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dssdfdsTILLAGE GOALS

1. axxxxdsaction of a tillage tool in executing a specific form of soil


manipulation
a. tillage action
i. soil cutting
ii. shattering and/or inversion, etc. dff
2. xxxxdesired soil condition produced by one or more tillage operations
a. tillage objective
3. soil physical conditions which can be produced by tillage and is necessary
based on utilitarian and/or economic considerations
a. tillage requirement

GENERAL TILLAGE TERMS AND KIND OF TILLAGE


1. tillage of an entire area as contrasted to a partial tillage as in bands or strips
a. broadcast/overall tillage
2. primary tillage operation which manipulates soil to a greater depth than
300 mm
a. deep tillage
i. It may be accomplished with a very heavy-duty moldboard or
disc plow which inverts the soil, or with a chisel plow or
subsoiler which shatters the soil.
3. tillage action and transport operations utilized to loosen, load, carry, and
unload soil
a. earthmoving
4. tillage operation which move soil to create desired soil configurations
a. landforming
i. Forming may be done on a large scale such as contouring or
terracing, or on a small scale such as ridging or pitting.
5. tillage operation which move soil to establish a desired soil elevation and
slope
a. land grading
i. leveling,
ii. contouring,
iii. cutting,
iv. filling, etc.
6. tillage operation that cuts and moves layers of soil to provide smooth,
refined surface condition
a. land planning
7. tillage operation which is oriented in specific paths or directions with
respect to the sun, prevailing winds, previous tillage actions, or field base
lines
a. oriented tillage
8. tillage operation employing power-driven rotary action to cut, break up,
and mix soil
a. rotary tillage
9. shallow tillage operation performed to promote growth of crop plants by
creating a soil condition conducive to aeration, infiltration, and moisture
conservation or to pest control
a. soil cultivation
10.mechanical manipulation of soil for any desired purpose
a. tillage (In agriculture the term is usually restricted to the changing of
soil conditions for the enhancement of crop production.)

i. tillage, which constitutes the initial major soil-working


operation, normally designed to reduce soil strength, cover
plant materials, and rearrange aggregates
1. primary tillage
ii. tillage, following primary tillage, which are designed to control
weed growth and to create specific soil surface configurations
before seeding
1. secondary tillage
11. vertical distance from the initial soil surface to a specified point of
penetration of the tool
a. tillage/tool depth
TILLAGE SYSTEMS
1. system that maintains a minimum of 30% residue cover on the soil surface
after planting or maintains at least 1,100 kg/ha of flat small grain residue
equivalent on the soil surface during the critical erosion period (see also
mulch)
a. conservation tillage
2. system traditionally performed in preparing a seedbed for a given crop and
grown in a given geographical area
a. conventional tillage
3. minimum tillage
a. system wherein least soil manipulation is performed
4. system in which tillage of the total soil surface is performed in such a way
that plant residue is specifically left on or near the soil surface
a. mulch tillage
5. idealized system which permits a maximized net return for a given crop
under given conditions
a. optimum tillage
6. subsoiling under the plant row prior to planting usually intended for
subsurface drainage
a. precision tillage
7. system in which the primary tillage operation is performed in conjunction
with special planting procedures in order to reduce or eliminate secondary
tillage operations
a. reduced tillage
8. system in which a large number of depressions or small reservoirs are
formed to hold rain or sprinkler applied water
a. reservoir tillage
9. system in which the ridges are formed during cultivation or after harvest
and maintained from year to year in the same location
a. ridge tillage (seeding is done on top of ridge)
10. system in which only isolated bands of soil is tilled
a. strip tillage
SPECIFIC TILLAGE OPERATION
1. tillage to partially bury and thereby prevent movement of materials such as
plant residues or artificial mulches
a. anchoring
2. tillage which forms a ridge and furrow soil configuration
a. bedding
b. ridging
c. listing
3. pushing or rolling of soil by a steeply inclined blade
a. bulldozing
4. tillage in which a narrow curved shank is used
a. chisel plowing (Chisel plowing at depths greater than 350 mm is
termed subsoiling)
5. operations simultaneously utilizing two or more different types of tillage
tools or implements (subsoil-lister, lister-planter, or plow-planter
combinations) to simplify, control, or reduce the number of trips over a
field
a. combined tillage operations
6. operation which pulverizes, smoothens, and makes the soil ready for
planting (commonly used before seeding)
a. harrowing
7. operation which mix or disperse foreign materials, such as pesticides,
fertilizers or plant residues into the soil
a. incorporating/mixing
8. operation wherein a lister is used in a manner that forms a furrow midway
between two previous rows of plants
a. middlebreaking
b. hilling-up
9. operation that cuts and throws the soil away from the base of plants
a. off baring (This is the reverse of middlebreaking or hilling-up.)
10. operation which is performed to cut the soil with partial or complete soil
inversion
a. molboard plowing
11. operation that cut, crush, anchor or otherwise handle residues in
conjunction with soil manipulation
a. residue processing
12. deep tillage, below (deeper than or less than?) 350 mm for the purpose of
loosening soil for root growth and/or water movement (compare chisel
plowing)
a. subsoiling
13. operation in which a vertical band of mulching material is injected into the
slit immediately behind a tillage tool shank
a. vertical mulching
TILLAGE EQUIPMENT
1. implement performing functions simultaneously that of initial cutting,
breaking and pulverizing the soil
I. General-purpose tillage implement

A. implement which works under the combined principles of the regular


disc plow and harrow
a. plow-harrow (It has a frame, wheel arrangement and depth
adjustment of the disc plow but the disc are assembled on a
single shaft and turn as a unit similar to a gang of disc harrow)

B. implement used for broadcast or strip tillage and is also used as


chemical incorporator and as row crop cultivator
a. row tiller (It consists of power-driven shaft, transverse to the
direction of travel, equipped with curved knives that slice
through the soil, chop surface residue and mix all materials in
the disturbed layer)
C. implement which consists of two horizontal power driven spiral
flanged shafts which rotate vertically (The two shafts are placed end-
to-end and oriented to throw the soil outward)
a. spiral plow
b. rotary plow
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2. implement used for cutting, displacing and/or shattering the soil to reduce
soil strength and to bury or mix plant materials, pesticides, and fertilizers in
the tillage layer
I. Primary tillage implement

A. implement which shatters the soil without complete burial or


mixing of surface materials
a. chisel plow (Multiple rows of staggered curved shanks are
mounted either rigidly, with springcushions, spike, or shovel
tools are attached to each shank.)