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DESIGN OF MATERIAL

HANDELING SYSTEM

PREPARED BY:
SAGAR CHOKSHI
ASST. PROFESSOR
MECHANICAL DEPT.
CSPIT-CHANGA.
INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL HANDLING

 In any industrial process, the product being manufactured passes


through various phases and it needs to be transported from place to
place. This could involve processes such as transporting of raw material
to the machines and then shifting the machines from one station to the
other and finally to the store or warehouse. This involves the use of
material handling equipment. The simplest form of material handling
is manual, where the material is shifted from one machine to the other
by a worker. However, in large production setups, where the
production rates are high and the product to be handled is such that
manual transportation is not possible, sophisticated material handling
systems would be required. Material handling system does not
contribute directly to the product value, but it adds to the cost of the
product and is therefore sometimes is referred to as a necessary evil.
In fact, the least handling would be the best handling.
 Thus, while designing the material handling system, care should be
taken that the selected equipment will give optimum productivity.
Unnecessary sophistication should be avoided as it would lead to
increase of product cost.
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SYSTEM CONCEPT FOR MATERIAL HANDLING

 A material handling system design should have certain parameters


which should be satisfied by the system. These are listed as below:
 Material handling systems suggested should not obstruct or create
problems to the product cycle. They should work hand in hand,
without requiring any major modifications in the factory layouts.
 The systems designed should be easy to upgrade and should not
become obsolete with small changes in the product cycle.
 Any future expansions or changes should not be at prohibitive
costs.
 The system should be so selected that it will achieve optimum
productivity. Unnecessary sophistication should be avoided, and the
simplest system which would work should be used.
 The system should have a low initial and operational cost. A high
initial cost, would put financial constraints on its implementation, as it
does not directly contribute to product costs.
 The rate of return on investment should justify the Solution adopted.

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BASIC OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING
SYSTEM

The basic objectives that a material handling system should


fulfill are:
1)Quick and Precise Pick-up of Loads
2)Quick and Efficient Transfer of Load with a Planned Time
Interval
3)Transport of Loads in Planned Quantity
4)Safe Transport of the Load without any Damages
5)Accuracy in Delivering at the Destination
6)Automation with Minimum Human Element
7)Low Initial and Operational Costs
8)Simple and Easy to Maintain
9)Safe Operation
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TYPES OF LOAD

 The types of load handled by a material handling system can


be of two basic types:
1) Bulk Load
2) Unit Load and Containerization.

Bulk Load:
 A bulk load is in the form of particles, powders or lumps of
homogeneous materials, which cannot be counted by
numbers. Examples of bulk loads are : iron ore, coal, sand,
cement, mineral, stone, clay etc. A bulk material is
classified by its bulk density, lump-size, flowability,
abrasiveness and other miscellaneous characteristics. This
property based classification plays an important role in the
design of material handling systems.

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Bulk Material Character Classification
Property Material Characteristics Classification

A
Very fine - 150 micron sieve
Fine - Less than 3 mm B
Size C
Granular - Less than or equal to 12 mm
D
Lumpy - Lumps over 12 mm
E
Irregular - Interlocking
Very free flowing 1
Free flowing 2
Flowability Average flowing 3
4
Sluggish
Abrasiveness Non-abrasive 5
Abrasive 6
Very Abrasive 7
Sharp 8
Miscellaneous
F
Characteristics Builds up and hardens
G
Generates static electricity
J
Flammability
Very dusty L
Contains explosive dust N
Highly corrosive S
Hygroscopic U
Packs under pressure X
Y .
Very light and fluffy - may be windswept
Z
Elevated Temperature

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Unit Loads:

 Unit loads are those loads which can be counted by


numbers or units Examples of unit loads would be a
machine component, a complete machine, a building
block, or containers in the form of boxes. Generally
unit loads are specified by its weight.
 The important properties to be considered in the design
of material handling equipment for unit loads would be :
1. The weight of each unit.
2. The support or bearing surface where the unit
would be placed.
3. The brittleness and hardness of the material.
4. The surface finish.
5. Temperature of the unit.
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Containerisation:
 In a high productivity cycle, handling small sized packets or units
is inconvenient and uneconomical.
 In such cases, containers of different sizes and shapes are used
for handling such materials. Many a times, certain quantities of
bulk material can be placed in a container which can then be
handled as a unit load. This process of converting a bulk load
into a unit load is referred to as containerisation.
 The advantage of this process is that even bulk material can be
easily expressed in units : for example, 10 containers of 500 kg
each. In some cases, various containers can be further stacked
over one another and each stack can then be treated as a unit.
This allows for a better check on the produced material. Besides
that, hoisting equipment are generally designed for handling loads,
by their weights. With containerisation, bulk materials can be
treated as unit loads and can be specified by its weight.

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Consideration in the design of
container:
1. Limit the variety of containers by way of sizes and shapes.
2. Each container should be designed based on the requirements of the material it has to handle.
3. Containers should not be very large as it would increase the loading on the handling systems. At
the same time, a small container would increase the number of containers and hamper productivity.
4. Containers should be stackable. This reduces storage costs, as the vertical space in a
store can be utilised. Stackable containers should be designed in such a manner, that
they do not collapse when stacked.
5. The containers should at all times be properly coated or painted. Colour coding and
numbering of containers should also be done so that they can be easily recognised.
6. Wooden or plastic containers are rust free, but have limitations on their life,
cleanliness and can also be hazardous in case of fires.
7. Steel containers are sturdy and have a long life. Steel containers can be of a solid
design or made of wire mesh. Wire mesh containers are suitable as they are lighter in
weight and are self cleaning. They also produce less noise in handling, as compared to a
solid container. Wire mesh containers allows the components to be washed, without
removing them from the containers. Besides this, the components and the containers
dry and cool faster.

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Stackable container

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CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIAL
HANDLING EQUIPMENT

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HOISTING EQUIPMENT
 This comprises of a group of equipment which are
used primarily for lifting or lowering of unit load or
components in batches. These equipment can move
the loads in vertical direction and can then
transfer them from one point to the other in the
horizontal direction, within the operating zone of
the equipment.
 Hoists can further be classified into three
categories.
1. Pure Hoisting Equipment
2. Cranes
3. Elevators
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Pure Hoisting Equipment
 The first category includes the pure hoisting equipment such as Jacks,
Winches, Hand hoists and pulley blocks. These generally are used for
vertical lifting with very limited horizontal movement. A typical
arrangement of a hoist is as shown in Fig.

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Cranes:
 One of the most widely used type of power
driven cranes are the EOT cranes as shown
in Fig.. (Electric Overhead Travelling
Crane).
 It can serve a large area of floor space and
does not occupy floor space, as it is mounted
overhead. These cranes have three motions,
i.e. hoisting motion, the long travel
motion and the cross motion. With these
three motions, any space on the shop floor
within its working range can be covered.

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Cranes:

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Portal Jib Crane

Fig. Portal Jib Crane


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Cont..
 Besides the EOT cranes, other kind of cranes are the jib cranes,
cantilever cranes, mobile cranes, wall cranes. Fig. shows a portal
jib crane which has an inclined member called as a jib. This is
supported by a wire rope or a structure attached to the frame. The
crane has a revolving base which can be rotated for transfer of
load from one place to the other. Cranes could also be of the
mobile type. In this case, the jib cranes are mounted on trucks,
crawlers 'or locomotives. In general, cranes have four possible
motions :
 Hoisting Motion : This is used to lift or lower the load.
 Derrieking or Luffing Motion : This motion which is imparted to
the jib so as to move in a vertical plane. It allows the load line to
be brought, near or farther away from the centre of the .crane.
 Slewing Motion : This is the revolution of the whole structure of
the crane including the jib about the revolving base.
 Long travel motion : This motion is applicable when the crane
has to be bodily moved on rail track or along a road.

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Elevators
 These are the devices which are used to
lift bulk materials in a vertical or inclined
plane. Bucket type elevator shown in Fig.
is an example of a vertical elevator.
 Elevators of this design predominate in
the bulk handling of free-flowing, fine and
loose materials with small to medium size
lumps. Buckets, mounted at spaced
intervals, are loaded by scooping up
material from the boot or by feeding the
material into them. Material is discharged
by centrifugal action as the buckets pass
over the head wheel connected to the
driving pulley.
 Other types of elevators include cage or
cars being guided and raised using
ropeways and counter weights.

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CONVEYING EQUIPMENT

 Conveing equipment consists of a number of equipment used for generally


handling bulk load. However, they are also occasionally used for unit
loads. These are continuous flow kind of systems and do not have a
separate lifting or lowering gear. The major merits of using conveyors are
1. They can be used for horizontal, vertical or inclined transfer of
material.
2. They can be installed at floor level, work station level or at a higher
level. In cases, where the installation is done at a higher level, valuable
floor space can be saved.
3. Transfer rates in conveyors are extremely high as compared to
others.
4. Conveyors are based on a continuous flow cycle and a continuous flow of
material is aensured.
5. Transfer rates can be easily controlled by raising or lowering the speed
of the conveyor. In case of improvements in the product cycle, the rate at
which the material reaches a station can thus be controlled easily.
6. Conveyors can be started and stopped easily with the press of a
button and they come to a halt within a short time. This allows easy control
of the arriving and departing material at each workstation.
7. Most of the conveyors are generally laid down in straight lines. This reduces
the route taken by the material substantially.

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Cont..
1. Conveyors can be used extensively in assembly lines. In this
case, the conveyor serves a dual role in conveying the material
and also acting as a processing line, where operations are done.
These kind of conveyors are often used in the automobile
industry. The speed at which the conveyor moves, helps in
maintaining the productivity.
2. They can conveniently handle all kinds of loads and in all
kinds of conditions. They can be used to load furnaces, paint
units or high pressure cleaning units or even handle explosive and
hazardous substances.
3. Conveyors do not necessarily require an operator for
handling the material. They are extremely mechanised and are
suitable for companies involved in automated production.
4. Conveyors can be designed for working in clean and
controlled environments. They can be used in food and
pharmaceutical industries, where the products can be handled
and then packed mechanically, without any human contact.
5. When designed properly, conveyors are reliable and require
minimum maintenance.

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Cont..(Limitations)
 Any change in the product cycle, which changes
the destination of the material or the sequence would
mean reworking the complete layout of the conveyor.
This would involve high costs.
 Though the conveyors can handle high transfer rates,
they are not suitable in handling very heavy unit
loads.
 Conveyors operate only on fixed routes and no
deviations are possible in that.
 Conveyors are rapid transfer systems but are
inflexible. They can only be suitable in plants,
where the work content does not change at all.

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Cont..
 Conveyors find application in transfer of
minerals and ores from the mines to the
store. They can also used to load ships or
trucks. Another application is in the
automobile industry where it also serves
as a process line. Conveyors can be used
in the food and dairy industry, hottling
plants and pharmaceutical companies.
Some of the commonly used conveying
systems are mentioned below

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Belt Conveyors:

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Cont..
 A belt conveyor consists of two end pulleys, with a
continuous loop of material that rotates about them. The
pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on
the belt forward. The belt span is supported by idlers
spaced along the length of the conveyor. Conveyor belts are
extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural
materials, such as grain, coal, ores, etc. Conveyor belts are
also used in self-unloading bulk freighters. The longest
conveyor belt in the world is in Western Sahara. It is 100
km long, from the phosphate mines of Bu Craa to the
coast south of El-Aaiun. The longest single belt
conveyor runs from Meghalaya in India to Sylhet in
Bangladesh. It is 17 kms long and Conveys limestone
and shale. Belt conveyors allow large volumes of
material to move rapidly. A sketch of the belt conveyor is
as shown in Fig. A detailed discussion on belt conveyors is
explained in the later articles.

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Chain Conveyors
 These conveyors are similar in working principles to
the belt conveyors. In this case, an endless chain is
made to run over the head and tail sprockets. Just as
in belt conveyors, idlers are provided to support the
chains in the load carrying and return tracks. Chain
conveyors have a better ability to absorb impact
loads and have also less stretchability under
load. They can transport large loads and can be used
in applications where the conveyed material is hot.
However, these conveyors are more expensive and
are also noisy as compared to belt conveyors. They
require proper lubrication and the chains wear
significantly faster, if the conveying speeds are
increased. Chain conveyors are generally suitable for
unit loads.
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Screw Conveyors :

 Fig. shows a screw conveyor, which comprises


of rotating screw placed in a tube. Depending
on the material to be handled, different
shapes are given to the screw. As the screw:
rotates, the material is pushed towards the
discharge end.
 A screw conveyor can handle cold as well
as hot materials. They are also effective in
transferring materials such as coal, slurries,
fine powders and agrigultural products. Screw
conveyors can be arranged inclined or
sometimes even vertical.

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Cont..

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Apron Conveyors :
 Apron conveyors are used to handle various
bulk and unit loads in the horizontal and
inclined directions. These type of conveyor
are constructed of a series of parallel endless
roller chains running on tracks supported by
the frame. Overlapping metal plates are
attached to the chain to form a moving bed.
These types of conveyors are suitable for
withdrawing loads from hoppers bins, etc. and
can usually handle heavy, large lumped,
abrasive and hot material. A apron conveyor
chain is as shown in Fig.

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Cont..

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SURFACE AND OVER HEAD
EQUIPMENT
 Surface or overhead equipment is the
group of equipment which are used
for handling unit or bulk loads in
hatches on a horizontal surface. This
group of equipment can be in the
form of fork lifts, trucks, lorries,
railway cars and wagons,
overhead monorails, scrapers and
skidders.
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Cont..

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Cont..
 A fork lift is a powered industrial truck used to lift and
transport materials, often by means of steel forks
inserted under the load. Fork lifts are most commonly
used to move loads stored on pallets. Fig. shows the
sketch of a typical fork lift. Fork lift trucks are
available in many variations and load capacities. In a
typical warehouse setting most fork lifts used have
load capacities of around one to five tons. In addition
to a control to raise and lower the forks, the operator
can tilt the mast to compensate for a load's tendency
to angle the blades toward the ground and risk
slipping off the forks. Tilt also provides a limited
ability to operate on non- level ground.Scrapers or
skidders are a special type of heavy vehicles used in
for pulling carts along a pathway.

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BASIC PRINCIPLES IN SELECTION OF
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT
 In the previous article, we saw that there are
different types of material handling equipment,
with their own characteristics. In many cases,
different types of equipment can be used for
thesame kind of an operation. Certain basic
principles and factors are used in identifying
the type of equipment that should be used for
a given situation. These factors are discussed
below:

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1.Direction of Load Travel
 In a material handling system, the payload
could be required to be transported in to
vertical, horizontal or inclined directions. The
direction of this travel is important in selecting
• the kind of material handling system that
should be chosen for that application. For
example, if the direction of load travel is
vertical or close to vertical, then hoists,
cranes or elevators are used. If the load
travel is horizontal, then the different
types of conveyors are preferred

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2.Length of Load Travel :
 In case of machine shops, where the load
travel happens in relatively smaller areas,
hoists, EOT or fork lifts are the ideal means
of material handling. On the other hand, in
industries such as mining, where the
material handling occurs over a large
length, conveyors are preferred.

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3.Properties and Characteristics
of the material being handled
 The material being handled can be either of bulk
type or can be a unit load. Each of this material
would also have other inherent properties. For
example, materials like iron ore are lumpy, with
average flowability and are abrasive. On the
other hand materials such as aluminium nitrate are
granular and also contain explosive dust and are
highly corrosive. Besides these, materials could
also possess other properties such as their
hardness, surface finish, temperatures, and
tendency to form cake. Depending on these
characteristics and properties of the material being
handled, a proper system should be selected

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4.The rate of flow of the material:

 The rate of flow of material directly affects the


productivity of manufacturing. In
applications, where a large flow rate of material
is required, conveyors and bucket
elevators are preferred. These equipment
would give a continuous flow of material.
 On the-other hand, if the rate at which the
material flow happens is not that large,
equipment such as cranes, EOT or fork lifts can
be used.

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5.Kind of the Production Process :

 The kind of production process done to the


material is an important parameter in selecting
the equipment for handling it, For example, if
the production process is that of an assembly
line, then the material has to flow at a
particular rate, within which certain set
operations must be done by the operator at
each station.
 The rate at which this flow occurs would
completely define the productivity of the whole
cycle. This kind of production process is
typically seen in the automobile industry. In
such cases, conveyors are preferred

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6.Methods of Loading and Unloading

 The method of loading the material at entry


and discharge also plays a role in selection of a
material handling system.
 If bulk materials are used, then gravity is
the chosen form of feeding and discharging
the material.
 Bucket elevators use the buckets to scoop
the material and then it is discharged at
another level using centrifugal forces and
gravity.
 In case of unit loads, the units or
containers are generally stacked one on top of
each other. In such cases, cranes, EoT or
fork lifts are suitable.
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7.Existing Layout and Conditions of
the Workspace:
 Many a times, the material handling system
may be added on to an existing shop floor. In
such a case, the existing layout of the
workspace should be carefully studied to
facilitate an easy installation of a particular
material handling system.
 Besides, this, conditions such as type and
design of building, climatic conditions and
the type of energy available should be
studied before firolising the kind of equipment
to be installed.

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8.Initial and Operational Costs:

 Costs are a very important factor in the


selection of a material handling system. It has been
stressed earlier that a handling system does not
increase the value of the product, but it
increases its cost. Thus, this increase in cost
should be justified in terms of savings achieved by
way of increased productivity and reduction in costs
due to mechanisation. A thought should be given
on these aspects before selecting a material
handling system.
 Besides, the high initial costs, the operational costs
of the system should also be considered while
selecting the system.

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BELT CONVEYORS
 A belt conveyor consists of an endless belt of a resilient
material Connected between two pulleys and moved by
rotating one of the pulleys through a drive unit gear box, which
is connected to an electric motor. The driving pulley end is
called as the head end, and the pulley is called as the head
pulley. Conversely, the other pulley is at the tail end and is
referred to as the tail pulley as shown in Fig. Material is
conveyed by placing it on the belt, through a feeder. As the
belt rotates, the material is carried with it to the other end,
where it is then dropped in the discharge chute. It should
however be noted that the discharge can be arranged at any
point along the run by means of special discharge devices.
 As the belt rotates, due to the weight of the belt and the
conveyed material, the belt will sag. To support this sag,
rollers called as idler pulleys are placed on both sides i.e. the
carrying side and the return side. Closely spaced idlers are
placed at the loading point, as there is some impact due to the
falling material and overcrowding of the material in this region.

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Cont..
 The belt is subjected to tension and it being from a
resilient material is prone to elongation. This
reduces the tension in the belts. Reduction in
tension causes slackness of the belt on the pulleys
resulting in slippage and loss in power. To
compensate for this, a tensioning device called as
take-up arrangement is used. Generally, belt
conveyors carry payload only on the upper side.
This is the carrying side, whereas the other side
carries no payload and is called as the return side.

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Cont..

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Flat Belt Arrangement

 Belt conveyors can be flat or troughed. A


flat belt conveyor is that in which the belt
runs flat on the carrying and return side
over straight rollers or idlers as shown in
Fig. Flat belt conveyors are suitable for low
loads, low capacity and relatively
lesser speeds. They are cheaper and
require less maintenance and are suitable
for handling unit loads or bulk loads of
small lump size.

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Cont..

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Cont..

Five Idler Arrangement


Troughed Belt Arrangement

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Cont..
 A troughed belt conveyor is the one in which the belt
forms a trough on the carrying side. A trough is
formed by a set of idlers or rollers arranged as shown
in Fig. A transition distance is required to convert a
flat returning belt into a troughed arrangement.
 Two, three or five roll idlers can be used for
troughing. The troughing angles are defined by
standards and are selected from a range of 15°, 20°,
25°, 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°. Troughed belt conveyors are
used for higher capacities, higher speeds and for
handling material of large lump size. It is also
suitable for incline or decline type of conveyors

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ADVANTAGES OF A BELT CONVEYOR OVER
OTHER CONVEYORS
 Belt conveyors are an important component of the material handling
system.
 They can be operated over long distances over any kind of terrain,
as compared to other conveyers.
 They have a high load carrying capacity and can carry all kinds of
loads in an economical manner.
 Belt conveyers are noiseless as compared to chain conveyers. They
neither pollute nor deafen the ears of people working in the premises.
 They are much more simpler to maintain and do not require any
major lubrication system unlike what would be required in case of chain
conveyors.
 The reliability of belt conveyors has been proved over a long period by
its use in the industry.
 Belt conveyors are environmentally more acceptable than others.
 They have a relatively low labour and low energy requirements as
compared to other conveying equipment.
 Unlike screw conveyors, belt conveyors can be easily used for
performing processing functions in a production line.

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TYPES OF BELT CONVEYOR
LAYOUTS

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Cont..

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METHODS OF LOADING AND
DISCHARGING OF CONVEYORS
 The successful working of a belt conveyor requires that the
conveyor be loaded and discharged properly. Ideal loading
exists when the material is placed centrally on the belt at a
velocity equal to that of the belt. Ideal discharge would
happen if all the conveyed material is discharged at the
desired point and in the desired direction. In practice ideal
conditions are seldom achieved resulting in excessive belt
wear, spillage and pollution which lead to higher running
costs. Loading the material onto the belt involves many
considerations. The two most important of these are
1. The material should be placed centrally on the belt.
2. The material should be fed in the direction of belt
travel and at a speed as near as possible to that of
the belt. Delivering the material at a different velocity to
that of the belt creates turbulence in the material at the
loading point. This may result in a material build-up which
could disturb the conditions of ideal loading.

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Cont..
Loading methods:

 a). Hopper Based Loading :

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Cont.
 The simplest method of loading a material is by a
hopper as shown in Fig. 8.13.1. The material is fed to
the conveyor through a hopper and a feeder as shown
in Fig. The feeder imparts the necessary velocity to
the material, so that it roughly matches the belt
speed.
 A variation of this arrangement is when the hopper is
fixed to a travelling machine as shown in Fig. 8.13.1
(b). In this case the hopper travels along the path of
the conveyor, distributing the material over the belt
region, thereby reducing volume build-up at one
place.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 54


Processing Unit Based Loading :

 In certain cases, the feeder maybe


connected to a processing unit such as a
crusher or a mixer. Fig. shows a
schematic of this arrangement. In such
cases, the material may enter the feeder at
a very high velocity. The feeder must be
designed to limit this speed. Another
form of limiting high lump velocities is to
hang baffle bars or chains in the path of the
lumps.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 55


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 56


Loading from a Preceding Conveyor:

 In some cases, the feed to the conveyor


can be given through another conveyor.
This arrangement is as shown in Fig. This
kind of feeding or loading is generally seen,
when the layout involves paths of
different inclinations.
 Materials carried by a belt can be
discharged in many different ways. A few of
the more commonly encountered ways are
discussed briefly.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 57


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 58


Methods of Discharging:
(a) Head End Discharge

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 59


Cont..

1. Simplest discharge
2. Way of discharge occurs by gravity.
3. Widely used.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 60


b). Both End Discharge :

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 61


Cont..
 In some applications, materials are
required to be discharged at both.
ends. In this case the material can be
unloaded at the head end when the
conveyor runs in the forward
direction and over the tail end, when
it reverses. This reversal can be done
by having a reversible motor. This
arrangement is shown in Fig.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 62
c). Plow Discharge

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 63


Cont..
 Plows are used as to divert some of the excess
material on the belt. A discharge plow consists of
an inclined blade as shown in Fig.. Only fine and
free flowing materials can be discharged by
means of plows. Plow discharge is effective only
in the case where the belt is flat. It is however
possible to use plows to skim materials from the
top of a troughed belt. The discharge plows should
be set at an angle less than 35 to the belt centre
line. To prevent leakage under the plow it should be
fitted with a rubber strip on the underside. If the
portion of the belt under the plow is supported by a
metal slide plate the discharge efficiency is further
increased. The major disadvantage with this
arrangement is that the belt is loaded due to the
plow and wears much faster.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 64
(d) Tripper Discharge

 Trippers are used to discharge material


before the head pulley in applications
where the use of plows is not suitable.
Atypical fixed tripper pulley arrangement is
shown in Fig. The upper pulley acts as a
tripper pulley to discharge the material into
a chute which directs the material to one or
both sides of the belt.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 65


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 66


Cont..
 In the case of moving trippers the tripper
arrangement reciprocates along the length
of the belt as shown in Fig. This
arrangement is supported on wheels which
are made to run in tracks installed on the
sides of the conveyor belt. The tripper
arrangement can then distribute the
material over a larger area, thereby
preventing any volume build-up at a point.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 67


Cont.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 68


REQUIREMENTS OF THE BELT
USED IN A CONVEYOR SYSTEM
 The belt is one of the most important and expensive components
of a typical conveyor system and is subjected to tough working
conditions. A belt should have the following requirements
 High Strength : The belt is subjected to tensile loads. It is also
subjected to other loads due to scrapers, plows. The material
when fed also creates an impact load on the belt. All these
conditions require the belt to have high strength.
 Low Self Weight : The belt is continuously driven over the
pulleys. The power requirement to drive this belt is depended on
its weight. A low self weight of the belt reduces the power
requirement and increases the material conveying capacity.
 High Wear Resistance : The belts are subjected to rough
working conditions over a long period of time. Besides this,
scrapers, plows and other cleaners further create wear as they rub
over the belt surface. The belt should thus have a high wear
resistance to survive these tough working conditions.
 Low elastic and permanent elongation : Any elongation in the
belt reduces the tension created in the belt. This would reduce the
power transmitting capacity of the belt. A good belt should thus
have a low elastic and permanent elongation.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 69
Cont..
 Flexibility : The belt should have the necessary flexibility in
the longitudinal and lateral planes. In many cases, belts are
made to run by forming a trough over the pulleys. The belt
material should have the necessary flexibility to mould over the
idlers.
 High Resistance to Ply Separation : Belts are made from
plies, which are bonded with a rubber element. The bonding of
the plies should be such that it does not separate out due to
the repeated bending of the belt over the pulleys.
 Low water absorption capability (hygroscopicity) Water if
it gets absorbed by the belt increases the weight of the belt.
This would result in increased power consumption and reduced
conveying capability. Besides this, water if absorbed reduces
the dimensional stability of the belt.
 Suitable for working in tough environmental conditions :
The belt is subjected to tough environmental conditions such
as humidity, extreme heat or cold. The belt material should be
good enough to ensure that it works with optimum results
under such working environment and has a long service life.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept)
70
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF
A CONVEYOR BELT:
 Conveyor belts generally are composed
of three main components.
1. Carcass
2. Skims
3. Covers (carry cover and pulley cover )

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 71


1. Carcass
 The reinforcement usually found on the inside of a conveyor belt is
referred to as the carcass. The carcass provides the strength to
the belt and absorbs the forces acting on the belt.
 The functions of a carcass include the following :
1. Provide the tensile strength necessary to move the loaded
belt.
2. Absorb the impact of the impinging material being loaded
onto the conveyor belt.
3. Provide the bulk and lateral stiffness required for the load
support.
4. Belts are connected at the ends by splicing them with belt
fasteners. The carcass should provide the necessary
strength to hold the fasteners.

 The carcass is normally rated by the manufacturer in terms of


maximum permissible operating tension. The carcass can of two
major types
a) Fabric Ply Type.
b) Steel Cord Type.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 72
a). Fabric Ply Type
 The most common carcass design is
made up of layers or plies of woven
fabrics bonded together. The fabric is
made from a variety of materials.
Some of these are listed in Table with
their characteristics.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 73


Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 74
Cont..
 A plain weave or twill weave carcass is as shown in Fig. It is
usually bound together with rubber and consists of warp yarns
(yarns used lengthwise) and the fill yarns (yarns used crosswise)
passing over and under each other.
 This means that both these yarns are crimped and they assume a
sine-wave-like configuration. This fact, combined with the basic
characteristics of the fibre used give the belt its stretch
characteristics.
 A ply belt uses different weaving methods impregnated with a
rubber bond, depending on the requirement of the belt. The
number of such plies would determine the strength of the belt.
 If a large number of plies are used, it may affect the flexibility of
the belt. In such cases, the belts cannot be troughed. Generally,
the belt with the lesser plies, but stronger fabric are
preferred.
 Conventional plied belting constructions, using all synthetic
carcasses and elastomer covers are recommended for :
 Mud Rock Mining - Aggregate, sand and ore
 General purpose applications
 Forest products
 Soft
Tuesday, Minerals
September 29, - Coal, Potash,
2015 Prof.Sagar Phosphates,
Chokshi (MEDept) Grain 75
 Unit handling - Parcels, Baggage, Mail.
Plain Weave Design of Carcass

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 76


b). Steel Cord Type
 A steel cord type belt uses a layer of uniformly
tensioned steel cords as the strength members.
This cord is encased in rubber as shown in Fig.
 The top cover of the rubber is about two times the
bottom cover.
 The steel cord runs parallel along the length of the
belt and are normally supported by transverse
textile reinforcement.
 Steel cord belts are generally used in high tension
applications or where the low stretch
requirement is a necessity.
 Steel cord belts are designated with the suffix ST. A
typical steel cord belt would be ST-1800 which
would have a minimum tensile strength of 1800
kN/m.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 77
Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 78


Cont..

 The major advantage of a steel cord type belt are:


1. A much higher breaking strength as compared to
fabric type conveyor belt.
2. Very low stretch.
3. The flexibility of a steel cord type belt is more than
that of a fabric type. This allows the conveyor to be run
on smaller sized pulleys.
4. These belts can be easily troughed, as the steel cords
are placed parallel to the belt length and do not cause
any bending resistance.
5. The fabric belt is of a layered construction, thereby
reducing the homogeneity between the various
rubber layers. In a steel cord belt, there is one rubber
mass, without any discontinuity. This results in a
stronger construction.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 79
2. Skims :

 The rubber, PVC or urethane between the


plies is called as a skim. Skims are
important contributors to internal belt
adhesions, impact resistance, and play
a significant role in determining the
belt load support and troughability.
 Improper skims can also adversely affect
belt performance and can lead to ply
separation failure.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 80


3. Covers (carry cover and
pulley cover)
 Covers are used in conveyor belt constructions to
protect the conveyor belt carcass and also to extend
its service life. In addition to these, covers aiso
provide the finished belt with a wide variety of
desirable properties such as
 Textures.
 Cleanability.
 A specific coefficient of friction.
 A specific colour.
 Cut resistance.
 Enhanced impact resistance.
 Hardness.
 Fire, oil and chemical resistance

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 81


Cont..
 Covers are generally made from rubber or rubber
like compounds. The primary requirement in
selecting a cover is the kind of material to be
conveyed and the environment in which the belt
functions. In addition to selecting proper compounds
for cover material, it is also necessary to determine
the proper cover thickness. The thickness of a cover is
influenced by the amount of abuse and wear the belt
will receive.
 Textures are applied to the belt cover surface to
provide for appropriate gripping action. Many textures
and cleat patterns are available which function very
well in handling free flowing materials such as wood
chips, grain, sand, aggregate and fertilizer. This
enables the conveyor to handle inclines and also to
increase the friction.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 82


Cont..
 The cover is usually the lowest cost component of the belt.
The wear characteristics of the cover would depend on the
kind of the material and on the size, weight, shape and
discharge rate of the material conveyed. Sharp edges,
especially on large pieces, can cut a cover badly in a very
short time. On the other hand, if loading conditions are
ideal, with the material being loaded in the direction of
travel of the belt, and with only a slight impact onto the
belt, even very sharp material may not seriously cut or
wear the belt surface. Cover wear is also influenced by the
loading area being on the horizontal compared to loading a
conveyor belt on an incline which will result in the product
bouncing around more before the load settles down. This
increased product movement will adversely affect cover
wear.
 Some of the standard cover materials, properties and their
designations are listed in,q; Table.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 83


Cont..
 Table:-8.15.4

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 84


Cont..
 Briefly, when recommending a belt, for a
new system or as a replacement on an
existing system, an objective study of the
system and all the relevant operating
conditions is of utmost importance. Belt
selection must take into account six key
criteria : system tension, load support,
troughability, impact rating, pulley
diameters, and covers (compound and
thickness).

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 85


8.16 conveyor pulley
 A conveyor arrangement uses the
following types of pulleys
 Driving Pulleys (Head and Tail
Pulleys).
 Snub Pulley
 Idlers

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 86


Cont..
 a). Driving Pulleys (Head and Tail
Pulleys) :

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Cont..
 The most commonly used conveyor pulleys are the standard
steel pulleys as shown in Fig. 8.16.1. They are
manufactured in a wide range of sizes and consist of a
continuous rim and two end discs fitted in the hubs. To
support large loads, the rim is supported within by stiffening
discs welded to it. Pulleys may be straight faced or
crowned. The crown helps in keeping the belt centred. The
height of the crown is usually 0.5 % of the pulley width, but
not less than 4 mm. The pulleys are lagged with grooves to
improve the coefficient of friction. This also prevents the
material from sticking to the pulley surface.
 The drive pulley are sometimes lagged by a rubber coating
whenever necessary to increase the friction coefficient. This
lagging should be in between 6 to 12 mm thick and its
hardness should be lesser than the belt cover. The pulleys
are generally manufactured from cast iron of grade FG200
or mild steel tubes.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 88


Cont..
 Another type of a drive pulley is the self
cleaning winged pulley as shown in Fig.
8.16.2. These are generally used as the tail
or take-up pulley where the material tends
to stick to the surface of the pulley. The
self cleaning winged pulleys are lagged with
a high tensile strength rubber or urethane
material, encased in a steel jacket. This
lagging compresses upon belt contact.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 89


 When the belt contact is broken, the
rubber snaps back to its original
height automatically cleaning itself.
The pulley has a two cone
arrangement to give strength and
support to the

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 90


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 91


Cont..
 The size requirements of the conveyor are influenced
by the diameter of the head and tail pulleys. These
pulleys are subjected to maximum tension, and their
diameter would thus be more than that of the other
pulleys used. The smallest pulley diameter the belt
can use in the conveyor system is an important factor
in selecting the proper conveyor belt. The belt has to
wrap around the head and tail pulleys under tension
and the fatigue stress developed in the belt as it
wraps and unwraps is influenced by the pulley
diameter. Smaller the pulley diameter, more is the
tendency of over stressing the bond between the
individual plies and the skim. This can then result in
ply separation and premature belt failure.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 92


The pulley dimensions can be
decided on the basis of the
number of plies in the belt. The
minimum pulley diameter Dmin
can be roughly approximated
by the formula
Dalin k x i (mm) (8.16.1)
where,
Number of plies
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 93
 Multiplying factor which depends on the number of plies.
 125 (for 2 to 6 plies)
 150 (for 8 to 12 plies)
 If material of the ply and other drive details are available, the
value of k can also be found by :
 k = k1 x k2 (8.16.2) where,
 = Material factor for plies which depends on the material of the
ply.
 k2 = Belt tension and arc of contact factor, which depends on the
belt tension and the arc of contact made by the belt on the pulley.
 The values of kl and k2 are specified by the belt manufacturer.
 The pulley width can be taken as, w:
 B+2 xs .. (8.16.3) where,
 B = Belt width, mm
 = Side margin (taken as about 60 to 75 mm), mm

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 94


 The calculated value should then be
rounded off to the nearest standard size.
Some of the standard sized pulleys are
listed in Table 8.16.3. Most of the preferred
sizes are based on the R10 series of
prefeired numbers.
 Table 8.16.3 Standard Sized Pulleys
 200 mm 250 mm 315 mm 400 mm
500 mm 630 turn
 800 mm 1000 mm 1250 mm 1400 mm
1600 mm
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 95
b). Snub Pulley :
 Snub pulleys are those pulleys which
help in increasing the angle of contact
of the belt from 180° to as high as
2300 on the drive pulleys. This allows
an increased power transmitting
 capacity to the belt. Snub pulleys can
also be used to change the path of
the belt for facilitating loading and
unloading opmn ion:.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 96


cont..

with Snub Pulleys Snub Pulley Arrangements


Fig. 8.16.4

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 97


Cont..
 the ply.
 belt tension
 In most of the drives conveying abrasive materials, 2100
snub pulleys with a hard rubber lagging are used. Different
types of snub pulley arrangements are shown in Fig.
8.16.4. A special kind of an arrangement is the tandem
drive with snub pulley. In this case, two drive motors are
used in tandem to connect to two drive pulleys as shown in
Fig. 8.16.4 (b). This increases the angle of contact
substantially and is suitable where the conveyor has to
handle high loads.
 . (8.16.3) c). Idlers
 Conveyor belts are. supported on idlers. Idlers can be of
two types :
 I. Carrying IdlerSome of the ased on the
 2. Return Idler

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 98


Cont..
 A carrying idler is used on the load carrying side of a conveyor
and must support both the belt and the load carried by the belt
while on the return side, the return idlers `must only support the
empty return belt. The spacing or pitch of idlers has a direct
bearing on the sag of the belt between the idler sets. The idlers
on the carrying side should have a lower spacing as compared to
that on the return side. As a thumb rule, the number of return
idlers are half as that of the carrying idlers. Excessive sag in the
belt between idlers results in a higher absorbed power for the
conveyor and therefore the pitch or spacing of the idlers should
be properly designed. Idlers serve the following functionsThey
support the belt and the conveyed material on the upper run and
the belt in the lower run with minimum frictional resistance. This
support reduces the sagging of the belt.of the belt -ansmitting
 The spacing of the idlers is reduced near the loading point, so as
to support the belt due to the impact of the material in that
region. This would prevent the belt from wearing quickly.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 99


Cont..
 Idlers help in centering the belt and
guiding it to the drive and snub pulleys.
 In a troughed belt conveyor, the shape of
the belt is achieved by the idlers.
 In a troughed belt conveyor, lower nm is
flat, whereas the upper run is troughed.
Transition idlers of increasing angles as
shown earlier in Fig. 8.10.3 (a) are used to
achieve the required troughing.
 The different types of idlers and their
characteristics are shown below.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 100
Cont..
 Straight Roller Idlers with Rolling
Contact Bearings :

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 101


Cont..
 These idlers use rolling contact bearings to rotate freely
with the belt. They are suitable as carrying and return
idlers. In light duty applications deep groove ball bearings
can be used, whereas for heavy duty applications taper
roller bearings can be used. The idler arrangement can be
achieved by different methods of mounting the bearings.
Seals are provided to prevent the conveying material from
entering the bearings. The end caps for the rollers can be
machined or press worked and are press fitted in the roller
tube. The axle shaft in this case has flattened ends to
prevent it from rotation.
 In many applications where the material has a tendency to
stick to the idlers, especially in the return run, rubber
linings or sleeves are coated on the roller tubes. This
reduces the wear on the idlers. The rubber lining when worn
out can be easily replaced.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 102


Troughed Idlers
 These idlers are used primarily, to support bulk load.
They help in giving the trough shape to the belt.
Troughed idlers are used on the carrying run and are
formed by a set of idlers or rollers arranged as shown
in Fig. 8.16.6. Two, three or five roll idlers can be
used for troughing. The troughing angles are defined
by standards and are selected from a range of 150,
20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, 400, 45°. Troughed belt
conveyors are used for higher capacities, higher
speeds and for handling material of large lump size. It
is also suitable for incline or decline type of
conveyors.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 103


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 104


Cont..
 c). Impact or Cushion Idlers

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 105


 and the weight of the falling material
creates impact on the belt. Impact idlers
are made by fitting a thick sleeve of an
elastomeric material such as rubber on
plain rollers.
 (1). Rubber Cushion Return Idlers (fig
8.16.8)

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 106


Cont..

 These are typically used as return


idlers with a cushioning effect
provided by rubber rings arranged as
shown in Fig. 8.16.8. The rings also
allow a quick and efficient cleaning of
the idler from the adhering material
on the belt.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 107


Garland or Disc Type Idlers
 In these type of idlers, trough ing is
achieVed by a number of discs
arranged as shown in the form of a
garland. These idlers are suitable for
self cleaning in applications where the
material has the tendency to stick to
the idlers. Refer Fig. 8.16.9.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 108


f). Spring Idlers
 These idlers use a spring to support
the belt. The flexibility of the spring
in the lateral plane creates a smooth
trough for the belt. These idlers are
generally used in cases where
steelbands are used to convey the
material and can support a much
larger load. Refer Fig. 8.16.10.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 109


Cont..

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 110


8.17 BELT TAKE-UP DEVICES
 Belts are elastic in nature and they elongate with use. This results
in reduced load carrying capacity of the belt. To maintain the
tension in the belt under all operating conditions, take-up
assemblies are required on all conveyors. The major functions of a
take-up assembly are :
 To provide adequate tension in the belt as it leaves the drive
pulley so as to prevent any slippage.
 To ensure that the belt has sufficient tension at the loading points.
 To compensate for belt elongation over the life of the belt.
 To provide extra length of belt if required for belt splicing.
 The location of the take-up, orientation of the take-up and design
of the take-up depends on factors such as the length of the
conveyor, the available headroom for the take-up and the mass of
the counterweight. For horizontal take-ups the standard take-up
travel is taken as about 1 % of the belt length or 400 mm,
whichever is greater. For an inclined installation, this is taken as
about 1.5 % of the belt length. Take-ups can be classified into two
major categories

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 111


Cont..
 I. Fixed Take-up devices which are periodically adjusted by
the operator.
 2. Automatic take-up devices which aim to provide a
constant tension on the belt.
 The limitation of a fixed or manual take-up arrangement is
that it requires manual checking from the operator. This
would prevent perfect tensioning at all times. The conveyor
would not work at its optimum levels at any instance.
Besides this, there is a possibility of wrong tightening- due
to oversight of the operator.
 In an automatic take-up, the tension in the belt is sensed
by sensors and corrective action is taken under dynamic
conditions. This results in perfect tensioning at all times,
without any help from the operator. A large take-up travel
or adjustment can be accommodated by this

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 112


 arrangement. Some examples of
take-up assemblies are discussed
below.
 Screw Take-up Arrangement

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 113


Cont..
 A screw type arrangement is a fixed take-up device.
In this arrangement, the take-up pulley (sometimes
the drive pulley itself acts as the take-up pulley)
rotates in two bearing blocks which may slide on
stationary guideways with the help of two screws. The
tension is created by tightening the screw periodically
by the operator. Trapezoidal thread screws are
preferred here to reduce the effort required in
tightening the belt. This arrangement is compact and
is suitable for small conveyors (upto 60 m length)
operating under steady and light duty conditions. Fig.
8.17.1 shows a sketch of the screw take-up
arrangement.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 114


Vertical Gravity Take-up :

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 115


 The vertical take up arrangement comprises of two
bend pulleys over which the take-up pulley is
arranged as shown in Fig. 8.17.2. The tension in the
belt is altered by hanging weights. on the take-up
pulley. The arrangement is very reliable and
maintenance free. However, this would still be a fixed
distance take-up arrangement and would require an
operator to alter the weights. The limitations of this
were already discussed earlier. Besides this, the
arrangement requires a lot of head room under the
pulleys making the system bulky.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015 Prof.Sagar Chokshi (MEDept) 116


Horizontal Gravity Take-up :
 Fig 8.17.3

 This arrangement as shown in Fig. 8.17.3 comprises of a


drive pulley mounted on a pulley trolley. The pulley trolley
has four wheels which allow it to be guided along the length
of the belt. A steel wire rope is held to the pulley trolley and
using a bend 'and take-up pulley as shown, weights are
suspended. The pulley trolley moves in a horizontal plane
and hence the arrangement is called as the horizontal
gravity take-up. This arrangement is suitable in places
where sufficient head room is not available to install the
vertical gravity take-up. The horizontal gravity take-up
device is suitable for fabric belts but has all the limitations
of a fixed take-up.

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Motorised Winch Operated
Take-up (Automatic Take-
up) :
 The motorised winch operated take-
up is an automatic arrangement
which maintains a constant belt
tension at all instances. This is
achieved by having the arrangement
as shown in Fig. 8.17.4. The drive
pulley is placed on a sliding pulley
trolley which is then connected to a
winch with a wire rope.
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Motorised Winch Operated
Take-up (Automatic Take-up)
Fig. 8.17.4

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Cont..
 A sensor is placed to determine the tension
in the belt. If the tension drops below a set
value, it activates the winch motor. This
would then pull the trolley thereby
increasing the belt tension. Once the
satisfactory tension is achieved, the sensor
would switch off the winch motor. This
results in an automatic adjustment. This
kind of arrangement is preferred in large
length conveyors working under heavy duty
cycles.

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8.18 BELT CLEANING DEVICES
 An important property a of rubber covered conveyor belts is the
high coefficient of friction of rubber. This reduces the tendency for
the material to slip on inclines. However, it also increases the
difficulty of cleaning the belt.
 As the material is transported on a conveyor, a certain small
percentage of product is not discharged as the belt passes around
the head pulley. In instances where the material conveyed is wet
and sticky, more material would carry over onto the return side of
the conveyor. The problem with this carry over is that this residual
material on the return belt passes over the return idlers and it
dries and accumulates on it. Small heaps of product can be Seen
forming beneath each return idler and these piles of material can
grow rapidly and have a high cleanup cost over the life of the
plant. To prevent this, belt scrapers are used at the head end of
the conveyor. In extreme cases belt turnovers are used. These
devices physically turn the return belt upside down along the
return run thereby preventing the dirty side of the belt coming into
contact with the idlers.
 Some of the devices for belt cleaning are discussed below

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a). Belt Scraper :
 The belt scraper is the most common
system used for belt cleaning. Belt
scraper blades can be made from a
variety of materials such as rubber,
steel, porcelain and polyurethane.
The arrangement comprises of a
continuous transverse blade in
contact with the dirty side as shown

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Simple Belt Scraper

Thick Solid Rubber Blade

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 However, a simple belt scraper arrangement has certain
limitations
 The flexibility of the blade allows some of the material to pass
through.
 Vibration and chatter due to the rubbing action creates excessive
blade wear and decreases the efficiency of the arrangement.
 The wear of the blade results in a loss of contact which would
further reduce the cleaning efficiency.
 The blade wears unevenly, and cannot be adjusted in a simple belt
scraper.Volume build-up on the blade and the holder reduces the
cleaning efficiency.
 To counter these problems, a variety of new designs have been
developed. Almost all scraper blades now have some means of
automatic adjustment ensuring that the blade remains in contact
with the belt. Some blades consist of a thick moulded section
which is supported on the underside. This design, as shown in Fig.
8.18.1(b) will not bend easily in the direction of belt travel and
adjustment of the blade relative to the holder is not required.

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b). Rotating Belt Cleaners :

 These consist of power driven shafts or tubes to which


brushes, rubber fingers or rubber profiles are attached.
Rotation is in a direction opposite to the belt travel to
get maximum cleaning action. Rotary belt cleaners can
be driven by chain from the adjacent head pulley shaft,
or by a separate drive. Two possible arrangements are
shown in Fig. 8.18.2.

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c). Water Spray and Wipers :
 Another method of cleaning the belt is with
the use of high pressure water spray. This
method can be effective in certain difficult
applications. The spray is directed against
the dirty surface of the conveyor belt by
means of nozzles. A rubber scraper blade is
then positioned behind the water spray, so
as to remove excess water from the belt
surface after it has been washed.

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8.19 DRIVE UNIT FOR BELT
CONVEYORS
 The belt conveyors can be connected to the drive unit in different
ways. Typically, a drive unit would comprise of an electric motor,
coupling, V-belts and spur or worm gear boxes. Inclined conveyors
may have a tendency to move backwards in the event of power
failure or stoppage. In such cases, brakes are also a part of the
drive unit. Brakes can also be used for horizontal conveyors for
emergency stopping. The different ways of connecting the motor
to the drive are shown in Fig. 8.19.1.
 Fig. 8.19.1 (a) shows gear motor directly connected to the drive
shaft by a flexible coupling. This results in a simple, reliable and
economical arrangement. In Fig. 8.19.1 (b), a parallel shaft
external gear box is used in between the drive and the motor. Two
couplings would be required in this case. Another arrangement can
be achieved by having a primary reduction by a V-belt and a
secondary reduction by a gear box arrangement as shown in Fig.
8.19.1 (c). In applications, where the drive torque is high and
operating speeds are low, a

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 spiral bevel or worm gear box as
shown in Fig. 8.19.1 (d) is used.

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 Coupling Motor
 (d) Drive through Spiral Bevel
or Worm Gear Box
 (c) Drive through Primary reduction by V
belt and secondary by gear box
 Fig. 8.19.1
 The approximate mechanical efficiency of
speed reducers are listed in Table
8.19.2...Table 8.19.2 : Mechanical
Efficiency of Speed Reduction
Mechanisms

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Cont..

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 TypeMechanical Efficiency, i %Roller
Chain - Sprocket93 %V-Belt and Sheave94
%Generated Spur Gear - Single
Stage94%Single Stage Helical /
Herringbone Gear box95 %Worm Gear
Drive ratio 20: 1 to 60: 170%Worm Gear
Drive ratio 60: Ito 100: 150%
lley RollerTypically, a gear boxes.
 failure or be used for he motor to
 y a flexible .19.1 (b), a
 D couplings ; a primary s shown in s are
low, a

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8.20 IMPORTANT TERMS FOR
CONVEYOR DESIGN
 a). Angle of Repose and Angle of
SurchargeConveyed Bulk
Material
 = Angle of Repose
 = Angle of Surcharge
 Angle of Repose and Angle of Surcharge

 Fig. 8.20.1

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Cont..
 If the material is to move or vibrate as in case of a conveyor belt, the pile
tends to flatten out. Depending on the characteristics of the material and
the type and amount of movement and vibration, this angle will decrease,
anywhere from 5° to as much as 200. The resultant angle is known as the
angle of surcharge, 4). It is important to note that the angle of surcharge
will vary from conveyor to conveyor. The longer the distance the material is
conveyed, the more the surcharge angle tends to flatten.
 At conveyor angles which are less than the angle of surcharge an
appropriate textured surface would be required to lock the material on the
belt surface, enabling the conveyor system to operate at that incline. For
angles of incline greater than the angle of surcharge special means must be
provided to handle the material such as
 I. Cleats
 Pockets
 Buckets
 Cover belts, etc.
 b). Flowability
 The flowability of the material determines the cross-section of the material
load on the belt. It is measured by the angle of repose and angle of
surcharge together with size and shape of the material, particles, roughness
or smoothness of the surface of the particles, proportion of

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