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JOT2 Task 2

Shalena Forde

Learning Cognitivism


A. When Behaviorism is
Beneficial for Learners
Benefits • Examples
• Gives students positive and • Students receive a
negative reinforcements
reward for correct
answers or positive
• Students can be motivated behavior
through rewards

• Helps drill information to be • Students receive

used later negative reinforcement
if assignments not
• Helps student behavior with completed
positive and negative
A. When Cognitivism is
Beneficial for Learners
• Benefits Examples
• Uses prerequisite skills • Connecting student prior
and prior knowledge to learning to what they learn
foster learning “today”
• Using student prior
• Develops higher knowledge about given
understanding topics
• Uses current knowledge • Connecting how past,
of student present and future learning
are relevant
• Communicates • Give students daily
knowledge to learner objective
• Modeling, coaching,
• Scaffolding
A. When Constructivism is
Beneficial for Learners
Benefits • Examples
• Supports kinesthetic • making a bar graph or
learners and students who tally chart using student
need a “hands on” favorite candy

• Having students create

• Gives students a sense of their own word problem

• Having students work as a

• Students learn from, group to solve a problem
creative and meaningful
B. Lesson Plan Overview

● Students have been working on 3 digit subtraction with and

without regrouping. I have noticed that sometimes students
make mistakes while solving their problem. I decided we need to
reteach, review and then work as partners solving 3 digit word
problems. I will review problems as a class whole group, discuss
expectations for working with a partner and then students will
be placed with a partner.
● Students will do a Kagan Strategy called “Rally Coach” to
practice 3 digit subtraction
● * Lesson Plan in detail attached
B. Learning Theories Reflected in
Lesson Plan

Behaviorism Cognitivism
• Positive • My students all were
reinforcement/engage reached at learning
ment for correct stage/level
answers • I scaffolded and
• Presented a problem chunked/broke down for
with one right or wrong students
answer • I modeled how to do 3
• We repeatedly went digit problems explicitly
over the steps to • I coached students on
solving a 3 digit word how to properly solve 3
problem digit word problems
Lesson Plan
I could adapt this lesson plan This is beneficial because it
to follow along the allows students to have a
constructivism theory. more meaningful experience
and allows them to “lead”
I would do this by instead of their own learning.
giving them pre created word
problems I could have them
I would give them an example
make their own word
of a song/chant.
problems. They could use
their own names, interests Ex. More on the floor go next
and make if fun and more door; more on the top no need
memorable! They would to stop
remember it forever!

I would also give partners the

task of creating a song or
phrase to help them
remember to regroup!
Lesson Plan
Justification Cognitivism

• I believe the most beneficial
lesson plan is blend all three
approaches. I want to take
nuggets and aspects from each
theory and incorporate them into
this lesson. I know this will be a
challenge but I believe I can pull
D. from each aspect.
Beneficial • I think this is best because
Lesson Plan students will have first a modeled
example from the teacher and be
and shown the “right” and “wrong’ way
Justification to solve 3 digit problems
(Behaviorism) , then they would
use their schema (Cognitivism)
then apply what they’ve learned
with a partner and create their
own word problem!
E. Benefits of Following a Design

Lessons can be Teachers are able

enhanced after to reach students Gives structure to
instruction and better knowing the lesson plans
reflected upon. end goal in mind.

Allows teacher to Makes it easier to

see the “big create engaging
picture” and take a and effective
step back lessons
F. Strengths of Backwards

• Sets the stage for learning

• Uncovers what learners need to know and helps plan
• Defines learner outcomes
• The goal of the lesson or unit is already known
• Creates a good environment for learning
F. Strengths of Backwards

Identifies Desired Results

Determines Acceptable Evidence
Plans Learning Experiences
F. Limitations of Backwards

• Can be time consuming for teachers to do.

• Districts have pre planned units that students
already need to know and students may be topped
out from expanding their knowledge even more.

• Plans can change during lessons or school days and

would mess up the backward design process

• Teachers have to use pacing guides per curriculum

F. Strengths of Gagne’s Events

Students become excited/engaged at the beginning of a lesson (Gain

Students know what they will be learning (Inform Learners of
Students are able to recall prior knowledge about a topic (Stimulate
recall of prior learning)
Students see an accurate model of example of content from teacher
(Present the content)
Students are given guided learning activities (Provide learning
F. Strengths of Gagne’s Events

Students are given a task or project (Elicit performance)

Students are told what they need to work on and are given immediate
feedback (Provide feedback)

Students are given an appropriate assessment to show their mastery

(Asses performance)

Students are given real world examples and lessons are made
applicable to real world situations (Enhance retention and transfer)
Students may miss the “gain attention” aspect
if they come into class late or are just
disinterested in the topic which can make it
difficult to engage a student

Students may not have any “prior

F. knowledge” on a given topic

of Gagne’s Providing learning guidance may not
Events be applicable if students are not
ready to do it alone

Providing feedback consistently

multiple times a day for a large
classroom is difficult
F. Strengths of Teaching for

• Generative Topics- Students can be excited about

learning become engaged with something that may
already be familiar
• Understanding Goals- Goals are communicated and
students know what they are working toward
• Performances of Understanding- activities help
develop and demonstrate their understanding
• Ongoing Assessment- provides feedback and
reflection throughout instruction
F. Weaknesses of Teaching for

Generative Topics- Students may not “like” every topic or

content presented

Understanding Goals- Goals can be too broad and students may

not understand or master a goal by the end of a unit

Ongoing Assessment- can be time consuming and difficult to

continually provide feedback to large number of students
G. Most Appropriate Design Theory
for My Instructional Setting and

Gagne’s Nine Events- I find

I can clearly follow along
that this is a good theory
with each step and decide
for my second graders
what I can do
because it gives a clear lay
instructionally to complete
out of what I should do in
that step
in my instructional setting!
Explain how what my
State the “I can
Short YouTube clip or students are learning
statement” or learning
read a story to Gain relates to prior learning
goal to Inform learners
Attention to stimulate recall of
of objectives
prior learning

Present the content to I provide guidance while Allow students to work

my students by modeling my student work on a with partners to work to
and explaining to task to provide learning elicit performance
present the content guidance (practice)

G. Example(s) of Most Appropriate

Design Theory in My Instructional
G. Example(s) of Most Appropriate
Design Theory in My Instructional

Give my students feedback on work or

assignments and check in with partners/groups
to provide feedback

I give my students a project or assessment

(formative or summative) to show understanding
(Assess performance)
• We discuss as a group how what we learned
relates to something in the real world that they
would use (Enhance retention and transfer)
H. References
● Mcdaniel, R. (2018, May 07). Understanding by Design.
Retrieved May 29, 2019, from
● Principles of Instructional Design, Gage, (1998) p. 197-
● What is Teaching for Understanding? (n.d.). Retrieved May
29, 2019, from