ ﻫﺎي آن‬
‫‪Alloys‬‬

‫‪Table 29‬‬ ‫‪Surface Preparation of Chromium‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ‪ 29‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﺮوم و ﺳﺮب‬
‫‪and lead Parts‬‬

‫‪TABLE 14 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول ‪ -14‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬
‫‪PERMISSIBLE METHODS‬‬
‫‪SURFACE PREPARATION FOR‬‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
‫‪PROTECTIVE COATINGS‬‬ ‫‪14-D‬‬ ‫‪14-E‬‬
‫)‪(SEE IPS-C-TP-102‬‬ ‫‪CHEMICAL‬‬ ‫‪ELECTRO‬‬ ‫‪14-F‬‬
‫‪14-A‬‬ ‫‪14-B‬‬ ‫‪14-C‬‬ ‫‪14-G‬‬
‫‪POLISHING‬‬ ‫‪POLISHING‬‬ ‫‪ZINCATE‬‬
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫‪DEGREASING‬‬ ‫‪ETCHING‬‬ ‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪BLASTING‬‬
‫‪-14‬د‬ ‫‪-14‬ﻫـ‬ ‫‪TREATMENT‬‬
‫)ﺑﻪ ‪ IPS-C-TP-102‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد(‬ ‫‪-14‬اﻟﻒ‬ ‫‪-14‬ب‬ ‫‪-14‬ج‬ ‫‪-14‬ز‬
‫‪-14‬و‬
‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫اچ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت زﻧﻜﺎت‬
‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
‫‪1-‬‬ ‫‪PREPARATION‬‬ ‫‪PRIOR‬‬ ‫‪TO‬‬
‫‪ANODIZING (APPLY PROCESS OF 14-‬‬
‫‪A AND THEN ONE OR MORE OF‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫)‪14-B TO 14-E‬‬ ‫‪SECTION 5‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 15‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 16‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 17‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 17‬‬
‫‪ -1‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻗﺒﻞ از آﻧﺪي ﻛـﺮدن )ﻓﺮاﻳﻨـﺪ ‪-14‬اﻟـﻒ و‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪15‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪16‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪17‬‬
‫ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨـﺪﻫﺎي ‪-14‬ب ﺗـﺎ ‪-14‬‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻫـ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد(‬
‫‪2- PREPARATION PRIOR TO CHEMICAL‬‬
‫‪CONVERSION‬‬ ‫‪COATINGS (APPLY‬‬
‫‪ROCESS OF 14-A AND THEN ONE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫)‪OR MORE OF 14-B TO 14-E‬‬ ‫‪SECTION 5‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 15‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 16‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 17‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 17‬‬
‫‪ -2‬آﻣــﺎده ﺳــﺎزي ﻗﺒــﻞ از ﭘﻮﺷــﺶ ﻫــﺎي ﺗﺒــﺪﻳﻞ ﻣــﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪15‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪16‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪17‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪17‬‬
‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ )ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ‪-14‬اﻟﻒ و ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ‪-14‬ب ﺗﺎ ‪-14‬ﻫـ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد(‬
‫‪3- PREPARATION PRIOR TO METAL‬‬ ‫& ‪SEE 8.3‬‬
‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪B.1.2‬‬
‫‪SPRAYING (APPLY PROCESS 14-A‬‬
‫‪SECTION 5‬‬
‫)‪AND 14-G‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪ 3-8‬و ب‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 5‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫‪ -3‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻗﺒﻞ از ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﻓﻠﺰي )ﻓﺮاﻳﻨـﺪ ‪-14‬اﻟـﻒ و‬ ‫‪ 2-1‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪-14‬ز اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد(‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪4- PREPARATION OF UNANODIZED‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 15‬‬
‫‪SEE 5.3.1‬‬
‫‪PARTS‬‬ ‫‪FOR‬‬ ‫‪PAINTING‬‬ ‫‪(APPLY‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 1‬‬
‫‪AND/OR 5.5‬‬
‫)‪PROCESS 14-A AND 14-B‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪15‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 1-3-5‬و‪ /‬ﻳﺎ‬
‫‪ -4‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻗﻄﻌﺎت آﻧﺪي ﻧـﺸﺪه ﺑـﺮاي رﻧـﮓ آﻣﻴـﺰي‬
‫‪ 5-5‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(1‬‬
‫)ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ‪-14‬اﻟﻒ و ‪-14‬ب اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد(‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪6-‬‬ ‫‪PREPARATION‬‬ ‫‪FOR‬‬
‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪ELECTROPLATING (APPLY PROCESS‬‬
‫‪SEE 5.3.1‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 18‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪14-A ONE OF 14.B OR 14-C AND‬‬
‫‪AND/OR 5.5‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 2‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 18‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 18‬‬
‫) ‪THEN 14-F‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 1-3-5‬و‪ /‬ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪18‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪاول ‪18‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول ‪18‬‬
‫‪ -5‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ )ﻓﺮاﻳﻨـﺪ ‪-14‬اﻟـﻒ‬
‫‪ 5-5‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻳﻜﻲ از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ‪-14‬ب ﻳـﺎ ‪-14‬ج و ﺳـﭙﺲ ‪-14‬و‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد(‬

‫‪Note 1:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ‪:1‬‬


‫‪Prior to application of primer other than pre‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل آﺳﺘﺮي ﻏﻴﺮ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اوﻟﻴﻪ آﺳﺘﺮي ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ‬
‫‪treatment primer, etching treatment (14-13) shall‬‬
‫‪be used.‬‬
‫ﻛﺮدن )‪ (14-13‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‪.‬‬

‫‪107‬‬
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 15 - ETCHING TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS


‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬-15 ‫ﺟﺪول‬
OPERATING CONDITION
PROCESSES ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
CLEANING SOLUTION
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ TEMPERATURE°C TIME (APPROX)
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ MINUTES
‫دﻣﺎ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬ ‫زﻣﺎن )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻲ( دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
3
SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84) 150 cm /litre
1- BATH (IMMERSION) ETCHING
CHROMIC ACID (H2CrO4) 50 g/litre DEMINERALIZED
TREATMENT (SEE NOTES 1, 2, 3)
WATER 50 TO 65 25
‫ ﺣﻤــﺎم )ﻏﻮﻃــﻪ وري( ﻋﻤﻠﻴــﺎت اچ ﻛــﺮدن )ﺑــﻪ‬-1
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘـﺮ ﻛﺮوﻣﻴـﻚ اﺳـﻴﺪ‬150 (D = 1/84) ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3 ‫ و‬2 ، 1 ‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬
.‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ آب ﺑﺪون اﻣﻼح‬50 (H2CrO4)

PHOSPHORIC ACID IN AQUEOUS ALCOHOLS IN


2- BRUSH OR SPRAY ETCHING
WHICH IS SUSPENDED KAOLIN AND A GREEN
TREATMENT (SEE NOTES 4,5)
PIGMENT
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺮس زﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ اچ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺮوش ﭘﺎﺷﺶ )ﺑـﻪ‬-2
‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ در اﻟﻜﻬﺎي آﺑﻲ ﻛﻪ در آن ﻛﺎﺋﻮﻟﻴﻦ و رﻧﮕﺪاﻧﻪ ﻫـﺎي ﺳـﺒﺰ ﻣﻌﻠـﻖ‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5 ‫ و‬4 ‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬
.‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

3- ETCHING AND DESMUTTING SODIUM HYDROXIDE ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬50 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬25 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
TREATMENT (SEE NOTES 6,7)
25 TO 50 g/litr
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن و زﻧﮓ زداﻳﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬-3
SODIUM HEPTONATE ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬1 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬0/75 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﭙﺘﻮﻧﺎت ﻳﺎ‬ 60 TO 65 ¼ TO 1
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫ و‬6 ‫ﻫﺎي‬
OR SODIUM GLUCONATE

0.75 TO 1.0 g/litre ‫ﻳﺎ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﮔﻠﻮﻛﻮﻧﺎت‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1- Bath treatment is unsuitable for alloys ‫ درﺻﺪ ﻳﺎ‬6 ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺮاي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺎوي‬-1
containing 6% or more copper or aluminum
parts is in contact with steel or copper ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻣﺲ ﻳﺎ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﻛﻪ در ﺗﻤﺎس ﺑﺎ ﻓﻮﻻد‬
alloys. .‫ﻳﺎ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻣﺲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
2- The etched part shall be washed thoroughly 65 ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ اچ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ و ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ در آب )از‬-2
and rapidly in water (not exceeding 65°C)
.‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ( ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ و ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮد‬
and dried. The final rinse shall be in
demineralized or distilled water. ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در آب ﺑﺪون اﻣﻼح ﻳﺎ آب ﻣﻘﻄﺮ‬
.‫اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
3- Contamination of the solution with chloride, ‫ ﻣﺲ ﻳﺎ آﻫﻦ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬،‫ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ‬-3
copper or iron may cause pitting of the
‫ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺶ از‬.‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﺣﻔﺮه اي ﻓﻠﺰ ﺷﻮد‬
metal. The chloride content shall not exceed
the equivalent of 0.2 g/litre. Sodium ‫ ﻣﻘﺎدﻳﺮ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ و ﻣﺲ‬.‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬/ ‫ ﮔﺮم‬0/2 ‫ﻣﻌﺎدل‬
chloride and the copper or iron contents ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬1 ‫ﻳﺎ آﻫﻦ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺶ از‬
shall not exceed 1 g/litre each. (see 6.9)
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬9-6 ‫)ﺑﻪ‬
4- The free acidity shall be equivalent of 6% to ‫ درﺻﺪ‬6/5 ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺗﺎ‬6 ‫ ﻗﺪرت اﺳﻴﺪي آزاد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻌﺎدل‬-4
6.5% by weight of phosphoric acid (see
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬9-6 ‫وزﻧﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
6.9).
5- Where parts are unsuitable for bath process, ،‫ ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﻤﺎم ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬-5
brush or spray process shall be applied.
.‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﺮس زﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻋﻤﺎل ﺷﻮد‬
6- This process is used prior to anodizing if a ‫ اﮔﺮ ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻻزم ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از آﻧﺪي‬-6
polished finish is not required.
.‫ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
7- The smut from alloying metals in the ‫ ﻟﻜﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه در روي ﺳﻄﺢ از ﻓﻠﺰات آﻟﻴﺎژي در‬-7
108
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪aluminum is left on the surface and this is‬‬ ‫آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﻛﺮدن در اﺳﻴﺪ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ ‪30‬‬
‫‪removed by dipping in 30% to 50% by‬‬
‫درﺻﺪ ﺗﺎ ‪ 50‬درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ )‪ (d = 1/42‬از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺮود‪.‬‬
‫‪volume nitric acid (d= 1.42). For high‬‬
‫‪silicon-containing alloys 10% hydrofluoric‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﺣﺎوي ﺳﻴﻠﻴﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ‬
‫‪acid (40 wt% HF) is added to the nitric acid‬‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪ ‪ 10‬درﺻﺪ )‪ 40‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ ‪ (HF‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل زﻧﮓ‬
‫‪de-smutting solution.‬‬
‫زداﻳﻲ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‪.‬‬

‫‪TABLE 16 - ACID PICKLING OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول ‪ -16‬اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬
‫‪CLEANING SOLUTION‬‬ ‫‪OPERATING TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪NOTES‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫دﻣﺎي ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪1- SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬
‫‪90‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 120‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ ‪90-120 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪SEE NOTE 2‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪(d=1/84‬‬ ‫‪ROOM TEMP.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫)‪SODIUM FLUORIDE (Na F‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫‪7.5-15 g/ litre‬‬ ‫‪ 7/5‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 15‬ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ )‪(Na F‬‬
‫)‪2- SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬
‫‪100 cm3/ litre‬‬ ‫‪ 100‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪SEE NOTE 2‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪(d=1/84‬‬ ‫‪ROOM TEMP.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫)‪POTASSIUM FLUORIDE (KF‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫‪40 g/ litre‬‬ ‫‪ 40‬ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ )‪(KF‬‬
‫)‪3- SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬
‫‪100 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪ 100‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪SEE NOTE 2‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪(d=1/84‬‬ ‫‪ROOM TEMP.‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫)‪POTASSIUM FLUORIDE (KF‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫‪15 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪ 15‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ 40‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ)‪(1) (HF‬‬
‫)‪4- ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID (d=1.50‬‬
‫‪200 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪ 200‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪SEE NOTE 2‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ارﺗﻮﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪(d = 1/50‬‬
‫‪ROOM TEMP.‬‬
‫)‪HYDROFLUORIC ACID (40 wt%HF‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫‪(1m‬‬ ‫‪7.5 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪ 7/5‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪40‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ ‪1) (HF‬ﻣﺘﺮ(‬
‫)‪5- SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬
‫‪100 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪100‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪(d=1/84‬‬
‫‪90-98°C‬‬
‫‪O-TOLUIDINE ACID STABLE‬‬ ‫‪ 90‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 98‬درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫‪WETTING AGENT‬‬ ‫‪10 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪10‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬
‫اﺳﻴﺪاو‪-‬ﺗﻮﻟﻮدﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﭘﺎﻳﺪار‬

‫‪Notes:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬


‫‪1. %wt=grams of HF in 100 grams of water.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ = ﮔﺮم ‪ HF‬در ‪ 100‬ﮔﺮم آب‬
‫‪2. After acid pickling the part shall be rinsed in‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺑﻌﺪ از اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در آب ﺳﺮد ﺷﺴﺘﻪ و ﺑﻪ‬
‫‪cold water and transferred to a cold‬‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﻲ ﺳﺮد ﺣﺎوي ‪ 500‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ‬
‫‪aqueous solution containing approximately‬‬
‫‪500 cm3/litre Nitric Acid (d=1.42) for‬‬
‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ (d = 1/42‬ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﻳﻚ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫‪approximately one minute and then‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﺷﻮد و ﺳﭙﺲ در آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ در دﻣﺎي ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ ‪50‬‬
‫‪thoroughly washed in clean water at a‬‬ ‫درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‪.‬‬
‫‪temperature not exceeding 50°C.‬‬

‫‪109‬‬
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 17 - POLISHING OF ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS


‫ ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬-17‫ﺟﺪول‬
OPERATING CONDITION
‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
PROCESSES CLEANING SOLUTION IMMERSION
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ TIME
TEMPERATURE MINUTES
‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬
‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
PHOSPHORIC ACID 3
1- CHEMICAL POLISHING 75 cm /litre
(d=1.75)
TREATMENT ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬75
( d=1/75) ‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
3
95-105°C
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺎري ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬-1 SULFURIC ACID(d=1.84) 20 cm /litre ‫ درﺟﻪ‬105 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬95 1 TO 2
(SEE NOTES 1, 2, 3) (d=1/84) ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬20 2 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬1
‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1،2،3 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬ NITRIC ACID (d=1.42) 5 cm3/litre
( d=1/42) ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬5
PHOSPHORIC ACID
400 TO 800 g/litre
2- ELECTROPOLISHING TREATMENT (H3PO4)
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬800 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬400
(H3Po4) ‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬-2
SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84) 100 TO 200 g/litre 70-80°C 2 TO 5
(SEE NOTES 4, 5, 6) ( d=1/84) ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬200 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬100 ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬80 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬70 5 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬2
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4،5،6 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬ CHROMIC ACID (H2CrO4) 40 TO 100 g/litre
(H2CrO4) ‫ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬40

Notes: : ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. During operation Nitric Acid is lost and ‫ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ از ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ رود و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬،‫ در ﺧﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬-1
shall be maintained in the range 5% to 10%
by volume. ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬10 ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫در ﻣﺤﺪوده‬
.‫ﺷﻮد‬
2. This process gives rise to the emission of ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺑﺨﺎرات ﻧﻴﺘﺮوژن را اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬-2
nitrous fumes which must be removed by
‫ اﻳﻦ‬.‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰات ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﻃﺮف ﮔﺮدد‬
adequate exhaust equipment. This solution
is strongly acidic and appropriate ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪ ﻗﻮي ﺑﻮده و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮ‬
precaution shall be taken to protect the .‫اﻗﺪاﻣﺎت اﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
operator.
3. After chemical polishing the work rinsed ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺎري ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر را ﺷﺴﺘﻪ و‬-3
and further cleaned by immersion in a 30%
‫ درﺻﺪ‬30 ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮده ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬
by volume solution of Nitric Acid (d=1.42)
or 10 g/liter Chromic Acid (H2CrO4) ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬10 ‫ ( ﻳﺎ‬d=1/42) ‫ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
followed by further rinsing. ‫( و ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ دﻧﺒﺎل‬H2CrO4) ‫ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
.‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
4. The current density of this process is ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ‬200 ً‫ داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬-4
approximately 200 A/m2 and DC voltage is .‫ وﻟﺖ اﺳﺖ‬15 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬12 DC ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ و وﻟﺘﺎژ‬
12 to 15 volts.

110
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 18 - PICKLING AND ZINCATE TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM PRIOR TO


ELECTROPLATING
‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ و ﻋﻤﻞ آوري آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم ﺑﺎ زﻳﻨﻜﺎت ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬-18‫ﺟﺪول‬

OPERATING CONDITION
‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
PROCESSES CLEANING SOLUTION
IMMERSION
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ TEMPERATURE °C TIME MINUTES
‫دﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
‫زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
3
100 cm /litre
1- ACID PICKLING HYDROFLUORIC ACID (40%wt HF)
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 Max. 40°C
(HF ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬40) ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
‫ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬-1 ‫ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬40 ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ 1
(SEE NOTES 1, 2, 3) 100 cm3/litre ROOM TEMP.
NITRIC ACID (d=1.42) ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ‫دﻣﺎي ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1،2،3 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬ (d=1.42) ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬
2- ZINCATE TREATMENT ZINC OXIDE (ZnO) 100 g/litre
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت زﻧﻜﺎت‬-2 (Zno) ‫اﻛﺴﻴﺪ روي‬ ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 Max. 40°C
3
(SEE NOTE 4) SODIUM HYDROXIDE (NaOH) 540 g/litre ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬40 ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬ (NaOH) ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬540

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎ‬
1. This solution evolves toxic fumes and ‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺨﺎرات ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻴﺮون ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ و وﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬-1
efficient fume extraction shall be provided.
.‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮاج ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺷﻮد‬
2. Alternatively etch in chromic acid/sulfuric ‫ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬/‫ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-2
acid solution (see Table 15-batch etching
‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن ﮔﺮوﻫﻲ‬15 ‫اﺳﻴﺪ اچ ﺷﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
treatment). This etching solution has been
found to be less satisfactory than acid ‫ ﻣﻌﻠﻮم ﺷﺪه اﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اچ‬.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
pickling (process 1 of this Table), but its ‫ اﻳﻦ ﺟﺪول( رﺿﺎﻳﺖ‬1 ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ )ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
less vigorous attack on the material,
provides a smoother cleaned surface. ‫ اﻣﺎ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﻮدن ﻗﺪرت ﺣﻤﻠﻪ‬،‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮي را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‬
.‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﺪه و ﺻﺎﻓﻲ را ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺳﺎزد‬،‫آن ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮاد‬
3. Rinse thoroughly and proceed immediately ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮي ﻛﺎﻣﻞ و اﻗﺪام ﻓﻮري ﺟﻬﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت زﻳﻨﻜﺎت‬-3
to the zincate treatment.
4. Prior to zincate treatment immerse parts for ‫ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت زﻳﻨﻜﺎت ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﺮاي ﻳﻚ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در‬-4
one minute in an aqueous solution ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ‬500 ً‫ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل آﺑﻲ ﺣﺎوي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
containing approximately 500 cm3/litre
Nitric Acid and then rinse thoroughly.
‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻧﻤﻮده و ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﻄﻮر‬
.‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ آب ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

111
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 19 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF ZINC PLATE AND ZINC COATED PARTS


‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ورق روي و ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ روي‬-19‫ﺟﺪول‬

PERMISSIBLE METHODS
‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
19-C
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR PROTECTIVE 19-A 19-B 19-D
ELECTROLYTIC
COATINGS HAND TOOL DEGREASING ACID PICKLING
CLEANING
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ اﻟﻒ‬-19 ‫ب‬-19 ‫ ج‬-19 ‫ د‬-19
‫اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ‬
SEE SECTION 7 SEE SECTION 5
REMOVAL OF CORROSION PRODUCT FROM ZINC
(NOTE 1) (NOTE 2)
COATED PARTS --- ---
1 ‫ )ﻳﺎدآوري‬7 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ 2 ‫ )ﻳﺎدآوري‬5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
‫زدودن ﻣﺤﺼﻮل ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ روي‬
(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

SEE SECTION 5
PREPARATION FOR COATING (SEE NOTE 6) (NOTE 3)
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻫﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫ )ﻳﺎدآوري‬5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
‫( ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3

SEE SECTION 5.2 WITH ALKALINE


PREPARATION FOR ELECTROPLATING
AND/OR 5.4 CLEANER SEE 5.5 (NOTE 5)
(SEE NOTE 4)
. . . ، /‫ و‬2-5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ 5-5 ‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ‬ (5 ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4 ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ )ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4-5 ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. Scrubbing with clean water and stiff bristle ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﻤﻴﺰ و ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎي ﻧﺎﻳﻠﻮﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮي زﺑﺮ‬-1
on nylon brushes.
.‫ﺳﻔﺖ‬
2. Degreasing with white spirit. .‫ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي وﻳﮋه‬-2
3. When parts are to be treated with wash ‫ وﻗﺘﻲ ﻗﺮار اﺳﺖ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت واش ﭘﺮاﻳﻤﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ آﻧﻬﺎ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬-3
primer (see IPS-C-TP-102 Section 5) they
IPS-C-TP-102 5 ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﻤﻮد )ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
shall be degreased.
.(‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
When other primer (chromate and phosphate ‫وﻗﺘﻲ آﺳﺘﺮﻳﻬﺎي دﻳﮕﺮي ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲروﻧﺪ )ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
treatment) are to be used, will not require .‫ﻛﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻪ و ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺗﻪ( ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ‬
degreasing.
4. After process 19-C and after process 19-D ‫ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را در آب‬،‫ د‬-19 ‫ ج و ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬-19 ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬-4
rinse thoroughly the part in cold, running
.‫ﺟﺎري ﺳﺮد ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ دﻫﻴﺪ‬
water.
5. Dip in very dilute sulfuric acid (e.g. 0.5% 0/5 ‫ در ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر رﻗﻴﻖ )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل‬-5
by volume) (see also section 6).
‫درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ( ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﻛﻨﻴﺪ )ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬6
6. The method of preparation of zinc for ‫ روش آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي روي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻫﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮاي‬-6
coating is also applicable to cadmium. .‫ﻛﺎدﻣﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺟﺮا ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

112
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 20 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS


‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺲ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬- 20‫ﺟﺪول‬
PERMISSIBLE METHODS
‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
20-E
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR
20-A 20-B 20-C 20-D ELECTRO
PROTECTIVE COATINGS
DEGREASING BLASTING ETCHING PICKLING POLISHING
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬
‫ اﻟﻒ‬-20 ‫ ب‬-20 ‫ ج‬-20 ‫ د‬-20 ‫ ه‬-20
‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫اچ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺮدن‬
‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬
PREPARATION FOR COATING
BLASTING WITH
(APPLY PROCESS 20-A AND THEN ONE OR SEE NONMETALLIC
SEE SEE SEE
MORE OF PROCESS OF 20-C TO 20-E) SECTION 5 ABRASIVE
TABLE 21 TABLE 21 TABLE 21
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ SEE SECTION 8
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﺮدن‬ 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬ 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬ 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي‬
‫ ج ﺗﺎ‬-20 ‫ اﻟﻒ و ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي‬-20 ‫)ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
(‫ﻫ را اﻋﻤﺎل ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬-30

PREPARATION FOR ELECTROPLATING WATER BLASTING


(APPLY PROCESS 20-A AND THEN ONE OR WITH SEE
SEE
MORE OF PROCESS) NONMETALLIC TABLE 21 SEE SEE
SECTION 5
ABRASIVE (NOTES 1, 2) TABLE 21 TABLE 21
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ SEE SECTION 8 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬ 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬ 21 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
‫ اﻟﻒ و ﺳﭙﺲ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪاد ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮي را اﻋﻤﺎل‬-20 ‫)ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آب ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي‬ 2 ‫ و‬1 ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
(‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬ (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫)ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ (‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. Etching treatment is suitable for beryllium ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺮاي ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻣﺴﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮم ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬-1
copper parts and shall be followed by
rinsing in water and immersion in a ‫اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ دادن در آب و ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در‬
solution containing 100 cm3/litre of sulfuric ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 ‫ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺎوي‬
acid when plating in an acid electrolyte is
to be the next treatment. ‫ آﺑﻜﺎري در ﻳﻚ‬، ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ وﻗﺘﻴﻜﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
.‫ دﻧﺒﺎل ﺷﻮد‬،‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺖ اﺳﻴﺪي اﺳﺖ‬
2. Soft soldered parts (other than beryllium (‫ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻟﺤﻴﻢ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎ ﻗﻠﻊ )ﺑﻐﻴﺮ از ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻣﺲ ﺑﺮﻳﻠﻴﻮم‬-2
copper parts) shall be dipped in a solution ‫ ﻣﻴﻞ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 ً‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺎوي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
containing approximately 100 ml/litre
Fluoroboric Acid (40% wt HBF4) and
‫( ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور‬HBF4 ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬40) ‫ﻓﻠﻮروﺑﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
rinsed thoroughly in water and copper ‫ﺷﺪه و ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ آب ﺷﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و ﻣﺲ در ﻳﻚ‬
flashed in an alkaline copper electrolyte at ‫ و‬12 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬10pH ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺖ ﻣﺲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ در ﻣﺤﺪوده‬
a PH of 10 to 12 and a temperature of 60 ±
10°C. .‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻣﻲﺷﻮد‬60±10 ‫دﻣﺎي‬

113
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪TABLE 21 -TREATMENT OF COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول‪ -21‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻣﺲ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬

‫‪OPERATING CONDITIONS‬‬
‫‪CLEANING SOLUTION‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
‫‪PROCESS‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫)‪TIME (Min.‬‬
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ‬
‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن )دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬
‫‪SODIUM DICHROMATE (Na2Cr2O7 , 2H2O) 200 g/litre‬‬
‫‪1. ETCHING TREATMENT‬‬ ‫‪ROOM‬‬ ‫‪UP TO 2‬‬
‫‪ 200‬ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻲ ﻛﺮوﻣﺎت )‪(Na2Cr2 O7 , 2H2O‬‬
‫)‪(NOTE 1‬‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪MINUTES‬‬
‫)‪SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬ ‫‪40 cm3/litre‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن )ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(1‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ‪ 2‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫‪ 40‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/84‬‬
‫‪2. SCALE DIP PICKLING‬‬ ‫)‪SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬ ‫‪100 cm3/litre‬‬ ‫‪25°C-50°C‬‬
‫‪---‬‬
‫‪ -2‬رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ ﻳﺎ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري‬ ‫‪ 100‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/84‬‬ ‫‪ 25‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 50‬درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
‫‪3. BRIGHT DIP PICKLING‬‬
‫‪ROOM‬‬
‫)‪(NOTE 1‬‬ ‫)‪SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬ ‫‪500 cm3/litre‬‬
‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫‪ -3‬اﺳﻴﺪ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري روي ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺪون‬ ‫‪ 500‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/84‬‬
‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫روﻛﺶ )ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(1‬‬
‫‪HYDROGEN PEROXIDE‬‬ ‫‪33 TO 50 g/litre‬‬
‫‪4. CHEMICAL SMOOTHING‬‬ ‫‪ROOM‬‬
‫‪ 33‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 50‬ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫آب اﻛﺴﻴﮋﻧﻪ‬
‫)‪(NOTE 2‬‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪15-16‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫)‪SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬ ‫‪103 cm /litre‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺎري ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ )ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(2‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫‪ 103‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/84‬‬
‫‪5. SULFURIC ACID + FeS04‬‬
‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫)‪SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84‬‬ ‫)‪(16% + 17%‬‬ ‫‪ROOM‬‬
‫‪BY VOLUME‬‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ‪ +‬اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت‬
‫)‪ %17 + %16‬ﺣﺠﻤﻲ(‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/84‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫آﻫﻦ‬
‫)‪ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID (d=1.75‬‬ ‫‪70% wt‬‬
‫‪6. ELECTROPOLISHING‬‬ ‫‪ 70‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬ ‫ارﺗﻮﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/75‬‬
‫)‪(NOTE 3‬‬ ‫‪20 TO 25°C‬‬
‫‪ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻬﺎي اﻟﻴﻔﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺻﻴﻘﻞ ﻛﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ )ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(3‬‬ ‫‪ 20‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 25‬درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
‫‪WATER‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬ ‫آب‬

‫‪Notes:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‪:‬‬


‫‪1. Efficient fume extraction is essential as the‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎن ﺑﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ در ﺧﺎرج ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺨﺎرات ﺳﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪process results in the evolution of highly‬‬
‫‪toxic fumes.‬‬ ‫وﺳﻴﻠﻪاي ﻛﺎرآﻣﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺧﺎرج ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺨﺎرات ﺿﺮوري‬
‫اﺳﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪2. After applying chemical smoothing the part‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺻﻴﻘﻞ دادن ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪت ‪ 20‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ در‬
‫‪shall be immersed for 20 seconds in‬‬
‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﺷﻮد )ﺑﺮاي ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
‫‪sulfuric acid (see safe dip pickling-process‬‬
‫‪21.2).‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ روش ﻏﻮﻃﻪوري اﻳﻤﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ ‪ 2-21‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد(‪.‬‬
‫‪3. Current density of 200 to 500 A/m2 and‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ‪ 200‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 500‬آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ و‬
‫‪copper cathodes shall be used.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺗﺪﻫﺎي ﻣﺴﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪114‬‬
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪TABLE 22 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول‪ - 22‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬

‫‪PERMISIBLE METHODS‬‬
‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
‫‪22-G‬‬
‫‪22-E‬‬ ‫‪22-F‬‬ ‫& ‪STRIKE‬‬
‫‪SURFACE PREPARATION‬‬ ‫‪22-C‬‬ ‫‪22-D‬‬ ‫‪ETCHING‬‬
‫‪22-A‬‬ ‫‪22-B‬‬ ‫‪CHEMICAL‬‬ ‫‪ELECTRO‬‬
‫‪FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS‬‬ ‫‪ALKALI‬‬ ‫‪ACID‬‬ ‫‪POLISHING‬‬ ‫‪POLISHING‬‬ ‫‪TREATMENT‬‬
‫‪DEGREASING BLASTING‬‬
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪-22‬ه‬ ‫‪-22‬و‬ ‫‪-22‬ز‬
‫‪ -22‬اﻟﻒ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫‪ -22‬ب‬
‫‪ -22‬ج‬ ‫‪ -22‬د‬
‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ دادن‬ ‫ﺻﻴﻘﻞ دادن‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﭘﻴﺶ‬
‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
‫اچ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫آﺑﻜﺎري و اچ‬
‫ﻛﺮدن‬
‫‪1. PREPARATION FOR COATING‬‬
‫‪(APPLY ONE OR MORE OF‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SECTION 6‬‬
‫‪PROCESS‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪SECTION‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 2‬‬
‫)‪22-A TO 22-F‬‬ ‫‪SECTION 5‬‬ ‫‪6.5.5.3‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 23‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 23‬‬
‫‪8‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪6‬‬
‫‪ -1‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪5‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪3-5-5-6‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪23‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪23‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪8‬‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫)ﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي ‪ -22‬اﻟﻒ ﺗـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪-22‬و را اﻋﻤﺎل ﻛﻨﻴﺪ(‬
‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫‪2. PREPARATION FOR‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪6.5.5.3‬‬ ‫‪SECTION 6‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 23‬‬
‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬ ‫‪SEE‬‬
‫)‪ELECTROPLATING (NOTE 3‬‬ ‫‪SECTION‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 1‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 2‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTE 4‬‬
‫‪SECTION 5‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 23‬‬ ‫‪TABLE 23‬‬
‫‪8‬‬
‫‪-2‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪5‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪3-5-5-6‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪6‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪23‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪23‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪23‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪8‬‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(1‬‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(2‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(4‬‬
‫)ﻳﺎدآوري ‪(3‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬

‫‪Notes:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‪:‬‬


‫‪1. Desaling in molten caustic alkali.‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬رﺳﻮب زداﻳﻲ در ﻗﻠﻴﺎي ﻣﺬاب‪.‬‬
‫‪2. Acid pickling solution are based on‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‪ /‬ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ‬
‫‪nitric/hydrofluoric acid, with or without the‬‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪون اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮدن ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت آﻫﻦ ‪ 3‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪addition of ferric sulfate.‬‬
‫)‪3. Parts shall be treats as in 22-G (see Note 4‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ‪-22‬ز ﻣﻮرد ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪) .‬ﺑﻪ‬
‫‪preceded by one or more of the process 22-‬‬
‫ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 4‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻳﻜﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪادي از ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎي‬
‫‪A to 22-F.‬‬
‫‪-22‬اﻟﻒ ﺗﺎ ‪-22‬و اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‪.‬‬
‫‪4. After etching treatment and nickel strike,‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن و ﭘﻴﺶ آﺑﻜﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‪،‬‬
‫‪rinse the parts thoroughly and transfer to‬‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎت را ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺸﻮﻳﻴﺪ و ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﺎم آﺑﻜﺎري ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬
‫‪the final plating bath.‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪115‬‬
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 23 - TREATMENT OF NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS


‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬-23‫ﺟﺪول‬
OPERATING CONDITION
PROCESSES CLEANING SOLUTION ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ TEMPERATURE TIME MINUTES
‫دﻣﺎ‬ (‫زﻣﺎن )دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
GLACIAL ACETIC ACID 50% BY VOLUME
‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬50 ‫اﺳﺘﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ ﮔﻼﺳﻴﻜﺎل‬
NITRIC ACID (d=1.42) 30% BY VOLUME
CHEMICAL POLISHING ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬30 ‫ ( ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/42)
‫ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬ ---
PHOSPHORIC ACID (d=1.75) 10% BY VOLUME
‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬10 ‫ ( ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/75)
SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84) 10% BY VOLUME
‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬10 ‫ ( ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/84)
ELECTROPOLISHING SULFURIC ACID (d=1.84) 70% BY VOLUME ROOM
(NOTE 1) WATER TEMPRATURE ---
(1 ‫ﺻﻴﻘﻠﻲ ﻛﺮدن اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ )ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫ ( اﺳﻴﺪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ آب‬d=1/84) ‫ درﺻﺪ ﺣﺠﻤﻲ‬70 ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
FERRIC CHLORIDE (FeCl3) 150 TO 200 g/litre
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬20 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬150 ‫( ﻓﺮﻳﻚ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ‬Fe Cl3)
ROOM
ETCHING TREATMENT OR FERRIC CHLORIDE (FeCl3 . 6H2O) 250 TO 330 g/litre UP TO 1 MIN
TEMPERATURE
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬330 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬250 ‫( ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮﻳﻚ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ‬Fe Cl3 .6H2O) ‫ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
HYDRO CHLORIC ACID (d=1.16) 150 TO 200 cm3/litre
‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬200 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬150 ‫( ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/16)
NICKEL STRIKE NICKEL CHLORIDE (NiCl2 . 6H2O) 250 TO 400 g/litre
(NOTES 2,3) ‫( ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ‬Fe Cl3.6 H2O) ROOM
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬400 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬250 UP TO 2 MIN
TEMPERATURE
‫ و‬2 ‫ﭘﻴﺶ آﺑﻜﺎري ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﻜﻞ )ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺗﺎ دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
HYDROCHLORIC ACID (d=1.16) 100 cm3/litre ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
(3 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬100 ‫ ( ﻫﻴﺪرو ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬d=1/84)

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎ‬
1. A current density of 250 A/m2 is employed ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر آﻧﺪي‬250 ‫ داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن‬-1
with the work anodic to the lead lining of
the tank. Great care shall be taken in ‫ در‬.‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺨﺰن ﺑﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ داﺧﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﺑﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود‬
making up this solution and the sulfuric ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل دﻗﺖ زﻳﺎد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ و ﺳﻮﻟﻔﻮرﻳﻚ‬
acid must be added slowly to the water with
thorough mixing . The solution becomes .‫اﺳﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ آراﻣﻲ ﺑﺎ آب اﺿﺎﻓﻪ و ﻛﺎﻣﻼً ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﺷﻮد‬
hot during mixing and shall be cooled to ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل در ﺣﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﻠﻮط ﻛﺮدن ﮔﺮم ﺷﺪه و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از‬
room temperature before use. .‫ﻣﺼﺮف ﺗﺎ دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﺳﺮد ﺷﻮد‬

2. This process is not required prior to .‫ اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از آﺑﻜﺎري ﻛﺮم ﻻزم ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬-2
chromium plating.
3. A cathode current density of approximately ‫ آﻣﭙﺮ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬1500 ً‫ داﻧﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬-3
1500 A/m2 shall be maintained for not .‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻴﺶ از دو دﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺮﻗﺮار ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
more than two minutes.

116
‫)‪IPS-C-TP-101(1‬‬

‫‪TABLE 24 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF TITANIUM AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول‪ - 24‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻢ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬
‫‪PERMISSIBLE METHODS‬‬
‫‪SURFACE PREPARATION FOR‬‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
‫‪PROTECTIVE COATINGS‬‬
‫‪ALKALI‬‬ ‫‪ACID‬‬ ‫‪ETCHING‬‬
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫‪DEGREASING‬‬ ‫‪BLASTING‬‬
‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪TREATMENT‬‬
‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن‬
‫‪SEE 5.2 OR 5.3 & 5.5‬‬
‫‪SEE 6.5.5.3‬‬ ‫‪SEE TABLE 25‬‬
‫‪1. PREPARATION FOR COATING‬‬ ‫)‪(NOTES 1, 2‬‬ ‫‪SEE SECTION 8‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ ‪3-5-5-6‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪ 25‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫‪ -1‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪ 2-5‬ﻳﺎ ‪ 3-5‬و ‪) 5-5‬ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 8‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪1‬و‪ (2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪2. PREPARATION FOR‬‬ ‫‪SEE 5.2 OR 5.3 & 5.5‬‬ ‫‪SEE 6.5.5.3‬‬ ‫‪SEE TABLE 25‬‬
‫‪SEE SECTION 8‬‬ ‫‪SEE TABLE 25‬‬
‫‪ELECTROPLATING‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ‪ 2-5‬ﻳﺎ ‪ 3-5‬و ‪) 5-5‬ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ ‪3-5-5-6‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪ 25‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ‪ 8‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‪ 25‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫‪ -2‬آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫‪1‬و‪ (2‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬

‫‪Notes:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‪:‬‬


‫‪1. The parts of Ti-Al-Sn alloy made by cold‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎت آﻟﻴﺎژي ‪ Ti-AL-Sn‬ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﻜﻞ دادن ﺳﺮد ﻳﺎ‬
‫‪forming or welding shall not be exposed to‬‬
‫‪hot chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents prior‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻨﺶ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ در‬
‫‪to stress relief.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮض ﺣﻼﻟﻬﺎي ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺮﺑﻨﻲ ﻛﻠﺮﻳﻨﻪ ﺷﺪه داغ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪The time of immersion in hot‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري در ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺎر ﺗﺮي ﻛﻠﺮواﺗﻴﻠﻦ داغ‬
‫‪trichloroethylene liquid and/or vapor shall‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮع ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ از ‪ 30‬دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫‪not exceed 30 minutes for any one‬‬
‫‪degreasing operation.‬‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪TABLE 25 - TREATMENT OF TITANIUM AND ITS ALLOYS‬‬


‫ﺟﺪول‪ -25‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺘﺎﻧﻴﻮم و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬
‫‪OPERATION CONDITION‬‬
‫‪PROCESS‬‬ ‫‪CLEANING SOLUTION‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬ ‫‪TIME MINUTES‬‬
‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن )دﻗﻴﻘﻪ(‬
‫‪ACID PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪HYDROFLUORIC ACID‬‬ ‫‪50 cm3/lit‬‬ ‫)‪(40% wt% HF‬‬
‫)‪(SEE NOTE 1‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ 40‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‪ 50 ( HF‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬
‫‪UP TO 65°C‬‬
‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫)‪NITRIC ACID (d=1.42‬‬ ‫‪200 cm3/lit‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬
‫ﺗﺎ ‪ 65‬درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬
‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 1‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ 200 ( d=1/42‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬
‫‪ACID PICKLING‬‬ ‫‪HYDROFLUORIC ACID‬‬ ‫‪120 cm3/lit‬‬ ‫)‪(40% wt HF‬‬
‫)‪(SEE NOTE 1‬‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ 40‬درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‪ 120 ( HF‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ROOM‬‬
‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫‪TEMPERATURE‬‬
‫)‪NITRIC ACID (d=1.42‬‬ ‫‪400 cm3/lit‬‬
‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري ‪ 1‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 400‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺘﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪( d=1/42‬‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬

‫‪ETCHING‬‬
‫‪TREATMENT‬‬
‫)‪(SEE NOTES 2, 3‬‬ ‫)‪HYDROCHLORIC ACID (d=1.18‬‬ ‫‪30°C‬‬
‫‪10 TO 120‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﻠﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ )‪ 150 ( d=1/18‬ﺗﺎ ‪ 20‬ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫‪ 30‬درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬

‫)ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي ‪2‬و‪ 3‬ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‪(.‬‬

‫‪117‬‬
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. These solutions must be handled with care. ‫ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻛﺎرآﻣﺪي‬.‫ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ دﻗﺖ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬-1
Efficient fume extraction is essential.
.‫ﺧﺎرج ﻛﺮدن ﺑﺨﺎر ﺿﺮورﻳﺴﺖ‬
2. If the solution is maintained at 90°C to ،‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد ﺣﻔﻆ ﺷﻮد‬110 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬90 ‫ اﮔﺮ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل در‬-2
110°C an immersion time of approximately
.‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻛﺎﻓﻲ اﺳﺖ‬5 ً‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
five minutes is adequate.
3. After etching treatment transfer rapidly to a ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اچ ﻛﺮدن ﺟﻬﺖ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ‬-3
rinsing solution containing 50 g/litre. Rochelle ‫ ﻧﻤﻚ‬.‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬50 ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺎوي‬
Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate) at
room temperature and agitate the work
‫)ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﺗﺎرﺗﺎرات( در دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق اﻧﺘﻘﺎل داده و‬
thoroughly in this solution. .‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎر را ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻫﻢ زﻧﻴﺪ‬

TABLE 26 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬- 26‫ﺟﺪول‬
PERMISSIBLE METHODS
‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
SURFACE PREPARATION FLUORIDE REMOVE OF
FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS DEGREASING BLASTING ANODIZING FLUORIDE ACTIVATING
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫آﻧﺪي ﻛﺮدن‬ FILM ‫ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي‬
‫ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﻻﻳﻪ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ‬

SEE SEE SEE


SEE
PREPARATION FOR COATING 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 TABLE 27 TABLE 27
SECTION 8 ---
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺶ دﻫﻲ‬-1 5-5‫ و‬4-5 ‫ و‬3-5 ‫ ﻳﺎ‬2-5 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ 27 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬27 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬8 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬
CATHODIC --- --- ---
SEE
DEGREASING SEE
PREPARATION FOR ELECTROPLATING TABLE 27
TABLE 27
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬-2 27 ‫ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪول‬
‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﺗﺪي ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬27 ‫ﺟﺪول‬

118
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 27 - TREATMENTS OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي ﻣﻨﻴﺰﻳﻢ‬-27‫ﺟﺪول‬
OPERATING CONDITION
PROCESSES ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬
CLEANING SOLUTION
‫ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ TEMPERATURE TIME
‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬
FLUORIDE ANODIZING
AMMONIUM BIFLUORIDE (NH4HF2) 150 TO 250 g/litre
(NOTES 1, 2) UP TO 30°C
WATER 10 TO 15 Minutes
‫ و‬1 ‫آﻧﺪي ﻛﺮدن ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪي)ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬ ‫ درﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬30 ‫ﺗﺎ‬
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬250 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬150 (NH4HF2) ‫آب ﺑﻲ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ آﻣﻮﻧﻴﻢ‬
(2
a) CHROMIC ACID (H2CrO4) 100 TO 150 g/lit BOILING SOLUTION
REMOVE OF
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬150 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬100 ‫اﻟﻒ( ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺟﻮﺷﺎن‬
FLUORIDE FILM UP TO 15 Minutes
b) CAUSTIC SODA 50 g/lit BOILING SOLUTION
(SEE NOTES 3, 4)
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬50 ‫ب( ﺳﻮد ﺳﻮزآور‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺟﻮﺷﺎن‬ UP To 10 Minutes
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ را ﺑﺮدارﻳﺪ )ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬
(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬4 ‫ و‬3 c) HYDROFLUORIC ACID 150-200 g/litre ROOM TEMP.
UP To 5 Minutes
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬200 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬150 ‫ج( ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
SODIUM HYDROXIDE 30 g/lit (APPROX.)
(ً‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬30 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻫﻴﺪروﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬
CATHODIC
SODIUM CYANIDE 30 g/lit ( " )
DEGREASING (NOTE 5) ROOM TEMP.
(ً‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬30 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬ 1 Minutes
(5 ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﺗﺪي )ﻳﺎدآوري‬ ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
SODIUM CARBONATE 15 g/lit ( " )
(ً‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ )ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬15 ‫ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﺎت‬
3
PHOSPHORIC ACID (d=1.75) 130 TO 150 cm /lit
ACTIVATING (NOTE 5) ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬150 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬130 ( d=1/75) ‫ﻓﺴﻔﺮﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬ ROOM TEMP.
30 SECONDS
(5 ‫ﻓﻌﺎل ﺳﺎزي )ﻳﺎدآوري‬ POTASSIUM FLUORIDE 60 TO 80 g/lit ‫دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق‬
‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‬80 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬60 ‫ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. The bath shall be lined with hard rubber or ‫ ﺣﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﻻﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬-1
suitable plastic material resistant to acid
hydrofluoric. ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬،‫ ﻣﻘﺎوم ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
.‫داﺧﻠﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
2. Alternative current is applied and the ‫ وﻟﺖ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬120 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬90 ‫ ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﺘﻨﺎوب اﻋﻤﺎل و وﻟﺘﺎژ‬-2
voltage raised to 90 to 120 volts.
.‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬
3. The fluoride film shall be removed by ‫ و‬،(‫ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ اﻟﻒ )ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬-3
process a (chromic acid) followed by
(‫ )ﺳﻮد ﺳﻮزآور( ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ )ج‬،‫ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎل آن ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ب‬
process b (caustic soda) or process c
(hydrofluoric acid) .‫)ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ( ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
4. This process is not necessary if the ‫ اﮔﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﺮوﻣﺎﺗﻪ ﺑﻌﺪي در ﺣﻤﺎم اﺳﻴﺪي ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎدر‬-4
subsequent chromate treatment is carried
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻓﻠﻮرﻳﺪ را ﺑﺮدارد اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻻزم‬
out in an acid bath capable of removing
fluoride film. .‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬
5. After this process the part shall be rinsed. .‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮآﻳﻨﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺷﻮد‬-5

119
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

TABLE 28 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF TIN AND ITS ALLOYS


‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻠﻊ و آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎي آن‬- 28‫ﺟﺪول‬
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR PERMISIBLE METHODS
PROTECTIVE ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﺠﺎز‬
COATINGS SOLVENT DEGREASING ALKALI DEGREASING ACID PICKLING
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﺣﻼل‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﻴﺪﺷﻮﻳﻲ‬
PREPARATION FOR PAINTING SEE SECTION 5.2 and 5.3
--- ---
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬-1 ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-5 ‫ و‬2-5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
SEE (NOTES 2, 3)
PREPARATION FOR ELECTRO PLATING SEE SECTION 5.2 and 5.3 SEE (NOTES 1, 3)
‫( ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬3 ‫و‬2 ‫ﺑﻪ )ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬
‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺑﺮاي آﺑﻜﺎري اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬-2 ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-5 ‫ و‬2-5 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫( ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3 ‫و‬1 ‫ﺑﻪ )ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي‬
‫ﺷﻮد‬

Notes: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري ﻫﺎ‬


1. Clean either by immersion or ‫ در ﻳﻚ‬،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺮدن ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﻳﺎ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻟﻴﺘﻲ‬-1
electrolytically, in a mild alkaline cleaner
(see 5.5). (‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬5-5 ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﻨﻨﺪه ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ )ﺑﻪ‬
2. Dip for approximately two minutes in a ‫ درﺻﺪ‬10 ‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ در ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﺎوي‬2 ً‫ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬-2
solution containing 10% by volume of
.‫( ﻏﻮﻃﻪ ور ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‬d=1/18) ‫ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻫﻴﺪروﻓﻠﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
hydrochloric acid (d=1.18). For tin alloys
containing lead approximately 100 ‫ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ‬100 ً‫ﺑﺮاي آﻟﻴﺎژﻫﺎ ﺣﺎوي ﺳﺮب ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
cm3/litre fluoroboric acid (40% wt HBF4) (HBF4 ‫ درﺻﺪ وزﻧﻲ‬40) ‫ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﻓﻠﻮروﺑﻮرﻳﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
shall be substituted.
.‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﺷﻮد‬
3. After this process rinse thoroughly the part ً‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻳﻦ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ را در آب ﺟﺎري ﺳﺮد ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬-3
in cold, running water. .‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ دﻫﻴﺪ‬

TABLE 29 - SURFACE PREPARATION OF CHROMIUM AND LEAD PARTS


‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻛﺮم و ﺳﺮب‬- 29‫ﺟﺪول‬

CHROMIUM
SURFACE PREPARATION FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS DEGREASING
COATING
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮاي ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ‬
‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﺮوم‬
PREPARATION OF CHROMIUM FOR PAINTING SEE NOTE 1
---
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﻛﺮوم ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬1 ‫ﺑﻪ ﻳﺎدآوري‬
PREPARATION OF LEAD FOR PAINTING SEE 5.2 and 5.3
---
‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﺮب ﺑﺮاي رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬ ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-5 ‫ و‬2-5 ‫ﺑﻪ‬

Note: :‫ﻳﺎدآوري‬
1. Electroplated coatings of chromium shall be ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﻛﺮوم آﺑﻜﺎري ﺷﺪه اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬-1
immersed in chromic acid solution (10
g/litre). The solution is used at room ‫ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل‬.‫ ﮔﺮم ﺑﺮ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ( ﻏﻮﻃﻪور ﻧﻤﻮد‬10) ‫ﻛﺮوﻣﻴﻚ اﺳﻴﺪ‬
temperature with an immersion time of -‫ دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬5 ً‫در دﻣﺎي اﺗﺎق ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ زﻣﺎن ﻏﻮﻃﻪ وري ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬
approximately five minutes.
.‫اي اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺷﻮد‬

120
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

12. SURFACE PREPARATION OF ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬-12
METALLIC SURFACES FOR
MAINTENANCE ‫ ﺑﺪون ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬،‫ﺗﻤﺎم ﺳﺎزه ﻫﺎي رﻧﮓ ﺷﺪه ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه ﻓﻠﺰي‬
All painted or metallic coated structure, no matter ‫ ﺳﺮاﻧﺠﺎم ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و‬،‫ﻣﻴﺰان ﺧﻮب ﺑﻮدن ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬
how good the protective system, eventually need
maintenance treatment. .‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﻧﻴﺎز دارﻧﺪ‬

12.1 Choice of Maintenance Method ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب روش ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬1-12


The decision whether to patch-paint or re-coat ‫ﺑﻬﺮ ﺣﺎل ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ رﻧﮓ ﻧﻤﻮدن وﺻﻠﻪاي ﻳﺎ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
completely is largely an economic one. It will be ‫ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺘﺄﺛﺮ از ﻗﺎﺑﻞ دﺳﺘﺮس ﺑﻮدن‬،‫ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻳﻚ اﻣﺮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﺳﺖ‬
influenced by the accessibility of the structure. If
‫ ﺑﻄﻮرﻳﻜﻪ‬،‫ اﮔﺮ دارﺑﺴﺖ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺰرگ ﻻزم ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫ﺳﺎزه ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
much scaffolding is needed, so that the cost of
access is a high proportion of the total cost, it may ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺳﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ از ﻛﻞ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ را ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﻮد ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬
be economical to re-coat the whole structure ‫اﺳﺖ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺗﻤﺎم ﺳﺎزه ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎي ﻛﺎر اﺳﺖ‬
while on site. This is certainly so when an
excessive amount of patch painting of small areas, ‫ ﻫﻤﻴﻨﻄﻮر وﻗﺘﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي‬.‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
say upwards of 10% would be involved. ً‫ درﺻﺪ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد ﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬10 ‫اﺻﻼح ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻓﺮاﺗﺮ از‬
.‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي اﺳﺖ‬
If maintenance is undertaken at the right time, it ‫اﮔﺮ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري در زﻣﺎن ﺻﺤﻴﺢ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد ﻧﻴﺎزي ﺑﻪ‬
should not be necessary to strip all the old coating .‫ﻟﺨﺖ ﻛﺮدن ﺗﻤﺎم ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪد ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
before repainting the structure.

The ideal condition, in which none of the old ‫ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻳﻚ از رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﻧﻴﺎزي‬،‫در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ آرﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬
paint needs more than thorough washing down, is ‫ ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎﻳﻲ از ﺳﺎزه ﻗﺒﻞ‬.‫ﺑﻴﺶ از ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﺪارﻧﺪ ﻧﺎدر اﺳﺖ‬
rare. Some parts of the structure will need
‫از اﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻋﻤﺪه ﻗﻮاي رﻧﮓ ﺑﻪ اﻧﺘﻬﺎي ﻋﻤﺮش ﺑﺮﺳﺪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ رﻧﮓ‬
repainting before the main body of the paint has
neared the end of its life. Where the majority is in ‫ در ﺟﺎﺋﻴﻜﻪ اﻛﺜﺮﻳﺖ در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬.‫آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪد ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ داﺷﺖ‬
good condition and only a small proportion is ‫ﺧﻮب ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ و ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﺮﻏﻮب ﺗﺎ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﺮﻏﻮب‬
poor to very poor, it may be better to repair the
defective areas by spot repair and to leave the rest ‫ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻮب ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ درﺟﺎ‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬
alone until later. .‫ﻣﺮﻣﺖ ﺷﺪه و ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ زﻣﺎن دﻳﮕﺮي ﻣﻮﻛﻮل ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
12.2 Choice of Procedures ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬2-12
Unless otherwise specified the method by the ‫آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد رﺿﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﺮاي‬
company, surface preparation shall be carried out ‫ و‬1 ‫ ﺟﺪول‬IPS-E-TP-100 ‫ﻣﺎده اي ﻛﻪ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻲ رود )ﺑﻪ‬
to a satisfactory standard for the material to be
‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﺑﺎ‬IPS-E-TP-350 ‫ و‬IPS-E-TP-270
applied (see IPS-E-TP-100 Table 1, IPS-E-TP-270,
and IPS-E-TP-350) by suitable method(s) ‫روﺷﻬﺎي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺷﺪه در اﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد ﻣﮕﺮ‬
described in this Standard. .‫اﻳﻨﻜﻪ روش ﺑﻨﺤﻮ دﻳﮕﺮي ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.3 Spot Repair (Patch Paint) Only (‫ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ )رﻧﮓ ﻛﺮدن وﺻﻠﻪاي‬3-12

12.3.1 This option would be favored under the -‫ اﻳﻦ ﺣﻖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ زﻳﺮ ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲ‬1-3-12
following circumstances: :‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.3.1.1 Repairs are hidden or in low visibility ‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات ﭘﻨﻬﺎن ﺷﺪهاﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ در ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬1-1-3-12
area an thus unimportant to the aesthetics. .‫روﻳﺖ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ و ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ از ﻧﻈﺮ زﻳﺒﺎﮔﺮاﻳﻲ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.3.1.2 Agency maintenance crews are available ‫ دﻓﺘﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﺪﻣﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات ﺑﺮاي اﻳﻦ ﻧﻮع ﻛﺎر‬2-1-3-12
for this type of work. .‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.3.1.3 Structures are small, not requiring ‫ ﺑﻪ دارﺑﺴﺖ وﺳﻴﻊ ﺑﺮاي‬،‫ ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬3-1-3-12
extensive scaffolding for hard-to-access areas. .‫ ﻧﻴﺎز ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬،‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ دور از دﺳﺘﺮس‬
121
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

12.3.1.4 Corrosion and degradation are limited to ‫ ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ و ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﺪاﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه و‬4-1-3-12
isolated areas and relatively small sections which ‫ درﺻﺪ ﻛﻞ‬10 ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪار آن ﻛﻤﺘﺮ از‬
amount to less than 10% of total area.
.‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﺤﺪود ﺷﻮد‬
12.3.1.5 Decision has been made to upgrade small ‫ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد ﺗﺎ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺟﺪاﺳﺎزي ﺷﺪه‬5-1-3-12
isolated areas such as bearing areas, crevices, or ‫ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ در ﻣﻌﺮض ﻧﺸﺘﻲ‬، ‫ ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ‬،‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﻴﻪ ﮔﺎهﻫﺎ‬
areas subject to leakage or condensation or
chemical splash.
.‫ ارﺗﻘﺎء ﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ‬،‫ﻳﺎ ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﺷﺶ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬

12.3.2 It is important that the procedure used to ‫ ﻣﻬﻢ اﺳﺖ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮاي اﻧﺠﺎم آﻣﺎدهﺳﺎزي‬2-3-12
do spot surface preparation be appropriate to ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﻜﺎر ﻣﻴﺮود ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮاي‬
provide a good surface for painting and that is not
adversely affect the other areas. The spot cleaning
‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ و اﺛﺮ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺳﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
procedures include abrasive blast cleaning, ‫ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ‬.‫ﻧﺪاﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
manual cleaning and pressurized water blasting. ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ و ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ آب‬،‫ﻛﺎري ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
.‫ﭘﺮﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.3.3 Blast cleaning the damaged areas will be ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ آﺳﻴﺐ دﻳﺪه ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت‬3-3-12
spot blasted to remove all the rust and paint to ‫از ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ زدودن ﺗﻤﺎم زﻧﮓ و رﻧﮓ و رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ‬
achieve Sa2 or greater. The remaining areas of
intact paint will then receive sa1 to remove loose
‫ ﺳﭙﺲ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه رﻧﮓ‬.‫ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺰرﮔﺘﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ ﺑﻮد‬Sa2 ‫درﺟﻪ‬
paint or other surface contaminants. Great care ‫ﺑﺪون ﻋﻴﺐ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺳﺴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ آﻟﻮدﮔﻴﻬﺎي‬
must be exercised when spot blasting to avoid ‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ را درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻮد‬Sa1 ‫درﺟﻪ‬
over-blast damage to the adjacent intact paints.
Spot blasting is not recommended for areas less ‫دﻗﺖ زﻳﺎد ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ از آﺳﻴﺐ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺑﻪ رﻧﮕﻬﺎي ﺑﺪون‬
than about 0.1 m2 or for more than 5 to 10% of ‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬.‫ﻋﻴﺐ ﻣﺠﺎور ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮي ﺷﻮد‬
the surface area.
‫ درﺻﺪ‬10 ‫ ﺗﺎ‬5 ‫ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮاي ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ از‬0/1 ‫از ﺣﺪود‬
.‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮد‬
12.3.4 Manual cleaning (hand and power tool ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري دﺳﺘﻲ )ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه دﺳﺘﻲ و اﺑﺰار‬4-3-12
cleaning) are more suitable for small areas (see ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ( ﺑﺮاي ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ )ﺑﻪ‬
Section 7).
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬7 ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
12.3.5 Pressurized water jet cleaning which is ‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ آب ﭘﺮﻓﺸﺎر ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﺎدي ﻗﺎدر‬5-3-12
capable of removing loose rust and mill scale . ‫اﺳﺖ زﻧﮓ ﺳﺴﺖ و ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﻮرد را ﺑﺮدارد‬
under normal conditions.

12.3.6 After spot cleaning the repaired areas are ‫ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﺷﺪه ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ‬6-3-12
to be coated with a suitable primer. In this ‫ رﻧﮓ ﻫﺎي‬،‫ در اﻳﻦ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺧﺎص‬.‫آﺳﺘﺮي ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
particular option, the remaining paint is not over
coated.
.‫ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

12.4 Spot Repair Plus Full Topcoat ‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬4-12
This technique is similar to section 12.3 with the ‫ ﺑﺎ اﻓﺰودن ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ روي‬3-12 ‫اﻳﻦ روش ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
addition of a full finish coat over the entire ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﻲ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺑﺎﻧﻀﻤﺎم ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ و ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ رﻧﮓ‬
surface, including spot repaired areas and the
.‫ﺑﺪون ﻋﻴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
intact paint areas.

12.4.1 This approach is favored under the :‫ اﻳﻦ دﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ زﻳﺮ ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬1-4-12
following circumstances:

12.4.2 The existing paint is in relatively good ‫ رﻧﮓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﺧﻮﺑﻲ اﺳﺖ و ﻫﻨﻮز‬2-4-12
condition and still resilient and does not have ‫ )ﺑﺮاي ﻣﺜﺎل ﺑﻴﺶ از‬.‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ارﺗﺠﺎﻋﻲ داﺷﺘﻪ و ﻻﻳﻪ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﺪارد‬
122
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

excessive film build (e.g, not above 0.38 mm). .‫ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬0/38
12.4.3 Structure access is relatively difficult. .‫ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﺎً ﻣﺸﻜﻞ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎزه‬3-4-12

12.4.4 Intact surface can be readily cleaned with ‫ آب‬،‫ﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮاي ﻓﺸﺮده‬Ĥ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان ﺑ‬4-4-12
pressurized air, water, (Appendix B 2.1.2) hand ‫( اﺑﺰار دﺳﺘﻲ ﻳﺎ اﺑﺰار اﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ‬2-1-2 -‫ )ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ ب‬،‫ﻓﺸﺮده‬
tool or power tool cleaning (section 7) or solvent
or detergent wiping (Appendix A.3).
‫( ﻳﺎ ﺣﻼل ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎده ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪه ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻧﻤﻮد )ﺑﻪ‬7 ‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻨﻨﺪه )ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
.(‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد‬3-‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ اﻟﻒ‬
Procedures for spot repair plus full topcoat are ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎي ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬
similar to section 12.3 (spot repair only). .‫ )ﻓﻘﻂ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ( ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬3-12 ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬

12.5 Complete Repaint ‫ رﻧﮓ ﻛﺮدن ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﺪد‬5-12

12.5.1 When the paint condition is poor or bad ‫ وﻗﺘﻲ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ رﻧﮓ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺪ اﺳﺖ و ﻧﻘﺪﻳﻨﮕﻲ ﻫﻢ‬1-5-12
and when funds are available, a decision to ‫ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺟﻬﺖ رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪد ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ‬،‫وﺟﻮد دارد‬
repaint the structure in its entirety is usually
made. This involves removing the old coating and
‫ﺳﺎزه اﺗﺨﺎذ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮدد ﻛﻪ اﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰم ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ‬
all of the corrosion product before applying the ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻫﺎي‬،‫و ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻت ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ از اﻋﻤﺎل آﺳﺘﺮي‬
primer, intermediate coats, and topcoat finish. .‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ و ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
Painting a sub-unit of a structure may be a ‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي واﺣﺪ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ از ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎزه در ﺻﻮرت ﻛﻤﺒﻮد‬
variation of this alternative when funds are short ‫ﻧﻘﺪﻳﻨﮕﻲ ﻳﺎ وﻗﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎي ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه ﺳﺎزه در ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﺧﻮب‬
or when the remaining portions of the structure
.‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ دﻳﮕﺮي اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
are in good condition.

12.5.2 Available surface preparation procedure ‫ دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده ﺑﺮاي‬2-5-12
for complete repainting include dry abrasive blast ‫رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﺪد ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺧﺸﻚ‬
cleaning, wet abrasive blast cleaning, vacuum
blasting, and pressurized water jetting (see section
‫ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺗﺮ ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
8 and Appendix B). Normally this latter method (‫ و ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ب‬8 ‫ و ﺑﺎ آب ﺗﺤﺖ ﻓﺸﺎر ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ) ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬،‫ﺧﻼء‬
requires sand or abrasive injection to effect ‫ روش اﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﺗﺰرﻳﻖ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻳﺎ‬.‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮد( ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
complete removal of existing rust scale, paint and
to add a profile. An important consideration in ‫ رﻧﮓ و‬،‫ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ رﺳﻮب زﻧﮓ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬
blast cleaning is the disposal of the abrasives and ‫ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﺣﺎﺋﺰ اﻫﻤﻴﺖ در ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ‬.‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﭘﺮوﻓﻴﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻴﺎز دارد‬
paint residue, particularly if paint contains lead or
other potentially hazardous materials. The surface ‫ ﺑﻮﻳﮋه اﮔﺮ رﻧﮓ ﺣﺎوي‬،‫روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ دﻓﻊ ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﻫﺎ و ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎي رﻧﮓ‬
shall be degreased prior to blast cleaning. ‫ ﺳﻄﺢ را ﻗﺒﻞ از‬.‫ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ﺳﺮب ﻳﺎ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻮاد ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮه ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺎ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ زداﻳﻲ ﻧﻤﻮد‬
Flame cleaning is also capable of removing old ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺷﻌﻠﻪاي ﻣﻲﺗﻮاﻧﺪ رﻧﮓ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ را‬
paint and shall be used in damp whether when ‫ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ و ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻫﻮاي ﻣﺮﻃﻮب ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري‬
blast cleaning is not practicable (see Section 9).
.‫ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
12.6 General Notes for Guidance ‫ ﻳﺎدآورﻳﻬﺎي ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺑﺮاي راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻲ‬6-12

12.6.1 All removable parts impeding access to the ‫ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻗﻄﻌﺎت ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ ﻛﻪ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر را‬1-6-12
work shall be remove before work commences. .‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎزد ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺷﺮوع ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
12.6.2 Treatment of organic growths on painted ‫ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت دﻓﻊ رﺷﺪ ﻣﻮاد زاﺋﺪ آﻟﻲ روي ﺳﻄﻮح رﻧﮓ‬2-6-12
surfaces. The treatment shall be according to ‫ اﮔﺮ رﺷﺪ ﺧﺰه ﻣﺎﻧﻊ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎر ﺷﻮد ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت دﻓﻊ‬.‫ﺷﺪه‬
Appendix E and must be applied prior to blast
cleaning if growths of algal impeding access to
‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺖ )ﻫ( و ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﻪ روش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ‬
the work. .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬

123
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

12.6.3 Washing down before repainting is always ‫ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ از رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪد ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب‬3-6-12
desirable, especially in marine environments, ‫ زﻳﺮا ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ‬،‫ ﺑﺨﺼﻮص در ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎي درﻳﺎﻳﻲ‬،‫اﺳﺖ‬
because it may remove chlorides from the surface,
but it is unlikely to remove sulfates.
-‫ اﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ رﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎت‬،‫ﻛﻠﺮﻳﺪﻫﺎ را از ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺮدارد‬
Consideration shall be given to problems of ‫ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺸﻜﻼت ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮدن ﺑﻌﺪ از‬.‫ﻫﺎ را ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
drying after washing. .‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ داﺷﺖ‬
12.6.4 Some paints become very hard when fully ‫ ﺑﻌﻀﻲ از رﻧﮕﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم ﻋﻤﻞآوري ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺨﺖ‬4-6-12
cured and special preparation, such as light ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ و ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻛﺮدن‬
blasting or the use of emery (with coated abrasive
tools as section 7) may be required to obtain good
‫آرام ﻳﺎ ﺑﻜﺎرﮔﻴﺮي ﺳﻤﺒﺎده )ﺑﺎ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺳﺎﻳﻨﺪه ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺷﺪه‬
undercoat adhesion. ‫( ﺑﺮاي ﺣﺼﻮل ﺑﻪ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﻮب ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ‬7 ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬
.‫ﻧﻴﺎز داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
12.6.5 Thick films such as those obtained with ‫ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎي ﺿﺨﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ آن دﺳﺘﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻴﺮﻫﺎي اﻧﺪود‬5-6-12
pitches or bitumens often develop deep cracks. ‫ﻳﺎ ﻗﻴﺮﻫﺎي ﻧﻔﺘﻲ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ آﻳﻨﺪ اﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﺮﻛﻬﺎي ﻋﻤﻴﻖ ﺑﺮ‬
These materials can be overpainted but the
cracking cannot be eliminated without complete
‫ روي اﻳﻦ ﻣﻮاد را ﻣﻴﺘﻮان رﻧﮓ اﺿﺎﻓﻲ زد اﻣﺎ ﺗﺮك‬.‫ﻣﻲدارﻧﺪ‬
removal of the film. .‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ را ﺑﺪون ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮان از ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮد‬

12.6.6 The maintenance system chosen depends ‫ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪي ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮاﻳﻨﺪ‬6-6-12
to some extent on the original process and the ‫اﺻﻠﻲ و اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان اﻧﺠﺎم داد‬
standard of surface preparation which can be
achieved. Some two-pack materials are not
‫ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﻮاد دو ﺟﺰﻳﻲ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ و‬.‫ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ دارد‬
always suitable for maintenance and trials and ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ و اﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎت و آزﻣﻮﻧﻬﺎي ﺳﺎزش ﭘﺬﻳﺮي‬
compatibility tests shall be carried out before .‫ﻗﺒﻞ از اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
using them.

12.6.7 The standard of protection required varies ‫ اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻴﺎز ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺑﺎ آﻟﻮدﮔﻲ اﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮي و‬7-6-12
with atmospheric pollution and for different parts ‫ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ‬،‫ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎي ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﺎزه ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬
of the structure, i.e. areas subject to condensation
and restricted air movement require better
‫ﭼﮕﺎﻟﺶ و ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﮔﺮدش ﻫﻮا روﺑﺮو ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ‬
protection than fully exposed steelwork. .‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮي ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎزه ﻓﻮﻻدي ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً در ﻣﻌﺮض دارﻧﺪ‬

12.6.8 Sometimes the film becomes embrittled ‫ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺷﻜﻨﻨﺪه ﻣﻲﺷﻮد و ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺧﻮد‬8-6-12
and loses its adhesion. In these cases complete ‫ در اﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ ﻻﻳﻪ ﺑﻄﻮر ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬.‫را از دﺳﺖ ﻣﻲدﻫﺪ‬
stripping is essential.
.‫ﺿﺮوري اﺳﺖ‬
12.6.9 Coatings on old structures frequently have ‫ ﭘﻮﺷﺸﻬﺎي ﺳﺎزهﻫﺎي ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﻛﺮاراً ﺗﺮك ﻫﺎي ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ‬9-6-12
numerous lengthy cracks and fissures. When ‫ ﻫﻨﮕﺎم رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﻣﺠﺪد‬.‫و ﺷﻜﺎفﻫﺎي ﺑﻴﺸﻤﺎري ﺑﺮ ﻣﻲدارﻧﺪ‬
recoating it will save time and produce a better
result to caulk them after applying the primary
‫آن ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺻﺮﻓﻪ ﺟﻮﻳﻲ در وﻗﺖ و ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮي ﺑﺮاي ﺑﺘﻮﻧﻪ‬
coat. .‫ﻛﺮدن آﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از اﻋﻤﺎل ﭘﻮﺷﺶ اوﻟﻴﻪ ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎزد‬

12.6.10 Alkaline and solvent-type paint remover ‫ وﻗﺘﻴﻜﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ زﻳﺮﻛﺎر از ﺑﻜﺎر ﮔﻴﺮي ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬10-6-12
may be used to remove oil-based paint from ‫روﺷﻬﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮي ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ رﻧﮓ ﺑﺮ از ﻧﻮع ﻣﺎده ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ و ﺣﻼﻟﻲ‬
metallic or non-metallic surfaces when the nature
of the substrate preclude removal by other method
‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺬف رﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ روﻏﻨﻲ از ﺳﻄﻮح ﻓﻠﺰي ﻳﺎ‬
of preparation.Paint remover attack aluminium ‫ رﻧﮓ ﺑﺮ ﺑﻪ آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮم و روي ﺣﻤﻠﻪ ﻛﺮده‬.‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻠﺰي ﺑﻜﺎر رود‬
and zinc and their residues are difficult to remove ‫ﺑﻄﻮري ﻛﻪ ﺣﺬف ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪه آﻧﻬﺎ از ﺳﻄﻮﺣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻠﻞ و ﻓﺮج‬
especially from porous surfaces.
.‫دارﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
12.6.11 Particular attention shall be paid to the ‫ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮاي ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ و دﻳﮕﺮ‬11-6-12
cleaning out of crevices and other places where ‫ آﺷﻐﺎلﻫﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ‬.‫ﻧﻘﺎط ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪه از ﻏﺒﺎر و آﺷﻐﺎل ﺑﻌﻤﻞ آﻳﺪ‬
dust and dirt have coated. Debris tends to build up
124
IPS-C-TP-101(1)

at ground level. .‫اﻧﺒﺎر ﺷﺪن در ﺳﻄﺢ زﻣﻴﻦ دارﻧﺪ‬


12.6.12 Crevices frequently occur that are so ‫ ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎً اﻳﺠﺎد ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ و در وﺿﻌﻴﺖ و اﺑﻌﺎدي‬12-6-12
positioned or dimensioned that standard scrapers, .‫ ﺑﺮﺳﻬﺎ و دﻳﮕﺮ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ ﺑﻲ اﺛﺮ ﺧﻮاﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮد‬،‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻟﻴﺴﻪ ﻫﺎ‬
brushes, and other tools will be ineffective. In
such cases it is essential that special tools shall be
‫در ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺿﺮورت دارد اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي ﺧﺎﺻﻲ درﺳﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ‬
devised to ensure adequate cleaning and painting. ‫ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬.‫ﺗﻤﻴﺰﻛﺎري و رﻧﮓ آﻣﻴﺰي ﺑﺎ اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد‬
The contractor shall design such tools and obtain ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ اﺑﺰارﻫﺎﻳﻲ را ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮده و ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪه او‬
the approval of the Company or his .‫را اﺧﺬ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬
representative.
13. SURFACE PREPARATION OF ‫ آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ ﻓﻠﺰي ﻣﻌﻴﻮب‬- 13
IMPERFECTION METALLIC SURFACE
Surface imperfections such as edges, projections, ‫ ﺧﻠﻞ و‬،‫ ﺣﻔﺮه ﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺷﻴﺎرﻫﺎ‬،‫ ﺑﺮآﻣﺪﮔﻴﻬﺎ‬،‫ﻋﻴﻮب ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﺒﻪ ﻫﺎ‬
crevices, pits, weld porosity, laminations, etc. can ‫ ﺗﻮرق و ﻏﻴﺮه ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺳﺨﺖ‬،‫ﻓﺮج ﺟﻮش‬
cause premature failure when the service is
‫ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ زﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬.‫اﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮاﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺧﺮاﺑﻲ زودرس ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
severe. The timing of such surface repair work
may occur before, during, or after preliminary ‫ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ از ﺷﺮوع‬،‫ درﺣﻴﻦ‬،‫ﻛﺎر ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮاﺗﻲ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
surface preparation operations have begun. .‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت آﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزي ﺳﻄﺢ اوﻟﻴﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﺷﻮد‬
13.1 Weld Spatter ‫ ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﻫﺎي ﺟﻮش‬1-13
Weld spatter shall be removed prior to blast ‫ﻗﺒﻞ از ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﺎري ﺑﺮوش ﺑﻼﺳﺖ آﺛﺎر ﺟﺮﻗﻪﻫﺎي ﺟﻮش ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬
cleaning. Most weld spatter, except that which is ‫ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎء آن دﺳﺘﻪ‬،‫ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ آﺛﺎر ﺟﺮﻗﻪﻫﺎي ﺟﻮش‬.‫ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮد‬
very tightly adherent, can be readily removed
‫ﻛﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه اﻧﺪ را ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮان ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎر ﺑﺮدن ﭼﻜﺶ‬
using a chipping hammer, spud bar, or scraper.
Tightly adhering weld spatter may require ‫ ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ آﺛﺎر ﺟﺮﻗﻪ ﺟﻮش‬.‫ ﻳﺎ ﻟﻴﺴﻪ ﺑﺮداﺷﺖ‬،‫ ﺗﻴﺸﻪ‬،‫اﺳﻜﺮاب‬
removal by grinding. .‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪه ﻣﺤﻜﻢ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ اﺳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎز ﺑﻪ ﺳﻨﮓ زدن داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
13.2 Porosity ‫ ﺧﻠﻞ و ﻓﺮج‬2-13
Areas of unacceptable porosity shall be filled with ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻠﻞ و ﻓﺮج ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮل دارﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎده‬
suitable filler material (see Appendix D.6) or ‫ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌ