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By Elijah Manley
June 19, 2019


The Atlantic Slave Trade and following events were some of the most gruesome acts of terror, horror, and pain to
be inflicted on humanity. It is pain that is still felt to this very day. This year marks the 400th anniversary of the
arrival of the first Africans to be sold into bondage in North America: in 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia. According to “12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World. 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle
Passage, disembarking in North America, the Caribbean and South America.”1 Although slavery in the form of
chattel was ended by the emancipation proclamation (Abraham Lincoln, 1863), and made constitutionally illegal
through the 13th amendment (with some exceptions, 1865), the lasting effects of this horrific act of terror and
colonialism are still felt. The chattel slavery may have been declared over, but the terror did not end. With
sharecropping, and the terror of African-Americans throughout the rest of the 1800s (via the Klu Klux Klan and
state violence), pursued. With thousands of lynchings, many more house burnings, and other acts of tragedy,
Africans of these United States of America faced even more state sanctioned violence. The terror did not end. It
continued with black codes, and the segregation via the Jim Crow era. That segregation impacted millions of
African-Americans in the U.S. South and others cross the nation, including my grandmother Vera E. Manley, and
many others in my family. Fortunately, my grandmother lived long enough to tell me some of this era’s most
traumatic and horrible events, which left her scars until her death in March 2013. Jim Crow did not end with the
passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, or the Voting Rights Act of 1965, or the Civil Rights Act of 1968. It
persisted. Schools in the south refused to officially desegregate until the 80s, some the 90s. The desecration of
schools in my home county of Broward County, Florida did not complete until 1998 (a year before my birth). But
those were not the only issues. With mass incarceration and the war and drugs, the terror was brought back but in
another form. Over 2.2.m people sit in jails in the United States of America today, the largest in the world. Many for
petty offenses such as selling or doing drugs and others for what I like to call “survival offenses.” African-
Americans make up 40% of the prison population, despite being 13% of the U.S. population.2 Today, African-
American communities are facing unprecedented amounts of poverty, wealth inequality, and economic hardships.
The average income of a black family has declined since 2000, and according to the State of Working America
“Blacks are nearly twice as likely as whites to have zero or negative net worth—33.9 percent compared to 18.6
percent.” From that same report: “In 2010, the median wealth, or net worth, for black families was $4,900,
compared to median wealth for whites of $97,000.”3 This doesn’t end there. [45.8 percent of black children under
age 6 lived in poverty, which is more than three times the rate of poverty for young white children. 62.9 percent of

1 The Root- “How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.”

2 Prison Policy Initiative- Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019


black children whose families were in the bottom fourth of all families by income remained in the bottom fourth as
adults. This measure of downward mobility was about twice the rate (32.3 percent) for whites. Only 3.6 percent of
black children from the bottom fourth made it to the top fourth of the income scale, an upward mobility rate about
one-fourth the rate for whites. About 50 percent of unemployed blacks were out of work for more than six months
in 2011, the largest long-term unemployment rate among racial/ethnic groups. From 2007–2011, high school–
educated blacks (with no higher educational attainment) saw their unemployment rate rise from 9.6 to 18.3
percent. Black college graduates saw their unemployment rate rise from 3.5 to 8.2 percent.] Also, according to
The Guardian: Median wealth of black Americans 'will fall to zero by 2053.’ 4 These are all pressing issues that
require very bold plans to address them.

Bold economic plans require solutions that are bold, just, and effective. This plan does just that. This plan wants to
address five major areas- Education, Socio-Economic Mobility, Health & Wellness, Community & Zoning,

Project Outline
The five major areas are important to a successful reparations plan. Below are brief definitions of these areas:
• Education- The Manley Campaign supports Tuition-free college for all Americans. Until that is passed into law,
we believe that increasing funding to pell grants to assist African-Americans from low-income communities to
get a college education is necessary. In primary and secondary school, we believe in a massive overhaul
educational curriculum by studying the curriculum and its effects on the cognitive learning abilities of students.
We believe that the methods of teaching history in schools has been ineffective, inefficient, and outright
disrespectful to the world. We will establish a national commission to study the education system and make
recommendations directly to congress and the President.
• Socio-Economic Mobility: With the downward mobility of the African-American community, an economic crisis
has commenced that requires large scale action. This section must address comprehensive plans for:
employment via a jobs program, banking, housing & ownership, inequality of wealth hoarding, business
ownership, and the payments for slavery & jim crow.
• Health & Wellness: Mental Health, Food & Water, Air Quality, Medical Health Services.
• Community & Zoning: Food deserts, political representation, transportation, building more schools every zip
code, public libraries in every zip code, hospital or clinic for every zip code, removing large unhealthy corporate
hawks like McDonalds from our neighborhoods, more highway exits in our communities.
• Infrastructure: Roads & sidewalks, Energy/Clean Energy, Internet access, Lighting, etc.

4Median wealth of black Americans 'will fall to zero by 2053', warns new report

Tackling disparities in education, and addressing the hardships of implicit and outright bias in the
classroom, among other things is crucial. That’s why we support the following:

• Mandatory bias & cultural awareness training as a requirement for all educational professionals, from early
childhood development professional, primary & secondary professionals, to postsecondary educational

• A national mandate that at least 40% of all teachers & educational support professionals in an higher education
institution be persons of color.

• The establishment and funding of a national commission, composed of educational, psychological, race and
community professionals.experts, to study the education curricula of all 50 states and make findings and
recommendations to the President.

• The enshrining of educational rights in the United States Constitution, which explicitly bans discrimination on the
basis of race, class, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and other categories within education.

It’s crucial that we ensure all students of color, especially African-Americans are able to get the best
possible education without drowning in disparities, institutional racism, etc. That’s why we are in
support of:

• Establishing a “Frederick Douglas National Education Trust Fund Fund” (pell grant), funded jointly buy
individual and corporate income taxes; a pell grant established primarily to expand access to higher education &
trade opportunities for African-Americans who are underprivileged.

• We will establish a program to fund Historically-Black Collages & Universities (HBCUs), partially through a tax on
capital gains, and a tax on wealth.

• We call for the demilitarization of schools & universities.

• We call for strengthening Affirmative Action programs.

• Colleges & Universities that have profited from, or engaged in the egregious act of terrorism shall be mandated
to provide tuition-free college & housing for all students who are proven to be descendants of African-American
slavery or sharecropping, and a half-off tuition discount for all African-American students. These institutions
must also fund all black student organizations on campus, and attempt to restitute for its involvement in slavery
other ways.

The wealth of an average black family has decreased compared to a white family’s average wealth, in a
case of “downward mobility.” To address this, we support:

• A federal public jobs program that will not only guarantee a job for all Americans, but for every African-American.
Our jobs program will create more than 13 million jobs.

• We support an expansion of funding for the Small Business Administration (SBA) to provide assistance to black
businesses. Most assistance will be limited to worker-cooperative business models, but some funding will be
extended to small black-owned businesses.

• We support a special trust fund to provide assistance & support for community-owned banks for African-
Americans, funded by at least 1%* of the Fiscal Year 2019 $701b National Defense Budget, which will free $7b
in revenue for funding.

• 100% homeless-free black communities, by supporting affordable housing projects, guaranteed public housing,
and mortgage assistance by freeing up at least 2%* of the Fiscal Year 2019 $701b National Defense Budget,
which will provide $14b in revenue for funding this program.

• A national mandate (Deadria Farmer-Paellmann Tax), for all corporations that have engaged in the egregious
act of slavery & sharecropping by the use slave labor & support for slavery, to pay a national tax of 2-5% of their
profits per year (varying by corporation and intensity of involvement) for the next 20-25 (or more) years to fund
reparations & community rehabilitation. Said corporations shall provide free services or goods (or buying credits)
up $1,000/year to all African-American proved descendants of slaves or sharecroppers, and a buying credit up
to $500 for all African-Americans.

• As part of the community rehabilitation programs of the Deadria Farmer-Paellmann Tax, a Universal Basic
Income shall be established for all African-American adults. A reparations savings account shall be established
for all African-American children, funded by proceeds from the Deadria Farmer-Paellmann Tax, and made
available to them upon the age of of 18 years (adulthood).

• Mass debt-relief, by paying off debt in black communities


The health & general wellness of the black community has been in steady decline since the 80s. To
address this, we support:

• Mental health act which addresses the negative effects of slavery, sharecropping, jim crow, mass incarceration,
and oppression on the mental and psychological health of African-Americans, with services and funding to
assist community healing projects and remediation programs.

• Tackle food & water quality issues, by mandating commissions in each state, funded by the federal government
to test, oversee, and study quality.

• Tackle hunger, food & water scarcity in black communities by mandating each state establish oversight
commissions, with a federal oversight administration to oversee this.

• Establish a national committee to study air quality in black communities and environmental racism.

• Tackle black infant mortality by investing $10b in research and medical services.

• Establish a “James McCune Smith Commission on Bias, Disparities and Discrimination in the Medical
Industry”, funded by $1b from the National Defense Budget.

• Medical entities that have engaged in slavery, sharecropping, or segregation, or any act resembling the said,
shall provide a restitution plan to the James McCune Smith Commission, with details on how it will restitute
for its involvement in these acts.

Having sustainable communities, zoned for prosperity is crucial to the survival of African-Americans.
That’s why we are supporting:

• The end of food desserts, by investing in a zoning mandate that requires fresh vegetation in all zip codes, the
end to the mass placement of predatory fast food chains can black communities, and the establishment of a
commission to study and ensure oversight.

• An end to racist gerrymandering practices, by providing drawing by zip codes, and a call for proportional

• Establishment of a nationwide commission to study transportation within black communities. We call for
increased bus routes, stations, and transportation options.

• Mandate that there be adequate educational opportunities in each zip code, by requiring a school in every zip
code (with exceptions as geographically determined), a public library in each zip code, an end to racist school
zoning & boundaries; the establishment of a Commission to Study School Integration (or lack thereof).

• We support the availability of a hospital or clinic in every zip code, including the black zip codes.

• We support more highway exits in black communities to increase commerce, visitation, and transportation

• We will provide $16b in funding for this section of the plan, with the rest coming from plan-bounded
corporations (see Deadria Farmer-Paellmann Tax).

• We call for the demilitarization of the police, our communities, and the right to self determination. This will be
enforced by a National People’s Policing Agency.

Racism via infrastructure has been one of the most extensive cases of white supremacy, resulting from the original
sin. To address this, we call for:

• $100b to be invested in black community infrastructure over the course of four years, by the government. We
also call for corporations to invest $400b in black community infrastructure over the course of ten years. Non
plan-plan-bounded corporations

• The rebuilding of roads and energy independence in black communities.

• Free internet access in callback communities by installation of modems on light-poles throughout the

• Increased beautification projects via lighting-LED, landscape, and special projects


This plan will increase the overall GDP of the United States of America, create millions of jobs, and allow a
community that has long been broken to be repaired & caught up. Black communities are always at the bottom.
When we help the most displaced and broken amongst us, we all grow. How do we fix American infrastructure?
By investing in black infrastructure. How do we fix the disparities in education? By investing in black education.
How do we fix our communities? By investing in black communities. We must repair the horrors of the past with a
strong commitment from each and every American This plan is far from perfect, far from finished, and far from
reality. To make this plan a reality- we must allow the voices of African-Americans to be used to add to this plan,
and debate. Discourse is everything. Finally, this plan will never be complete without acts of solidarity to the black
Diaspora and our fellow blood-kin in the motherland of Africa.

To all who dream liberation, may it become the true reality of humankind.


Elijah Manley