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b. Description and life cycle and its critical stages
c. Description of production cycle in captivity
d. Environmental requirements (physical, biological, ecological, etc.)
e. Food requirements (Natural and feed supplement)
f. Aquaculture production practices (rearing to transport)
g. Economic analysis of the practices
h. References

a. Introduction

aMilkfish, Chanos chanos, is a large herring-shaped fish. In the wild, its distribution is restricted to either
low latitude tropics or the subtropical northern hemisphere along the continental shelves and around
islands, where temperatures are greater than 20 degrees Celsius. Milkfish have a spindle-like shape that
is moderately compressed, smooth and streamlined. Its body color is silvery on the belly and sides,
grading to olive green or blue on the back.

Milkfish is considered one of the oldest farmed species of fish in Asia. Its ability to thrive in varying
water conditions make it an ideal fish to be grown in the confines of an inland pond or a cage out in the
sea. Milkfish is an extremely “bony” fish. Its white meat has a mild flavor that makes the fish good for a
variety of cooking preparations. Milkfish is usually fried, made into soup and even char-grilled. f

The wild catch is limited to just slightly more than one percent of total world production. First farmed
around 800 years ago in the Philippines and Indonesia, global annual aquaculture production of milkfish
has increased every year since 1997. Milkfish remains one of the world's most important farmed fish
species. The milkfish is a staple in the Philippines and parts of Indonesia.

The most important producers at this time are Indonesia and the Philippines, which combined account
for slightly more than 95 percent of global aquaculture production. Milkfish are farmed by trapping fry
on the coastal beaches, lagoons and estuaries where the adults spawn. The fry are then raised in sea
cages, sfaline ponds or concrete tanks. Milkfish are generally marketed commercially under two pounds.

b. Description and life cycle and its critical stages

The fish life cycle generally consists of four stages: egg, larva/fry, juvenile, and adult, with a sub-adult
stage in species with long life spans. Milkfish, like most fishes, go through indirect development and
complete metamorphosis in which eggs hatch into larvae that look very different from the adults.

Fertilized milkfish eggs can be found in the open sea of tropical waters. The eggs are spherical in shape and range
from 1.1 to 1.25 mm in diameter. The eggs have a yellowish yolk and lack oil globules. Development of the embryo
takes about 20 to 35 hours in water temperatures of 26 to 32°C and of salinity 29 to 34 ppt.
Once the eggs hatch, the larvae are about 3.5 mm total length. At hatching, the larvae’s eyes are not pigmented and
their mouth is not open. For about five days milkfish larvae depend solely on their yolk for nutrients .

Milkfish larvae go through a series of complex morphological, physiological, and behavioral stages, which last about 2
to 4 weeks, before becoming juveniles. Younger larvae occur in water depths of 20 to 30 m, while older larvae occur
near the water’s surface. Younger larvae occur both near and far from shore. More advanced larval stages begin to
migrate towards nearshore areas, and are found most frequently there. Milkfish larvae migrate towards shore when
they are about 10 to 17 mm total length.

Once milkfish become larger than 20 mm total length they are considered juveniles. Juveniles appear to have the
same characteristics and structure of adult milkfish. Juveniles enter brackish water and coastal wetland habitats
where the food supply is more abundant.

Growth and development of milkfish is influenced by water temperature. Temperatures between 23.7 to 33°C seem to
be the optimal temperatures for development of milkfish larvae. The rate of development is faster at higher
temperatures. Temperatures lower than 20°C and up to 22.6°C cause young milkfish to be rather sluggish, thus
making them more vulnerable to predation.

Milkfish are most vulnerable to predators in the egg, larval, and fry stages. In order to minimize the impact of
predation, milkfish produce large amounts of eggs in deep water.

Not much is known about natural mortality rates of adult milkfish, but the shortest recorded lifespan of milkfish is 3
years and the maximum lifespan is 15 years. Most mortality occurs at the egg and larval stages.
c. Description of production cycle in captivity
Milkfish larva/fry can either be obtained through collection from coastal areas or littoral waters
or can be produced in captivity.

Fry from captive broodstock and spawners

To develop broodstock under captive conditions, large juvenile milkfish may be stocked, fed
and maintained in floating sea cages in protected coves or in large, deep, fully saline ponds
(as practiced in the Philippines), or in large deep concrete tanks on land (as practiced in
Indonesia and Taiwan Province of China), until they reach sexual maturity with an average
body weight of at least 1.5 kg. Land-based broodstock facilities are entirely dependent on
fresh pumped seawater supplies and are often integrated with a hatchery.

Broodstocks reach maturity in five years in large floating cages, but may take 8-10 years in
ponds and concrete tanks. On average, first-spawning broodstocks tend to be smaller than
adults caught from the wild. As a result, first-time spawners produce fewer eggs than wild
adults, but larger and older broodstocks produce as many eggs as wild adults of similar size.
Broodstocks of about 8 years old and averaging 6 kg produce 3-4 million eggs.

Wild-caught fry

Wild-caught fry are collected with fine-mesh seines and bag nets of various indigenous designs
in the Philippines, Taiwan Province of China and Indonesia. The most commonly used gear are
push net 'sweepers' and dragged seines.

Hatchery production

Milkfish hatcheries consist of larval rearing tanks, culture tanks for rotifers and green algae and
hatching tanks for brine shrimp. Larval rearing may be either operated in outdoor or indoor systems,
depending on the specific conditions in the countries where fry are being produced.

Hatchery operations utilize either intensive (high stocking density, high volume tanks, daily feeding
and water exchange) or semi-intensive (low stocking density, high volume tanks, minimal water
exchange, feeding with mixed diet) systems, with an average survival rate of 30 percent (from
stocked newly-hatched larvae). After hatching, the larvae are ideally kept at 50/litre in hatchery tanks
(either concrete, fibreglass, canvas or polypropylene-covered earthen tanks) maintained
with Chlorella and fed with rotifers during the early stages and later with copepods or brine shrimp for
a total of 3-4 weeks. Following this, their size ranges between 2-3 cm and they are ready for transport
to nurseries.

The fry may change hands two or more times before being used for grow-out; each time this happens,
they are sorted and counted, transported, and stored for different periods of time. Fry are a highly
perishable commodity and some of them die during gathering, storage, transport, nursery rearing and
grow-out. The technologies for fry storage and transport are generally effective, although perhaps not
yet optimized. Fry are stored in a cool place in plastic basins or clay pots at 100-500/litre, in water of
10-25‰, which is renewed daily. Dealers may store fry for 1-7 days, depending on the demand. Fry
can be maintained on wheat flour or cooked chicken egg yolk for 1-2 weeks but soon begin to die,
despite continued feeding. Recently, micro-encapsulated feeds have become commercially available
for finfish but the cost compared to conventional live feeds is higher.


Nursery operations in milkfish producing countries vary according to established cultural practices.
In Taiwan Province of China, where commercial hatchery and nursery productions are integrated
enterprises, milkfish fry are generally grown in either earthen ponds or elevated canvas or concrete
tanks at intensive stocking densities of >2 000/litre.

In Indonesia, a well established backyard-type nursery is used. This consists of a series of elevated
canvas or concrete 1-2 tonnes tanks and similar stocking densities to those used in Taiwan Province of
China are employed.

In the Philippines, milkfish nurseries are integrated with grow-out facilities, where wild-caught or
hatchery-reared fry are first acclimated into nursery compartments which comprise one third to one
quarter of the total area of the Brackish water pond. Fry are stocked at a density of up to 1 000/litre
and are fed with a naturally-grown micro-benthic food known as 'lab-lab' which grows on the fertilized
pond bottom. Nursery rearing has also been carried out in hapa type suspended nylon nets installed in
Brackish water ponds or lagoons and in freshwater lakes within the grow-out compartments, a
traditionally practice in the Philippines. When natural food is becoming depleted, artificial feeds such
as rice bran, corn bran, and stale bread or formulated feeds are provided. In about 4-6 weeks, the fry
grow to 5-8 cm juveniles, which is the ideal size for releasing into grow-out ponds or pens. Depending
on the desired grow-out period, juveniles or fingerling size milkfish are kept in nurseries or transition
holding tanks up to the required stocking size of 30-40 g. Nursery rearing from fry to fingerling size
normally achieves 70 percent survival.

Milkfish may be ongrown in ponds, pens or cages.

Pond culture

Culture of milkfish in ponds may be in shallow or deep water systems.

 Shallow water culture is practiced mainly in Indonesia and the Philippines. Milkfish are
traditionally cultured in shallow Brackish water ponds in which the growth of benthic algae is
encouraged through inorganic or organic fertilization. Milkfish will survive on benthic algae
alone only if the productivity of the algae exceeds the grazing rate of the fish; otherwise,
supplemental commercial feeds are applied. The 'lab-lab' culture system in the Philippines is
equivalent to shallow water culture in Taiwan Province of China. 'Lab-lab' is the term used in
this country for the algal mat (and all micro-organisms associated with it) in the ongrowing

Brackish water ponds in the Philippines were mostly excavated from 'nipa' and mangrove
areas. Shallow water pond design generally consists of several nursery and production ponds
with a typical area of 2 000 m² for nursery ponds and 4 ha for production (ongrowing) ponds.
Typically, ponds have a depth of 30-40 cm and are provided with independent water supplies.

The average yield of a typical integrated nursery, transition and shallow grow-out system that
produces 3 crops a year is 800 kg/ha. Modified modular pond designs consisting of a series of
grow-out compartments with a maximum of eight crops a year have been shown to increase
yield to a high as 2 000 kg/ha.

 Deep water culture was developed in the mid 1970s in response to the decline of profitability
of shallow water culture, and the limited and increasing value of land and manpower
resources. Deep-water ponds provide a more stable environment and extend the grow-out
period into the winter season. Most deep-water milkfish ponds have been created by
converting either shallow water ponds or freshwater ponds, with a depth of 2-3 m. Production
from these systems has sharply increased in Taiwan Province of China, having expanded from
23 percent of the total production in 1981 to 75 percent in 1990.

Most milkfish ponds in the Philippines and Indonesia are of the extensive and semi-intensive
type, with large shallow pond units, tidal water exchange, natural food, minimal use of
fertilizer alternating with commercial feeds and other inputs, and low to medium stocking
rates (50 000-100 000/ha). The Taiwanese method of production, on the other hand, employs
intensive stocking densities (150 000-200 000/ha). Few diseases or infestations have been
recorded so far in milkfish grow-out farming in these Asian countries.

Pen culture

This system was introduced in the Philippines in 1979 in the Laguna Lake. At that time, the lake had a
very high primary productivity, which met the nutritional needs of milkfish. Because of the low rate of
input and the high rate of return, the pen culture area increased sharply from 1973 to 1983, and
exceeded more than 50 percent of the total lake surface, which is 90 000 ha. As the primary
production of the lake could not meet this sudden expansion of aquaculture, and feeding became
necessary to meet the nutritional requirements of the cultured fish, the pen culture practices
developed in lakes were later introduced into inter-tidal areas in the Philippines along coves and river
estuaries as well. Pen operators stock fingerlings at 30 000-35 000/ha and provide supplemental
commercial diets. However, disease spreads among culture pens and causes mass mortality.
Government regulations are now being considered to maintain sustainable yields from this type of

Cage culture

Fish cages are smaller and more restricted enclosures that can be staked in shallow waters or set-up
in deep water with appropriate floats and anchors. Cage farming of milkfish is commonly carried out in
marine waters along coastal bays. Stocking rates (in the Philippines) are quite high, from 5 up to

d. Environmental requirements (physical, biological, ecological, etc.)

The success of milkfish as a cultured food fish species may be attributed to its ability to tolerate
extremes of environmental conditions. These conditions include extremes of temperature,
salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, crowding and starvation. Their adaptability to these
factors have allowed milkfish culturists to exploit the species by manipulating culture conditions.
Most studies on this aspect have been concentrated largely on milkfish fry and juveniles.

Low temperature (23°C) decreases survival, activity, food intake, and growth and development
of milkfish fry and juveniles; high temperatures (up to 33°C) have the opposite effect. Lethal
temperatures for juveniles are 42.7°C and 8.5°C although their tolerance limits vary with
acclimation temperature.

Tolerance of milkfish juveniles to low dissolved oxygen levels also varies with the size of the
animal. Larger fish seem to be tolerant of low dissolved oxygen levels in ponds. Symptoms of
asphyxiation are discernible at 1.4 ppm oxygen among 200 to 300 g fish; 50% mortality occurs
at around 0.1 to 0.4 ppm at 31 to 34°C.

Tolerance limits to salinity vary with age. Hence, seven day old larvae are most sensitive to
salinity changes and handling stress, tolerating only levels within the range of 16 to 20 ppt. In
contrast, 21 day old milkfish fry can tolerate salinities within the range of 0 to 70 ppt. The ability
of fry to withstand salinity extremes may be related to their ability to gradually alter their chloride
cell density and size and plasma osmolalities and chloride levels to near normal. In fact,
reduction of salinity to 20 to 25 ppt during storage of milkfish fry enhances survival by possibly
reducing osmotic stress. Chloride cell density and size of freshwateracclimated fry tend to be
elevated with transfer to elevated salinities. As with temperature, tolerance limits to salinity
extremes are influenced by acclimation history.

While milkfish fry can tolerate abrupt transfer from full-strength seawater to freshwater, early
juveniles would die. However, milkfish juveniles can also tolerate a wide range of salinity with
larger fish more efficient at handling osmotic stress than smaller ones.

Mortalities of pond-reared milkfish are not due to ammonia (un-ionized) toxicity. Milkfish can
tolerate high ammonia levels of 21 to 20 ppm, far above the normal values (around 1 ppm)
recorded in ponds. Gill damage due to ammonia is reversible ten days after exposure in
ammonia-free water. Juvenile milkfish can also tolerate high levels of nitrite (freshwater: 12
ppm; brackish water: 675 ppm, thus eliminating ammonia and nitrite toxicity as main factors of
mass kills in milkfish ponds.

Milkfish fry and juveniles can tolerate crowded conditions. With just enough food for body
maintenance, milkfish juveniles can be kept crowded and stunted in nursery ponds for several
months. Good growth, which is not significantly different from non-stunted fish, is achieved once
stunted fish are fed and more space becomes available. This technique is a traditional farm
practice among milkfish growers in the Philippines when seed stocks are abundant and prices
are low.

e. Food requirements (Natural and feed supplement)

Natural Food

Milkfish are considered to be opportunistic generalists, feeding on anything present in the environment from detritus,
phytoplankton, zooplankton, filamentous algae to artificial feed. The food of juveniles in their natural habitat consists
of algae, detritus, diatoms, animal elements, plant debris, and sand particles. When supplemental feed is provided to
milkfish juvenile they preferentially feed on pellets followed by detritus, diatoms, and filamentous algae. Adult milkfish
feed on diatoms, zooplankton (including fish eggs and larvae), algae, detritus, and small amounts of sand particles.

The nutrient requirements of milkfish are shown in Table 2. Fry and juveniles require 40 percent and 30–40 percent
dietary protein, respectively. Milkfish fingerlings or juveniles grow best when fed diets containing 7–10 percent lipid,
1.0–1.5 percent n3 fatty acids, 25 percent carbohydrate, 10.4–14.7 kJ/g diet, and protein energy to total
metabolizable energy ratio of 44.4 percent. In ponds where natural food is present, the diet for milkfish juveniles may
contain protein levels of 24–27 percent . In intensive ponds, marine cages and pens where there is little contribution
from natural food milkfish require 30 percent or more protein and a lipid level of not less than 7 percent. Juvenile
milkfish have a phosphorus requirement of 0.85 percent of dry diet. Vitamin requirements of juvenile milkfish are not
known. Broodstock require 1 000 mg Vit C/kg feed for good egg and larval quality.
Table 2. Summary of dietary nutrient requirements and utilization of milkfish, Chanos
chanos(requirement expressed for dry feed)

Nutrient level Life stage/size class

Fry Fingerling Juvenile

Crude protein, % min 40 30.0–40.0

Amino acids, % min of dietary protein

Arginine 5.2
Histidine 2
Isoleucine 4
Leucine 5.1
Lysine 4
Methionine + Cys 3.2
Phenylalanine +Tyr 5.2
Threonine 4.5
Tryptophan 0.6
Valine 3.6
Crude lipid, % min 7.0–10.0

Essential fatty acids, % min

18:3n-3 + 20:5n-3 + 22:6n-3 1.0–1.5

Carbohydrate, % max 25
Digestible energy, min kJ/g 10.4–14.7
Protein to energy ratio, % 44.4
Data source: Lim et al. (1979); Pascual (1989); Borlongan and Coloso (1993); Borlongan (1992);
Coloso et al. (1988)

Feed Formulation

Live food

Milkfish larvae are reared on Brachionus, Moina, and Artemia. Rotifers and Artemia are normally enriched with DHA
(Protein Selco. INVE Aquaculture, Dendermonde, Belgium). To reduce the dependence on live food in the hatchery,
artificial microbound larval diets have been developed.
Supplemental Feed

In ponds supplemental feed is provided when natural productivity of the water cannot sustain optimum fish growth.
Supplemental feeds can be in the form of a single feed ingredient (e.g., rice bran, reject snack foods), two mixed
ingredients, or formulated low protein diets Protein sources like local fish meal is usually mixed with rice bran and
either pelletized or not, while snail meat and entrails of fish or chicken are blanched, chopped, and fed directly to the
fish. The estimated apparent FCR for these feedstuffs/feeds is about 4 to 5:1. Plant sources rich in carbohydrates
such as rice bran, boiled corn, bread crumbs, and Azolla are fed as a single feed or mixed with other ingredients,
pelletized and dried. Leaf meals like cassava, swamp cabbage, and sweet potato in combination with other
ingredients are also used as supplemental feed. Rice bran as a single ingredient is often fed to milkfish in semi-
intensive pond culture (at a stocking density of 8000 fish/ha) with an apparent FCR of about 3.9:1.

Formulated feed

Fish farmers prepare farm-made feeds (either as single or mixed ingredients) or purchase commercial feeds. Farm-
made feeds are usually fed in dry form and prepared by mixing, pelletizing, and air drying. Moist feeds are not
commonly used for milkfish. Dry, farm-made feeds are easy to prepare, store, and transport, and relatively cheap
(depending on the availability of ingredients used). However, these feeds are unbalanced and result in low production
levels. Formulated milkfish feeds are available as sinking or floating pellets. Extruded, floating pellets are more
expensive than sinking pellets but allow for easy monitoring of feed consumption. Feeding trays are normally installed
in cages and ponds to reduce wastage.

Table 5 lists the feed ingredients that are used, or have the potential to be used, as protein and/or energy sources in
milkfish feeds. The major feedstuffs used as protein sources are fishmeal, shrimp meal, meat and bone meal, and
copra meal; soybean meal and other pulses are used both as protein and energy sources. Cereal grains and cereal
by-products (rice bran, corn meal, corn germ meal, corn starch, wheat pollard, wheat flour) are used as energy
sources. Other potential protein sources are snail meat, poultry by-product and feather meal, blood meal, cow pea,
feed pea, and leaf meals (e.g. cassava leaves, swamp cabbage, sweet potato). Leaf meals can partially replace
fishmeal in complete diets of milkfish (Borlongan and Coloso, 1994). Feed pea (Pisum sativum) can be used to
replace 20 percent of dietary protein in milkfish diets containing 30 percent crude protein (Borlongan et al., 2003).

Protein levels in formulated milkfish diets range from 46 percent for larvae, to 21–36 percent for grow-out in semi-
intensive and intensive systems, and 36 percent for broodstock (Table 7 and 8). The main components of larval feed
are fish meal, soybean meal, and shrimp meal. Broodstock fish are fed complete, high quality diets to assure high
egg quality and larval survival (Emata et al., 2000).

f. Aquaculture production practices (rearing to transport)

Milkfish are produced in ponds, cages and pens. Culture practices are classified as extensive, modified extensive,
semi-intensive, and intensive, depending on stocking density, feeding strategies, and water management.
In extensive ponds, the fish depend primarily on natural food, and life-support systems such as aerators and pumps
are not employed. Ponds are stocked at 1 000–3 000 juveniles/ha and production ranges from 0.5–1 tonne/ha/cycle.

Modified extensive systems are classified into either “modified straight run” or “modular” systems. In “modified
straight-run” systems the fish depend on natural food for the first three months and in the last month of grow-out are
provided with supplementary feed when natural food becomes limiting. Fertilization alone can only support a final
biomass of ca. 0.6 tonne/ha/cycle while this method allows for the production of 1 tonne/ha/cycle. The “modular”
method of production comprises three stages of rearing. As the fish grow, they are moved from a smaller to larger
ponds. Three ponds with areas increasing at a ratio of 1:2:4 or 1:3:9 form a module. The culture period in each pond
lasts for 30 days, and once vacated, the pond is immediately prepared to receive the incoming stock. This is a
continuous program of pond preparation, stocking, transfer, and harvest so that 6 to 8 cycles/year are possible,
allowing for production of 2 tonnes/ha/yr.

Semi-intensive systems are adapted to increase yield over the traditional, extensive system, but with lower energy
requirements compared to intensive systems. Fish are stocked at 8 000–12 000/ha. The nutrient requirement of the
stock is supplied by both natural food and supplemental feed. Fish are dependent on natural food during the first
month of culture when biomass is about 300–400 kg/ha; supplemental feed is provided from the second month
onwards. Production in semi-intensive systems ranges from 1.5–3.5 tonnes/ha/cycle.

Intensive pond culture involves deepening of ponds and stocking at very high density (>20 000 fish/ha). Aeration,
pumping, and feeding are employed to support high fish biomass and production levels in excess of 4
tonnes/ha/cycle are achieved.

Intensive culture of milkfish is also practiced in marine pens and cages. The stocking density in fish pens is 5–20
fish/m2. For floating, stationary cages, stocking density is maintained at 10–30 fish/ m3. In offshore cages stocking
density is increased to 35–100 fish/m3 (de la Vega, 1998). Fish fed exclusively on commercial feeds in these systems

Stocking and fish transfer

The best time to stock milkfish is during the cooler part of the day - early morning. The container or transport bag is
partially submerged and tilted to one side to allow pond water to flow in. This is to make sure that salinity and
temperature levels in transport bags are close to those of the pond before fish are released.

Milkfish tend to swim against the current towards a fresh supply of water. When transferring fish from one pond to
another, the pond is partially drained at low tide. Water is allowed to enter during high tide so that the fish will swim
towards the inflowing water. A long drag net or seine is used to collect the fish near the gate. Fish are scooped into a
counting net and finally transferred into another pond.

Water Management and aeration

In tide-fed ponds, water is exchanged every spring tide to maintain the desired salinity and water depth. Tidal
exchange is done every two weeks in extensive systems and water depth is maintained at 40–60 cm throughout the
rearing period.
Pumping is required for frequent water exchange in both semi-intensive and intensive systems. In semi-intensive
ponds, water depth is gradually increased from 50 cm (first month of culture) to 100 cm (last month of culture) as the
standing crop increases. In intensive ponds water depth is maintained at 1 m or more throughout the culture period.
Aeration is needed when biomass reaches 800–1 000 kg/ha.

To prevent dissolved oxygen depletion fish biomass in un-aerated, semi-intensive ponds should not exceed 800 kg
fish/ha. In intensive ponds biomass should not be higher than 5 000 kg fish/ha so as not to exceed acceptable water
quality levels in effluent waters.

Culture period and harvesting

The culture period (cycle) in brackishwater pond is usually between 3–4 months (from fingerling to marketable size of
250–300 g/fish). The most common method of harvesting milkfish is the ‘pasulang’ method whereby fish are induced
to swim against a water current (induced by tidal exchange) and are gathered in the catching pond or canal system
and concentrated using a seine net. The fish are then scooped into chilling tanks or boxes which contain flaked ice. In
the chilling tanks, a 1:1 ratio of fish and ice is enough to decrease the temperature of the fish to 4 oC in two hours.

When fish do not respond to the current, fish are harvested by draining the pond and leaving enough water to expose
1/3 of the dorsal portion of the fish as they congregate in deeper regions of the pond (trench). Fish are collected
through seining and placed in chilling tanks.

In marine pens and cages, fish are grown for 6–8 months from fingerling (20 g) to marketable size (>500 g). Partial
harvesting is done with seine nets or total harvest is achieved by lifting the entire net.

g. Economic analysis of the practices

Milkfish production will benefit from
 investment in feed formulation to cut down production costs.
 rationing the exact daily feed biomass requirements to reflect actual feed requirements

 trimming down marketing layers. Through cooperatives, producers should be encouraged to

market production directly to retailers, thereby bypassing the traditional market layers.
 Making public investments for post-harvest facilities.

h. References
 Garcia, L. 1990. Fishery Biology of Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forskal). Proceedings of the Regional
Workshop on Milkfish Culture Development in the South Pacific. Accessed October 10, 2005

 Villaluz, A., A. Unggui. 1983. Effects of Temperature on Behavior, Growth, Development and Survival
in Young Milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forskal). Aquaculture, 35: 321-330. Accessed October 10, 2005

Bagarinao, Teodora. 1999. Ecology and Farming of Milkfish