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Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S

Technical Training Procedure


N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 1 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

1.0 PURPOSE:
The purpose of this procedure is to provide an overview of safe procedures to enter a
pulverized fuel bin for the purposes of inspecting the bin.
This procedure is a general guideline, and is meant to guide the development of plant-specific
entry procedures at each facility which address the site specific equipment layout, as well as
any additional hazards associated with the installation.

2.0 SCOPE:
This procedure is for the preparation of a PULVERIZED FUEL BIN for entry in order to
perform inspections. Several additional safety precautions are necessary when entering bins
containing COMBUSTIBLE material (such as coal), due to the additional risks of ignition.

3.0 DEFINITIONS:
Automatic Fire Suppression System – a system designed to dump large amounts of liquid
N2 or CO2 into an enclosed area in order to put out a fire
Bin or Silo – an enclosed space used for storage
Blank – to install a physical isolation device which prevents material from flowing past the
location of the blank into the confined space.
Combustible – capable of catching fire, igniting and burning
Confined Space – An area or space which has the following characteristics:
1. Limited or restricted means of entry or exit
2. Large enough for an employee to enter and perform assigned work
3. Not designed for continuous occupancy by the employee
Fuel – any pulverized, combustible material which will can used as an energy source
Hot Work – work that produces a potential point of ignition, either by heat or spark. Hot work
includes riveting, welding, flame cutting, grinding or other fire or spark-producing operations.
Inerting System – a system designed to flood an enclosed area with gaseous (vapor) N2 or
CO2 in order to displace oxygen and prevent combustion or smoldering
Intrinsically Safe – equipment and wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical
or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific
hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration – employed as a
protection technique for safe operation of electronic equipment in explosive atmospheres.
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 2 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

LEL – Lower Explosive Limit – the lowest concentration of a material, gas, or vapor in air
capable of producing a flash or fire in the presence of an ignition source.
NDT – Non Destructive Testing – those test methods used to examine an object, material or
system without impairing its future usefulness. Typically includes radiographic testing,
ultrasonic testing, electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing, magnetic particle inspection,
dye-penetrant testing, pressure testing, infrared and thermal testing, etc.
PEL – Permissible Exposure Limit – the level of air contaminants that represents an
acceptable exposure level as specified in standards set by a national government agency;
generally expressed as 8-hour time-weighted average concentrations.
Permit Required Confined Space – refers to those spaces that meet the definition of a
"confined space" and may pose health or safety hazards, thereby requiring a permit for
entry. A permit required confined space meets the definition above for a confined space, and
contains one or more of the following hazards:
 Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere,
 Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing the entrant,
 Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated
by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a
smaller cross section
 Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards
Pulverized Fuel Bin – an enclosed bin used to store fuel which has been ground and is ready
for transport to the pyro-processing system
Smoldering – the process of coal slowly self-heating. It can lead to spontaneous combustion
and burning of coal.

4.0 RESPONSIBILITY:
4.1 Corporate Responsibilities

It is responsibility of the Manufacturing Performance Center Technical Training Group to


provide the general document template, and to keep it updated with any changes and
revisions.
4.2 Business Unit Responsibilities:

It is the responsibility of the [plant safety manager] to ensure that any work done on the site is
conducted in a safe manner, and to adapt this procedure as needed to ensure safe work and
entry at the specific plant location.
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 3 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

5.0 PROCEDURE:
5.1 Safety considerations prior to starting work
A pulverized fuel bin is a PERMIT REQUIRED confined space, requiring all related
confined space precautions. Potential safety hazards particular to this procedure
include (but are not limited to):
 Coal or other fuels, which are combustible and present a risk of fire
 Coal dust, which is explosive, with an LEL as low as 50 g/m3
 Coal dust, which has a PEL of 2.0 g/m3
 Asphyxiation hazard due oxygen deficiency within the confined space
 Oxygen deficiency which can be caused by air displaced by the inerting or
suppression systems installed (CO2 or N2)
 Frostbite hazard due to liquid CO2 or N2
 Toxic fumes including methane, carbon monoxide, SO2, or H2S or other
decomposition products of coal or the bin lining materials .
 Entrapment hazard due to bin configuration
 Overhead material accumulation, buildup, and falling material or debris
 Mechanical hazards related to moving parts of the bin discharge or flow promotion
devices
 Use of high pressure water cleaning tools
 Use of sandblasting tools and equipment
 Slip, trip, and fall hazards including wet surfaces
 Fall hazards due to the height or location of the bin
5.2 Preparation of fire fighting procedures
Ensure that an up-to-date fire fighting procedure is in place, and has been reviewed
with all personnel involved. The procedure should include:
 Description of fire fighting equipment to be used for each situation (water hose, fire
piercing rods, fire extinguishers, automatic fire fighting system, etc)
 Instructions on staging and using the equipment
 Communication protocol, responsibilities and authority of all involved personnel
 Duration of fire fighting, and how to determine when fires are out, or if they are out
of control
 Frequency of fire fighting drills
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 4 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

5.3 Preparing the pulverized fuel bin for work


5.3.1 Empty the bin through downstream equipment / normal means
5.3.2 Thoroughly clean the surrounding area (shovel, sweep and then wash
down) so that no fuel sources are present (coal, grease, debris, etc)
CAUTION: Do not use compressed air to blow off or clean coal. The
use of compressed air could cause a coal dust cloud which could
explode.
5.3.3 Lock and Tag-out the bin [following plant LOTO procedures]
This should include
 Isolating the bin from upstream and downstream equipment
 Isolating any material inlet chutes including dust collector discharge
 Isolating any venting lines, piping or ducting
 Controlling all forms of energy in the bin including agitation, or other
flow promotion devices
NOTE: Do not lock out the inerting and automatic fire fighting systems
at this time
5.3.4 Remove the insulation and cladding from the bin, if necessary
5.3.5 Clean the exterior of the bin by mechanical means (non-sparking
scrapers or brushes), or water spray, or high pressure water blaster or
sandblasting as necessary
CAUTION: Sand blasting can cause a temperature rise on the surface
of the fuel bin which could cause ignition of any remaining fuel deposits
on the interior.
5.3.5.1 Sandblasting Precautions
 Check the initial temperature of the walls prior to beginning
sandblasting using a thermal imaging camera or a handheld
pyrometer.
 Periodic checks (every 10 minutes) should be made of the wall
temperature to ensure that excess temperature does not create a
source for smolder or fire in the bin
 If possible, a water hallow should be used in conjunction with the
sandblasting equipment. This water hallow decreases any source
of sparks, and also reduces the temperature rise caused by the
blasting media
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 5 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

 Provisions may be needed to collect and dispose of the media,


depending on the type used
 [insert any other details of sandblasting procedures here]
5.4 Preliminary inspection of the pulverized fuel bin
5.4.1 Inspect the exterior of the bin for any indication of internal heating,
which could indicate combustion of any remaining fuel deposits on the
interior. This includes:
 Visual and touch inspection for hot spots
 Visual inspection for peeled or bubbling paint
 Use of a thermal imaging camera or hand-held pyrometer to detect
hot spots
5.4.2 If hot spots are detected, deploy automatic fire suppression system
inside the bin
5.4.3 Check the atmospheric conditions inside the bin, with already-installed
instrumentation. This includes temperature and CO.
5.4.4 When the bin is absent of any indications of combustion (heat, CO,
smoke), proceed to opening the bin
5.4.5 Open a small port on the bin [describe location of ports here].
CAUTION: Opening the bin provides a source of oxygen to an
otherwise oxygen-deficient atmosphere. This oxygen may lead to
combustion or even an explosion.
CAUTION: Always open a small port before opening the main access
hatch. Wear protective gloves and face/eye protection and stay clear of
the port as it is opened.
5.4.6 Perform limited inspection of the interior of the bin
Using an intrinsically safe flashlight, visually inspect for any indications
of smoldering coal.
If there are any indications of combustion inside the bin (red glowing or
smoke), deploy automatic fire fighting system inside the bin
5.4.7 If the bin is absent of any indications of combustion (smell of smoke,
glowing embers), proceed to open an access port [describe location of
entry point(s) here]
5.4.8 Inspect the interior of the bin without entry
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 6 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

CAUTION: “Entry” includes breaking the plane of the bin with any part
of your body.
Using an intrinsically safe flashlight or droplight, visually inspect for
any build-up or suspended material that could pose an engulfment or
overhead hazard, and for any indications of smoldering coal.
If there are any indications of combustion inside the bin (red glowing or
smoke), deploy automatic fire fighting system inside the bin
5.5 Prepare for entry into the pulverized fuel bin
[insert details of door location, procedure, etc.]
If safe access platforms are not installed at the door location, ensure that adequate fall
protection is used in accordance with plant fall protection procedures.
5.5.1 Check air quality and atmosphere inside the bin [give plant related detail
here, and any air limits more strict than the limits stated, or additional]
 Oxygen (O2) – PEL is 19.5% to 23.5%
 Methane (CH4) less than 10% LEL
 Carbon Monoxide (CO) less than 35 ppm
 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) less than 10 ppm
 Temperature less than 50°C (122°F)
If there are any indications of combustion inside the bin (elevated CO or
temperatures), initiate fire fighting procedure
5.5.2 Complete Confined Space Entry [give plant related detail here, and any
air limits more strict than the limits stated, or additional related plant
safety procedures – done by entry supervisor]
5.5.2.1 Prepare Confined Space Entry Permit
5.5.2.2 Ensure that employees are trained and aware of hazards
relating to the specific confined space
5.5.2.3 Follow plant lock-out tag-out procedure for control of
Hazardous Energy
NOTE: Lock out the inerting and automatic fire fighting
systems at this point, prior to entry
5.5.2.4 Follow the plant-specific Confined Space Entry
Procedure including atmospheric testing for
 Oxygen (O2)
 Methane (CH4)
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 7 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

 Carbon Monoxide (CO)


 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
 Temperature
 Dust
5.5.2.5 Ensure that there is adequate ventilation (a minimum of
12 air volume exchanges per hour)
5.5.2.6 Assign a qualified attendant / “hole-watch”
5.5.3 Provide a means for debris to exit the bin. This could involve removing
a gate or spool-piece and providing a safe location for fuel deposits
and/or fuel-laden water to be discharged away from downstream
process equipment
5.5.4 Using access ports and hatches, clean the interior of the bin enough to
gain safe entry to the confined space. This includes removal of
overhead material or debris which could present a hazard upon entry.
This can be done using
 Mechanical Cleaning using non sparking tools or brushes (for
example - brass poking bar, wooden rod, etc)
 Water wash-down
 High Pressure Water Wash
CAUTION: Do not use tools or equipment that could create a spark
including that generated from static discharge (no plastic or PVC).
CAUTION: Follow all related safety precautions for use of cleaning
tools, and ensure that no additional falling debris hazard is created
NOTE: If water is used, the material laden water could require
treatment prior to discharge. Check with the plant environmental
manager to determine site specific environmental procedures for this
runoff.
5.5.4.1 [insert details of environmental site procedures here]
5.6 Enter the pulverized fuel bin for additional cleaning
Fuel deposits may exist which require additional cleaning before the inspection or
other work may proceed. In this case, it will be necessary to enter the bin to clean
these deposits.
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 8 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

CAUTION: When coal deposits are dislodged, they may form a coal dust cloud which
could explode.
5.6.1 Ensure all needed entry safety equipment is available including life
harness and retrieval systems etc.
5.6.2 Have fire fighting equipment available, including inert dust and/or water
hose and/or dry chemical fire extinguisher
CAUTION: CO2 fire extinguishers can change the environment of the
bin and should only be used if adequate ventilation is provided, due to
the asphyxiation danger
5.6.3 Ensure the entrant uses proper PPE including non-synthetic clothes that
are flame resistant and free of combustibles such as coal dust or oil
CAUTION: Only intrinsically safe non-sparking equipment can be
taken into the bin. This includes lighting, radio, tools, etc.
CAUTION: Cell phones and all other electronic devices are
prohibited inside the pulverized fuel bin unless a hot work permit
is used, as they can be a source of ignition
5.6.4 Clean fuel dust deposits using mechanical cleaning (non-sparking
brushes or scrapers), water washing, high pressure water, sand
blasting, or other means of surface preparation.
CAUTION: Sand blasting can cause a temperature rise on the surface
of the fuel bin which could cause ignition of fuel deposits.
5.6.4.1 Sandblasting Precautions
 Check the initial temperature of the walls prior to beginning
sandblasting using a thermal imaging camera or a handheld
pyrometer.
 Periodic checks (every 10 minutes) should be made of the wall
temperature to ensure that excess temperature does not create a
source for smolder or fire in the bin
 If possible, a water hallow should be used in conjunction with the
sandblasting equipment. This water hallow decreases any source
of sparks, and also reduces the temperature rise caused by the
blasting media
 Provisions may be needed to collect and dispose of the media,
depending on the type used
 [insert any other details of sandblasting procedures here]
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 9 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

5.6.5 If there is fuel that can not be removed, cover the fuel completely with
limestone or other inert rock dust to prevent smoldering.
5.7 Inspection of the pulverized fuel bin
Once the bin is clean of all fuel, inspection (including non-destructive testing) and hot
work may be performed both on the exterior or interior of the bin
NOTE: Use of non-destructive testing equipment (NDT) within the bin is considered
hot work, unless the equipment used for the testing is intrinsically safe (electrically)
and can be shown to not be a source of heat, spark or potential ignition.

See procedure HC.11.104 regarding hot-work inside a pulverized fuel bin.

6.0 COMMUNICATIONS:
The MPC Technical Training Department is responsible for communicating this procedure to
the plants.
The [plant insert title here] is responsible for communicating this procedure to affected
managers, supervisors and employees and ensuring that the procedure is adapted and used
at the respective plant

7.0 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS:


None

8.0 RECORDS:
None

9.0 RELATED DOCUMENTATION:


HC.11.101 Procedure Template for Raw Fuel Bin or Silo Entry and Inspection
HC.11.102 Procedure Template for Hot Work in a Raw Fuel Bin or Silo
HC.11.104 Procedure Template for Hot Work in a Pulverized Fuel Bin
XX.XX.XX Plant Fire Fighting Procedure
XX.XX.XX Plant Lock Out Tag-out procedure
XX.XX.XX Plant Confined Space Entry Procedure
XX.XX.XX Plant Atmospheric Testing Procedure
Originating Department: Classification: E Q H&S
Technical Training Procedure
N N N
Revision Date: N/A Control Number: HAC Number:
Creation Date: May 2, 2008
Review Date: N/A HC.11.103 N/A

Prepared By: AnnaLisa Homan Approved By: Mark Morgan


Title: Sr. Training Specialist Title: Manager, Technical Training Page 10 of 10

Distribution: NA Portal > Holcim (US) > ISO Documents > Policies & Procedures > 11-Manufacturing Performance Center

Subject: Procedure Template for Pulverized Fuel Bin Entry and Inspection

XX.XX.XX Plant Fall Protection Procedure


XX.XX.XX Plant Scaffolding Procedure
XX.XX.XX Plant Hot Work Procedure
XX.XX.XX Plant Emergency Action Plant
XX.XX.XX Plant Standard Operating Procedures (for kiln or fuel grinding system)
XX.XX.XX Other Related Plant Procedures

10.0 REFERENCES:
None