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 xxmechanical grain dryer wherein the grain in fixed amount is held in the
drying chamber in batches until the grain reaches the desired moisture
 batch type
 batch type dryer wherein a fixed amount of grain is held stationary in a
horizontal grain holding bin
 flatbed type xxx
 batch type dryer equipped to circulate and/or mixed fixed amount of grain
during the drying operation
 recirculating type
 organic materials used as renewable source of energy including but not limited
to agricultural crops, feed and fiber crop residues, aquatic plants, forestry and
wood residues, agricultural wastes, processing by-products and other non-
fossil organic materials
 biomass
 pieces of grains smaller than three-fourths (3/4) of the average length of the
whole kernel
 broken grains
 dryer in which the material being dried moves through the drying chamber in a
substantially continuous stream and is discharged without being recirculated
and where the drying and tempering processes are accomplished in another
holding bin or column
 continuous flow dryer
 grains which show signs of fissures or fractures or splinters
 cracked grain
 unshelled fruit of the corn plant where husk has been removed
 dehusked corn/corn on cob
 dryer in which the products of combustion come into direct contact with the
product being dried
 direct-fired dryer
 dryer in which the products of combustion do not come in contact with the
products being dried
 indirect-fired dryer
 ratio of the total heat utilized to vaporize moisture in the material, to the
amount of heat added to the drying air expressed in percent (total heat
utilized:amount of heat added)
 dryer efficiency
 heat utilization efficiency
 device used to accumulate dust ( i.e. consist of aspiration fan, cyclone, etc.)
 dust collection system
 System of operation
 Batch type
 Flatbed
 Recirculating
 Continuous type
 Heating system
 Method of heat introduction
 direct
 indirect
 Fuel Source
 renewable
 non-renewable

 air moving device that is used to force heated air through the mass of grains at
the desired air flow rate and pressure
 fan
 device for reducing excess moisture from the grain, with or without
introduction of heat
 grain dryer
 grain or a piece of a grain with the length equal to or greater than three-
fourths (3/4) of the average length of the whole kernel
 head rice (compare broken grains)
 device used to remove grain moisture by forcing heated air through the grain
mass until the desired moisture content is attained
 heated-air mechanical grain dryer
 ratio of the amount of heat added in the air to the heat available in the fuel
(heat added:heat available)
 heating system efficiency

 difference between the maximum and the minimum grain moisture content
randomly sampled after drying
 moisture gradient
 chamber maintained under pressure for uniform distribution of the heated air
through the grain mass
 plenum
 any device that is used to avoid human accident related to drying operation
and/or damage to the parts and components of the dryer during the operation
and automatically shuts-off the operation of the dryer in case of malfunction
 safety device
 corn kernels, mainly of either dent or flint varieties of the plant Zea mays
 shelled corn/ “maize”
 chamber wherein the grains are temporarily held after drying chamber or to
the storage bin
 tempering bin

 Heating system
 Drying system performance
 Quality of dried grains
 Others

 SCOPE (detailed)
 Heating system
 heating system efficiency
 combustion efficiency
 burner/furnace efficiency
 fuel consumption
 Drying system performance
 drying capacity
 moisture reduction per hour
 heat utilization
 drying efficiency
 drying system efficiency
 electric power consumption
 Quality of dried grains
 cracked grains (rice and corn)
 milling quality (rice)

 Others
 volume of air in cubic meters delivered to the mass of grains per second
 airflow rate
 ratio of the heat supplied by the burner, to the heat released by the fuel
 burner efficiency
 ratio of the heat released by the fuel, to the theoretical heat available from
the fuel
 combustion efficiency
 grains which are heat damaged, weather damaged, ground damaged, moldy,
diseased, insect bored, sprouted or distinctly damaged by insects, water, fungi
and/or any other means as seen by the naked eye
 damaged grains
 average temperature of the air to be used for drying the grain, measured at a
number of points as close as practicable to its entry to the grain bed
 drying air temperature
 amount of water removed per unit of time, expressed in kilogram per hour
 drying rate
 all matters other than rice/corn grains such as sand, gravel, dirt, pebbles,
stones, lumps of earth, clay, mud, chaff, straw, weed seeds and other crop
 foreign matter

 The grain to be used shall be homogeneous and the moisture content should
be at least 22% for rice and corn

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