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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

One of the challenges that urban city facing now is the growing population as

well as the growing consumption of the community. Most of the time the implication is

neglected which is the growing consumption of the people will result to abundance waste

disposal. From the collection of biodegradable waste in each household entailed the

question where can this waste be dump? Since the space is one of the problems, the

researcher is looking for the efficient way to minimize the space for the dump site for

biodegradable waste.
With the alarming growth of waste disposal and setting up enough space would

be tough especially if the space of the community is populated enough. It also disturbed

the environmental ambiance of the community near the landfill area. Since Cagayan de

Oro city is one of the developing cities in the Philippine, managing its waste should

achieve an environmental and economical approach so that the garbage can also useful.
Many factors also affects from the growing waste collection in the community

such as contamination, odorous air, migrations of scavengers and other nuisance and

harmful elements(G. Tchobanoglous, 2003). Which is why the landfill has been relocated

since the old landfill area was already full of garbage. The transfer of the new landfill

was part of the maintenance of the waste management officials since the old landfill area

was polluted enough that it affects the health and environment of the community. What if

this collection of materials would be converted into useful energy? Since most of these
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materials will be stock on the landfill without any innovative use? By converting

biodegradable waste into energy, the materials would not go to waste and many benefits

will be given to the community when the project will be implemented.


In order to create a sustainable and effective way to manage waste materials the

researcher will conduct a feasibility study about the design of a landfill facility for biogas

production in the new landfill area and estimate the cost of the project.The researcher

will create a possible structure for the biogas production, estimate the possible cost and

the present economic comparison for the project at Pagalungan, New Landfill, Cagayan

de Oro city.
Waste materials collection in the landfill is composed of different materials so the

researcher will also consider the waste segregation before the waste materials to be

transfer at the biogas production facility. Biogas generation recovers waste materials that

would otherwise pollute landfills; prevents the use of toxic chemicals in sewage

treatment plants, and saves money, energy, and material by treating waste on-site.
Typically biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown

of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials

such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste

or food waste. Biogas could be produced from two main sources such as landfills and

digesters chambers (Dada and Mbohwa, 2017).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study aims to answer the following questions:


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1. What is the volume of biodegradable waste collected at landfill area in Brgy.

Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro city?

2. Is there sufficient space available at site to construct the entire biogas facilities

needed for the production?

3. What is the estimated cost of the biogas facilities?

4. How much is the production rate of biogas out of the waste collected?

1.3 Objectives

The study aims:

1. To determine the value of biodegradable waste collected at Landfill Area in

Brgy. Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro city.

2. To design a biogas production facility..

3. To establish cost estimate in the design and construction of biogas facilities.

4. To provide economic analysis of biogas production.


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1.4 Significance of the Study

By making an alternative source of energy for the consumption of the community

will helps the community in Cagayan de Oro city, which is maximizing the use of any

bio-organic waste materials collection in the community. The researchers are admonished

to bring out the research in biogas to locally establish the feasibility, application, and

adaptation of this technology and help improve the quality of energy supply in Cagayan

de Oro City.

The study will be a profitable investment as well as improve the management in

garbage disposal in the landfill. The study will make an available employment for the

citizen near landfill area of Cagayan de Oro city.

1.5 Conceptual Framework

Input Result
Output
Site Investigation/
Data Evaluation of
Analysis and design and its
Bio organic Design function
materials
Collections Data Design and Evaluation of
Formula the design Cost
Topographic Sketch
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Figure 1.1 : Conceptual framework of the project study.

1.6 Scope and the Limitation

The project study will only focus on the design of the facilities enough to

accommodate the whole Cagayan de Oro City waste disposal. The project study will only

be about the structure for the storage of biodegradable material in the landfill and as well

as the pipe lines to be use.

The researcher only focuses in producing biogas with the use of biodegradable

materials from sanitary landfill which had been separated after 5 years; this also includes

organic waste from other industrial plants. The machinery that will be used to convert

biogas into energy and fuel will be the part of mechanical professionals. Since the space

is one of the problems, the researcher is looking for the efficient way to minimize the

space for the dump site for biodegradable waste.

In addition, given with the allowable time limit for this research and due to the

quantitative methodology to be use, the researchers will not fully explore issues such as
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the soil properties, rock characteristics and the effects of the soil to the foundation of the

design at Barangay Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro City. Create a detailed program of

works for the proposed project and the function of the biogas production in landfill that

will make the operation run smoothly.

Conducting economic analysis of biogas production.in Cagayan de Oro to know

the possibilities before implementing a project since capitalizing in a certain project is

part of business. As a result for the analysis the researcher will recommend things for the

improvement of the project study.

1.7 Terms and Definition

Methane. Methane (or biogas) is an odorless and colorless gas that is flammable and

potentially at concentrations between five percent and 15 percent in air, when in the

presence of oxygen and an ignition source.

Landfill. Serves as a managed, engineered facility in or on the land where solid

waste dumped.

Sanitary Landfill. Designed to prevent the spread of pollution, fires, and disease that

were prevalent in old waste dumps.

Anaerobic digestion. It is a series of biological processes in which microorganisms

break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

Cogeneration. Also known as combined heat and power or CHP (combined heat and

power) projects use LFG (Landfill Gas) to generate both electricity and thermal
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energy, usually in the form of steam or hot water.

Biodegradable Material. It is any organic material that can be broken down by

microorganisms into simpler, more stable com-pounds. Most organic wastes (e.g.,

food, paper) are biodegradable.

Collection. the process of picking up wastes from residences, businesses, or a

collection point, loading them into a vehicle, and transporting them to a processing,

transfer, or disposal site.

Compactor Vehicle. It is a collection vehicle using high-power mechanical or

hydraulic equipment to reduce the volume of solid waste.

Compost. It is a material resulting from composting and also called humus, it is a

soil

conditioner and in some instances is used as a fertilizer.

Disposal. The final handling of solid waste, following collection, processing, or

incineration or disposal most often means placement of wastes in a dump or a

landfill.

Energy Recovery. The process of extracting useful energy from waste, typically

from the heat Prod.

Flaring. The burning of methane emitted from collection pipes at a landfill.

Hazardous Waste. A waste that is reactive, toxic, corrosive, or otherwise dangerous

to living things and/or the environment.

Inorganic Waste. Waste composed of material other than plant or animal matter,

such as sand, dust, glass, and many synthetics.


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Landfill Gases. Gases arising from the decomposition of organic wastes; principally

methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Such gases may cause explosions at

landfill.

Landfilling. The final disposal of solid waste by placing it in a controlled fashion in

a place intended to be permanent. The Source Book uses this term for both controlled

dumps and sanitary landfills.

Leachate. Liquid that has seeped through a landfill or a compost pile and has

accumulated bacteria and other possibly harmful dissolved or suspended materials. If

uncontrolled, leachate can contaminate both groundwater and surface water.

Open dump. An unplanned "landfill" that incorporates few if any of the

characteristics of a controlled landfill.

Pyrolysis. Chemical decomposition of a substance by heat in the absence of oxygen,

resulting in various hydrocarbon gases and carbon-like residue.

Refuse. A term often used interchangeably with solid waste.

Scrubber. Emission control device in an incinerator, used primarily to control acid

gases, but also to remove some heavy metals.

Waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. A facility that uses solid waste materials (processed

or raw) to produce energy. WTE plants include incinerators that produce steam for

district heating or industrial use, or that generate electricity; they also include

facilities that convert landfill gas to electricity.

Waste reduction. Reducing the amount of waste that is produced initially and that

must be collected by solid waste authorities. This ranges from legislation and product
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design to local programs designed to keep recyclables and compostable out of the

final waste stream.

Boiler. A device used to absorb the heat released during the combustion process of

burning waste. This combustion produces steam that can be sold or converted into

electrical power.

Capping. This is the process of placing the final cover material on the landfill.

Solid Waste. regular garbage from non-industrial sources, such as residential homes,

restaurants, retail centers, and office buildings. Typical MSW includes paper,

discarded food items, and other general discards. Green waste is considered MSW

and includes yard clippings, leaves, trees, etc.

Sump. The lowest area of a landfill into which leachate drains.

Turbine Generator. Device that converts the heat energy of the steam from the

boiler into electrical power.

Aeration. The process of exposing bulk material, like compost to air. Forced

aeration refers to the use of blowers in compost piles.

Aerobic Decomposition. The first of the typical decomposition phases that occur in

landfilled wastes. Refers to decomposition that takes place in the presence of oxygen.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is generated and oxygen is consumed. Agricultural

Waste: Farming wastes, including runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers;

erosion and dust from ploughing; improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses;

crop residues, and debris.

Covering. Spreading of a layer of other material on the top of the masses of waste in
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order to reduce undesired impacts on the environment. Daily covering is used to

cover each lift or layer at the end of each working day to limit odours, windblown

litter, insect or rodent infestation, and water ingress.

Digestion. The biochemical decomposition of organic matter of MSW, resulting in its

partial glasification, liquefaction, and mineralisation.

Efficiency. A service is efficient if the available resources are used in the best

possible way.

Filtration. Separation from a fluid of suspended particles or flocks.

Fermentation. Chemical reactions carried out by living microbes that are supplied

with nutrients in the presence of heat, pressure, and light. The result of these reaction

is usually methane, carbon dioxide and water.

Gas Control and Recovery System. A series of vertical wells or horizontal trenches

containing permeable materials and perforated piping. The systems are designed to

collect landfill gases for treatment or for use as an energy source.

Landfill Gas Management. The active and complete involvement in all issues of

landfill gas, including: extraction, monitoring, disposal and reporting to regulators.

Odour Control. The use of equipment such as activated carbon filters, odour-

attenuating cover materials, and gas flaring to reduce or eliminate odorous gases

emanating from decomposing wastes.

Oxidation. The reaction with oxygen which breaks down organic waste or chemicals

such as cyanides, phenols, and organic sulphur compounds in municipal wastewater

(sewage) by bacterial and chemical means.


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Residuals. Unintended outputs of production processes. These include municipal

solid waste and wastewater.

Residue. The materials remaining after processing, incineration, composting or

recycling of MSW. Residues are usually disposed of in landfills.

Resource Recovery. The process of obtaining matter or energy from MSW.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

Energy is one of the essential element used in a community which is produced by

burning the fuel to produce certain amount of energy. Most fuels are natural

substances ,diesel and natural gas. The availability of energy depends on the community

wherein the global population is rapidly increasing as the demand for consumption of

energy also increases to the point where the supply is continuously declining due to the

depletion of energy sources from the complexities of the environment.

Due to the high demand of fuel by the growing population this made marginal

returns to the community that led researchers are be drawn to extraction of more
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innovative energy sources and developing new advancements towards producing a

sustainable alternative fuel that will allow renewable resources to be used as the main

component that is unlimited with supply so that it will be very available to everyone who

are in great need.

In the Philippines the power outage is practically one of the main problem

especially in the rural areas because of it’s vulnerability and availability in which other

people couldn’t afford especially for small-scale operated family unit. Even for

developing countries the supply for these energies may be difficult enough due to

availability of these natural sources.

One of the new advancement towards certain collection of energies from

renewable resources is by producing bio gas fuel from waste organic material found in

landfills or dump site. The bio gas is produced by mixing different gasses from the

organic matter in the process of breaking down organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

The raw materials such as waste, manure,agricultural,plant material,sewage and green

waste was used and combined with certain amount of gasses to form a renewable energy

source.

Through that process it eliminates the capacity of landfill towards segregation

process by producing new energy form either electricity or fuel. This certain project had

been done by many developed countries and had been proven with substantial amount of

results with economical and community improvements.

The researchers had taken this relevant research into consideration to be applied

locally in the Philippines more specifically in cagayan de oro where there is a need for
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action for the landfill to be segregated accordingly with an alternative way of producing

fuel energy for the community involving economical and ecological solutions where it

shall adapt to local conditions in accordance with the process , the sources and the

equipments to be used weather it will be substantially economical and feasible enough to

improve the quality of energy in cagayan de oro.

This study will show the structure of the bio gas facility specifically the different

types of the bio gas tank that will be effective and economical in accordance with the

specifications of land area at barangay Pagalungan which is the new landfill area in

cagayan de oro where the bio gas facility is proposed to be built. This research study

shows how different types of bio gas tank will be available and will be sufficient enough

for the overall construction to the production of this renewable energy.

2.2 Landfill

According to Mr. Edwin Dael (CLENRO Head), the city government will totally

closed the Landfill in Zayas on April 2017. The new landfill in Barangay Pagalungan

will replace Zayas landfill. The new 25-hectare landfill designed sanitary landfill in

Barangay Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro will open in June 2017, according to an official

of the Cagayan de Oro City Local Environment and Natural Resources Office

(CLENRO).
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Figure 2.1: Site location from Zayas Landfill to Pagalungan Landfill

2.3 Biodegradable Waste


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Landfill waste usually originates from different spheres of life. These were a

result from human activities either domestically or industrially. the main sources that

this bio gas came is from digester chambers and landfills wherein it is very important to

recycle waste materials that end up in landfills because they may be the vital component

used in converting these biodegradable materials to bio gas ,this was because it contains

high concentration of hydrogen and carbon which are from domestic and agricultural

locations. The bio gas will be process to convert it’s gas to bio methane and bio methane

utilization(O.Dada,2018)

2.4 Biogas

Bio gas has been widely used in the European countries by making use of the

renewable energy fuel for heating and gas engine which can also be used as gas and

electricity. Bio gas is composed primarily of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)

and an ample amount of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) silozanes and moisture.

Methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen can oxidized or combustive with oxygen .

The process is called anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms and

methanogen to produce bio gas, wherein it dissolve materials in a closed system , this

process is called fermentation.

2.4.1 Methane Generation Potential


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Recent studies in North Carolina State University showed results for the recovery

of methane from anaerobic digestion of the organic materials that were degradable in a

well suited and well-controlled landfills with a system of utilization wherein aerobic

processes are superior in combination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to yield total

energy to form the bio gas.

Landfill gas is generally produced through natural process of bacterial

decomposition of degradable materials contained in landfills. There are numerous of

factors which influence the quantity of landfill gas in generating the bio gas from it’s

composition. One of the most important factor is the type of organic compounds in the

organic material found in waste wherein it contributes to the methane generation.

Organic materials are commonly comprises of wastes such as food,paper,yard and

sewerage. These composition generates the methane which is the main component for the

bio gas mixture.

Currently, there are a lot of innovation for these kinds of projects due to it’s

advantages through economic and ecological concerns in the location. Technologies are

commonly take it’s stand towards improvement to have a more efficient and economical

production of bio gas through aerobic composting .(Barlaz, 2010)

2.5 Bio gas Plants


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Statistic Portal stated that a statistics was made on the year 2014 wherein leading

countries based on production of bio gas displays the production of China to 15 billion

cubic meters while 8.48 billion cubic meters in the United States on the said year of

productivity.

Northern European countries such as Finland and Norway developed biogas-

fueled power plants and vehicles are continually growing its varieties towards renewable

energies. Biogas is one of the renewable energy they used until now, since Norway is

98% of electricity generated it from hydroelectric power plants, is going to have its

buses in the capital city of Oslo operated in biogas from garbage to fuel. The concept of

Oslo builds up 1/3 of the city’s buses are already fueled by sewage-derived biogas, and

to produce biogas energy within equivalent of 4 million liters of diesel fuel each year (N.

Brown, 2012).

Germany had also taken it’s step towards biogas energy economy accounts for

roughly one quarter of the total global installed capacity. Analysts expected this trend to

continue. Germany contributes as on of the largest share to the world’s incrementally

installed capacity in 2011. In the United Kingdom it was estimated to to replace around

17% of vehicle fuel. It qualified for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the

world (D. Stephan, 2013).

In india Biogas Production is equivalent to 5% of the total LPG consumption. In

response to the production of biogas about 20,757 lakh cubic meters in 2014-2015 and

within Maharashtra tops the production with 3578 lakh cubic meters while Andhra

Pradesh comes next with 2165 lakh cubic meters. The benefits of this biogas is that it
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provides clean gaseous fuel for cooking and lighting, Chemical fertilizers is obtained

from biogas plants and can be used as enriched bio-manure, and it is also good for the

climate and sanitation problems since toilets are directly linked with biogas plants (S.

Abhishek, 2015).

2.6 Biogas Production

According to International Energy Agency (IEA) Biogas energy is a working

group wherein it covers the biological treatment of the organic portion of municipal solid

waste. Reports had stated about the biogas market in the neighboring countries.

The collection of these biodegradable waste composed only of

papers,leaves,fruits,vegestables,left over foods and etc.Decayed biodegradable waste

extracting oxygen from it are used to produce fuel for household consumption.

Biomass which contains carbohydrates, fats, proteins, cellulose and hemicelluloses,

wherein it can also use feed stock to produce biogas. Currently, there are innovations

which adds substrates to increase the organic content of the production to achieve a

higher gas yield. Typical co-substrates also include organic wastes from

agricultural,industrial,food and municipal wastes that are collected. The composition

depends on the co-substrate type and feed stock.


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Even though proteins and carbohydrates show very fast conversion rates than fats,it was

Figure 2.2: BIOGAS PRODUCTION PROCESS

reported that the carbohydrates provide a high biogas yield. The methods used

enhances the degradation of substrates thus affect the efficiency either

mechanical,chemical,thermal or enzymatic processes can also be applied to speed up the

decomposition process.

Landfill gas can be used directly through a pipe to nearby customers for

boilers,kiln,dryer,greenhouse or other thermal application .The resulting heat can also be

used for combustion equipment as an alternative or replacement fuel. Processes like

Condensation and filtration involves the limited removal of gasses from treatment are

required with some modifications for combustion equipment which is necessary to fully

utilize the landfill gas.

Using landfill gas in evaporating leachate is a viable option for landfills since

leachate disposal is a critical problem for many publicly owned treatment and industrial

plants for it is rather expensive,unavailable and for some may find it unnecessary.In this

process landfill gas will be used to evaporate leachate for more concentration of gas so
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that it would be undemanding disposal of outflow volume for leachates.

Some advancement and Innovations are developed in which it directly use

medium-Btu gas include firing pottery and glass-blowing kilns; powering and heating

greenhouses; and evaporating waste paint. Currently some industries are using landfill

gas ,these industries are commonly include auto manufacturing, chemical production,

food processing, pharmaceuticals, cement and brick manufacturing, wastewater

treatment, prisons, hospitals. consumer electronics and products, paper and steel

production, (United States Environmental Protection Agency,2018)

2.7 Biogas Advantage

There are numerous advantage of the bio gas power plant in which thousands of

people are investing into this project because of it’s production capacity ,which enable

the sale of energy to increase and the resulting product emits clean and renewable fuel.

The gas emitted through anaerobic fermentation may be controlled, reused at the right

time. Energy enhancement through organic waste may applied to reduce the cost of

management bu the installations and consumption.

At the end of bio gas process,the residual material as are set aside to be used in

fertilization.Carbon dioxide that was emitted during the combustion of bio gas is the

same generated by the plants,thus it reduces the emission of fossil fuels, as a result the

odor released from waste materials and organic stabilization is controlled in the

facility.There are certain measurements needed in sanitizing the effect of pathogenic

micro organisms, which also destroys the occurrence of bacteria and viruses contained in
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the sludge through sterilization.

2.8 Separation Process

A recent study in Canada towards diversions of organics from landfills. This include

the implementation of source-separated organics systems which require the public to

collect organics and directly use these materials for separating collection stream. Mostly,

these organics are in a form of compost which contain a small fraction of SSO that is

anaerobically digested for energy generation.(H. Willumsen,2016)

2.9 Bio gas Structure

The landfill bio gas industry had increased in the number of collection and

treatment systems being installed worldwide. In connection with these installations there

is a need to control subsurface methane migration into nearby buildings, air emissions

and greenhouse gases, and odors. In addition, such systems are built to capture the

energy benefits from landfill bio gas. There are an approximate 1,100 bio gas energy

systems that are in place in almost 40 countries (H. Willumsen, 2003).

2.9.1 Biogas Storage

The most important part of the project is the biogas storage tank. Biogas as we

have studied is wet and corrosive therefore various considerations are implemented and

these are the following: All biogas storage facilities must be gas tight and pressure-

resistant, Storage facilities which are not protected by buildings, they must be UV-

temperature- and weather proof, The gas storage tanks must be checked for gas tightness,
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They must be equipped with safety valves (under-pressure and over-pressure), Explosion

protection must also be guaranteed and an emergency flare is required, The gas storage

facility must have the minimum capacity corresponding to one fourth of the daily biogas

production .After the materials that could no longer produce biogas it is then collected

and is used as fertilizer. ( T. A. Seadi, D. Rutz, H. Prassl, et. al, 2008).

2.10 Double Membrane Biogas Holders

Double Membrane Biogas holders are used for biogas storage. It’s mounted

tightly on the roof of the Digester and separated sphere on surface of Land. The Biogas

holder system has a double membrane structure.(Jog waste to energy inc.)

The external cover dome is made of PVC and produced with special additives that are

ultraviolet and precipitation resistant. Internal membrane, which is in direct contact with

biogas, is made of a special material. The internal membrane is stretched by the pressure

of the produced biogas. Air is pumped between the cover dome and internal membrane

so that it provides pressure to the upper side of the membrane and gives a spherical shape

to the cover dome.(Jog waste to energy inc.)

Biogas Double Membranes are designed and cut using machines with numerical

program control. Welding is performed using high-frequency current welding. This gives

considerable advantages in quality if to be compared with membranes that are handmade

and glued or welded by heating elements. The hermetic sealing in gas holder mounting

systems are secured by pilot-operated check valves. For gas holder safe operation an

excessive pressure valve is installed. Inspection holes and branch pipes are included into
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the scope of the gas holder supply.

Biogas pressure inside the gas holder on average is from 200 to 500 Pa. The gas holder

provides enough for 2-3 hours storage of biogas.(Jog waste to energy inc.)

Figure 2.3: The figure shows the double membrane tank in plastic and steel design.

2.11 Comparability of Steel and Plastic

2.11.1 Steel double membrane gas storage tank

The Steel double membrane gas storage tank that is mounted on an existing tank,

consists of an external membrane which forms the outer shape, and an internal

membrane which seals the digester gas-tight. A permanently running support air blower

provides air to the space between the inner and outer membranes, thus keeping the

pressure at a constant level - irrespective of gas production and gas withdrawal. The

pressurized air has two functions. First it keeps the outer membrane in shape to withstand

external wind- and snow loads. Second it exerts a constant pressure on the inner
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membrane and thus pushes gas at constant volume and pressure into the outlet pipe. Both

membranes are clamped on top of the storage tank or anchored to the external wall of

steel or concrete tanks. A supporting structure prevents the inner membrane from

immersing into the substrate and being damaged by the stirring device. The safety valves

protect the gas holders against over or low gas pressure. The pressure regulation is

carried out by an air side pressure control valve. The filling levels are measured by

means of hydraulic, ultrasonic and wire length measurement systems.

When plants are designed with more than one storage tank, you can combine R

double membrane gas storage tanks and single membrane gastight covers . The single

membrane cover consists of an external membrane which is supported by the gas

pressure in regular operation. In case of pressure drop the structure is supported by the

central pillar. The combination of storage tanks and covers offers an ideal storage volume

at lowest total costs. This system combines the function of gas storage tanks with that of

covers. Consequently, the initial costs can be reduced by the amounts of a solid tank

cover, a separate concrete foundation, additional gas pipes and safety devices for gas

pressure.

2.11.2Plastic covered double membrane gas storage tank

The Plastic covered double membrane gas storage tank consists of an external

membrane which forms the outer shape of the tank, as well as an internal membrane and

a bottom membrane which make up the actual gas space.

A permanently running support air blower provides air to the space between inner
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and outer membrane, and thus keeps the gas pressure up at a constant level – irrespective

of gas production and gas withdrawal. The pressurized air has two functions. First it

keeps the outer membrane in shape to withstand external wind- and snow loads. Second

it exerts a constant pressure on the inner membrane and thus pushes gas at constant

volume and pressure into the outlet pipe. The gas charge and discharge pipes are cast into

the concrete foundations which are usually supplied by the customer. All three

membranes are then clamped to the foundation by means of an anchor ring.The safety

valve prevents the gas holder from over pressure. The pressure is regulated by means of a

pressure control valve. The filling levels are measured by means of ultrasonic and wire

length measurement systems.

2.12 Technical Advantages of Concrete Tanks versus Steel Tanks.

Concrete has better inherent anti-corrosion characteristics than steel. The length

of life of a steel tank depends upon the longevity of the protective coatings. Once the

protective layers of a steel tank are penetrated, even at small points of damage, a

corrosion cell develops and the risk of a rapid onset of leaks then occurs. Steel tank

manufacturers seldom warrant the life of their products beyond 10 years, and that period

is often conditional on active maintenance to identify any points of corrosion and take

remedial action on any exposed metal or areas of chipped coatings. Concrete tank

designs are carried out to the buyer’s specified lifetime, and “design life” can exceed 100

years. By comparison, is a steel tank really a “permanent” structure at all?(Radimin)

Concrete is a Better Insulator than Glass Coated (and Epoxy Coated) Steel
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(although additional insulation may be needed for some AD plants). The normal practice

for precast concrete reactor tank walls is to leave them exposed on the surface, and

readily available for inspection for the start of any leaks. This is unlike insulated GCS

(steel) tanks, where the structural tank walls are hidden behind insulation materials and

aluminum profiled sheeting, and unseen damage may have occurred during installation.

(Radimin)

Concrete Can be Drilled at any Time to Make Openings (for example for

replacement Digestate Mixers to be retrofitted if needed. The same cannot be said for

steel tanks due to concerns about creating bare steel and corrosion points at any new

openings. (Radimin)

Reinforced Concrete is Inherently a More Sustainable Material than Steel for this

Type of Construction. This is a subject which can be debated long and hard. In

different applications of concrete versus steel construction the sustainability case may go

either way. However, when used in biogas digester tanks, the author considers that the

extended life of a concrete structure as opposed to the much shorter life of a steel

tank renders the concrete option the most sustainable.(Radimin)


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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The study involve in quantitative research study which presents the design of the

biogas holders which are the concrete, steel and plastic design in the form of double

membrane type of biogas holder, using the volume of waste the landfill area inhibits

annually and land area for the facilities of the biogas as a variable. For the economic

analysis the cost estimate and the commercial and Net Present Value will be use by the

researchers evaluate the production.

3.2 Research Setting

The study was conducted at Sitio Burakan, Brgy. Pagalungan, Cagayan de Oro

City in Landfill Area. In conducting the research design preliminaries such as site survey

will be conducted. When the gathered information and data are enough the designing will

be conducted for the development of the site.

3.2.1 Site Survey

Surveying is a process of accurately determining the placement of natural and

man made features of the site. Typically, the survey consist of establishing

controls(bench marks),recording natural features, terrain of the location and any


28

manmade features of significance. Generally, at least two surveys are needed such as the

preliminary survey and construction set-out survey before construction can start.( Peter

Watts and Rod Davis,2016)

The topographic limitations, slope gradients, flood inundation lines and rock outcrops,

the following data of the site are to be collected in the project:

The data was acquired from the following government Agencies: City Engineer’s Office

Compound – Kauswagan CDO, City Planning & Development Office –City Hall Bldg.

Capistrano Street Corner Gaerlan street, CDO, DENR Mines and Geosciences Bureau

Region 10 – Macabalan CDO

3.2.2 Desktop Study

This study is conducted with the use of the internet and its websites that focuses

on the information regarding the proposed site. Several sites can be evaluated in this way

at minimal cost: Past and present land use, Natural resources, Geology and Surface and

groundwater environment (P. Watts and R. Davis, 2016).

3.2.3 Biogas Site

Several aspects need to be studied in the choice of a site:Dominant wind/Air

dispersion, Road Access, Proximity to Energy Grids, Geotechnical, Contamination,

Proximity of Neighbours (E. Camirand ,2018)


29

3.3 Research Process

Data Gathering

Size of Biogas Storage

Design and Estimate of Storage


3.3.1 Data Gathering

The data gathering will be conducted byAnalysis


Economic the researcher for the following

agencies. The gathered data will be used as the basis for the designing of the biogas

production.The amount of collection of biodegradable waste from year 2014 to 2017 will

be evaluated and analyse what are the trend of garbage disposal.

3.3.2 Size of Biogas Storage

The size of the biogas storage will depend on the collection of waste disposal.

The amount of waste is used to determine the amount of biogas produced by the landfill

3.3.3 Design and Estimate of Biogas Holder

The design of the proposal is a double membrane biogas storage comparing


30

concrete, steel and plastic membrane as the outer storage covering.

The design and estimate will depend on the volume of waste collection, material used

and the method used for the collection of data.

A. Construction of double membrane biogas tank

Double membrane biogas storage tank consists of an external membrane which

forms the visible outer contour of the tank, an internal membrane and a bottom

membrane which encloses the actual gas space.The outer membrane designed in the

project are concrete, steel and plastic membrane.

B. Inner membrane design of storage

The inner membrane and bottom membranes are sealed with a gas-tight

compression seal around the periphery of the structure on the concrete base.

C. Double Membrane Gas Holder: Gas Pipework & Pressure Relief

two-pipeline system-It is important that gas is supplied by one pipeline and

consumed through a second pipeline – even in a system where the gasholder is used as a

simple buffer. The gas supply and consumption pipes are routed underneath the base

slab to the centre of the base. The pipes and membranes are sealed using bolted

compression sealing flanges.

D. Installation of Stainless steel Tank

In installing steel tanks no excessive ground works are required and these are the
31

process top soil is removed, the site levelled and the preparation of base. In the

preparation of base comprises the following: compacted soil , reinforced concrete slab

covered by a membrane at the bottom.

Sealant is important to prevent leakage. The type of sealant used is a semi-rigid

gasket. In assembling the tank. First step is to complete the top ring using ring stiffeners.

Next the ring beneath it. The tank wall inside is secured with an anchoring system and

sealed permanently. And it takes two weeks to erect the shell of the storage tank.

Furthermore, design and estimate will be conducted after the completion of the

architectural design of the tank.


32

FIGURE 3.1 Double membrane biogas storage with steel outer covering.

E. Installation of Plastic Membrane

The membrane form is achieved by precisely cutting the textile roll to accurate

design patterns. Fittings through the membrane, such as the viewing port, crown, inlets

and outlets, and the base peripheral joint are reinforced with encapsulated stainless steel

endless ropes.(Division of McNishCorporation) Furthermore, design and estimate will

be conducted after the completion of the architectural design of the tank.


33

FIGURE 3.2 Figure shows the double membrane biogas storage with outer membrane.

F. Installation of Concrete Cover

Each concrete wall unit stands alone with external counter-forts to enable the

wall unit to act as a vertical cantilever requiring minimum temporary propping during

erection.

The concrete use conventional reinforcement, with appropriate cover for the

exposure conditions, and are neither pre-tensioned or post-tensioned, so there are no

concerns about the tendons becoming corroded. Each Sealed wall is jointed using

hydrophilic jointing method. Stainless steel fixings hold the concrete together, making a
34

visibly robust system. Furthermore, design and estimate will be conducted after the

completion of the architectural design of the tank.

3.3.4 Economic Analysis

The amount produce from the designed used will be calculated and evaluated in

commercial use. Assume that the calculated estimate from item 3.3.3 is the capital used

for the project and the amount will be breakdown into lump sum amount paid every year

with its interest rate or amount for the borrowed capital.

Economic evaluation has been done through a Net Present Value Analysis taking

into account a cost benefit perspective.

Net Present Value (NPV) the sum of expected net cashflow measured in today’s currency

and is given by:

NPV = -1+

and

CF= pO-vX-FC

CF
NPV  1  t 0
n

(1  r )i

Where:

CF = is the function of income p from i output (O)

output (O) = relates to heat, electricity and digestate

X = include feedstock prices operating ang and maintenance cost

FC = all fixed costs such as labor cost, interest expense and overhead cost.
35

IRR = discount rate for total present value of future cash flow equals cost of

investment

3.4. Materials

The following list includes all the equipment necessary to handle the biogas: Pipes,

Flow meters, Condensate traps, Storage, flares (P Engr. Eric Camirand, 2018)

The Double Membrane Gas Holder Materials

These are the material used for the inner membrane of the double membrane gas holder.

These design and materials are used in all types of storage design either concrete, steel or

plastic membrane: polyester yarn with a PVC coating with an additional anti-static

coating and gas-tight compression seal.

The Double Membrane Gas Holder: CONTROL EQUIPMENT:

The standard scope of supply for Double Membrane Gas Holders includes:

Ultrasonic Level transducer and instrument calculate the time between the sensor surface

to the distance measured liquid and gas detector transducer is used to detect flammable
36

gas in the air or liquid vapor explosion within the lower limit of content, can take a

number of detection probe, while multi-point centralized control.

3.4.1 Stainless steel

Stainless steel is the newest type of steel used in the market it is more efficient

compared to Galvanized steel and Concrete. The gas is stored in steel cylinders such as

those typically used for storage of other commercial gases. The sealing compound

guarantees a long-lived, optimal sealing of the tank

3.4.2 Plastic Membrane

The outer membranes or plastic membrane are manufactured from polyester yarn

with a PVC coating with additional additives for increased protection against Ultra Violet

radiation.The outer membranes or plastic membrane are manufactured from polyester

yarn with a PVC coating with additional additives for increased protection against Ultra

Violet radiation.

3.4.3. Reinforced Concrete

Concrete and reinforcing bars. Concrete used is a portland cement and a 12mm

diameter reinforcing bars.Concrete has better inherent anti-corrosion property. Concrete


37

tank designs are carried out to the buyer’s specified lifetime, and “design life” can

exceed 100 years

3.5 Design Process

Design process the most important part of the study wherein proposed design is

presented prior to the biogas storages discussed. The Concrete, Steel, and Plastic

designed double membrane biogas holder are the structures to be designed.

3.5.1 Architectural Design

Architectural design is the orthographic design of the structures to be proposed

these includes the structural design, concept and layout of the proposed structure to be

designed. In this case, steel tank plans until the digester cell plan will be the focused in

designing.

Architectural designs needed in the project are the following: Floor plan, Site

plan- is the site layout and the size and orientation of the proposed structures to be

designed, Elevation, Cross section and 3D Layout.

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Contained in this chapter are the results of the conducted study of the
38

comparability study of the steel, concrete and plastic design of biogas storage. As

discussed on the previous chapter the type of biogas storage used is the double

membrane biogas storage one of the most affordable, popular and newest design in the

market.

Including in these chapters are the design perspective and detailed designs

including elevation, roof framing, foundation, bracket details and stairs used as a basis

for the detailed estimates.

The detailed estimates also taken into consideration the tax assumed as 10 %

based on city engineers office detailed estimates. After the detailed estimates are the

graphs of the economic analysis or cost analysis conducted. In which the economic

analysis as discussed on the previous chapter is done through a Net Present Value

Analysis taking into account a cost benefit perspective.

4.1 SITE VISIT

According to the researchers visit, investigation and interview on the people and

place of visit these are there gathered information.


39

The Researcher conducted a site visit at Landfill Pagalongan, Cagayan de Oro

City where they will put their storage tank. The landfill is 45 hectares but initially only

one hectare is used as the flattening of the area is still ongoing. The city generates 560

tons of garbage per day, however, only 360 tons is dumped in the landfill, since the 200

tons are placed in junk shops or in the barangays practicing material recovery facility.

The area also has electricity to generate the storage system.

FIGURE 4.1 : Site location at Barangay Pagalungan

FIGURE 4.2 : Proposed Location for the Construction of Biogas Tank


40

As shown on the images the area is much suitable for the biogas storage facility

thus it shows that the area is wide and vacant. There are no signs of materials or objects

that needs to be demolished thus massive earthworks still needs to be considered for the

reason that soil present in the area is a clay soil.


41

4.2 DATA GATHERING

FIGURE 4.3 : Geohazard Map at Barangay Pagalungan

FIGURE 4.4 : Soil Map at Barangay Pagalungan


42

4.3 PLASTIC DESIGNED DOUBLE MEMBRANE STORAGE

All of the designs either steel or concrete design consist of these plastic

membrane which is the double membrane biogas storage steel and concrete is used as a

covering structure for the biogas storage. The plastic design however does not consist of

covering structure but it has a UV Ray protection and Anti-Static Coating other special

additives used as protection of the membrane against sunlight and other aspects that

could create cracks or any defects.

Equipment like ultrasonic level transducer, gas detector transducer, pressurized

air or air compressor, hydraulic measuring system, ultrasonic measuring system and wire

length measuring system. These design is a 6 meter diameter plastic

membrane that could produce produce 30 of biogas.


43
44

FIGURE 4.6 : Design Perspective of Double Membrane Plastic Biogas Tank


45

FIGURE 4.5 : Design of Pipeline and Safety valve Connecting Storage


46

to the recieving inlet.

FIGURE 4.6 : Design of Pipeline and Safety valve Connecting Storage to the
47

recieving inlet top view and dimension


48

FIGURE 4.7 : Design Schedule of Pipeline


49
50

4.5 STEEL COVERED DOUBLE MEMBRANE BIOGAS STORAGE

The figure shows design of Steel covered biogas storage. This design is to be

applied for the Pagalungan landill biogas facility. According to our study Payatas landfill

biogas facility produces 5000 – 16000 per year similar to pagalungan landfill site. We

have designed an 8 by 8 meters cylindrical tank which can store 30 of biogas.

This steel design is used to protect the inner double membrane biogas tank from

heat, temperature or any other aspects that could harm the plastic storage. However the

steel is expensive it could provide lasting storage tank. These steel design is composed of

carbon steel, mild steel and nozzles that holds the storage material.

In order to conduct estimates of the storage tank we have designed the floor plan,

roof framing plan and its elevation. The steel design is composed of series of steel covers

to ensure the strength of the structure.


51

Figure 4.8 : Design Perspective of Double Membrane Biogas tank Covered with

Carbon Steel
52

FIGURE 4.5 : Design of Pipeline and Safety valve Connecting Storage to the recieving

inlet.

FIGURE 4.5 : Design of Pipeline and Safety valve Connecting Storage to the recieving

inlet top view and dimension.


53

FIGURE 4.5 : SCHEDULE OF PIPELINES

FIGURE 4.8 : Front Elevation of Steel Biogas Tank


54

FIGURE 4.9: Roof Framing, Design detail for stairs and bolts and bracket detail for

Steel Biogas Tank.


55

4.9 CONCRETE COVER DESIGN OF THE DOUBLE MEMBRANE BIOGAS

STORAGE
56

For the concrete cover design of the double membrane biogas storage

reinforcement and concrete are designed in this structure and other design such us stair

and roof framing are similar to the steel cover design but differ in material. the

equipment used in the double membrane storage inside the concrete cover design is also

shown.

In order to conduct estimates of the storage tank we have designed the floor plan,

roof framing plan and its elevation. The steel design is composed of series of steel

covers. To ensure the strength of the structure.


57

FIGURE 4.10 : Design Perspective for Double Membrane Storage inside the

Concrete Cover
58

FIGURE 4.13 : Front Elevation of Concrete Biogas Tank and Roof Framing of

Concrete Biogas Tank

FIGURE 4.15: Design detail for stairs, Foundation and Bracket Plan of

Concrete Biogas Tank.


59
60

4.7 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

MAINTENANCE COST = ₱10 000

Price per cubic: ₱30.00

Annual cubic of methane saved (m^3): 41975

Interest rate(i): 6%

Design life of concrete: 100 years

Design life of concrete: 15 years

Design life of concrete: 50 years

Investment of concrete: ₱1 980 000

Investment of steel: ₱ 2 360 000

Investment of plastic: ₱ 1 580 000

4.7.1 Benefit to cost ratio (BCR)

Solution:

Benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of Concrete design

BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT


BCR=
TOTAL INVESTMENT

Annual income (1+i)20−1


Benefits of the project =
(1+i)20 xi

41975 x 30(1+0.06)20−1
Benefits of the project =
(1+ 0.06)20 x 0.06

Benefits of the project = 14,443,498.99

14,443,498.99
BCR=
1 980 000

BCR=7.29
61

Benefits cost ratio (BCR) used for desirability of the project and summarizes the

overall value for money. The calculated BCR is greater than 1.0 the project is

economically acceptable the higher the BCR the better the investment.

Benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of Steel design

BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT


BCR=
TOTAL INVESTMENT

Annual income (1+i)20−1


Benefits of the project =
(1+i)20 xi

41975 x 30(1+0.06)20−1
Benefits of the project =
(1+ 0.06)20 x 0.06

Benefits of the project = 14,443,498.99

14,443,498.99
BCR=
2360000

BCR=6.12

Benefits cost ratio (BCR) used for desirability of the project and summarizes the overall

value for money. The calculated BCR is greater than 1.0 the project is economically

acceptable the higher the BCR the better the investment.

Benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of Plastic design

BENEFIT OF THE PROJECT


BCR=
TOTAL INVESTMENT

Annual income (1+i)20−1


Benefits of the project =
(1+i)20 xi
62

20
41975 x 30(1+0.06) −1
Benefits of the project =
(1+ 0.06)20 x 0.06

Benefits of the project = 14,443,498.99

14,443,498.99
BCR=
15880000

BCR=9.14

Benefits cost ratio (BCR) used for desirability of the project and summarizes the overall

value for money. The calculated BCR is greater than 1.0 the project is economically

acceptable the higher the BCR the better the investment. In this design these yields the

highest benefit cost ratio.

4.7.2 RATE OF RETURN

RATE OF RETURN OF CONCRETE DESIGN

¿ capital Investment
Rate of Return =
Annual Income+ Annual Depreciation

1 980 000
Rate of Return =
41975 x 30+0.06 (1 980000)

Rate of Return = 1.44 year

Rate of return of the recovery of the investment cost is as early as 1 year and less

than 4 months.

RATE OF RETURN OF STEEL DESIGN


63

¿ capital Investment
Rate of Return =
Annual Income+ Annual Depreciation

2360000
Rate of Return =
41975 x 30+0.06 (2360000)

Rate of Return = 1.68 year

Rate of return of the recovery of the investment cost is as early as 1 year and less

than 8 months.

RATE OF RETURN OF PLASTIC DESIGN

¿ capital Investment
Rate of Return =
Annual Income+ Annual Depreciation

15880000
Rate of Return =
41975 x 30+0.06 (15880000)

Rate of Return = 1.17 year

Rate of return of the recovery of the investment cost is as early as 1 year and less

than 2 months.

4.7.2 RATE ON INVESTMENT

RATE ON INVESTMENT OF CONCRETE DESIGN

NET ANNUAL PROFIT


ROI = X 100
INVESTMENT

( 41975 X 30 )−10000
ROI =
1980000

ROI = 63% < 60%

Rate on investment is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment
64

resulting from an investment of some resources. Since Rate on investment is higher than

the interest rate the investment is feasible.

RATE ON INVESTMENT OF STEEL DESIGN

NET ANNUAL PROFIT


ROI = X 100
INVESTMENT

( 41975 X 30 )−10000
ROI =
2360000

ROI = 52% < 60%

Rate on investment is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment

resulting from an investment of some resources. Since Rate on investment is lower than

the interest rate the investment is not feasible.

RATE ON INVESTMENT OF PLASTIC DESIGN

NET ANNUAL PROFIT


ROI = X 100
INVESTMENT

( 41975 X 30 )−10000
ROI =
15880000

ROI = 78% < 60%

Rate on investment is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment

resulting from an investment of some resources. Since Rate on investment is higher than

the interest rate the investment is feasible.


65

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Contained in this chapter are the conclusions and recommendations of the

comparability study of steel, concrete and plastic material for biogas storage.

 Therefore the researchers found a suitable area for biogas storage connected to

the digesting landfill.

 The electricity used for the biogas compressor as observed in the field is relevant

since numerous houses and structures are found near the field.

 Based on investigation the landfill is designed to be a landfill digester that could

produce 5000 m^3-16000m^3 similar to Payatas landfill site here in Phillippines

therefore the biogas storage is a very applicable project.

 The most economical design for biogas storage is the plastic designed double
66

membrane biogas storage. Though the concrete and the steel have a more

complex and stronger ability of protecting the double membrane storage this

study aims to promote a more economical product.

 The estimated amounts of the products are as follows. Plastic membrane biogas

storage worth 1537 766 pesos, concrete covered membrane structure worth 1 972

921 pesos and steel covered double membrane worth 2 356 613 pesos.

 All the products of these project is effective on our study we conclude that

concrete structures have higher life span to steel product.

 The steel and concrete could highly stand temperature , change in climate and

even natural calamities.

 The plastic membrane promotes a very less costly product.

 The product with the best benefit cost ratio, lowest rate of return and greatest rate

on investment is the plastic design double membrane biogas storage.

We recommend the use of concrete and plastic design of double membrane storage

structure because it not just promote economical and profitable workability. The two

products has two unique features.

The plastic product is the most economical among the three but the concrete

product proves to be both economical and effective due to its design life.
67

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