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August 2010

Master of Science in Information Technology (MScIT-NEW) – Semester 4


MT0051 –: Internetworking with TCP / IP–2 Credits
(Book ID: B0217)
Assignment Set – 2 (30 Marks)

[Book ID: B0217] Answer All the Questions

1. What is HTTP? Explain the Operation? [10 Marks]


The Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the client-server network protocol that has been in use by
the World-Wide Web since 1990. Whenever you surf the web, your browser will be sending
HTTP request messages for HTML pages, images, scripts and styles sheets. Web servers handle these
requests by returning response messages that contain the requested resource.

The HTTP protocol is a request/response protocol. A client sends a request to the server in the form
of a request method, URI, and protocol version, followed by a MIME-like message containing request
modifiers, client information, and possible body content over a connection with a server. The server
responds with a status line, including the message's protocol version and a success or error code,
followed by a MIME-like message containing server information, entity metainformation, and possible
entity-body content. The relationship between HTTP and MIME is described in
Most HTTP communication is initiated by a user agent and consists of a request to be applied to a
resource on some origin server. In the simplest case, this may be accomplished via a single
connection (v) between the user agent (UA) and the origin server (O).
request chain ------------------------>
UA -------------------v------------------- O
<----------------------- response chain
A more complicated situation occurs when one or more intermediaries are present in the
request/response chain. There are three common forms of intermediary: proxy, gateway, and tunnel.
A proxy is a forwarding agent, receiving requests for a URI in its absolute form, rewriting all or part of
the message, and forwarding the reformatted request toward the server identified by the URI. A
gateway is a receiving agent, acting as a layer above some other server(s) and, if necessary,
translating the requests to the underlying server's protocol. A tunnel acts as a relay point between
two connections without changing the messages; tunnels are used when the communication needs
to pass through an intermediary (such as a firewall) even when the intermediary cannot understand
the contents of the messages.
request chain -------------------------------------->
UA -----v----- A -----v----- B -----v----- C -----v----- O
<------------------------------------- response chain
The figure above shows three intermediaries (A, B, and C) between the user agent and origin server.
A request or response message that travels the whole chain will pass through four separate
connections. This distinction is important because some HTTP communication options
may apply only to the connection with the nearest, non-tunnel neighbor, only to the end-points of the
chain, or to all connections along the chain. Although the diagram is linear, each participant may be
engaged in multiple, simultaneous communications. For example, B may be receiving requests from
many clients other than A, and/or forwarding requests to servers other than C, at the same time that
it is handling A's request.
Any party to the communication which is not acting as a tunnel may employ an internal cache for
handling requests. The effect of a cache is that the request/response chain is shortened if one of the
participants along the chain has a cached response applicable to that request. The following
illustrates the resulting chain if B has a cached copy of an earlier response from O (via C) for a
request which has not been cached by UA or A.
request chain ---------->
UA -----v----- A -----v----- B - - - - - - C - - - - - - O
<--------- response chain
Not all responses are usefully cacheable, and some requests may contain modifiers which place
special requirements on cache behavior. HTTP requirements for cache behavior and cacheable
responses are defined in
In fact, there are a wide variety of architectures and configurations of caches and proxies currently
being experimented with or deployed across the World Wide Web. These systems include national
hierarchies of proxy caches to save transoceanic bandwidth, systems those broadcast or multicast
cache entries, organizations that distribute subsets of cached data via CD-ROM, and so on. HTTP
systems are used in corporate intranets over high-bandwidth links, and for access via PDAs with low-
power radio links and intermittent connectivity. The goal of HTTP/1.1 is to support the wide diversity
of configurations already deployed while introducing protocol constructs that meet the needs of
those who build web applications that require high reliability and, failing that, at least reliable
indications of failure.
HTTP communication usually takes place over TCP/IP connections. The default port is TCP 80 [19],
but other ports can be used. This does not preclude HTTP from being implemented on top of any
other protocol on the Internet, or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any
protocol that provides such guarantees can be used; the mapping of the HTTP/1.1 request and
response structures onto the transport data units of the protocol in question is outside the scope of
this specification.

2. Explain the difference between FTP and TFTP [10 Marks]

• FTP is a complete, session-oriented, general purpose file transfer protocol. TFTP is used as a
bare-bones special purpose file transfer protocol.
• FTP can be used interactively. TFTP allows only unidirectional transfer of files.
• FTP depends on TCP, is connection oriented, and provides reliable control. TFTP depends on UDP,
requires less overhead, and provides virtually no control.
• FTP provides user authentication. TFTP does not.
• FTP uses well-known TCP port numbers: 20 for data and 21 for connection dialog. TFTP uses UDP
port number 69 for its file transfer activity.
• The Windows NT FTP server service does not support TFTP because TFTP does not support
authentication.
• Windows 95 and TCP/IP-32 for Windows for Workgroups do not include a TFTP client program.

3. Explain the following

a) Packet filtering firewall

On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface
based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols. The process is used in conjunction
with packet mangling and Network Address Translation (NAT). Packet filtering is often part of
a firewall program for protecting a local network from unwanted intrusion.
In a software firewall, packet filtering is done by a program called a packet filter. The packet filter
examines the header of each packet based on a specific set of rules, and on that basis, decides to
prevent it from passing (called DROP) or allow it to pass (called ACCEPT).
There are three ways in which a packet filter can be configured, once the set of filtering rules has
been defined. In the first method, the filter accepts only those packets that it is certain are safe,
dropping all others. This is the most secure mode, but it can cause inconvenience if legitimate
packets are inadvertently dropped. In the second method, the filter drops only the packets that it is
certain are unsafe, accepting all others. This mode is the least secure, but are causes less
inconvenience, particularly in casual Web browsing. In the third method, if the filter encounters a
packet for which its rules do not provide instructions, that packet can be quarantined or the user can
be specifically queried concerning what should be done with it. This can be inconvenient if it causes
numerous dialog boxes to appear, for example, during Web browsing.

b) Dual homed gateway firewall

The dual-homed gateway is a better alternative to packet filtering router firewalls. It consists of a
host system with two network interfaces, and with the host's IP forwarding capability disabled (i.e.,
the default condition is that the host can no longer route packets between the two connected
networks). In addition, a packet filtering router can be placed at the Internet connection to provide
additional protection. This would create an inner, screened subnet that could be used for locating
specialized systems such as information servers and modem pools.
Unlike the packet filtering firewall, the dual-homed gateway is a complete block to IP traffic between
the Internet and protected site. Services and access is provided by proxy servers on the gateway. It
is a simple firewall, yet very secure.

This type of firewall implements the second design policy, i.e., deny all services unless they are
specifically permitted, since no services pass except those for which proxies exist. The ability of the
host to accept source-routed packets would be disabled, so that no other packets could be passed by
the host to the protected subnet. It can be used to achieve a high degree of privacy since routes to
the protected subnet need to be known only to the firewall and not to Internet systems (because
Internet systems cannot route packets directly to the protected systems). The names and IP
addresses of site systems would be hidden from Internet systems, because the firewall would not
pass DNS information.
A simple setup for a dual-homed gateway would be to provide proxy services for TELNET and FTP,
and centralized e-mail service in which the firewall would accept all site mail and then forward it to
site systems. Because it uses a host system, the firewall can house software to require users to use
authentication tokens or other advanced authentication measures. The firewall can also log access
and log attempts or probes to the system that might indicate intruder activity.
The dual-homed gateway firewall, as well as the screened subnet firewall mentioned later in this
chapter, provides the ability to segregate traffic concerned with an information server from other
traffic to and from the site. An information server could be located on the subnet between the
gateway and the router, as shown in figure . Assuming that the gateway provides the

appropriate proxy services for the information server (e.g., ftp, gopher, or http), the router can
prevent direct Internet access to the firewall and force access to go through the firewall. If direct
access is permitted to the server (which is the less secure alternative), then the server's name and IP
address can be advertised by DNS. Locating the information server there also adds to the security of
the site, as any intruder penetration of the information server would still be prevented from reaching
site systems by the dual-homed gateway.
The inflexibility of the dual-homed gateway could be a disadvantage to some sites. Since all services
are blocked except those for which proxies exist, access to other services cannot be opened up;
systems that require the access would need to be placed on the Internet side of the gateway.
However, a router could be used as shown in figure to create a subnet between the gateway and the
router, and the systems that require extra services could be located there
Another important consideration is that the security of the host system used for the firewall must be
very secure, as the use of any vulnerable services or techniques on the host could lead to break-ins.
If the firewall is compromised, an intruder could potentially subvert the firewall and perform some
activity such as to re-enable IP routing.

c) Screened host firewall

The screened host firewall (fig. ) is a more flexible firewall than the dual-homed gateway

firewall, however the flexibility is achieved with some cost to security. The screened host firewall is
often appropriate for sites that need more flexibility than that provided by the dual-homed gateway
firewall.
The screened host firewall combines a packet-filtering router with an application gateway located on
the protected subnet side of the router. The application gateway needs only one network

interface. The application gateway's proxy services would pass TELNET, FTP, and other services for
which proxies exist, to site systems. The router filters or screens inherently dangerous protocols from
reaching the application gateway and site systems. It rejects (or accepts) application traffic
according to the following rules:
• application traffic from Internet sites to the application gateway gets routed,
• all other traffic from Internet sites gets rejected, and
• the router rejects any application traffic originating from the inside unless it came from the
application gateway.
Unlike the dual-homed gateway firewall, the application gateway needs only one network interface
and does not require a separate subnet between the application gateway and the router. This
permits the firewall to be made more flexible but perhaps less secure by permitting the router to
pass certain trusted services ``around'' the application gateway and directly to site systems. The
trusted services might be those for which proxy services don't exist, and might be trusted in the
sense that the risk of using the services has been considered and found acceptable. For example,
less-risky services such as NTP could be permitted to pass through the router to site systems. If the
site systems require DNS access to Internet systems, DNS could be permitted to site systems. In this
configuration, the firewall could implement a mixture of the two design policies, the proportions of
which depend on how many and what types of services are routed directly to site systems.
The additional flexibility of the screened host firewall is cause for two concerns. First, there are now
two systems, the router and the application gateway, that need to be configured carefully. As noted
before, packet filtering router rules can be complex to configure, difficult to test, and prone to
mistakes that lead to holes through the router. However, since the router needs to limit application
traffic only to the application gateway, the rule set may not be as complex as for a typical site using
a packet filtering firewall (which may restrict application traffic to multiple systems).
The second disadvantage is that the flexibility opens up the possibility that the policy can be violated
(as with the packet filtering firewall). This is less of a problem than with the dual-homed gateway
firewall, since it is technically impossible to pass traffic through the dual-homed gateway unless
there is a corresponding proxy service. Again, a strong policy is essential.
August 2010
Master of Science in Information Technology (MScIT-NEW) – Semester 4
MT0048 –: Client Server Architecture
–2 Credits
(Book ID: B0037)
Assignment Set – 2 (30 Marks)

1. Write a short notes on DCOM [05 Marks ]

DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model) is a set of Microsoft concepts and program interfaces in
which client program object s can request services from server program objects on other computers
in a network. DCOM is based on the Component Object Model (COM), which provides a set of
interfaces allowing clients and servers to communicate within the same computer For example, you
can create a page for a Web site that contains a script or program that can be processed (before
being sent to a requesting user) not on the Web site server but on another, more specialized server
in the network. Using DCOM interfaces, the Web server site program (now acting as a client object)
can forward a Remote Procedure Call ( RPC ) to the specialized server object, which provides the
necessary processing and returns the result to the Web server site. It passes the result on to the Web
page viewer.
DCOM can also work on a network within an enterprise or on other networks besides the public
Internet. It uses TCP/IP and Hypertext. DCOM comes as part of the Windows operating systems.
DCOM is or soon will be available on all major UNIX platforms and on IBM's large server products.
DCOM replaces OLE Remote Automation.DCOM is generally equivalent to the Common Object
Request Broker Architecture ( CORBA ) in terms of providing a set of distributed services. DCOM is
Microsoft's approach to a network-wide environment for program and data objects. CORBA is
sponsored by the rest of the information technology industry under the auspices of the Object
Management Group ( OMG ).

2. Explain briefly the following [10 Marks]


a) Static load balancing
Static load balancing algorithms allocate the tasks of a parallel program to workstations based on
either the load at the time nodes are allocated to some task, or based on an average load of our
workstation cluster. The advantage in this sort of algorithm is the simplicity in terms of both
implementation as well as overhead, since there is no need to constantly monitor the workstations
for performance statistics. However, static algorithms only work well when there is not much
variation in the load on the workstations . Clearly, static load balancing algorithms aren’t well suited
to a NOW environment, where loads may vary significantly at various times in the day, based on the
issues discussed earlier.

b) Dynamic load balancing


Dynamic load balancing algorithms make changes to the distribution of work among workstations at
run-time; they use current or recent load information when making distribution decisions [DAND97b].
As a result, dynamic load balancing algorithms can provide a significant improvement in performance
over static algorithms. However, this comes at the additional cost of collecting and maintaining load
information, so it is important to keep these overheads within reasonable limits [DAND97b]. The
remainder of this report will focus on such dynamic load balancing algorithms.

1. Write a short notes on object adapters [05 Marks]


Object Adapters
Using CORBA-based services is rather simple and straightforward: After receiving and translating the
IDL file into the target language, all that is needed is an object reference. Henceforth, methods on
the remote object can be called through the stub object as if they were local.
More thought must be spent on the server-side, where servants are to be provided. Even after
registering the actual program code with the ORB - for example by passing C++ objects - the
programmer will usually want to have a certain control over ORB processing, such as when a method
may be executed. Missing control on the server side is also a frequent complaint about RPC (see
where a server is simply expected to run in perpetuity, not having any control over the execution of
incoming requests.
The OMG concluded that an implementation's requirements are highly dependent on the operating
system, programming language, and environment. For the sake of an example, the needs of a server
representing an object database would be very different from a server providing a printing service.
In order to allow for different possibilities, the handling of actual user code, servants, is decoupled
from normal ORB processing by the introduction of object adapters. An object adapter serves as
mediator between the ORB and the servant, providing the ORB with a consistent interface for
interacting with user code, and being flexible in cooperating with the servant. Different object
adapters could then be provided to suit the various server requirements, and an implementation
could choose between them and select the most appropriate.
Figure 4.1: Server-side view of the ORB
an object adapter receives a client's request and translates it into a request that is understood by the
``adaptee,'' the servant. This description matches that of a CORBA object adapter [57] quite well.
The basic task of an object adapter is a simple one of dispatching an incoming request to user code,
the servant.
When an invocation is made, the client-side ORB is responsible for interpreting the object's profiles,
for locating the server in which the object is implemented, and for sending a request to that server.
On the server side, the request is received by the ORB, where three steps of dispatching are
necessary:
1. The ORB must find the object adapter that the object is implemented in and pass the request
on to that object adapter.
2. The object adapter must find the servant that implements the object.
3. If the servant uses a static skeleton, the request is unpacked by the IDL-generated code and
the desired method is invoked.
But before any of this can happen, the object adapter must first know about the servant. After
registering the servant with the object adapter, an implementation must be able to create and export
object references that address the servant. So besides merely performing invocations, the object
adapter must provide an administrative interface as well. The OMG lists the following white-paper
responsibilities [25] of an object adapter:
• registration of implementations
• mapping object references to the corresponding object implementations
• object and implementation activation and deactivation
• generation and interpretation of object references
• method invocation
• security of interactions
The first five items have already been mentioned; the security of interactions is only historical, as it is
not a server-side issue only. Security must be an integral part of ORB processing and is now
addressed by the Security Service [36] instead.
Figure 4.1 shows the object adapter in relation to the other server-side parts of an ORB. The object
adapter is sandwiched between the ORB core and the object implementation and has to provide
three interfaces: one to the ORB, which consists of a single method to receive an incoming request,
one to the user code to pass this request to, either using the Dynamic or Static Skeleton Interface,
and one administrative interface through which an implementation can cause objects to be activated
or deactivated, and can influence the processing of requests.
The most simple object adapter would be no more than a table that maps object keys (the server-
side part of an object reference) to servants. Upon invocation, only a single table lookup would be
necessary, and activation and deactivation of servants would cause insertions and deletions into that
table.
In fact, the Basic Object Adapter (BOA), the first and until recently only object adapter specified by
the OMG, is little more than that. As the name suggests, it does not provide much but basic
functionality, and it was envisioned that a range of further, more specific object adapters would be
added later on.
An object adapter has a certain impact on the programming style to be used, as each brings its own
concepts and enforces a concrete structure for servants that an implementation has to submit to.
Apart from the very generic description above, object adapters do not have a common behavior, but
have to be considered individually.

1. Write about exceptions and give the structure of system exception [10Marks ]

August 2010
Master of Science in Information Technology (MScIT-NEW) – Semester 4
MT0049 –: Voice over IP –2 Credits
(Book ID: B0532)
Assignment Set – 2 (30 Marks)

BKID: B0532

1. Describe briefly the CLASS features [05 Marks]


The following are the CLASS Features:

• Customer originated trace –enables the subscriber to dial a code after

• Automatic callback: used when the subscriber receives a busy signal.

• Automatic recall: Enables the subscriber to easily returns a missed call.

• Display features- requires a display telephone to display the calling name and calling number

• Calling number blocked: Enables the called party to hide identity when dialing subscriber who

have class display capabilities

• Calling Screening- Enables subscriber to accept reject or forward calls based on a list of

receive calling number

Briefly explain the typical operator Services [05 Marks]

Toll and assistance: assisting customer for long calls and provides all help and assistance

Directory assistance: DS are available by dialing a three digit national code or area

code .. and helping out in search telephone number based on listed in directory and then

transferring call as per the service needed

Billing Services: Operators intervention is still required for about 20 percent long calls or

distance calls etc..

Explain V2L [05 Marks]

V2L is simple services in that it enables internet user to place and receive phone calls thru their ISP

only when they are connected thru internet connections and all the benefits of ICW also exit for V2L .

for offer outbound traffic which can in turn create significant revenue stream s for the services

provider . and also for subscriber for long distance calling.

Explain OSI reference model in brief

Layer 7: Application layer


The Application layer provides a means for the user to access information on the network
through an application. This layer is the main interface for the user(s) to interact with the
application and therefore the network. Some examples of application layer protocols include Telnet,
applications which use File Transfer Protocol (FTP), applications which use Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP) and applications which use Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Applications built to
utilize a protocol, such as FTP, should not be confused with the protocols themselves, which often
reside at the session layer.

Layer 6: Presentation layer

The Presentation layer transforms data to provide a standard interface for the
Application layer. MIME encoding, data compression, data encryption and similar manipulation of
the presentation is done at this layer to present the data as a service or protocol developer sees fit.
Examples: converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file, or serializing objects and
other data structures into and out of, e.g., XML.

Layer 5: Session layer

The Session layer controls the dialogues/connections (sessions) between computers. It


establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote
application. It provides for either full-duplex or half-duplex operation, and establishes
checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer
responsible for "graceful close" of sessions, which is a property of TCP, and also for session
checkpointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet protocols suite.

Layer 4: Transport layer

The Transport layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, thus
relieving the upper layers from any concern while providing reliable data transfer. The
transport layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control,
segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state and connection oriented.
This means that the transport layer can keep track of the packets and retransmit those that fail. The
best known example of a layer 4 protocol is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The transport
layer is the layer that converts messages into TCP segments or User Datagram Protocol (UDP),
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP), etc. packets. Perhaps an easy way to visualize the
Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office, which deals with the dispatching and
classification of mail and parcels sent.

Layer 3: Network layer

I have seen lot's of people getting confused between What Transport and Network layer Do. Try to
remember in this way. They both are very tightly glued together. If Transport layer is a car than
Network layer is its internal parts which makes the car work. Network layer deals with all the complex
networking details but and Transport layer resides on it.
The Network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable
length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks while
maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport layer.The Network layer
performs network routing functions, and might also perform segmentation/desegmentation, and
report delivery errors. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network
and making the Internet possible (also existing at layer 3 (or IP) are routers). This is a logical
addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. The addressing scheme is
hierarchical. The best known example of a layer 3 protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). Perhaps it's
easier to visualize this layer as the actual Air Mail or Consolidated Carrier that transfers the mail from
Point A to Point B.

Layer 2: Data link layer

The Data Link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data
between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the
Physical layer. The best known example of this is Ethernet. Other examples of data link protocols
are HDLC and ADCCP for point-to-point or packet-switched networks and Aloha for local area
networks. On IEEE 802 local area networks, and some non-IEEE 802 networks such as FDDI, this layer
may be split into a Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC)
layer. It arranges bits from physical layer into logical chunks of data, known as frames.
This is the layer at which the bridges and switches operate. Connectivity is provided only
among locally attached network nodes forming layer 2 domains for unicast or broadcast forwarding.
Other protocols may be imposed on the data frames to create tunnels and logically separated layer 2
forwarding domain.

Layer 1: Physical layer

The Physical layer defines all the electrical and physical specifications for devices.This
includes the layout of pins, voltages, and cable specifications. Hubs, repeaters, network adapters and
Host Bus Adapters (HBAs used in Storage Area Networks) are physical-layer devices. The major
functions and services performed by the physical layer is the establishment and termination of a
connection to a communications medium.
Try to keep this image in your memory as sometimes an image can help you more in recalling than
reading so much content.

Second Question on OSI - What are the benifits of OSI model ? You can say a lot on this
without knowing anything. Some of the advantages of OSI is that it gives clear seperation and
functionality of a complete network. Each protocol and device can be understood in terms of its
corresponding layer. And ofcourse, being layered its easy to distinguish between various parts of
network and we can easily categorize them. Find some better point of yours as well Another
Question - Does every networking device need to have all the layers NO, A networking
device only need the layer and the subsequent below layers to work properly. CISCO ask this
question. Remember the Golden Equation - You will be exponentially harming your chances of not
getting selected by answering this whole OSI question poorly.

1. Explain Dial-Plan Design [05 Marks]

Dial Plan Design:

Is used widely in company: example

Company x currently has large PBx at its HQ and smaller PBX system at its remote site several

alternative are available to this company:

Requirements are

• Leased lined between HQ and remote sites

• Telephony virtual private network


• Data infrastructure and data card

It must face dial plans design network management and cost issues

• Plan for growth

• Cost of leased circuit

• And additional equipment for pocket voice

• Number overlap

• Call flows

• Busy hours

August 2010
Master of Science in Information Technology (MScIT-NEW) – Semester 4
MT0050 –: Management Information Systems –2 Credits
(Book ID: B0048 & B0049)
Assignment Set – 2 (30 Marks)

Each question carries five marks 6 x 5 = 30

Book ID: B0048


1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Prototyping?
What is prototyping? This is a fast process of making a model of the project. Prototypes test different
aspects of the model, the design, help gather feedback, and show ideas and features of the project.

There are two different forms of prototyping. The first form is paper form, sketches and pictures that
are non-working types. This type is used more often at the beginning of a project to give a general
idea of how the product is to look. Next, there is a working type. This usually uses computer screen,
which allows the visual images of the project. After the sketches and adjustments are made then the
computer visual are used to get the feel and look of the finished product. Finally, after meeting all
the standards; design goals, and manufacture regulations the prototype is ready for the start of
production.

Like everything else this has its advantages and disadvantages. Some advantages of prototyping are
that it allows a visual idea to help those funding the project. Gives the user and producer an idea of
the finished product, and they have a chance to comment on the project. This will help reduce cost
by identifying problems early in the process.

Disadvantages of prototyping are that there may be higher expectations from the user and producer,
and the chance of unfinished systems. Structure damages may occur because of the ability to
change and adjust the non-working and working models. Prototyping has had a steady increase in
business. In the 1980’s only about 30 percent of companies used prototyping. That doubled in the
1990’s when the total came to 60 percent and the percentage of companies using this process is
increasing every year.

2. Explain the major types of account books.

The major types of account books:

• Voucher: maintained the transaction for all cash flow


• Journal: maintained all the transaction records by entering the information of the vouchers and
in terms of computerized systems
• General Ledger: all the accounts are recorded and maintained individuals in a book called
GL.this is prepared by entering journal by a process called posting while in computerized
systems
• Cash Book: is type of ledger in which only cash flow transaction is recorded
• Bank book: only sales related transaction is recorded
• Sales book: only bank related is recorded
• Purchase Book: only purchase of goods related is recorded

• Debtors ledger: the transaction of all the debtor are recorded and maintained in debtors
ledger
• Creditors ledger: the transaction of all the Creditors are recorded and maintained in Creditors
ledger

1. Write a note on Geographical Information System (GIS).

Geographic information systems (GIS) or

geospatial information systems is a set of tools that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and

presents data that are linked to location(s). In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography,

statistical analysis, and database technology. GIS systems are used in cartography, remote
sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision

agriculture, photogrammetry, geography, urban planning, emergency

management, navigation, aerial video, and localized search engines.

As GIS can be thought of as a system, it digitally creates and "manipulates" spatial areas that may be

jurisdictional, purpose or application oriented for which a specific GIS is developed. Hence, a GIS

developed for an application, jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose may not be necessarily

interoperable or compatible with a GIS that has been developed for some other application,

jurisdiction, enterprise, or purpose. What goes beyond a GIS is a spatial data infrastructure (SDI), a

concept that has no such restrictive boundaries.

Book ID: B0049


2. What are the steps involved in building the process organization?

3. Explain the role of IT in BPR.

The MIS in the re-engineering organization would be more of a performance monitor


tools to start with and then control for the performance . the traditional MIS id
functional centered like finance production materials etc .The MIS in a re \engineering
organization would be process centered evaluation customer satisfaction expectations
and perception
• The Role MIS IN BPR
• Control of process cycle time
• Work group efficiency
• Customer Satisfaction index
• Process efficiency and effectiveness
• Effectiveness of the management in enterprise management and not in the
enterprise resource
• The strength of the organization in terms of knowledge learning and strategic
effectiveness

1. Write a note on XYZ consultancy division.

This division provides consultancy in the high tech field in the area of engineering. Electronics
communication and chemicals. The scope of consultancy id from the management to implementation
of the projects. And has organized its manpower b tab expertise group in the various fields. And
there is corporate group which probes into future to scan the business scenario to select the business
area for consultancy. Based on the group advices..
Once the group is formed it has within a hierarchy of consultancy tasks. And headed with scientist
engineer and other technologist and management expert. The group has a total responsibly of
marketing the consultancy services.. the level and the scope and the scope of the consultancy
demand is such that the group have to equip for any type of consultancy, this call upon the group to
undertake studies and research in many relayed field tp prepare for the client. Requirement.

Xyz consultancy division largely relies on the knowledge of the consultant and ensures that its
updates besides it provide the auxiliaries supports through a computer a library and team of
associates. And involved in selection and problem solving and a good managerial information
systems would add to the present strength of the organization

August 2010
Master of Science in Information Technology (MScIT-NEW) – Semester 4
MT0052 Java Beans [Servlets, JDBC, JSP, EJB]–4 Credits
(Book ID: B0556 & B0052)
Assignment Set – 2 (40 Marks)

Book ID: B0556

1. Write a short note on [10 Marks]

a) XML rules

XML Rules:

All XML elements must have a closing tag


In HTML some elements don’t have a closing tag
The following codes is legal
<p> paragraph
</P> paragraph closed

XML tags are case sensitive


Opening and closing tags must be written with the same letter

All XML must be property nested

In html some elements can be improperly nested within each other like this
<b><l>
</b> </>

All XML Documents must have a root tag

Must contain single tag pair to define the root element other elements must be nested
within the root elements all .Element can have sub elements and sub elements must be
inpair and correct nested within their parent elements

Attribute values must always be quotes


Elements can have attribute in name or values pairs just like in html.in xml the attribute
value must be always be quotes
All Elements Must have an Opening and Closing Tag

XML documents work as in hierarchical structure, what is often referred to as a tree structure What
opens must close; this means all opening tags must also have closing tags.

‹?xml version= “1.0”›


‹message›- root element
‹/message› - root element closing tag

Most web browsers will forgive the closing tag transgression in HTML. In XML, it is absolute. If you fail
to incorporate a closing tag into the structure of your XML, you will confuse the computer. The name
of the element in the closing tag must match the opening tag exactly.

‹MESSAGE›
‹message›
‹/messages›

XML sees all three of these tags differently. It will only recognize open and closing tags that match
precisely.

Once you understand these two key features, The Declaration and Root Element, you have the base
structure for an XML page.

b) JSP Documents

A JSP document is a JSP page written in XML syntax Because it is written in XML syntax, a JSP
document is also an XML document and therefore gives you all the benefits offered by the XML
standard:
• You can author a JSP document using one of the many XML-aware tools on the market, enabling
you to ensure that your JSP document is well-formed XML.
• You can validate the JSP document against a document type definition (DTD).
• You can nest and scope namespaces within a JSP document.
• You can use a JSP document for data interchange between web applications and as part of a
compile-time XML pipeline.
In addition to these benefits, the XML syntax gives the JSP page author less complexity and more
flexibility. For example, a page author can use any XML document as a JSP document. Also, elements
in XML syntax can be used in JSP pages written in standard syntax, allowing a gradual transition from
JSP pages to JSP documents.

Chek pdf sved

1. Explain the following [10 Marks]


a) Session Beans

A session bean represents a single client inside the J2EE server. To access an application that is
deployed on the server, the client invokes the session bean's methods. The session bean performs
work for its client, shielding the client from complexity by executing business tasks inside the server.
As its name suggests, a session bean is similar to an interactive session. A session bean is not
shared--it may have just one client, in the same way that an interactive session may have just one
user. Like an interactive session, a session bean is not persistent. (That is, its data is not saved to a
database.) When the client terminates, its session bean appears to terminate and is no longer
associated with the client.

b) Entity Beans

An entity bean represents a business object in a persistent storage mechanism. Some examples of
business objects are customers, orders, and products. In the J2EE SDK, the persistent storage
mechanism is a relational database. Typically, each entity bean has an underlying table in a
relational database, and each instance of the bean corresponds to a row in that table. For code
examples of entity beans

Book ID: B0052

3. What is an XML namespace? Explain the ways of declaring name spaces [10 Marks]

XML namespaces is collection of names can be used in as elements of an attribute names in an

xml documents .The namespace qualifies elements uniquely on th web in order to avoid conflicts

betn with the same name . and so on and An XML instance may contain element or attribute names

from more than one XML vocabulary. If each vocabulary is given a namespace then the ambiguity

between identically named elements or attributes can be resolved.

A simple example would be to consider an XML instance that contained references to a customer and

an ordered product. Both the customer element and the product element could have a child element

named id. References to the id element would therefore be ambiguous; placing them in different

namespaces would remove the ambiguity.

b)

Declaring names spaces

1) Default Declarations :the default declaration a namespace for all the elements within scope

example

<BOOK xmls=”urn:BookLovers.org:Bookinfo”>

<tittle></tittle>

</BOOK>

Where Book is an element

Title: namespaces

2)Explicits Declaration: An explicit Declaration defines a shorthand or prefix to subtitle for the

full name of a namespace . is to reference a node froma namespace separate from your

default namespace.

Example
<bk:BOOKxmlns:bk=”urs:BookLovers.org:Bookinfo” xmlnx:money=”yrs :Fincance:Money”>

<bk:tittle> A suitable boy </bk:tittle>

</bk:BOOK>

4. Explain minOccurs and maxOccurs [05 Marks]

The minOccurs and maxOccurs attributes specify how many times an elements can appear within
another elements.

The maxOccurs attribute is a consutany rule specifying the max mumber of times that a sub
elements may appear valid values for maxOccurs included integer and “*”, which indicates that
unrestricted numbers of elements may appear . the default value for maxOccurs is “1”, however ,
when cantnt-“mixed”, the default is “*” similarly for minOccurs for example to make sub elemts
options set minOccurs to “0”, the default value is 1.

5. Explain Wildcard character with an example [05 Marks]

wildcard character is a special character that represents one or more other characters. The most
commonly used wildcard characters are the asterisk (*), which typically represents zero or more
characters in a string of characters, and the question mark (?), which typically represents any one
character. For example, in searching:
run*

would mean "any word that starts with 'run' and has any kind of ending." If you entered "run*" at a
search engine that offered a wildcard character capability, you would get results for run, runs,
running, runner, runners - in short, any possible word that might begin with the three letters.
Wildcard characters are used in regular expressions (a form of programming in which input data is
modified based on specified patterns) and in searching through file directories for similar file names
(for example, if all the work files on a project start with the characters "P5," you could easily locate
all the project files by simply searching for "P5*").
A wildcard character is a type of meta character . In various games of playing cards, a wild card is a
designated card in the deck of cards (for example, the two of spades) that can be used as though it
were any possible card.

Wildcard Characters
You can use wildcard characters to search any columns that can be treated as text strings. Columns
with the data type character can always be treated as text strings; those with the datetime data type
can be treated as text strings.
To search for patterns, use the LIKE operator, and then substitute wildcard characters for one or
more characters in the search string. You can use either of the following wildcard characters:

WILDCARD MEANING
CHARACTER
% (percent symbol) Zero or more characters in that
position
_ (underscore) One character at that position

For example, to search for all names beginning with "Mac," you could specify the search

condition LIKE 'Mac%'. To find names such as "Jan," "Jen," and "Jon," you could specify the search

condition LIKE 'J_n'.


Searching for Characters Used as Wildcard Characters

In some cases, you might need to search for a string that contains one of the characters used as a

wildcard character. For example, in a titles table you might want to find all the publications that

contain the string "10%" as part of the title. Because "%" is part of the string you are searching for,

you must specify that you mean it as a literal string and not a wildcard character.

To search for characters that can be interpreted as wildcard characters, you can specify an escape
character. Place the escape character immediately in front of the "%" or "_" character that you mean
literally. To specify the escape character, include an ESCAPE clause immediately after the LIKE
search criterion. You can do this in either the Criteria column of the Grid pane or in the SQL pane.