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Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 9, No.

1, March 2019 1

Power Quality Improvement Using Dynamic


Voltage Restorer
K. Sureshkumar, S. Vasanthamani, M. Mariammal, S. Raj,
R.L. Vinodkumar
Abstract--- One of the important in a power system study pre-dates the DVR, but the DVR is still favored because the
is a power quality improvement. It will be important now due SVC has no capability to control the active power flow. The
to preface the discrete industrial devices and sensitive loads. DVR is small in size and price is less compared to
The main issues in a power quality are voltage sags and swells DSTATCOM and other custom power devices.Most of the
at the distribution side. There are many different methods HVDC systems in operation today are based on line-
available to defect voltage sags and swells; the most popular commutated converters. With line commutated converters, the
methods is DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer). The DVR is a converter has only one degree of freedom – the firing angle,
series compensating device, it is mainly used in low voltage which represents the time delay between the voltage across a
and medium voltage application. The new configuration of valve becoming positive (at which point the valve would start
DVR has been proposed using PI (Proportional Integral) - to conduct) and the thyristors being turned on.PID
controller and PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) - (Proportional Integral Derivative) is not heavy on hardware,
controller and also THD values of PI (Proportional Integral) therefore it can be implemented on cheap hardware also. For
and PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controllers are e.g. arduino Uno can run a couple of PID (Proportional
compared and it is conclude that total THD in PID Integral Derivative) loops very efficiently.PID(Proportional
(Proportional Integral Derivative) controller is better than PI Integral Derivative) controller once designed, then its further
(Proportional Integral) controller, which compensates voltage tuning doesn't require a skilled personnel.
sags and swells during a single phase fault. Simulation results
According to IEEE 519 1992 and IEEE 1159 1995
are carried out with MATLAB/SIMULINK to verify the standards voltage sag generally ranges from 10%-90% of the
performance of the proposed model. real operating voltage and lasts for a duration of half cycle to
Keywords--- DVR, Single-Phase Faults, Voltage Sags, 1minute. On the other hand voltage swells are defined as an
Voltage Swells. increase in RMS voltage for durations 0.5 cycles to 1 minute
with magnitude 1.1pu to 1.8pu. The Fig.1 below shows the
voltage sags and swells of IEEE 1159 1995 standard.
I. INTRODUCTION
As voltage swells are less common in distribution side so
W E know the quality of power is facing discrete problems
such as voltage sags, swells, surges, flicker, voltage
imbalance, interruption and harmonic distortion. Among that
they do not need much more attention as voltage sags. Voltage
sags and swells can create large current unbalance, causes
shutdown or failure to sensitive equipments.
voltage sags and swells are more frequent and acute than
others. The DVR is one of the most custom power devices
used for the progress of power quality performance. The DVR
maintains the load side voltage at a real magnitude and phase
by compensating the voltage sags and swells. Therefore any
variety of voltage unbalance at the point of common coupling
(PCC) can be eliminated. The DVR compensates voltage sags
by increasing voltage in series with the supply side, hence
overcomes the losses of power. The DVR injects sufficient
amount of voltage to restore the voltage to its real value. The
amount of power injection by the DVR can be decided by
choosing an appropriate amplitude and phase angle.The SVC Figure 1: Voltage Reduction

II. LITERATURE SURVEY


K. Sureshkumar, UG Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, SCAD Institute of Technology. In 2016, R.Kalaivani, Voltage sag disturbances are the
S. Vasanthamani, UG Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics most frequently occurring Power Quality problems in the
Engineering, SCAD Institute of Technology. distribution system. This concept explains modeling and
M. Mariammal, UG Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics simulation of a dynamic voltage restorer as a voltage sag and
Engineering, SCAD Institute of Technology.
S. Raj, UG Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics swell mitigation device in electrical power distribution
Engineering, SCAD Institute of Technology. networks. A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is proposed to
R.L. Vinodkumar, Asst Professor, Department of Electrical and handle deep voltage sags, swells and outages on a low voltage
Electronics Engineering, SCAD Institute of Technology. single phase residential distribution system.
DOI:10.9756/BIJPSIC.9002

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Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2019 2

In 2015, S.Manmadha Rao, S.V.R.LakshmiKumari, The change in phase angle is obtained by comparing the
B.Srinivasa Rao, per-unit faulted voltage with the reference voltage 1P.U. Then
the error signal so obtain is given to PI (Proportional
Power quality is the most important aspect in the present
power system environment. Among all the power quality Integral)controller and PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)
problems most frequently occurring disturbances, affecting the controller, which generates the required change in phase
angle. Then the reference voltage is generated by using new
quality of power are voltage sags and swells. Custom power
device, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) connected in series changed phase angle which are summarized in equation.
with a goal to protect the loads from source side voltage The MATLAB representation of the control strategy of
disturbances. Here single phase DVR is adopted for each DVR is shown in Fig.4.
phase instead of using three phase DVR to compensate
unbalanced sags/swells.

III. DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORE


L. Gyugyi in 1994 proposed a methodology for dynamic
voltage restoration at the distribution end. This method
enables the use of real power to be injected at the faulted
supply voltage side and is known as dynamic voltage restorer.
In this study, the DVR structure basically consists of a voltage Figure 4: Simulink Model for the Control Strategy of DVR
source converter (VSC), a line injection transformer between The flow chart for the control strategy of DVR for
the supply AC voltage side and the sensitive load, a dc energy injecting the voltage to a test system during fault condition is
source in parallel with a DC link capacitor and a control shown in Fig.5.
technique as shown in Fig.2.
As the DVR is a series compensating device, so it is
connected in series between the source voltage side and the
sensitive load through the line injection transformer. In order
to inject active and reactive power several types of energy
storage are used. Such as battery bank, DC link capacitor,
super conductors. For the switching action of the DVR during
fault duration controller is an important part. The VSI converts
DC to AC and makes it sure that only the sag and swell
voltage will be injected through the line transformer at the
PCC.

Figure 2: Basic Topology of a DVR

IV. CONTROL STRATEGY


For fast response action the control strategy of the DVR
plays an important role. When the voltage sags and swells are
detected, the DVR should react as fast as possible. It can be
implemented using SPWM control technique per unit Figure 5: Flow Chart for the Control Strategy of DVR
reference voltage and instantaneous value of load voltage in It is then given to SPWM generator to produce single-
per unit. phase pulse that controls the switching of VSI and hence the
The basic rules of control strategy are as follows:- DVR. The Fig.6 below shows the control strategy for
detection of voltage sags and swells, calculating the amount of generating reference voltage.
compensation required, generating pulses through SPWM
generator and stop the pulse triggering after passing of fault
duration.

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Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2019 3

Figure 6: Control Strategy for Reference Voltage Generator


The complete schematic diagram of DVR with proposed Figure 8 (b): Load side voltage after sagCompensation with PI
system is shown in Fig.7. controller

Figure 7: Simulation of DVR Connected System


Figure 8 (c): Load Voltage after sag Compensation with PID
Controller
V. SIMULATION RESULTS
The Fig.8 (a) represents the duration of three-phase voltage
sag. The result shows about 80% drop in voltage during the
sag duration within the interval 0.1sec to 0.2sec. With a total
sag duration for 0.1sec.
(b)Shows the line voltage after sag compensation with PI
(Proportional Integral) controller. Shows the line voltage after
sag compensation with PID (Proportional Integral
Derivative)controller.

Figure 8(d): THD with PI Controller

Figure 8 (a): Load Bus Voltage During Sag

Figure 8(e): THD with PID Controller

ISSN 2277-5072 | © 2019 Bonfring


Bonfring International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2019 4

The THD for PI controller in DVR having 1% with the [14] R. Mihalic, P. Zunko and D. Povh, “Improvement of transient stability
using unified power flow controller power delivery”, IEEE Transactions,
fundamental frequency 50HZ as shown in figure-8(d). Vol. 11, Pp. 485–492, 1996.
The THD for PID controller in DVR having 0.9% with the [15] A.A. Edris, “Proposed terms and definitions for flexible AC
transmission systems (FACTS)”, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 2, Pp. 1848–
fundamental frequency 50HZ as shown in figure-8(e). 1853, 1997.
The THD for PID controller is better than PI controller.

VI. CONCLUSION
A comprehensive study of a DVR as a powerful custom
power device has been studied with use of
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The main advantages of DVR are low
cost, simpler implementation; require less computational
efforts and its control is simple as compared to other methods.
The control system is based on PI(Proportional Integral) and
PID(Proportional Integral Derivative) based SPWM technique
which scaled error between load side of the test system and its
reference for compensating sags and swells. The simulation
results show that the DVR performance is efficient in
mitigation ofvoltage sags and swells. The DVR handles both
overvoltage and under voltage situations without any
difficulties. It injects an appropriate voltage component to
correct any abnormality rapidly in the voltage waveform; in
addition, it keeps the load voltage balanced and constant at the
nominal value.

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ISSN 2277-5072 | © 2019 Bonfring