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Strength of materials

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS deals with the relations

between external applied loads and their internal
effects on bodies.
STRENGTH OF Moreover, the bodies are no longer assumed to be
ideally rigid; the deformations however small, are the
MATERIALS major interest.
The properties of the materials of which a structure
Mechanics of or machine is made affect both its choice and the
Deformable Bodies dimensions that will satisfy the requirements of
strength and rigidity.
It includes the study of the strength capabilities and
characteristics of selected materials.

Strength of materials Strength of materials

The subject matter includes discussions of the Study of the relationship between externally applied
fundamental concepts of stresses and strains loads and their internal effects on rigid bodies.
experienced and/or developed by different materials
in their loaded state and subjected to different RIGID BODY – bodies which neither change in
conditions of constraint. shape and size after the application of forces.
FREE BODY DIAGRAM – Sketch of the isolated body
Understanding of how bodies or materials respond to showing all the forces on it.
applied load is the main area of emphasis.
1. Mechanics of Rigid Bodies – Engineering Mechanics
2. Mechanics of Deformable Bodies – Strength of
3. Mechanics of Fluids - Hydraulics

Strength of materials Strength of materials

The strength of a material is its ability to withstand Yield Strength - the stress
an applied stress without failure level at which a material
Two categories -> Yield Strength and Ultimate begins to deform plastically.
Yield strength refers to the point on the engineering Ultimate Strength - It is the
stress-strain curve beyond which the material begins maxima of the stress-strain
deformation that cannot be reversed upon removal of curve. It is the point at
the loading which necking will start.
Ultimate strength refers to the point on the
engineering stress-strain curve corresponding to the Fracture Strength - The
maximum stress. stress calculated
A material's strength is dependent on its immediately before the
microstructure. fracture.

Analysis of internal forces Analysis of internal forces

By setting up the equilibrium conditions, the y

inner forces of a member subjected to an external Mxy
load situation can be determined. So far neither
the material nor the type of cross section applied
for the member are being taken into account. Pxy
But both material and type of cross section Pxx
obviously have an impact on the behavior of the x
member subjected to load.

To design the member therefore a closer look on

how the internal forces act along its cross section Mxz
needs to be taken.

Analysis of internal forces Analysis of internal forces

Pxx (Axial Force) – The Pxy,Pxz (Shear Force) –

component measures These are components
the pulling (or pushing) of the total resistance
action over the section. to sliding the portion to
A pull represents a one side of the
tensile force which selection pass the
tends to elongate the other. The resultant
member whereas a shear force is usually
push is a compressive designated by V and its
force which tends to components by Vy and
shorten it. It is often Vz to identify their
denoted by P. directions.

Analysis of internal forces Fundamental concept of stress

Mxx (Torque) – This When a force is transmitted through a body, the

component measures the body tends to change its shape or deform. The
resistance to twisting the body is said to be strained.
member and is commonly STRESS – is defined as the strength of material
given the symbol T. per unit area. It is the force on a member divided
Mxy, Mxz (Bending by the area which carries the force. In symbol;
Movements) – These 𝑃
components measure the 𝜎=
resistance to bending the 𝐴
member about the Y or Z Where: σ = stress
axes and are often P = force
denoted by My or Mz.
A = area

Fundamental concept of stress Kinds of stresses
Axial Stress – the type of stress wherein the force
Units English Metric applied is perpendicular or normal to the area. It
σ, Stress psi (lbs/in2), Pa (N/m2) can be tensile or compressive stress.
ksi (kips/in2) Shearing Stress – the type of stress wherein the
P, Force pounds, kips N, kN force applied is parallel to the area
A, Area sq. in. (m2) (mm2), m2 Bearing Stress – is the constant pressure between
separate bodies. It differs from the compressive
1 MPa = 1x106 Pa = 1x106 N/m2 stress as it is an internal stress caused by the
compressive force.
1 kip = 1000 pounds (lbs)
1 ksi = 1000 psi Torsional Stress – stress produced due to torque
Note: 1 N/mm2 = 1 MN/m2 = 1 MPa Bending Stress – stress developed due to bending
of the member

Mechanics of
Deformable Bodies

AXIAL Stress AXIAL Stress problem 1

Axial stress may be tensile, 𝜎𝑡 or compressive, 𝜎𝑐 Determine the axial stress on members BD, CE &
and result from forces acting perpendicular to the CD of the truss shown. Assume cross-sectional
plane of the cross-section area of each member is 900mm².


conclusion: the normal stress acting along a

section of a member only depends on the external
load applied (e.g. a normal force F) and the
geometry of its cross section A (true for statically
determinant systems).

AXIAL Stress problem 1 AXIAL Stress problem 1

To get the force AV:
𝜮ME = 0
AV(6) – 200(3) – 100(1.5) + 50(3) = 0
Av Ev AV(6) = 200(3) + 100(1.5) – 50(3)
AV = 100kN

AXIAL Stress problem 1 AXIAL Stress problem 1

To get the stress of member BD, use the formula:
σBD =
B σBD =
To get force BD,
σBD = 111.11MPa compression
CD 𝜮MC = 0
3m CE
AV(3) – BD(3) = 0
100(3) – BD(3) = 0
Av=100kN BD = 100kNcompression

AXIAL Stress problem 1 AXIAL Stress problem 1

To get the stress of member CE, use the formula:
σCE =
B BD=100kN D 50kN
σCE =
To get force CE,
σCE = 55.55MPa tension
𝜮MD = 0 A 3m C CE

BD(4.5) – 200(1.5) – CE(3) = 0 Av=100kN


100(4.5) – 300 = CE(3)

BD= =50kN
1 tension

AXIAL Stress problem 1 AXIAL Stress problem 1
B BD=100kN
To get the stress of member CD, use the formula:
CD σCD =
A C σCD =
200kN Av
To get force CD, σCD = 124.23MPa tension
θ = tan−1
𝜮MA = 0
3m 200(3) – BD(3) – CDV(3) = 0
θ = 63.43°
θ 200(3) – 100(3) – CD(sin63.43)(3) = 0
1.5m CD = 111.81kNtension

AXIAL Stress problem 2 AXIAL Stress problem 2

An aluminum tube is rigidly fastened between a
bronze rod and a steel rod as shown. Axial loads
are applied at the positions indicated. Determine
the stress in each material.

For Bronze,
𝜮FX = 0
PB = 20kN
PB 20,000N
σB = =
AB 700mm2
σB = 28.57MPa compression

AXIAL Stress problem 2 AXIAL Stress problem 2

For Aluminum, For Steel,

𝜮FX = 0 𝜮FX = 0
20kN − 15kN = PA 20kN − 15kN − 15kN + PS = 0
PA = 5kN PS = 10kN
PA 5,000N PS 10,000N
σA = = σS = =
AA 1,000mm2 AS 800mm2
σA = 5MPa compression σS = 12.5MPa tension

AXIAL Stress problem 3 AXIAL Stress problem 3
A 12in. square steel bearing plate lies between an
8in. diameter wooden post and a concrete footing.
Determine the maximum value of the axial load P
if the stress in wood is limited to 1800psi and in
concrete is limited to 650psi. For concrete,
For wood, PC
PW σC =
σW = AC
lbs PC
lbs PW 650 =
1800 = 2
in2 12in 12in
in2 8in
𝜋 PC = 93,600lbs
PW = 90,477.87lbs Pmax = 90,477.87lbs

AXIAL Stress problem 4 AXIAL Stress problem 4

A homogenous 150kg bar AB carries a 2kN force
as shown. The bar is supported by a pin at B and
a 10mm diameter cable CD. Determine the stress
in the cable.

𝜮MB = 0
4 150 ∗ 9.81 3
PCD 3 −2 6 − =0
5 1000
PCD = 6.84kN tension

AXIAL Stress problem 4 AXIAL Stress problem 5

Determine the largest weight W which can be
supported by the two wires shown. The stresses in
π wires AB and AC are not to exceed 100MPa and
A= 10 2 = 25πmm2 150MPa respectively. The cross-sectional areas of
PCD 6.84kN 103 N/kN the two wires are 400mm2 for wire AB and
SCD = = 200mm2 for wire AC.
A 25πmm2 B C

SCD = 87.09N/mm2 tension

SCD = 87.09MPa tension 30o 45o

AXIAL Stress problem 5 AXIAL Stress problem 5
𝜮Y = 0 For AC:
AC = (200)(150) = 30000N
AC sin 75 = W sin 60
AC = 0.897W 0.897W = 30,000
W = 33,444.82N
𝜮H = 0 W = 33,444.82N
For AB:
AB cos 30 = AC cos 45 AB = 400(100) = 40,000
AB cos 30 = 0.897W cos 45 0.732W = 40,000
AB = 0.732W W = 54644.81N

AXIAL Stress problem 6 AXIAL Stress problem 6

The Bell Crank shown is in equilibrium. ΣMD = 0
Determine the required diameter of the connecting 30kN sin 60 240mm − P 200mm = 0
rod AB if its axial stress is limited to 100MPa.
P = 31.18 kN
σAB =
N 31.18 x 103 N
100 =
mm2 πd2
d = 19.92mm
Say: d = 20mm

Mechanics of
Deformable Bodies

shearing Stress shearing Stress
Shear Stresses are produced by equal and
Shearing Stress is produced whenever the applied opposite parallel forces not in line.
load cause one section of a body to tend to slide
past its adjacent section.
The forces tend to make one part of the material
V slide over the other part.
A Shear Stress is tangential to the area over which
it acts.
τ – shear stress
V – shear force Shear Stress is a measure of the internal
A – area in shear resistance of a material to an externally applied
shear load.

shearing Stress shearing Stress

The rivet resists shear across its cross-sectional Bolt resists shear across two cross-sectional
area. areas.
Single Shear Double Shear

ΣFy = 0
P = 2V

shearing Stress shearing Stress problem 1

A circular slug is about to be punched out of a A hole is to be punched out of a plate having an
plate. ultimate shearing stress of 300MPa. If the
compressive stress in the punch is limited to
Punching Shear 400MPa. Determine the maximum thickness of
the plate from which a hole of 100mm in diameter
ΣFy = 0 can be punched. If the plate is 10mm thick,
P=V compute the smallest diameter hole that can be
Ashear = C * t
Ashear = πdt

shearing Stress problem 1 shearing Stress problem 1
For punching force, P
P Solving for thickness, t
σc =
400 = τp =
mm2 π(100mm)2 Av
4 V
𝐏 = 𝟑. 𝟏𝟒 𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝐍 τp =
First Situation First Situation N 3.14 x 106 N
For shear force, V 300 =
τp = 300MPa τp = 300MPa mm 2 π 100 mm t
ΣFy = 0
σc = 400MPa σc = 400MPa t = 33.33 mm
d = 100mm d = 100mm
𝟑. 𝟏𝟒 𝐱 𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝐍 = 𝐕

shearing Stress problem 1 shearing Stress problem 1

P ΣFy = 0
σc =
Ac P=V
σc = πd2 100πd2 = V
πd2 P = σc V
4 4 τp =
N πd2
P = 400 100πd2
mm2 4 τp =
Second Situation πdt Second Situation
N πd2
P = 400 τp = 300MPa N 100πd2 τp = 300MPa
mm2 4 300 =
σc = 400MPa mm2 πd 10 mm σc = 400MPa
𝐏 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝛑𝐝𝟐 t = 10mm d = 30 mm t = 10mm

shearing Stress problem 2 shearing Stress problem 2

The end chord of a timber truss is framed into the P=50KN
bottom chord as shown in the figure. Neglecting b
friction, compute dimension b if the allowable
shearing stress is 900kPa. c
P=50KN τ=
b V = PH
30o V = 50cos30
V = 43.3kN
N 43.3x103 N
0.90 2 =
mm 150 mm (b)
b = 320.74mm

shearing Stress problem 3 shearing Stress problem 3
The Bell Crank shown is in equilibrium. ΣMD = 0
Determine the shearing stress in the pin at D if its 30kN sin 60 240mm − P 200mm = 0
diameter is 20mm. P = 31.18 kN
ΣFH = 0
DH = P + 30kN cos 60
DH = 31.18 kN + 30kN cos 60
DH = 46.18 kN DH
ΣFV = 0
DV = 30kN sin 60
Dv = 25.98kN 𝐃 = 𝟓𝟐. 𝟗𝟖𝐤𝐍

shearing Stress problem 3

τ= π
2 ∗ 20mm 2
τ = 84.33MPa