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THESIS FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE.
AGBAJE OLAKUNMI T. MAY, 2009
Supervisor: Prof. Okedele
SHOPPING CENTRE OWOROSHOKI, LAGOS STATE.
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE (B.Sc)
BY AGBAJE TESLIM OLAKUNMI 060501004
CERTIFICATION This is to certify that I am the sole author of this studio thesis as partial fulfillment for the award of a Bachelor of science degree (B.Sc) degree in Architecture and that it has not been presented by any previous application for submission.
…………………… Agbaje Olakunmi T. Nov., 2009
……………………... Prof. Okedele Nov., 2009
DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to architecture and my colleagues who have been a source of inspiration.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My profound gratitude goes to the Beneficent and Merciful God for all his blessings, my lecturers, my supervisor, my family for all the support, my friends and foes for keeping me on my toes.
TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT Page CHAPTER 1 1.2 1.32 CHAPTER 4 4.0 INTRODUCTION 1..15 Aims and Objectives ……………………………………….5 1.39 6 .2 2...1 1.19 Population and development……………………………..15 Hypothesis/Research Questions……………………………16 Scope and limitation of study………………………………16 Significance of study Operational definition of terms CHAPTER 2 2...39 Data Analysis ……………………………………………….29 Case studies………………………………………………. Physical & Regional Setting…………………….0 STUDY AREA 2.9 Statement of problems …………………………………….3 Methodology……………………………………………….17 Climatic Characteristics.1 2...4 1.18 People and socio-economic Activities…………………….3 Theoretical and conceptual framework………………….1 3..7 Background of study……………………………………….2 3..25 Review of relevant literature………………………………..2 4. Soil & Vegetation……………….20 CHAPTER 3 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4.0 LITEATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDIES 3...39 Data collection…………………………………………….1 4.6 1.4 Location.3 2.3 1....
2 Spatial requirement/ Space programming………….45 6..C Shopping complex…………………………………34 Fig 11 Site plan sketch showing parking…………………………………………….19 Fig 4 Bar chart showing literacy level in Oworonshoki Community……………..….32 Fig 8 Overview of Falomo Shopping center in its urban context………………….....0 Design brief 6....45 Special facility requirements and equipment……….....44 6.40 Fig 19 Map showing site in new Oworonshoki…………………………………....1 Design/client’s brief...45 Special facility requirements and equipment………...2 Spatial requirement/ Space programming…………...C Shopping complex……………………………..... Goal & requirement………….42 7 .33 Fig 9 Ground floor sketch V.36 Fig 14 View from side……………………………………………………………....35 Fig 12 View from a………………………………………………………………….........37 Fig 15 Overview of Westside Center………………………………………………....2 Spatial requirement/ Space programming…………..………………………………..34 Fig 10 First floor sketch V..44 6..1 Design/client’s brief.41 Fig 20 Site of Oworonshoki shopping center……………………………………..0 Design brief 6.....1 Site selection………………………………………….......2 Site analysis……………………………………………43 CHAPTER 6 6..47 7..1 Layout Planning Concept …………………………..CHAPTER 5 5.....17 Fig 2 Satellite image of Oworonshoki……………..…..G..3 LIST OF FIGURE PAGE Fig 1 Map showing geographical location of Study area-Oworonshoki.......45 6......37 Fig 16 View showing integration into the urban fabric of the city……………….0 6..38 Fig 17 View showing 8 storey housing block behind the center………………….21 Fig 7 Street view of Falomo shopping center………………………………………....…..41 5..3 CHAPTER 6 6.... Goal & requirement…………..….45 CHAPTER 7 7.........20 Fig 5 Bar chart showing age group percentage in Oworonshoki community…….3 Special facility requirements and equipment……….....0 Site selection and analysis 5.....35 Fig 13 View from b……………………………………………………………….....G.18 Fig 3 House on water of nomadic fishermen….38 Fig 18 Pie chart showing land use percentage in Oworonshoki community…....45 Conceptual Design 7..........21 Fig 6 Pie chart showing occupation percentage in Oworonshoki community…..
These are not modernist spaces of goal. There is a need to address contemporary social needs and emerging economic potential in order to establish a new generation of shopping centers and leisure facilities. new modes of subjectivity. interpersonal relationship and models of social totality are being “tried on”. This paper intends to identify attitudes and preference of Oworonshoki shoppers towards shopping environments-both traditional street markets as well as newer shopping centers-and engaging the experience of the Oworonshoki community toward new dynamic shopping and leisure horizons. 8 .directed individuals. and “displayed in the same way one might shop for items. Rather contemporary consumption sites are spaces of individuals involved with shopping. culture and leisure. The sustainability of the center depends on the creation of public space which in their functionality and architectural character provides a new identity by fusing together the attributes of commerce.ABSTRACT In shopping centers all over the world. leisure and other socio-cultural activities. “taken off”.
‘green’ buildings. are now mega centre with retail chain stores. Shopping center as community centers The urban migration since the 1950s played a great part in the building of shopping centers close to residential communities and satellite offices.a shopping center where they can enjoy shopping and other various cultural activities that bring the people of that community together which gives birth to a unique environment that aims at establishing an effective community through united effort. Population growth has led to the outward expansion of little communities into urban cities.CHAPTER 1. Shopping centers now have to take into consideration their position in the community and the need to improve their amenities and services. These shopping districts were easily accessible and where situated in prime locations. The Agora of the typical city of ancient Greece was essentially a shopping centre in the business district. office buildings. entertainment and parking facilities. Suburbs without a major core within the community have little community consciousness so the needs of a kind of community center. The shopping center establishes a new environment resulting from the banding together of individual businesses in cooperative fashion with the aim of creating greater communal effectiveness through unified endeavor. The typical Arabian souk or market of the middle ages also had narrow protected centers lined with shops.0 INTRODUCTION Background of study The concept of shopping districts in the heart of communities has been for quite some time. They also functioned as meeting arenas and served as venues for communal functions. Developments has progressed towards new commercial outlets and providing sustainable. Several factors have led to the evolution of shopping centers which includes population growth. This growth also affects major shopping centers which grow along with the suburbs and therefore.1 ONE 1. A new era for shopping centers has developed in which they have to meet the demands of this age to survive. 9 .
and the desire to improve life by moving away from the city gave birth to the suburb and shopping mall. and sometime trees is also prominent. Providing a commercial area would not only attract people for the purpose of shopping but also serve the function of providing an agreeable and comfortable meeting place for the community inhabitants.Shopping in Nigeria Commercial business is growing rapidly and attracting large mass of people. live music stages and open temporary exhibition floors. lots of shopping centers include food courts. The dramatic Ancient roman townscape of the forum in Las Vegas and outlook of a miniaturized streetscape of Los Angeles in universal studios city walks are very popular tourist spots. plants. The industrial revolution of the 19th century produced the department store but made cities crowded and dirty. This is evident in the scattered mobile shops along our high ways and even streets which have attempted to contaminate our communities making them seem crowded and dirty and causing other vices like inexplicable traffic jams and extortion by false officials due to a poorly established commercial structure. To display added value to visitors. 10 . Evolution of shopping centers Garden City The antecedents of the modern shopping center were the ancient agoras and medieval piazzas of European cities. and inspired his disciples such as Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux to improve city life with parks and gardens. Shopping centers as entertainment centers Today. cinemas and outdoor activities. artificial ponds. Also the Silverbird centre mall and the Palms shopping mall are also popular attractions in Lagos with food courts. Edward Bouton in 1892 built Roland Park near Baltimore that included a "store block" arranged in a linear pattern along a street to serve the commercial needs of a planned residential community. In 1842 Andrew Jackson Downing described English "Landscape Gardening" with "curvilinear" layouts in his Cottage Residences book. The design of shopping centers has also changed very much to create a more fun place to shop. which were born in 1980s as an important convenience in shopping and dining. exhibition spaces. The use of skylights. ornamental flowers. shopping centre now have movie theatres.
separate from the streets and the houses. since most Lake Foresters had cars at an early date. 1943 Linda Vista Shopping Center in San Diego was built by the Department of Treasury for the government housing project that served Reuben Fleet's Consolidated Aircraft workers in World War II. C. owned and operated by a single entity who leased space to tenants. 1922 J. including the sale of 384 acres to UCLA in 1926 for a university campus that opened 1929. and it was one of the first shopping centers designed as a unique space.. McCormick. using a hollow square design for 82. gymnasium. Illinois. on a block of land with landscaped green and pedestrian walks. "The automobile was a central factor in this planning. Kroger. 1929 Westwood Village opened as a shopping center for the "second Hollywood" of Westwood built on the site of the 3300-acre Rancho San Jose de Buenos Aires.000 sq.Similar store blocks were built in Los Angeles 1908 for the college tract on West 48th street. The National Register of Historic Places has listed Market Square as the first planned shopping district in the United States. A&P. 11 . Automobile center 1916 Chicago architect Arthur Aldis persuaded wealthy residents of Lake Forest. with 4 supermarkets (Piggly-Wiggly. In New Jersey. 1928 Don M. Casto opened Grandview Avenue Shopping Center in Columbus. clubhouse and landscaping. purchased in 1919 by department store owner Arthur Letts (Broadway. an integrated shopping complex of 28 stores. Grandview became a model for the auto-accessible strip mall. Nichols created Country Club Plaza on the outskirts of Kansas City. Radburn was built as a planned city with parks and walkways and decentralized shopping areas. Polumbos) and 20 other stores and parking for 400 cars. this led to the building of Letchworth. 30 apartments. Bullocks). Ohio. Ebenezer Howard in Britain 1898 published To-morrow: A peaceful path to Real Reform on garden cities to escape the industry and crowding of large urban centers. but limited parking space for only 216 cars. 12 office units. Missouri. to form the Lake Forest Improvement Trust to build Market Square. According to Richard Longstreth. and developed as a housing tract after 1922. as an automobile-centered plaza built according to a unified plan rather than as a random group of stores. and investors such as Cyrus H. Nichols made the term "shopping center" popular to describe such commercial sites built for the automobile. and a shopping center of 34 stores in 1929 that grew to 452 stores by 1939. ft. Market Square was perhaps the first business district to be laid out specifically to accommodate motor vehicles. Jr.
000 sq. Department store with 2 supermarkets at each end of the linear center. bringing shopping center promotion to a new level." 1950 Northgate opened near Seattle. For stores arranged in a linear pattern along a 44-foot wide pedestrian walkway. 1947 the broadway-crenshaw center opened in south los Angeles in November. Ohio. 1952 Lakewood center opened 7 miles north of long beach near a Douglas aircraft factory as one of the largest shopping malls in southern California. with 550. when developer don casto hired grandma carver (a woman who dove from a 90-foot perch into a 4-foot pool of flaming water).000 sq. Woolworth variety store.000 sq. The word came from the British game of pall-mall. Ft. Hudson department store chain commissioned him to design a center 8 miles away from its flagship downtown store to take advantage of the recent suburban developments spawned by the city's postwar express- 12 . May co. anchored by a Broadway department store. 8 years after.000 cars on 154 acres. to perform her act in the lighted parking lot. L. near Detroit.Suburban center 1946 Abraham Levitt’s Levittown on long island pioneered the post-war era of mass-produced low-cost housing tracts located in automobile suburbs and satellite cities on the edge of large urban centers. Landscaped central open area." anchored by a bon Marché department store. and von's supermarket.192.S. played since the 1500s on a wide fairway green. Casto opened the town & country in the suburb of Whitehall east of Columbus: "nighttime shopping was inaugurated at town & country shopping center in Columbus. or "ball and mallett" combining elements of croquet and golf. Detroit's j. Ft. anchored by a 350. with 110 stores in 1.. Ft. 1949 don m. On 2 levels.000 sq. located in the rapidly growing suburbs of the san Fernando valley north of los Angeles. 13 other regional malls were built in the Los Angeles area. anchored by a sears store. designed by Kenneth Welch as a village green with stores surrounding a 100-ft. Known today as the Baldwin hills Crenshaw shopping plaza. 1951 valley plaza opened as the first shopping center designed to be built near major freeways. it provided 800. it remains in operation as the oldest regional shopping center in the U. the town squares of ancient Greece. or "mall" that became the center spine of all future regional shopping centers. 13 acres parking. 1947 the north shore center opened near Beverly ma to serve as a regional shopping center for the Boston area. in a cluster arrangement surrounded by parking lot. the first regional shopping center defined as a "mall. 1954 Austrian-born Victor Gruen designed northland. with 100 stores and parking for 12. Ft. modeled on the agora.
S news 12/27/99) 1956 Victor Gruen's 95-acre two-level Southdale center mall opened Oct. with a constant climate-controlled temperature of 72 degrees. one of the first urban specialty malls. when it opened. a downtown pedestrian mall designed by victor Gruen who believed shopping centers could revitalize declining urban centers in the United States. causing a revival of older urban downtowns. pools.174 shopping centers. brooks and excellent sculptures was admired by architects around the world. 1957 international council of shopping centers was founded with a membership of 36. 13 . The Fulton street downtown pedestrian mall opened Sept." (UNHCR) 1968 Montgomery mall opened as the first regional shopping center in the Washington dc area. California." (U. the first fully enclosed shopping center.ways. following ideas of Ben Thompson. cascades. opened Aug. near Minneapolis. 1976 Faneuil Hall Marketplace in Boston. the United States had a total of 13. 1 in Fresno. Italy. Farber who had developed suburban strip centers from his New York company headquarters. on the 150th anniversary of the dedication of the original Quincy Market. followed by Tyson’s center in 1969. Albert Sussman was elected the ICSC president 1958-86. 26. Landover mall in 1972 that was reborn in late 70s as "the first successful black shopping mall in suburbia". and was one of the first "festival marketplaces" that centered on food and retail specialty items. Festival market place 1969 For the city's 200th anniversary. opening in 1985. 8 in Edina. 1972 After 20 years of steadily expanding construction. . inspired by the design of the galleria Vittoria Emanuele designed and built by architect Giuseppe Mengoni 1865-77 in Milan. The USIA selected Kalamazoo as the all-American city for 1959 with a traveling exhibit in Europe. built by Rouse Co. the northland center was the world's largest shopping mall. designed by Jerde Architects in 1975 and built by Ernest Hahn. The success of the Burdick mall inspired a national craze for downtown pedestrian malls. 1959 Burdick mall opened in Kalamazoo. "a pedestrian oasis with its fountains. with a United Artists seven-screen movie theater. the San Diego City Council approved an urban renewal study with a downtown shopping center that became Horton Plaza. 1964 Ghirardelli square opened in San Francisco in renovated chocolate factory buildings from 1893. The first chairman of the ICSC board was Leonard l. In 1954.
In the United States. but it has really taken off in recent years. A Gallup poll showed Americans averaged four trips to a regional or neighborhood mall per month. The project will have a "Main Street" for cars to drive past or park in front of many stores. it will add an additional 20 specialty stores and possibly another upper-end department store. Evolution of the Shopping http://history.700 seat theater in Ontario CA. and 63 percent of them come to shop.000 square feet total area. with 7.Otay Ranch Town Center opened on 85 acres off Olympic Parkway in the boomtown of Chula Vista.html [Feb.000 sq.200. (Citation: Schoenherr. and a seven-acre amusement park. families and kids.S.500 cars. the Mall of America in Bloomington.edu/gen/soc/shoppingcenter. ft. 17. it will have 80 specialty stores. "At the 200-store Ontario Mills Mall. TN.Entertainment center The lifestyle concept first emerged in the late 1980s. As a "lifestyle mall.. 1996 AMC opened the largest megaplex in the U. developed by Poag & McEwen in 1987. a new concept called "interactive shoppertainment" specifically targets parents.000 sq. dating couples. a 30-screen. 5. mostly upscale. In its second phase. The decade of the 1980s saw the construction of more than 16.000 parking spaces. the largest shopping center in the world was the Golden Resources Shopping Mall in Beijing. China. The lure: do everything from ogling bobcats and lizards at an on-site museum to skiing in virtual reality video game. Since 2000." it will combine some aspects of a regional mall with an old-fashioned town square." (Sun-Times 3/21/99) 2005 according to Emil Pocock. West Edmonton Mall in Alberta. 2006 . Minnesota is the largest. Steven E.sandiego. In its first phase. 14 . who have calculated that an estimated 70. parking for 12.000 shopping centers. starting with Shops of Saddle Creek in Germantown.300. and 20. 2006]) Center. ft. developers have built 84 lifestyle centers in the United States nearly four times the number of regional malls built during the same period. nightclubs. Canada was the largest mall in North America with 5. The developer is Chicago-based General Growth Properties.000 people cross the border each day. restaurants. with 4.500.
in a controlled and highly functional environment. Poor shopping environment Poor waste disposal facility Unmanageable commercial activity Insufficient storage facilities.1. Some key problems of the street trading are itemized as. Parking spaces Pedestrian and vehicular conflict Absence of recreational and social facilities 1. This street trading has constituted a degree of discomfort due to the usurpation of the shops into the streets. Low awareness level among client. Oworonshoki.3 Aims and Objectives The aim is to design a shopping mall in the suburb. which would act as a solution to harmonize the uncontrollable state of commercial activities (including street trading). the traditional and cultural identity of the Oworonshoki community. In establishing a shopping center. security and other ancillary facilities. 15 . some factors that threaten the design include. the objective is to solve the challenges using an innovative sustainable design taking into consideration. Short sighted and unimaginative planning Poor analysis of site access and landscaping Climatic and environmental constraints Some problems of the site include. government and the designer.2 Statement of problem The use of building frontages as shops is a prominent feature in Oworonshoki community. Also in a world striving to go green and create sustainable architecture.
The provision of a shopping center will not only remediate the issue of unfitting infrastructures for trading in Oworonshoki but will also serve as a communal center for its residents.4 Scope and limitations of study The scope of the study is a shopping center which focuses on the establishment of a point of trading and communal activities after analyzing and resolving the unique characteristics and issues of the study area. Other factors caused errors in figures data and statistics with some constraints like finance. 16 . gratifying commercial environment. time and unfavorable weather.These problems will be addressed through The conception of a contained and specific environment for commercial activities in the community The provision of both indoor and outdoor experience in relation to shopping activities The fusion of modern commercial and shopping trends with traditional and cultural activities. a comfortable. This study executes a transformation of the character of the Oworonshoki community to provide adequately. The provision of adequate parking facilities and security The provision of proper waste disposal mechanism Optimization of functionality by creating value added services Creation of proper storage facilities 1. 1. Limitations encountered during this research include the poor response of the inhabitants of Oworonshoki due to the assumption that the data needed from them is being collected for use by the government and for their reservations on government officials.5 Significance of study This study recognizes the local customs and preferences in trading in Oworonshoki community with the prospect of providing a solution to predominant problems.
to the south by Abule Okuta. PHYSICAL & REGIONAL SETTING The subject site location is OWORONSHOKI community of Kasofe local government area of Lagos State. Oworonshoki is bounded to the north by Gbagada.CHAPTER 2.0 STUDY AREA LOCATION. Fig1. Map showing Oworonshoki geographic location.1 TWO 2. to the west by Bariga and the Third mainland bridge and to the east by the Lagos Lagoon. 17 .
There are two rainy seasons with the heaviest rains falling from April to July and a weaker rainy season in October and November with a brief dry phase in August and September and a longer dry season from December to March. The Climate of Oworonshoki is not far from the average weather condition of Lagos State. Nigeria in the continent Africa. which falls in the tropical wet and dry region of the world’s climate. Topography The topography of Oworonshoki is approximately 10 meters above sea level with a steep slope or gradient of 5meters. 2. The soil is mostly marshy and clayey especially on the lowlands of the eastern shoreline of the Lagos Lagoon. SOIL AND VEGETATION Oworonshoki is located in Lagos.2 CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS. 18 . Satellite Image of Oworonshoki. Fig2.
The average temperature in January is 27oC and for July 25oC. medium scale businesses. usually in front of their homes.3 PEOPLE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Character of Oworonshoki The original settlers of Oworonshoki are the Aworis. migrated from Ile Ife through Agboyi and Isheri Olofin due to scarcity of resources and constant war and finally settled in a final location approved by “Ifa” (religious deity) due to the abundance of fish. Fig3. 2. is an irregular oval land bound by the Lagos lagoon and the Third mainland bridge. trading and sand dredging. Relative Humidity could be well over 90% at peak periods around 0600 hours and be as low as 56% around 1500 hours. there are also small scale industrial activities as raft building for fishing. House on water of the nomadic fishermen 19 . now Oworonshoki. On the average. who were the children of the Olofin of Eko (Lagos).The Relative humidity is generally high in the state throughout the year and is not usually less than 75% in the coastal areas around Lagos and 65% around Ikorodu and other northern locations. The percentage of the unemployed is quite sizeable and is predominantly youths though some youths engage in menial jobs. dredging and woodworking centers (Carpentry). Owo. who were mostly nomadic fishermen. The Aworis. The traders are mostly involved in small. A substantial amount of residents of present Oworonshoki work outside its community and the remaining engage in fishing. the hottest month is March with a mean temperature of 29Oc.
20 .2.5%) and the female. 21. Informed projections based on the percentage population increase by 1996 figures (55.540) will have the population of Oworonshoki currently standing at 78.4 POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT Demography Information sourced from the National Population Commission showed that the population of Oworonshoki as at the census taken in 1991 is 45. Education Level Study shows a relatively high level of literacy especially among the youth of the area whose basic educational qualification the West African Secondary School Certificate-WASSC is as is the case is in the other parts of the metropolis. Youths. Fig4.719 (47. young adults and young couples occupy 60% of the population while the elderly occupy the remaining 40% of the population.5%).771 with male dominating at 24.052 (52.986 with an average population increase of 17.6% over every five (5) years. Bar chart showing literacy level in Oworonshoki Community Age range Statistics show that a large percentage of the population is made up of young adults and youths.
Bar chart showing age group percentage in Oworonshoki Community Occupation A good percentage of residents work outside Oworonshoki and the remaining engage in fishing. There are more youths who engage in other menial jobs. The percentage of unemployed people is quite sizeable and they are predominantly youths.Fig5. Pie chart showing occupation percentage in Oworonshoki Community 21 . trading and sand dredging. Fig6.
Problems associated with the study area. Water supply: The survey shows that majority of the people in the study area rely on water from the borehole. although PSP services are available. coming from the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). leading to water pollution Housing Drainage Sewage/waste disposal Commercial activities Inadequate infrastructure for commercial activities 22 . namely Access roads and distributive roads. Vehicular access routes: There are two types of roads in Oworonshoki. Waste disposal: Waste disposal facilities are few to nonexistent in Oworonshoki. People High concentration of low-income. Other major sources of water are from pipe borne sources. frequent due to the presence of masts and power stations. Telecommunication is predominantly through cell phones as landlines have become obsolete and is however. water tankers and the lagoon. wells.Infrastructural Facilities Electricity and Telecommunication: Power supply in Oworonshoki is as in other areas in Lagos State. unskilled labour High unemployment rate High population rate and congestion Poor hygienic and dirty environment Over-crowding and insufficient housing Inadequate communal and infrastructural facilities Existence of dilapidated buildings Inadequate setback around buildings Lack of amenities and green areas Inadequate drainage system Blockage of drainage due to refuse dumps Over flooding of drainage during rainy season Inadequate waste disposal system Poor sewage system. Drainage: Existing infrastructure includes surface drainage through gutters and drainage channels. The Access roads direct traffic from the mainland into Oworonshoki while the distributive roads circulate pedestrian and vehicular traffic within Oworonshoki.
and many other activities due to its character of attracting people from all over to trade goods and services. the unique quality of the merchandise and the character of the shopping environment become quite significant. The success of a shopping center plan is dictated by the convenience of shoppers to encounter all retail point someway therefore. An individual in such a category goes to be entertained and while at it. It had often been used as a meeting place for inhabitants of the town. several years of behind the acceptance of the phenomenon by city dwellers in most first world cities. convenience store. Shopping centers regenerate a community. Traditionally. The last category has been increasing therefore. creating whole mixed-use activity environments.0 LITERATURE REVIEW The functionality of shopping centers has gone beyond only trading activities to social. a cultural entity has sneaked into the hard wired psyche of the Lagos citizen.e.g. ensuring there are no dead spots where tenants of the shops do not receive customers. 23 . The recreational shopper or those who see shopping as a social event. Development of shopping centers in Lagos The shopping malls. Shoppers who make infrequent purchases of lasting items like household appliances and furniture. Shoppers who make routing trips for household necessities needed weekly i. may be convinced to buy a particular product. the market square has often been an essential part of a community from the existence of the first organized community.CHAPTER THREE 3. Shoppers aiming to satisfy an immediate need e. communal centers. New reasons have evolved for going to shopping centers everywhere around the world. provisions.
Victoria Island. and has become a foster home of sorts to hordes of Lagosians. Retail shopping and cinemas are emerging with their own structures. lots of parking space) and facilities (car parking. municipal governments. automatic teller machine etc) to attract volumes of shoppers and providing goods at competitive costs. music and books spread out on a whole floor by Nu-Metro. Nigerian shoppers had the mall experience. play area and other public utility spaces that improve the lifestyle of the citizens? With or without proper planning. This is done by concentrating retail outlets to one controlled zone. Then the Silverbird Galleria opened its doors on Ahmadu Bello. if only the stakeholders could see the opportunity for creating pockets of sanity in Lagos. Victoria Island. but how does that tie in with a megalopolis like Lagos where the whole city is in an uncontrolled (and largely untaxed) market? Can shopping malls in Lagos survive the slump that followed a similar boom in India (only 10 per cent of visitors to the malls were actually buying anything) with 20 to 30 malls within a small radius? Are local planning authorities. Mega Plaza was known as the first shopping mall in the country because for the time. Then there is the Palms which boasts of a food court and five cinema halls. the mall mania will spread.Among the first set of shopping centers was Mega Plaza on Idowu Martins Street. exquisite bars. Mega Plaza provided shopping and recreational activities. large atrium and an expanse store for movies. With five cinema halls. effectively adding a new dimension to shopping in Lagos . Malls operate on the basic concept of low cost mass distribution of goods for retail. Design article in Guardian Life Magazine) 24 . creating the right ambience (air conditioning. heavy presence of mega brands. architects. most often undercutting neighborhood family owned stores though lopsided economies of scale. (Excerpt from “mall mania by Dayo Arigbagu. encountering a multitude of retail outlets under one posh and well organized roof. gardens. trolleys. then there might hope for the crazy city just yet.entertainment. In a city chocked with dysfunction and hardly any recreational facility. investors and developers working together to predict the growth patterns of the new malls and those that will come Vis-à-vis the implications for the residents? Can malls actually serve as tools for reversing urban blight by incorporating intelligently designed buildings with parks.
most of today’s centre’s fit one of the patterns described below and illustrated. 25 . A strip centre is usually a small neighborhood centre and the terms have come to be used interchangeably. The anchor store. The L shape is adaptable to corner locations and is used widely for both neighborhood and communitytype centers. Anchors are usually pieced at the ends.Shopping center patterns Certain patterns of building arrangement have developed subject to the variations caused by site conditions. but it is possible to place an anchor in the crook formed by the two lines of stores. Strip shaped A strip shaped is defined with straight line of stores. with parking in front and a service lane in the rear. L Shaped A strip centre with a line of stores placed at a right angle to it. is commonly a supermarket in small strip centers. forming an L with parking in front of the stores and service lanes behind them. is placed either at one end or in the centre of the strip.
Cluster Shaped Cluster shaped is an early form of regional centre design. with service provided through a tunnel or shielded access or a combination of both. Early cluster centers were open-roofed although some have since been enclosed. with parking on as many as four sides. forming a U. U-shaped centre usually have more store space than a strip of L’s and consequently tend to be community-type rather. Stores are arranged around an angular area. 26 . U Shaped A strip centre with two lines of stores placed at right angles to the strip. A single-anchor cluster would probably have a corridor extending from the periphery to the centre of the cluster. with parking in front of the stores and service later behind them.
parking is usually done around its perimeter. The triangular design is likely to be somewhat wasteful of land. In most cases it has two levels without a parking structure. It is advisable to be employed where it optimizes the shape of the site. T Shaped A centre designed to accommodate three anchor tenants which has parking at all sides. but with the added advantage of providing visibility of all anchor stores from the front of each side. with service provided through shielded service bays either enclosed or open. 27 . Unlike a U shape which can be designed to have graded parking to allow direct entry at each level. Triangle Shaped Triangle shaped is similar in many respects to the T.
with anchor stores placed ar both ends of the mall. 28 . The dumbbell is designed so that the anchors draw individuals into the mall in an effort to achieve maximum interchange of pedestrian traffic. and with parking as well. Dumbbell Shaped A double strip of stores placed face-to-face along a mall.
Neighborhood centre: Open-air: a shopping centre in which stores are directly accessible to the public. video rentals. an open-air shopping centre of 30. anchored by a supermarket. jewelers. and other features that encourage browsing. Lifestyle centre: Mall: any large shopping centre (usually enclosed) with adjacent parking and out buildings. with stores arranged in a single strip. which often connected two parallel streets. Galleria: typically. in addition to retail stores. they are commonly open.000 to 350. especially the design of the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II (built 1867) in Milan.000 square feet GLA with 3 to 15 stores. lifestyle centers usually include attractive landscaping. fountains.000 to 150. drug. exterior walkways may be covered. and restaurants) are designed to appeal to upscale consumers. typically anchored by a one or two discount department.or U-shape. such as a mini-mart. typically. theatres. leather goods. typically with an arched glass roof and two rows of shops either side of a pedestrian passageway. one-story. dry cleaners. L.000 square feet GLA. an open-air shopping centre whose array of retail outlets (such as women's fashion stores. Festival (or themed) marketplace: typically. outdoor seating. featuring restaurant and entertainments.Shopping center types Based on criteria established by the International Council of Shopping Centre (ICSC) Arcade: a type of enclosed urban shopping centre popular in the 19th century. such as Baltimore's Inner Harbor and Boston’s Faneuil Hall. Italy. 29 . derived from the European glass-vaulted Victorian-era shopping arcades. associated with a place of historic or cultural interest. and the like. a hotel and other services. Mixed-use centre: an integrated complex that may contain residences. an urban shopping centre. wine and beer. Community centre: a shopping centre of 100. Convenience centre: an open shopping centre with fewer than half-a-dozen with stores offering day-to-day necessities. restaurants. but the stores are not enclosed under a single roof. offices. or home improvement stores. a glass-roofed mall or mall courtyard.
consumer services. interior plazas. The total floor area of any shopping centre or mall is inevitably larger than the gross leasable area. Areas that are not let on longterm leases. Gross leasable area (GLA): Arcade: an entertainment area offering coin-operated computer games and other amusements. the office. such as home improvements. that can overwhelm both smaller and more diverse competitors because of its size. and prices. usually with an attached parking area. often an enclosed mall. exhibition space. the total area of floor space (usually cited in square feet) leased for retail shops. utility areas. usually at reduced prices. and the like. variety of merchandise.000 to 800. the difference can be accounted for by mall offices.Regional centre: a shopping centre with 400. office supplies.000 square feet GLA. including restaurants. Food court: a separate area of a shopping centre containing fast-food outlets and a common seating area. or toys. Back of the house: store. specially developed on a parcel of private property and managed by a single organization. Shopping centre: a planned group of connected retail stores. usually located at the ends or corners of shopping centers. with 40 to 100 stores anchored by one or more department stores. 30 . public meeting rooms. ranging from a bare meeting room that can accommodate folding chairs and tables to a more elaborate hall with stage. Factory outlet: a retail store that sells merchandise direct from the manufacturer. stock room. General Terminology Anchor stores: the largest retail outlets. such as assembly halls. and other non-retail areas of a a large national chain store specializing in one line of products. and entertainment. storage. often an anchor store. rest rooms. and chosen in part for their potential to attract customers to the shopping centre generally. Category killer: Community room: an area available for public use. Draw tenant: a store that attracts a large number of potential customers to a shopping centre. and other services. departments’ stores usually anchor regional and super-regional malls and supermarkets are typical anchors in community centers. and other non-revenue producing spaces. adjacent kitchen.
(1) a physically separate store or service. also called a pad tenant. and so on. a retailer that rents space in a common area for a cart. included in a shopping centre’s property. Mall manager: the person employed by the owner or a management company to supervise daily operations of a shopping centre. Mall walker: Market area: the geographical area from which a shopping centre draws its customers. fraud. attributable to waste. (2) unoccupied land on a shopping centre's property. especially during a period set aside for this purpose before stores have opened in the mornings. usually reported as a percentage of sales. Outparcel: (1) difference between value of inventoried merchandise and merchandise book value. or motel. carelessness. theft. kiosk. Temporary tenant: typically. 31 . Shrinkage: T-shaped: a shopping centre comprising two linear arrays of stores forming the shape of the letter T. U-shaped: a linear array of stores forming the shape of the letter U. such as a restaurant. or tall-wall stall for less than a year. shop wear.Mall rat: young person who frequents a shopping centre primarily for socializing and entertainment. Mall mayor: the retailer who acts as the informal spokesperson for the tenants of a shopping centre. rather than for shopping. (2) more specifically. loss of merchandise due to shoplifting. bank. Outlet tenant: a free-standing retailer or service located on a separate parcel in front of a shopping centre. with anchors placed in the centre or on the two ends and parking inside the U. Tall-wall stall: a temporary retailing display and counter built against an empty wall. office. with anchor stores at each of the three ends and parking on all sides. person who walks in a shopping centre for exercise.
function. banking. 32 . The center was built in two phases. travel agencies and restaurants and also special areas with outlets for arts and crafts.3 CASE STUDIES Falomo Shopping Center Type: Regional center Reason: Urban Context. Phase 2 started off with the restaurant and the cinema theatre. It possesses specialty shops for books fashion.3. Fig7. The popularity of Falomo Shopping Center has resulted in the commercial activity overflowing into Awolowo Road. multifarious shopping center situated on Awolowo Road in Ikoyi. scale Falomo shopping center is an ultramodern. The cinema has been converted to the center for creative arts. which has several offices and restaurants. This contains 78 leasable shopping Units. Phase 1 consists of shopping blocks of 5 two-storey blocks linked by walkways on the upper floor. Street view of the Falomo Shopping Center.
The center lacks prominent communal activity which makes it lifeless after working hours. Overview of Falomo shopping center in its urban context 33 .The blocks are detached and connected together with concrete walkways for circulation. the shops are fully occupied. There are paved courtyards that are landscaped. Fig8. Due to its location in a major commercial hub and fair level of affordability. There center lack proper anchors and food courts or well located restaurants or food stalls. Analysis: There is no focal point or definite entrance orientation therefore shops facing the major road seem more viable which has created some dead spots within the center.
First floor sketch V.G.C shopping complex.C shopping complex is a neighborhood center that provides basic convenient goods and services for the residents of Victoria Garden City. 34 . Ground floor sketch V. Fig9.C shopping complex. clinic etc.Lekki.G. Fig10. pharmacy.C Shopping complex Type: Neighborhood center Reason: Urban context. departmental store. V. function V. salons. cafes.G. It is made up of two floors and a gallery and has leasable shops which are used for offices.G.
Chicken republic. due to its location in an estate it was provided to accommodate mostly the vehicles of residents.The complex has 3 major anchors which are. View from a 35 . Site plan sketch showing parking Fig12. CRV Clinic and Rennies-a departmental store. The Parking is a bit adequate. Analysis: Fig11. It also has smaller shops that provide the residents with daily domestic needs and various services which makes it a busy complex.
View from b Fig14.Fig13. View of Side 36 .
this mixed-use program radically reinvents the concept of shopping. Fig15. 10 restaurants and bars. Westside Project Type: Mega shopping center Reason: Urban Context. multiplex cinema. function.an urban marketplace full of experiences that attracts visitors of all ages. The development creates an exciting gateway into the city of Bern as it dramatically positions itself over the major highway and is integrated into the city with its own highway exit and train stop. scale. Overview of Westside center 37 .a complex mixture of retail. hotel. is an urban scale architecture project totaling 457200 meters sq. In addition to the 55 shops. Westside is one of a kind . interests and backgrounds. a new center for leisure and shopping in BernBrünnen. entertainment and living. ideology The Westside project. fun bath with wellness center and housing. residential and recreational facilities .
View showing integration into the urban fabric of the city Fig17.Fig16. View showing 8storey housing block behind the center 38 .
CHAPTER 4.3 Data analysis The major sources of data collected were by: Primary method Secondary method Primary method implied the use of questionnaires administered to residents of the study area and also personal interviews with the residents. Survey General’s Office: to source the base map and aerial photographs. Oworonshoki. The methods used in the research of this shopping center incude: Use of questionnaires and oral interviews of the resident. Analysis and evaluation of relevant case studies. 39 . 4. Secondary method implied the collection of information from the following: National Population Commission: to determine the current population and population growth of the subject area. proper analysis and documentation of the data. The information collected where analyzed and used to produce the primary data.2 Data collection The proposed method for the research of Oworonshoki shopping center included a direct scrutiny of the study area. collection of various data from different sources. 4.1 four 4. Study of some thesis projects and various literatures relevant to the thesis topic. relevant literature reviews and case studies.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Methodology This research drives at discovering and exploring possibilities in the new trends of the design and function of shopping centers and its interaction and effects in its urban context. shoppers and shop owners in the study area.
Fig18. This causes a gradual case of urban sprawl. Majority of the residences in Oworonshoki are inhabited by low income earners. Commercial activities take place within the residential areas year round. Google Earth: to source for current satellite images of the subject area. Also many residents were scared and very speculative of the delegates being spies from the state government. During field survey it was noted that residential/commercial zone accounts for 90% of the total land use. Pie chart showing land-use percentage in Oworonshoki Community 40 . Few “high brow” residential areas for the medium and high income earners exist though.Federal survey Nigeria: to get the topographical map of the subject area. The delegates from the group met with warm responses from majority of residents while others refused to divulge information about some sensitive issues like employment status and income. A rehabilitative method of reducing this phenomenon is centralizing all commercial activities in a facility to organize the community. which means the establishment of a shopping center. due to the absence of a large central market. The residential and commercial zones go hand in hand due to the large concentration of mixed use buildings as shops and trading outlets can be found on virtually every building in Oworonshoki and also.
0 SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS Site selection The subject site location is bounded to the north by Gbagada. to the west by Bariga and the Third mainland bridge and to the east by the Lagos Lagoon. The total area of the site is 47492 square meter. Fig19. The proposed site for the shopping mall is situated along the major distribution road network.CHAPTER 5. to the south by Abule Okuta. and is characterized by various commercial activities situated along its length. Map showing site location in commercial zone in New Oworonshoki 41 .1 five 5.
Location The site has been situated along the major distribution road network of Oworonshoki where the road is used as a major distribution and also a major reference point to all inhabitants of the community due to its high commercial activity. electricity. 42 . Utilities The availability of essential services such as water supply. good conditional roads. The accessibility of the site has good potentials due to its location on a major distribution road.Fig20. spacious parking and adequate landscape and the various utilities present on site. good drainage system. Site of Oworonshoki shopping center Factors that need to be considered before the selection of proposed site of the project include. Accessibility Vehicular and pedestrian access has been give serious consideration due to the high importance of easy access to use the facilities by people. telephone system. pedestrian network around the site.
2 Site analysis This is the process of understanding the existing and proposed site qualities considering the factors that determine a sites character. the location of each factor. the category into each factor will fit in the design process. the natural drainage pattern of the site is good. the category. This generally affords pleasant views into the site.5. Topography The proposed site has a relatively gentle terrain and has been cleared for construction. Site potential The site can be highly used for effective landscape and adequate parking space due to its boundaries with the different access roads. 43 . the purpose each factor serves.
However.0 DESIGN BRIEF Design brief. Goals & requirement Mass housing is categorized as the most inherent part of an urban environment and as the most important thread in the urban fabric of the subject community. The design brief: to design a shopping center to cater for the needs of the Oworonshoki community and its surroundings therefore establishing a new environment resulting from the bonding together of individual businesses in cooperative fashion with the aim of creating greater communal effectiveness through unified endeavor. Shoppers could be categorized into three income levels: the lower.1 six 6. The proposed complex should provide for all categories and the following class of facilities: Shopping facilities Business facilities Recreational facilities Others include.CHAPTER 6. middle income and high income earners. Administrative Commercial Communal Services 44 . it is necessary to design and harmonize these housing units to infrastructural facilities provided in the master plan layout in order to achieve functional housing scheme.
6m2 person stoserserserper Spatial facility requirements The main idea around the development of the proposed shopping center is the integration of both shopping.5m2 40. circulation patterns around the complex for both shoppers and service circulation hence becomes the important design considerations. The exterior is meant to provide the pull factor required to attract attention to the center.5 m2 135m2 NO 32 20 15 PARKING Total shop area 5730m2 Total parking 300cars REMARK SPACE Shop Small Medium Large Special shops Ground floor First floor Department stores Snacks Restaurant cinema Media store 67.8% for rage and vices 28% for vices 38% for vices 0.75m2 40. This is by the types of facilities that can be seen from the outside relaxation spaces and the exposure of shops facing outside the complex.6.2 Spatial requirement/Spatial programming AREA 33. Layout The internal cores of the center are used as indoor. relaxation spots. children’s play areas and as a social ground. community service and recreational facilities to create a harmonious unit that would help to bring the community to a common ground of social uplift. 45 . the indoor-outdoor relationship.5m2 35. The layout of the facilities.
The pavilion which has to do with outdoor activities acts as a meeting place for cultural activities.3 Design Concept The ideology behind the design of the Oworonshoki shopping center is to establish an environment that brings together activities of commerce.Certain facilities where classified as magnets hence their strategic location ensure continuous circulation through the complex. offices. The amphitheatre acts as a stage to view and experience the center. The site consists of a mall which has the indoor activities with retail shops. A major feature important to any shopping complex is continuous motion thereby necessitating the need for a closed mall form. food court and cinemas. culture and leisure to form a harmonious whole. Circulation Circulation is meant to serve the following purposes: Ease of accessibility Ease of flow Economy and convenience Circulation of around the complex has been devised to be simple as possible by utilizing linear circulation around the complex. exhibitions and it has a great view of the Lagos lagoon. 6. 46 . Layout The layout was planned with regard to the shape of the site which seems a bit triangular and other environmental factors. The location of the magnets also reinforces the communal concept of the composition. The landscaped park is for outdoor activities like festivals.
CHAPTER 7.1 Seven 7. Conceptual analysis 47 .0 Conceptual Design Layout Planning Concept The layout on site of the Oworonshoki shopping center is respect to the shape of the site and the accessibility by cars and pedestrians. The major hub which is the mall is made up of a fusion of a modern mall with cinemas and food courts with traditional market. The main recreation space-the landscaped park has an orientation to benefit the panorama of the Lagos lagoon and allow for good lagoon breeze to flow into the site. Also taken into consideration are the panoramic view of the Lagoon and environmental conditions like the orientation of the sun.
Site plan 48 .
Ground Floor Plan First Floor Plan 49 .
Approach elevation Side elevation Side elevation 50 .
Perspective view Perspective view 51 .
cinemas. By this.CHAPTER 8. fish market. 52 .1 EIGHT 8.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion The shopping center design has provision for anchor shops. landscaped greenery and parking spaces. the center would function effectively as a commercial centre and an entertainment and communal center were cultural ceremonies can be arranged. retail shops.
£2million improvement plan revealed to give facelift to Mersey way shopping mall k. Lindfield NSW 2070---. Stockport Express Dadeland Mall.REFERENCES Stockport Express ---------------------. Bury-------------------Planning & Design Framework International Council of Shopping Centers -------Shopping Center Definitions for the U.Shopping Mall workshop analysis. FL---------------------------.Long-term development plan for shopping centre Daylight. UK Architectural Records--------------------------21st century Shopping Mall.Forum Shopping Centre. Manchester Evening News Nottingham city centre design guide--------.Report on Shopping Centre Design 10 Shopping Centers Scheduled For Allied Stores Within 3 Years 53 .S.Mersey view plan for shoppers. Artificial Lighting Concept---------. Duisburg Mill Gate Shopping Centre. Miami. London. Nottingham city. Information accurate as of 2004 Newlands Shopping Centre-----------------How do you want your local centre to change? Manchester Evening News -----------------. Pacific Highway. Ingham Planning Lyndhurst.