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Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings of the study in illustrative tables and

analysis as well as the interpretation based from the treatment of the data.

The English Language Proficiency Level of the Students Based on


the Pretest Scores

The Frequency, Percentage and Description of the English Proficiency

Levels of the respondents based on their pretest scores are presented in Table

1.

Table 1
Proficiency Levels of the Students Based 0n the Pretest

Frequency Percentage Proficiency Levels


Pretest Scores
(f) (%) Description
33-40 0 0 Very High
25-32 2 10 High
17-24 18 90 Average
9-16 0 0 Low
1-8 0 0 Very Low
Total 20 100
Mean 20.4 Average
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The Table above shows the proficiency level of the 20 Grade 7 students.

As shown, no one among the respondents scored between 33-40 described as

Very High Proficiency; only two (2) students or only ten percent (10%) of the

respondents got a score within the range of 25-32 or high proficiency; eighteen

(18) or ninety percent (90%) of the students got scores between 17-24 which is

described as Average proficiency; no one got a score of 16 and below, which

denotes that nobody among the respondents has a Low and Very Low

proficiency level. Furthermore, the group registered a mean score of 2o.6 in

the 40-item test translated as Average proficiency.

The result implies that the students, based on their proficiency levels,

are able to express only simple and original messages. Also, they may be able

to understand descriptive material within familiar contexts and some

narratives. They may able be able to communicate orally but it is accompanied

by some reluctance. Students with this level of proficiency may also hesitate

frequently to think about how to communicate desired meaning. More so,

according to Bailey, et al., (2013), students in this level can convey briefly

sequenced and/or simply detailed information, using combinations of simple

sentence structures and simple vocabulary.

The result of language proficiency levels of the students is quite

alarming and should catch the teachers’ attention since English is not only a

language used in the global market but more importantly, it is the medium of

instruction used for other subjects like Math, Science, MAPEH (Music, Arts,
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Physical Education and Health), and TLE (Technology and Livelihood

Education).

This result moreover confirms the recent report about the current

status of English proficiency in the Philippines. According to a study

conducted by the Hopkins International Partners, which is the official

Philippine representative to the group called Test of English for International

Communication (TOEIC) the level of English proficiency of College graduates

from the Philippines is lower than the target English proficiency of High

school students in Thailand

(http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/nation/644114/engl

ish-proficiency-of-pinoy-students-teachers-lagging-

survey/story/; published February 2018).

Also, in a recent roundtable discussion organized by the British

Council, key stakeholders from the government, academe, private, and non-

government sectors acknowledged that even if the Philippines is doing fine in

terms of English competency, concerns on how much of a competitive

advantage it still is for the country were raised. The stakeholders agreed that

the country needs to step up its efforts in improving the teaching and learning

of English, developing it as a vital skill of the workforce

(https://www.britishcouncil.ph/teach/state-english-philippines-should-we-

be-concerned-2).
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As previously cited, numerous studies have established the direct

correlation of English language competence and the academic performance of

the students especially in the secondary level (D. Fakeye and Y. Ogunsiji,

2009; Aina, et. al., 2013; Racca and Lasaten, 2016). Therefore, improving the

language competence is crucial as it encompasses almost everything, from

daily living to global competitiveness.

The core issue then is either the use or the integration of technology

such as computer soft wares, programs and platforms could help in improving

the language skills of the students.

Technology offers learners with more opportunities for much more

valuable communicative interaction in the target language than what was ever

possible in the traditional language class (Chirimbu & Tazafoli, 2013).

However, there are also certain studies showing that the use of

technology in the classroom could cause anxiety to the students. Times Higher

Education, through psychology professor Richard A. Hudiburg reported that

about 25 percent of all students experience some form of anxiety over

technology use in the classroom. While the technology has changed over the

last two decades, some of the issues Hudiburg noted in his study cause anxiety

in students today. Among these include outdated computer skills, lack of

computer expertise, need to learn new software, and lack of help with a

computer problem (Times Higher Education, Web. 7 June 2016).

While teachers tend to use technological platforms as a way to increase

inclusion and participation in the classroom, they also do not want to leave out
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certain sets of students whose anxiety can leave them out of the discussion

(Cherney, 2016).

The study of Fu (2013) on the other hand showed that the use and

integration of technology in the classroom resulted to higher students’

involvement and class participation. The study also claimed that using CALL

saves the teachers’ time and effort while teaching delivering instruction

effectively which is a significant goal of education.

As Cherney (2016) reiterates, technology is increasingly becoming a

requirement in numerous courses. After all, many of our students have

practically grown up using smartphones, so the assumption is that they will

automatically be comfortable with technological platforms and multimodal

projects that incorporate technological components with traditional classroom

setting.
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The English Language Proficiency Level of the Students Based on


the Posttest Scores

The Frequency, Percentage and Description of the English Proficiency

Levels of the respondents based on their posttest scores are presented in Table

2.

Table 2
Proficiency Levels of the Students After Exposure to Quipper School

Frequency Percentage Proficiency Levels


Pretest Scores
(f) (%) Description
33-40 1 5 Very High
25-32 19 95 High
17-24 0 0 Average
9-16 0 0 Low
1-8 0 0 Very Low
Total 20 100
Mean 28.45 High Proficiency

Table 2 illustrates the proficiency level of the respondents after the

intervention or the Quipper school was given. One (1) student or ninety-five

percent (95%) got a score belonging to the Very High Proficiency Level.

Nineteen (19) or ninety-five percent (95%) of the respondents got scores

between 25-32 which is described as High Proficiency. It can be noted that no


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one got a score which was equivalent to average proficiency and below. Also,

the respondents’ score in the post test has a mean of 28.45 which is translated

as High Proficiency.

Students with High Proficiency levels show increasingly independent

control of English when participating in grade-appropriate classroom

activities. They can identify the main ideas and relevant details of discussions

or presentations on a wide range of topics. They can also convey related

events, ideas, and/or opinions, using multiple related paragraphs with

increasingly complex, descriptive sentence structures and a wider vocabulary

(Bailey, et al., 2013).

Additionally, students with very High Proficiency level can understand

and identify the main ideas and relevant details of extended discussion or

presentations on familiar and unfamiliar topics is fluent and accurate in

language production. Furthermore, they can write fluently using language

structures, technical vocabulary, and appropriate writing conventions with

some circumlocutions (http://www.leehighlibrary.com/proficiency-level-

descriptors.html; accessed on December 8, 2017 ).

English language proficiency is a much-needed skill for the students to

master. It encompasses an interplay of analytical, critical and problem-solving

which are highly needed in other subjects as well.

The study of Javier (2001), concludes that the students’ weaknesses in

Science and Mathematics subjects are attributed to the students’ difficulty in

English. As stated in his findings, the students’ difficulty in English included


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difficulties in making inferences and interpretations of information, deducing

meaning, drawing conclusions, and summarizing ideas. All these boil down to

problem on comprehension, leading the students not to understand what they

are reading. They are not developing proficiency in the language. They have

difficulty in expressing their ideas in spoken and written form.

Enhancing the students English proficiency has been the government’s

battle cry. House Bill 5091 in the Philippine congress (submitted April of 2017)

for example, seeks to develop the aptitude, competence, and proficiency of

Filipino students in the English language, so as to maintain and improve their

competitive edge in emerging and fast-growing industries, particularly in ICT

or Information & Communications Technology

(https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/04/21/enhancing-our-students-proficiency-

in-english/) in an indicator that the Philippine Government Official also tries

to intensify the integration of technology in the classroom.

With the Department of Education’s recently established partnership

and teaming-up with Learning Management System (LMS) developer which is

the Quipper School, it is filling up the void in implementing the curricula into

the country’s new basic education system.

Despite the novelty of the platform, studies have already been

conducted showing its positive impact to the English proficiency levels of the

students.

Viray, (2016) from DepEd Schools Division of Pampanga for example

conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of the program in improving


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the academic performance in English of Grade 8 students. After 10 weeks of

exposure of the experimental group to Quipper school, there was a tremendous

positive increase in their academic performance.

Table 3

Comparison of the English Proficiency Levels of the Students


Before and After They Were Exposed to Quipper school

Compared Standard Computed


N Mean Description
Value Deviation t-value
Pretest 20 20.4 2.57
13.33 Significant
Posttest 20 28.45 1.9

Legend: Computed t-value to be significant at 0.05 level should be at least 2.093.

As shown in Table 3, there is a marked increase in the mean of the

scores of the respondents in the posttest (28.45) compared to their pretest

(20.4). Furthermore, their respective standard deviations show that the scores

of the respondents during the posttest are more homogenous than their scores

in the pretest. At .05 level of significance, the difference in the scores of the

respondents in the pretest and posttest results is significant.

The result of this study leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis

stating that there is no significant difference in the English language

proficiency levels of the students before and after they were exposed to

Quipper School.
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Also, it confirms the plentiful previously conducted studies that the

integration of technological platforms in the class could yield to an improved

English Language Proficiency of the students.

To mention, Leakey and Ranchoux (2006) found that blended CALL

(Computer-Asssisted Language Learning) made students respond more

positively toward the learning process and they prefer this approach to the

traditional class.

Selwyn (2007), validates that computers and other aspects of

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) allow children,

students, and young people a wide variety of activities and experiences that

can support learning.

Wu (2009), also confirms the effectiveness of network-based

multimedia teaching models and that it increases learners’ self-sufficiency in

learning.

More so, a research study conducted by Ahmad (2012) shows that

integration of media and technology to the class can boost students’

participation, promote student-centered mode, create positive atmosphere,

and improve the students’ writing ability.

The findings of the aforementioned studies present a glaring reality that

technology could enhance the students’ English proficiency levels and is not

just a trend in education. As educators are encouraged to stay abreast with the

vicissitudes of the time, technology should be an integral part of a language

class.
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The Experiences of the Students in Learning English Using Quipper


School

As to elucidate further the experiences that the students encountered in

using the Quipper school platform, a focus-group discussion was conducted

and facilitated by the researcher upon the completion of all the topics. The six

(6) participants of the focus group discussion were purposively selected to

represent the totality of the respondents. Three (3) of them were identified to

have the highest increase in the pre-test and post-test scores while the other

three (3) listed the lowest increase of scores.

A thematic analysis of the data gathered was used following the steps

provided in http://www.focusgrouptips.com/focus-group-results.html.

Table 4

Experiences that the Participants Like the Most


Significant Formulated
About Learning with QuipperCode
School Theme Cluster
Participant
Response Meanings
I don’t feel shy in
Student feels
answering the test Quipper School
more
because if I get a boosts
1 confident in 100
wrong answer, my students’
answering
classmates will not confidence.
questions.
know.
2 I like it that I get to Student gets 101 Quipper School
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check why I have develops


to manage his
wrong answers in independent
own learning.
the quizzes. learning.
I feel like we learn
more in Quipper
School than in just
listening to our
teacher because
when we are in the
Student
classroom, I tend to
develops Quipper School
listen to my
independent develops
3 classmates’ 101
and self- independent
chitchats more and
directed learning.
not do the activities.
learning.
When we are in the
computer lab, we
have to take the
activities seriously
because we can
monitor our scores.
Student is
encouraged
I feel excited every
to learn
time our teacher Quipper School
because of
4 says we will go to 102 motivates the
the new
the computer lab to students.
environment
use Quipper School.
and
strategies.
I like using Quipper Student
Quipper School
school because I get develops
develops
to help my leadership
5 103 collaboration
classmates who do and
among
not know how to willingness to
students.
use computers. help.
I like using Quipper The gamified
school because of feature of
the games. I think it Quipper Quipper School
6 is just like using my school makes 102 motivates the
apps in my learning more students.
cellphone which is interactive
really fun. and fun.
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The first question in the focus group discussion seeks to find out the

experiences that the participants like the most with their experience in using

Quipper School. Four themes emerged from the participants’ responses coded

as 100, 101, 102, and 103. All the participants have agreed that they like

learning with Quipper school. Moreover, two of the six participants said that

the platform develops self-directed and independent learning (code 101)

because of its notification and self-check features. A participant also confessed

that he became more confident (code 100) in answering the quizzes because of

the privacy of the scores. Also, two participants affirmed that learning with

Quipper School is motivating and fun (code 102) because of the fresh learning

environment they are exposed to. The opportunity to extend help to other

classmates who do not know much about in using computers (code 103) has

also surfaced during the focus-group discussion.

It is interesting to note that the participants find learning with Quipper

school as a motivation. As Hurrelmann (1998) emphasized, an emotionally

charged instructional material attracts children, stimulates their wish to learn,

and causes positive emotions during the learning process and joy of

accomplishment at the end.

Additionally, it is noteworthy to mention that participants felt that

Quipper school develops collaboration among themselves, for McGlynn (2008)

believes that student engagement is the key to academic motivation,

persistence, and degree completion. Engaged students are more likely to

become technologically literate and competent. Students who are provided


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assignments that give them an opportunity to observe, evaluate, communicate,

model, generate ideas, research/investigate, produce, and document

success/failure are often self-directed and engaged (Williams, 2000; Koch &

Sanders, 2011).

Summing it up, the responses of the participant on the first question

affirms the studies cited in the work of Riasati, Allahyar and Tan (2012) who

summarized the studies on the advantages of technology in language

education as follows: Technology increases students’ motivation (Galavis,

1998; Warchauser & Healey, 1998; Dunken, 1990; Lee, 2000; DEECD, 2010);

Technology provides encouragement of collaboration and communication

learning activities (Gillespie, 2006; Murphy, 2006); Technology enables

learners to learn through self-directed and independent manner by assessing

their own learning in a more meaningful manner; Technology helps students

become better aware of the quality of their work and accepting feedback more

willingly (DEECD, 2010); and it has the potential to reduce anxiety among

learners (Levy, 1997; Chapelle, 2001; Braul, 2006; Ozerol, 2009).

Table 5

Difficulties Experienced Formulated


by the Participants in Using
Participant Significant Response CodeQuipper
ThemeSchool
Cluster
Meanings
1 Some of my Some 200 Students need
classmates don’t know students technical
what to click in the lacks support
screen and they want technical (Computer
me to teach them. skills and Literacy)
Although I’d like to needs help in
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help, I feel distracted


every time my accessing the
classmates ask for platform.
help.
Student feels
On our first sessions, I
anxious Students need
didn’t really answer
because of technical
all the questions
2 the lack of 200 support
because I am worried
experience (Computer
that I might click on
in using the Literacy)
something else.
platform.
Although I am excited
to attend my English Student feels
class because of anxious Students need
Quipper School, I feel because of technical
3 embarrassed for I the lack of 200 support
cannot access my experience (Computer
account without the in using the Literacy)
help of my classmates platform.
or teacher.
I believe Quipper
Quipper
school is too
The platform School is
dependent to
is dependent restricted to
electricity. There was
to stable uncontrollable
one time when we
4 internet 201 factors
have to reschedule our
connectivity (internet
class because of the
and power connection
brownout and the
supply. and
downtime of the
electricity).
internet connection.
Sometimes, I think Student
Quipper
there are topics where prefers
school
group activities are group
5 202 minimizes
better than just activities and
human
staring at the human
interaction.
computer screen. interaction.
Quipper
The platform School is
When the internet is is dependent restricted to
too slow, I can’t click to stable uncontrollable
6 on the next questions internet 201 factors
because the page just connectivity (internet
keeps on loading. and power connection
supply. and
electricity).
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The difficulties that the students have encountered in using the

platform were elicited from the participants through the second question.

Three themes have been culled out of the responses of the participants. These

were coded as 200, 201, and 2010. The dominant reply was code 200 which is

translated as Students need technical support (Computer Literacy) in

accessing the platform. The participants were amenable that their lack of

experience and computer skills has somewhat hindered them from maximizing

all the features of Quipper School. Although one student acknowledged that he

has no problems in accessing the platform, he says he gets distracted whenever

his classmates would ask him for help.

This lack of competency when it comes to the use of technology which

oftentimes lead to anxiety that influences the learning process in general. As

Brown (1990) points out, any intellectual learning is accompanied by certain

emotions that affect body and mind; therefore, they can either stimulate or

suppress a wish to learn better and in an educational process, students have to

overcome learning barriers: anxiety, fear, threat of humiliation and low self-

esteem. Bagdonas (2003), reinforced that feeling insecurity, anxiety and threat

of humiliation, children get ‘blocked’, which significantly reduces their ability

to learn.

In this scenario, much of the responsibility is left upon the teachers.

Since, the role of the facilitator in any learning event is the key, the stance that
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they take and the way in which they take up either the new technology, or any

change in classroom practice in a face-to-face situation, will determine the

response of the participants. As Price & Oliver (2007), underpin the role of the

facilitator in traditional face-to-face teaching being a facilitator of learning, is

equally important in technology-mediated learning situations.

In addition, one difficulty cited by the participant in the use of Quipper

school is its restriction to uncontrollable factors (code 201). Being an online

learning management system, the platform is dependent to stable internet

connection and electricity. Without such elements, Quipper school becomes

unfeasible to use.

A participant also accentuated that during their use of Quipper school,

the platform has somehow minimized human interaction (code 202). The

participant responded and said “Sometimes, I think there are topics where

group activities are better than just staring at the computer screen”. This

calls for the teachers’ creativity in choosing the materials and activities that

would cater all types of learners and their respective instructional needs. This

entails variation in the teaching strategies and use of differentiated instruction

depending on the topic. This is especially that 21 st century learners prefer more

engaging activities where they can move around a lot and interact with their

peers.
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Table 6

Teaching Strategy that the Participants Prefer More


Significant Formulated
Participant Code Theme Cluster
Response Meanings
I prefer Quipper
Quipper school
school more I like learning
is exciting
1 because its new and 300 with Quipper
because of the
it involves school more.
technology.
technology.
I like Quipper
I like learning
School more Quipper school
2 300 with Quipper
because I don’t get is fun.
school more.
bored in using it.
I would choose
Quipper school
because it is Quipper school
I like learning
exciting. I learn is exciting
3 300 with Quipper
English while because of the
school more.
learning to use and technology.
access the internet
at the same time.
I’d favor our usual
Traditional
class more because
classes are not I like learning
we don’t have to
bounded by with
have to worry for
4 lack of 301 traditional
brownouts and
electricity and classroom
internet downtimes
internet setting more.
in our normal
connectivity.
classes.
Group
I choose our I like learning
activities and
traditional class with
face-to-face
5 when we do group 301 traditional
interactions are
activities and group classroom
better that
works. setting more.
online learning.
P6 I like Quipper Quipper School 300 I like learning
School more increases with Quipper
because I can focus students’ school more.
more on my own concentration
learning. and develops
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independent
learning.

The students were also probed whether strategy they would prefer

learning English in the traditional classroom setting or learning English using

the online platform Quipper School. Two themes were used to summarize the

respondents’ responses in this question and were coded as 300 and 301.

Interestingly, four out of six participants acknowledged that they would

prefer learning English with Quipper school more.

Indeed, learners have simply grown accustomed to acquiring

information and communicating by utilizing technology-based methods

(Moore, 2007).

The use of technology has not just become prevalent in schools. It has

become an integral part of instruction and has been shown to facilitate student

learning objectives. According to Gulek & Demirtas (2005); Spires, et.al,

(2008) and Edwards (2007), using any technology with students who are

considered Millennials boosted both concentration and engagement. Students

who use technology were (a) spending more time involved in collaborative

work; (b) participating in and communicating more during the instruction; (c)

producing writing of higher quality and greater length; (d) gaining increased

access to information; (e) improving research analysis skills; and (f) spending

more time doing homework digitally.

Although some researchers fear that greater access to technology could

exacerbate social anxiety among teens, particularly as smartphones, tablets,


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and computers become omnipresent in and out of the classroom, teachers are

increasingly maximizing these devices as learning tools. These gadgets also

play an integral role in stemming the tide of social anxiety.

In the case of this study, Quipper School as an online learning

management system, has been proven effective in improving the English

proficiency levels of the Grade 7 Students of Salunayan High School.