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S. RANGANATHAN Department of Materials Engineering & Digital Information Services Centre Indian Institute of Science & School of Humanities National Institute of Advanced Studies & Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Bangalore Advances in Manufacturing Technology Anna University March 10, 2007
Nano Denoting a factor of 10 –9 One billionth Origin from Greek nanos ‘dwarf’
Also means Mega-Funds!!
Lord Vämanadeva, the Dwarf Incarnation Srimad Bhagavatam 8the Canto 18th Chapter
Science or Science Fiction?! • Prey • Fantastic voyage • I. Robot 4 .
But to be young was very heaven! In diamond. we might call the new technological epoch we are entering 5 the Diamond Age. and the Steel Age after the materials that humans could make. just as we named the Stone Age. Indeed.Dawn of the Diamond Age Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive. light. then. . a dense network of strong bonds Creates a strong. the Bronze Age. and stiff material.
Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Atom Manipulation 3. Properties. Prologue 2. Biological 6.Functional . Impact on Biotechnology 8. Impact on Information Technology 7. Nanocarbon. Safety and Ethics Issues 10. Convergence of Technologies:NBIC 9.DIMENSIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Outline 1. Imaging Nanomaterials: Seeing an Atom 4. Nanomaterials: Nanogold. Nanosilicon 5.Structural .Indian and Global Scenario 6 .
The Prelude Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive. But to be young was very heaven! William Wordsworth 7 .
Artists have almost always needed the support of patrons (scientists too!). Here. found a way to give something back to the corporation which gave him a job when he needed one 8 and provided him with the tools he needed in order to be successful . the artist. shortly after discovering how to move atoms with the STM.
IBM) 9 .“ The literal translation is something like "original child.The Kanji characters for "atom." [Lutz & Eigler.
Impact of Technology on Society Intended Impacts Unintended Impacts Undesirable Consequences 11 .
Stained Glass Window from a Cathedral (near Cologne) 13 .
Samurai Swords An early example of Nanolaminates 14 .
European Life before 1750 • Society – Rural / farmers – Self-sufficient – Either Rich or Poor - - • Transportation – Narrow roads • Economics – Few banks / bartering • Technology – Very little 15 .
bridges.European Life after 1850 • Society – Urban / Factory worker – Growing Middle Class • Transportation – Canals. railroads. steamships • Economics – Big financial institutions – Capitalism • Technology – Lots everywhere – (except for 1811 Luddites) 16 .
New Steel Processes
• Cast Iron (high carbon)
– Good Corrosion Resistance – Structurally weak
• Wootz => Sheffield
– Wrought iron + charcoal – Roast in closed clay pot – Great swords, knives
• Puddling to remove carbon
– Slow process
• 1856 Henry Bessemer invented the Converter
•Mechanical: Superplasticity •High strength •Toughness •Damascus Swords
Materials Hypertetrahedron Wootz Steel
•Ferrite and carbide
•Ultra high carbon Steel
•Crucible steel making •Forging
Materials hypertetrahedron for Wootz steel
Red Herring, May 2002
Railroad, auto, computer, nanotech all are enabling technologies
An Interdisciplinary Field of Research 21 .
FEYNMAN California Institute of Technology. R.” ….“ I can hardly doubt that when we have some control of the arrangement of things ON A SMALL SCALE we will get an enormously greater range of possible properties that substances can have.. 1959 22 . December 26.
Taken from Nanotechnology by Ratner and Ratner. 23 .
What is Nanotechnology? Capability to manipulate. assemble. 10-100 nm 25 . control. produce and manufacture things at atomic precision Coined in 1974 by Nori Taniguchi to mean precision machining with tolerances of a micrometer or less Popularized by Drexler in 1986 By analogy with microtechnology micro = one-millionth (10-6) nano = one-billionth (10-9) Actually.
DNA.SYNTHESIS Material is the Device! • “Top down” approach – First proposed by Feynman in 1959 – Currently used in Computer Chip Manufacturing – Miniaturization – Lithography/Etching Created by IBM with STM • “Bottom up” approach – Biological • Biomimetics. proteins – Atom Manipulation • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) • Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) • Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 26 .
Directed Assembly/Patterning at the Nanoscale AFM tip 100 nm 500 nm Substrate: Si. SiO2 4μm Sol-Gel Nanopatterns Protein Nanoarrays DNA Nanoarrays Electrochemical Whittling 2 nm 350 nm 350 nm Angle-Resolved NSL Self-Assembly on FCL Templates Liquid Phase Nanolithography Selective Chemistry on FIO Templates 27 .
" -Cyril Stanley Smith The poet William Blake wanted "to see a world in a grain of sand and heaven in a flower. 28 .Yashoda's Vision: Microscopy at All Levels S. the foster mother of Lord Krishna. Ranganathan Materials Challenges for the 21st Century feature "Structure is all. These poetic and mystic visions are turning into reality.“ Yashoda. saw in Krishna's wide-open mouth all the galaxies and the universe.
Feynman “There’s plenty of Room at the Bottom” At the Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society. The only trouble is that the electron microscope is one hundred times too poor…I put this out as a challenge:Is there no way to make the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE more powerful?” Richard P.all one would have to do would be to look at it and see where the atoms are.” “ It would be very easy to make an analysis of any complicated chemical substance. December 26. California Institute of Technology. 1959 30 .Nanostructures & Electron Microscopy “ I can hardly doubt that when we have some control of the arrangement of things ON A SMALL SCALE we will get an enormously greater range of possible properties that substances can have.
HRTEM of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline palladium 31 .
Scanning tunneling microscope STM 32 .
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 33 .
Tuning Properties by Varying Size •PHYSICAL •Melting •MECHANICAL •Hardness •MAGNETIC •Domain wall width •OPTICAL •Surface plasmons •ELECTRICAL •Quantum Confinement •Quantum dots. wires and wells 34 .
Fullerene & Carbon Nanotubes 1 nanometer 37 .
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 38 .
7 nm wide) is shown. producing a high density of partial dislocatio (attached to GBs) together with perfect dislocations ("isolated" inside grains. from bottom to top. The shock has traveled for 30 ps. Only a thin slab (0.An image taken from our simulation for d = 20 nm and zz = 47 GPa. fig. S3) and nanotwins 39 .
Promise of Nanotechnology Consumer Products •Nanoscale powders. •Nanocomposite materials. used by cosmetics manufacturers : . with increased impact strength. in their free foIl11. without consolidation or blending. .Iron Oxide powders as base material for rouge and lipstick •Improved wear and corrosion resistance. for automobiles.Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide powders for facial base creams and sunscreen lotions. 40 .
Information technology revolution brought by miniaturization of silicon transistors Further miniaturization possible: Fundamental physical limit of transistor dimension 10-20 nm. Atomically thin layers of nanostructure material used to substantia1ly increase the information storage density. for multiplexing and all-optical switching in optical networks. based on nanoscale phenomena.NanoTechnology Impact in Information Technology Photonic crystals. 10 to 15 years 41 .
Magnetic Properties 42 .
the pencil-thin iPod nan packs the entire iPod experience into an impossibly small design So small.000 songs) models starting at $199. it will take you music places you never dreamed of. With 2GB (500 songs) and 4GB (1. 43 .Nano iPod Take everything you lov about iPod and shrink it Now shrink it again.
Nanocoatings for Mobile Devices Nano-composite housing 44 .
Nano-Bio-technology The Next Frontier * Unique time in the history of mankind * Engineering systems and basic living organisms: same scale .Biology: a new engineering substrate leading to enhanced understanding of life and new treatments 45 .Opportunity to sense probe interrogate and learn from living systems .
amorphous silica) Magnetotactic bacteria (magnetite nanoparticles) Biomimetic approach to advanced materials.Exquisite nanoscale/mesoscale structures in nature Diatoms (marine organisms. particularly nanomaterials. 46 .
“Nano” Medicine Sensing Diagnostics Therapeutics Presence Specificity Delivery Patterning Specificity: Receptor-Ligand Binding Signal Transduction Signal Detection Site. reaction and diffusion 47 .and Target Specificity Controlled.and Timed Release Binding.
Risks • • • Will the technology perform as promised? Will it create new illnesses or exacerbate existing ones? Can self replicating nanomachines. or "nanobots" mutate during their replication cycle? Will improved health care lead to either over-population of earth or to a decrease in the population? Will the reintroduction of extinct plants or animals will alter ecosystems? 49 • • .
agriculture) • What international laws should be made regarding the safe development of nanotechnology? And who would enforce them? • What would be the social implications of keeping people alive well into their 100s. assembling beef instead of slaughtering cows. constructing cells rather than from reproduction) • May lead to undetectable surveillance. but connected to dozens of expensive little machines? 50 . Right to Privacy could be jeopardized • Do we have a duty to help and provide for other countries with this technology? (e.Longer-Term Ethical and Social Issues • Nanotechnology will give us more "god-like" powers • It has the potential to alter the ecology of life (e.g.g.
2003 Put into law ongoing activities Authorized $3.21st Century Nanotechnology Research & Development Act of 2003 • • • • • • Signed by the President Bush on Dec.7 billion in FY2005-FY2008 among 5 agencies “Established” a National Nanotechnology Coordination Office Calls for periodic planning and reporting by the NSET Subcommittee Calls for the President to establish or designate a National Nanotechnology Advisory Panel Calls for a triennial review by the National Research Council 51 • . 3.
sea . space vehicles • Drug delivery to detect cancerous cells by nano MRI contrast agents • Remove contaminants from water and air for clean environment and potable water • Double the efficiency of solar cells 52 .air.The Grand Challenges • Shrink the entire contents of the Library of Congress to the size of a sugar cube • Materials that are 10 times stronger than steel for land.
Nanotech Publications 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 53 Europe Total USA Russia Japan China Korea(All) India .
S.3 billion Investment Japan 800 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 NNI launched “Nano Act” signed Others W.S.1200 1000 Investment ($M) Investment ($M) International NanotechU. C. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: M. Europe U. Roco 54 . Estimate for2006 is R&D $1.
CHALLENGES IN EDUCATION Education questions can be asked at several levels Should science of small scale be an integral part of basic education ? Undergraduate level Graduate level Doctoral level Outreach & Public awareness 55 .
Thanjavur 56 . Noida Sastra.Educational Scenario in India For the first time in India! M.of India M Tech Courses in Nanotechnology Amity Institute of Technology. Govt.Sc In Nanoscience and Technology At Department of Physics Tezpur University Supported by University Grants Commission (UGC).
Nano Science and Technology Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology. In order to encourage team building . five centres of Nano Science have been created linking majorEducational institutions. the debate on educational needs is not structured The only structured programme is a programme on Post doctoral fellowships at National level and mandate of organizing regular workshops by the centers.Many more have come up on their own in even small colleges. 57 . However. Government of India Structured programme of funding in Nano Science and Technology began in 2003 In the first stage.Similar centers focussing on Nano technology is being funded in the last ten months In the current financial year we expect another and much bigger funding initiative. call for individual research projects and funding them has been implemented. the emphasis was solely on infrastructure development From 2005.
Venus. moon. Mars. Asteroids 58 .Proposed System: Overview 20 ton First elevator: capacity (13 ton payload) Constructed with existing or near-term technology Cost (US$10B) and schedule (15 years) Operating costs of US$250/kg to any Earth orbit.
Ethical & Health Issues Developing Nations 59 .ISSUES Technology Research Science Bottom Up Salad Bowl Discipline School College Doctoral Program Continuing Education Developed Nations Research Education Engineering Top Down Melting Pot Discipline Social .
Zn Autocomponents Aviation Information Technology ( IT) Biotechnology (BT) Nanotechnology (NT) 60 .Magic Market Place Manufacturing Steel Industry Al. Cu .
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