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THERMAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA SEEDS

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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, September, 2018; Vol. 14(3):437-449
Copyright © Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Print ISSN: 1596-2490, Electronic ISSN: 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA SEEDS


1
*Audu, J., 1Irtwange, S.V. and 2Satimehin, A.A.
1
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
2
Department of Agricultural and Bioresources Engineering, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s Email: audujoh@gmail.com
Abstract
The thermal properties of Jatropha seeds were investigated for two accessions and in the moisture range of 4 - 16% db.
Specific heat was determined using the method of mixtures, bulk thermal diffusivity was determined using the transient
method (Dickerson apparatus), while the bulk thermal conductivity was calculated. The results obtained for specific
heat ranged from 739.5 – 1560.1J/kg oC for native and 667.4 – 1262.21J/kg oC for improve accessions in the above
moisture range. Bulk thermal diffusivity ranged from1.1x10-6 - 1.71x10-6m2/s and 1.29x10-6 m2/s - 1.83X10-6 while bulk
thermal conductivity ranged from 0.276 - 0.907 W/moC and 0.283 - 0.797 W/moC for native and improved accessions
respectively. ANOVA and means separation (Duncan multiply range test) at 95% confidence level was carried out for
specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. ANOVA showed that moisture had a significant effect on
specific heat and bulk thermal conductivity but not on bulk thermal diffusivity. The mean separation shows that for
native accession a significant change occured (p<0.05) for specific heat at the moisture contents of 4 and 16%. For the
improved accession, the specific heat was significantly different (p<0.05) only at moisture of 8 and 16%. For bulk
thermal diffusivity, moisture did not have any significant effect (p<0.05) on either the native accession or the improved
accession. Bulk thermal conductivity was significantly affected (at p<0.05) by moisture content only in the native
accession but not in the improved accession. The mean separation showed that significant change (p<0.05) in thermal
conductivity occurred at the moisture contents of 4 and 16%. This study also shows that increase in moisture content of
Jatropha seeds increase all three thermal properties studied irrespective of the accession. Regression analysis shows a
high R square grater than 0.9 for all thermal properties studied.

Key words: Specific heat, Bulk thermal conductivity, Bulk thermal diffusivity and Jatropha

1.0 Introduction
Jatropha (or physic nut) is a genus of approximately 175 succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some
are deciduous, like Jatropha curcas), from the family Euphorbiaceae. Scientists have attempted to
define the origin of Jatropha, but the source remains controversial, though some reports indicated
that it originated from North, Central or South America. Jatropha tree is 3-6 meter tall, smooth grey
bark, having latex and heart green leaf, producing inedible oil containing seeds. Jatropha curcas L
is the commonest specie found in Nigeria. The matured seeds contain 21% saturated fatty acids and
79% unsaturated fatty acids and they yield 25%–40% oil by weight. Jatropha seed, oil, cake and
shell are used for soap production, lamp oil, oil fuel for cooking, varnish, insecticide, medicine,
fertilizer and biogas production (Heller, 1996; Temesgen, 2016; Nahar and Ozores-Hampton, 2011;
Grover et al., 2013; Mubonderi, 2012; Manurung et al., 2009). However thermal properties of
Jatropha seeds reported in literature are for foreign varieties and not of African origin or of any
genetic modified varieties (see table 1&2). Also the design and development of seeds press machine
for extracting the seed oil can be improved by first pre-heating before extraction. Knowledge of the
thermal properties of Jatropha seeds will help with proper pre-heating processes required for
efficient extraction of oil from the seeds for various applications. Hence the need to study the
thermal properties of Jatropha seeds like specific heat, thermal conductivity and diffusivity become
essential for its processing purposes. Due to the world demand for green energy, bio- fuel from
plants which do not compete for food will be the answer, and Jatropha is one of these plants. The
objectives of the study are to measure the thermal properties of Jatropha seeds and study the
influence of moisture on these thermal properties for Jatropha seeds processing and storage.

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Audu, et al.: Thermal Properties of Jatropha Seeds. AZOJETE, 14(3):437-449. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN
2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a unit of mass by one degree is called
specific heat. SI Units for specific heat is kJ/kg-°K. If the specific heat is known, the amount of
heat, Q, which must be added to a unit M to raise its temperature from T 2 to T1 can be calculated
from the Equation 1
( ) (1)
Mohsenin (1980) described several methods to investigate the specific heat of food and agricultural
materials. Table 1 shows the specific heat values and methods of determination of specific heat for
some seeds reported by some researchers.
According to Fontana et al. (1999), in food industry, bulk thermal conductivity is used to predict
and control the heat flux during food processing such as cooking, frying, freezing, sterilization,
drying or pasteurization .The bulk thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of its ability to
conduct heat.

Table 1: Specific Heat of Some Seeds Reported by Some Researchers


S/N Product Specific Heat Method Used Source
1 Berbeis Seeds 1.9653 to 3.2811 (KJ/Kg°C) Mixed Method Mortaza et al. (2008)
2 Rubber Seeds 55.84 kJ/kg.K Mixed Method Fadeyibi and Osunde
(2012)
3 Grounded Shea Nut 1716.84 to 4401.82 kJ/kg.K Mixed Method Aremu and Nwannewuihe
(2011)
4 Peanut 0.369 to 1.042 Cal per GM K Differential Young and Whitaker
Scanning (1973)
Calorimeter
(DSC)
5 Soya Beans 1,780 to 2,646 J/ kgK, Mixed Method Aviara et al. (2011)
6 Moringa Seed 1,520 to 2,516.121 J/kgK Mixed Method Aviara et al. (2011)
7 Moringa Kernel 1,625.24 to 2,458.214 J/kgK Mixed Method Aviara et al. (2011)
8 Mucuna Flagellipes 2,080 to 4,586 J/kgK Mixed Method Aviara et al. (2011)
Nut
9 Wheat 1.0792 to 5.5336 kJ/kg °C Mixed Method Cao et al. (2010)
-1 -1
10 Guna Seeds 1391.1 to 3058.15 J kg K Mixed Method Aviara et al. (2008)
11 Roselle Seeds 4.04-5.63 kJ kg-1 K-1 Mixed Method Bomgboye and
Adejumo (2010)
12 Shea Nut Kernel 1792 to 3172 J/Kg K Mixed Method Aviara and Haque (2001)
13 Jatropha Seeds 0.783 to 1.072 kJ/kg/K Mixed Method Elepaño et al. (2010)
14 Jatropha Kernel 0.751 to 1.318 kJ/kg/K Mixed Method Elepaño et al. (2010
15 Yam Beans 2098 to 4992 J/Kg °C Calculated Irtwange and Igbeka
(2003)
The determination of thermal conductivity of seeds using guarded hot plate apparatus with steady
heat flow was reported by Aviara and Haque (2001), Aviara et al. (2008 ) and Aremu and
Nwannewuihe (2010) in the moisture ranges of 3.32 – 20.70% (db) , 4.7 - 25.35% (db) and 24.05 -
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67.59% (db), respectively, and achieved results of 0.094 – 0.1285 W/mK, 0.0711- 0.191 W/mK and
0.1671 – 0.3338 W/mK for sheanut kernel, guna seeds and doum palm fruits respectively. Habani
and Tolba (1995) , Yang et al. (2002), Irtwange and Igbeka (2002), and Mortaza et al. (2008) also
determined the thermal conductivity of barley seeds, borage seeds, African yam beans and Berberis
seeds, respectively using the transient heat flow method with line heat source at a moisture range of
10% - 30%, 1.2 – 30.3% .4 – 16% and 19.3 – 74.3% and the results were 193 – 288 mw/m°C , 0.11
to 0.28Wm-1K-1, 0.2097 to 0.3065 w/m ³C and 0.1324 to 0.4898 W/m°C respectively.
Another method used for measuring the thermal conductivity of seeds is the transient heat flow
using conductivity probe. This method was used by Mahmoodi and Kianmehr (2006) and Kara et al
(2011) for pomegranate and safflower seeds within the moisture range of 76% -80% and 5.07 –
20.3%, respectively. The results they found were for pomegranate 0.15 – 0.15 Wm-1K-1 (exocarp),
0.15 – 0.49 Wm-1K-1 (mesocarp) 0.18 – 0.51 Wm-1K-1 (seed) and for safflower 0.108 to 1.37 Wm-
1 -1
K . Bamgboye and Adejumo (2010) use the steady state method of heat of vaporization to
determine the thermal conductivity of Roselle seeds with moisture content range of 8.8% - 19%
(db) and the results were of the range of 1.22 – 1.56 Wm-1K-1.
A modified Fitch apparatus was constructed by Elepaño et al., (2010) to measure the thermal
conductivity of Jatropha kernels. The thermal conductivity increased with the increase in moisture
content and varied from 0.056 to 0.170 W/m/K.
Thermal diffusivity quantifies a material's ability to conduct heat relative to its ability to store heat
transfer (Stroshine, 1998). Bulk thermal diffusivity can be calculated from values of k, ρ, and Cp or
it can be experimentally determined. One of the methods used to determine thermal diffusivity is
the calculating method (Eq.2).
Calculating Method
( ) (2)

where
α = thermal diffusivity (m2/sec), k = thermal conductivity (W/m/K) , Cp = heat capacity (J/kg oC),
ρ = bulk density (kg/m3)

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Audu, et al.: Thermal Properties of Jatropha Seeds. AZOJETE, 14(3):437-449. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN
2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

Table 2 shows the thermal diffusivity values and their methods of determination for some selected
agricultural seeds.

Table 2: Thermal Diffusivities of Selected Seeds

Thermal
Moisture
Seed Diffusivity (a, Method Referance
Content %
m2/s)
Chick-peas 12.0 11.6 x 10-8 Indirect Jayas and cenkowski 2006

Corn, yellow dent 9.8 9.4 x 10-8 Direct Jayas and cenkowski 2006
-8
20.1 8.6 x 10
Rapeseed 10.5 9.2 x 10-8 Indirect Jayas and cenkowski 2006
Rice, bran 7.0 9.7 x 10-8 Indirect Jayas and cenkowski 2006
Rice, rough 12.0 16.4 x 10-8 Indirect Jayas and cenkowski 2006
Soybeans 11.2 11.7 x 10-8 Direct Jayas and cenkowski 2006
Wheat, soft 10.3 8.3 x 10-8 Direct Jayas and cenkowski 2006
20.3 8.1 x 10-8
Wheat 9.2 11.4 x 10-8 Direct Jayas and cenkowski 2006

Wheat 10.0 8.3 x 10-8 Direct Jayas and cenkowski 2006

African Yam Beans 4 – 16% 9.6x10-8-1.4x10-7 Direct Irtwange and Igbeka 2003

2.0 Materials and Methods


Two different Jatropha accessions were collected, cleaned and placed in a plastic container and their
initial moisture contents were measured. The first accession was purchased at the North Bank
Market, Makurdi, Nigeria and labeled ‘Native accession’. The second sample was purchased from
the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Research Farm. The accession was said to have been
imported from Israel with its oil content genetically improved. This second accession was labeled
‘Improved accession’.
2.1 Seed conditioning
A sample of 7 kg was collected from each of the above accession of Jatropha. Moisture content of
the seeds was determined using ASAE standard (ASAE, 1998). The sample seeds were conditioned
by adding calculated amount of water to the sample in order to obtain the desired moisture contents
of 4, 8, 12, and 16% d.b (which are moisture range of Jatropha seeds between harvest and storage).
This calculated quantities were gotten using from using Equation 3.
( )
(3)

where Q = mass of water to be added in kg, Wi = initial mass of the sample in kg, Mi = initial
moisture content of the sample in % d.b. and Mf = final moisture content in % d.b.
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The samples were kept in a refrigerator at ≤ 10 °C for 14 days for the moisture to distribute
uniformly throughout the seeds. The moisture content of samples after equilibration was verified
before each test was conducted. A Bickey John Moisture Meter, model-46239-1247 which gives
indications that are within ± 2% moisture content of the standard oven results was used prior to tests
in order to verify the moisture content of the samples.
2.2 Specific Heat
The specific heat of Jatropha seeds was determined using a calibrated copper calorimeter using the
method of mixture as described by Aviara et al., (2011). The calorimeter was calibrated following
the procedure described by Aviara and Haque (2001). Specific heat was calculated using equation
4,
( ){ ( )}
*( ) +
(4)

where Cc is specific heat of calorimeter, J/kg K; Cs is specific heat of sample, J/kg K; Cw is


specific heat of water, J/kg K; Mc is mass of calorimeter, kg; Ms is mass of sample, kg; Mw is mass
of water, kg; Te is equilibrium temperature of sample and water mixture, K; Ts is initial temperature
of sample, K; Tw is initial temperature of water, K; R' is rate of temperature fall after equilibrium,
K/s; t' is time taken for seed and water to come to equilibrium, s. The t'R' is term accounted for the
heat of hydration and heat exchange with the surrounding.
The experiment was replicated five times at each moisture level, and the average values of the
specific heat recorded and used in statistical analysis.

2.3 Bulk Thermal Diffusivity


The bulk thermal diffusivity was determined using the transient method described by
Dickerson, (1965); Reidy and Rippen, (1971), and Mohsenin, (1980). Dickerson experimental set
up used for the experiment is shown in Figure 1. The bulk thermal diffusivity is calculated using
equation 5
( )
( )
(5)

where
a = radius of the cylinder, m, Ta = temperature at distance a from the center, °C, To = temperature
at the center, °C, Ao = constant = (Ta2 – Ta1) / (t2-t1) and Ta1= temperature at time t1 oC, Ta2=
temperature at time t2, °C
2.4 Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of Jatropha seeds were determined using equation 6. The thermal
conductivity was calculated for the four moisture content levels per accession.
(6)

k = thermal conductivity, w/moC, Cs = specific heat, Jkg-1C-1, α = thermal diffusivity, m2/s,

ρb = bulk density, kg/m3 which was determined by pouring the seeds into a glass cylinder and the
mass of the seeds are measured with a weigh balance.
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Audu, et al.: Thermal Properties of Jatropha Seeds. AZOJETE, 14(3):437-449. ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN
2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

2.5 Statistical Analysis


A split plot in RCBD experimental design was used to report thermal properties of Jatropha seeds.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using SPSS (Version 20) to investigate the possible
occurrence of significant difference among the experimental data at 95% confident level, means
separation was performed using Duncan New Multiple’s range test (DNMRT). Thermal properties
graphs were drawn using Microsoft Excel software package.

3.0 Result and Discussion


The results of the thermal property of Jatropha seeds are shown in Table 3.The specific heat values
ranged from 739.5 – 1560.1J/kg oC for native accession and 667.4 – 1262.21J/kg oC for improved
accession, which are close to that obtained by Elepaño et al., 2010 (783 - 1.072 J/kg oC) shown in
Table 1. The thermal diffusivity values ranged from 1.1x10-6 - 1.71x10-6m2/s for native accession
and 1.29x10-6 m2/s for improved accession, which values are close to that obtained by Elepaño et
al., 2010 (2.03 x 10 -6 to 2.66 x 10 -6 m2/s). Whereas the values of thermal conductivity ranged
from 0.276 - 0.907 W/moC for native and 0.283 - 0.797 W/moC for improved accession, which
values are close to that obtained by Elepaño et al., 2010 (0.056 to 0.170 W/m/K).
The result of ANOVA carried out on the properties to see the effect of moisture content on specific
heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity on both native and improved accession at 95%
confident levels is respectively presented in Table 4. It was observed that for specific heat, moisture
content has a significant effect (at p<0.5). This could be because water molecular aid in transferring
heat energy through cells of living organism. The mean separation shows that for native accession
the specific heat at 8 and 12% are not statistically different but that for 4 and 16% are statistically
different. This phenomenon means that significant temperature rise can only occur at moisture
content of 4 and 16%. This is due to the fact that moisture molecules in the seeds at 8 and 12% are
not sufficient to transfer heat energy across the seed cells. For improved accession, the specific heat
for 4, 8 and 12% are not statistically different from each other, while 16% was statistically different
from the rest. This means that rise in temperature can only occur at moisture content of 16%. This is
because the present of moisture within the seed is insufficient to transfer heat energy to the surface
of the seed for measurement. Similar trend was reported by Irtwange and Igbeka (2003), Aviara and
Haque (2001), and Elepaño et al. (2010). Specific heat of Jatropha seeds tend to increase as
moisture content of seeds increased as shown in Figure 2a. That means, moisture molecules
transmit heat energy through the seed cells to raise the temperature of the seeds. Also Table 6
shows that the Jatropha seeds accessions do not have any significant effect at p<0.05 on specific
heat. This may be due to the fact that even though the oil content of the seeds was improved by
cross breeding, it does not change the shapes and structure of the seeds cells.
For thermal diffusivity, moisture did not have any significant effect (p<0.05) on neither the native
accession nor the improved accession. This is due to the fact that increase in moisture do not
significantly increase (at p<0.05) the heat storage capacity of the individual seeds cells to transfer
heat energy. Though there was some slight increases in the heat storage ability, this increases were
not enough to effect a change in the seeds thermal diffusivity. Figure 2b shows that bulk thermal
diffusivity of Jatropha seeds increased as the moisture of the seeds increased. Similar results trends

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had been observed by Irtwange and Igbeka (2003), Jayas and Cenkowski (2006), and Cao et al.
(2010). Accessions of Jatropha seeds did not have significant effect (at p<0.05) on the bulk thermal
diffusivity of the seeds (Table 5). The reason for this is the same as that explained for specific heat.
Thermal conductivity is significantly affected (p<0.05) by moisture content only in the native
accession but not in the improved accession. This may be due to slight different between increases
in size between the accessions. This slight increase in sizes of the native seeds was caused by
arrangement of water molecule in the cells of the seeds. Also as the seeds size increases it alter the
shape of the seeds, causing the surface area of the seeds to change. Change in the surface area will
in turn affect the rate at which heat energy is transferred between surfaces of seeds. The mean
separation shows that thermal conductivity at 8 and 12% are not statistically different from each
other while that at 4 and 16% are statistically different. This phenomenon means that significant (at
p<0.05) heat transfer can only occur at moisture content of 4 and 16%. This is due to the fact that
moisture molecules at the seeds surfaces at 8 and 12% are not sufficient to transfer sufficient (at
p<0.05) heat energy across the seeds surfaces. Increase in moisture increases the bulk thermal
conductivity of Jatropha seeds (Figure 2c). Similar behavioral trend of agricultural grains had been
reported by Irtwange and Igbeka (2003), Jayas and cenkowski (2006), Aviara et al. (2008), Aviara
and Haque (2001), Cao et al. (2010) and Aremu and Nwannewuihe (2011). Table 6 shows that the
accession of Jatropha seeds has no significant effect (at p<0.05) on its bulk thermal conductivity.
This is because the slight difference in the sizes of the accession was not large enough to cause a
significant change (at p<0.05) at the seeds surfaces to affect the rate at which heat energy is
transferred between seeds surfaces. A regression analysis done for all thermal properties studies
shows an R square greater than 0.9 (Table 6). This means that regression equations generated has a
very good fit to the data generated from the experiment.

Thermocouple

Stirre

Water
Container with
Teflon
Brass tube
containing

Heat

Figure 1: Apparatus for Thermal Diffusivity Measurement (a) A Picture of the Brass Tube, Teflon and
Thermocouples (b) Schematic Diagram of the Set Up for Measuring Thermal Diffusivity.

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2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

4.0 Conclusions
The thermal properties of Jatropha seeds were investigated in the moisture range of 4 – 16% db and
specific heat values were found to range from 739.5 – 1560.1J/kg oC for native accession and 667.4
– 1262.21J/kg oC for improved accession, while the thermal diffusivity values ranged from 1.1x10-6
- 1.71x10-6 m2/m for native accession and 1.29x10-6 m2/s for improved accession. The values of
thermal conductivity was found to range from 0.276 - 0.907 W/moC for native and 0.283 - 0.797
W/moC for improved accession. Moisture content was found to have significant effect (p < 0.05) on
specific heat on both accession and for thermal conductivity it had significant effect only on native
accession. While no effect for diffusivity was found on both accessions. Finally it was discovered
that accessions have no effect on thermal properties of Jatropha seeds.

Table 3: The Effect Moisture Content on Thermal Properties of Jatropha Seeds

Native Improved
Specific
Moisture Bulk Heat ( Thermal Thermal Bulk Specific Thermal
Content Density Jkg-10C- Diffusivity Conductivity Density Heat( Diffusivity Thermal
(%) (kg/m3) 1
) (m2/s) (W/m0C) (kg/m3) Jkg-10C-1) (m2/s) Conductivity(W/m0C)

4 338.8 739.5a 1.1X10-6 a 0.276a 328.3 667.4a 1.29X10-6 a 0.283a

8 327 959.8ab 1.24X10-6 a 0.389ab 336.3 797.5a 1.35X10-6 a 0.362a

12 335.6 1260.1ab 1.45X10-6 a 0.613ab 340.6 984.4ab 1.53X10-6 a 0.513a

16 340 1560.1b 1.71X10-6 a 0.907b 344.9 1262.2b 1.83X10-6 a 0.797a


*Different letters within the same column indicate significant differences according to Duncan’s New Multiple Range
Test (p<0.05).

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Table 4: Effect of Moisture Content on Thermal Properties

Sources of variation Sum of df Mean Square F Sig.


Squares
Between Groups 1917293.671 3 639097.890 3.299 0.047*
Specific Heat
Within Groups 3099171.952 16 193698.247
Native Accession
Total 5016465.622 19
Between Groups 0.000 3 0.000 .418 0.743NS
Thermal Diffusivity
Within Groups 0.000 16 0.000
Native Accession
Total 0.000 19
Between Groups 1.326 3 0.442 2.141 0.0135*
Thermal Conductivity
Within Groups 3.302 16 0.206
Native Accession
Total 4.628 19
Between Groups 999348.666 3 333116.222 3.727 0.033*
Specific Heat
Within Groups 1429938.483 16 89371.155
Improved Accession
Total 2429287.149 19
Between Groups 0.000 3 0000 0.207 0.890NS
Thermal Diffusivity
Within Groups 0.000 16 0.000
Improved Accession
Total 0.000 19
Between Groups 0.797 3 0.266 0.966 0.433NS
Thermal Conductivity
Within Groups 4.400 16 0.275
Improved Accession
Total 5.197 19
*Significant (p<0.05), NS = Not Significant (p<0.05)

Table 5: Comparing the Effect of Accession on Thermal Properties


Sources of variation Sum of df Mean Square F Sig.
Squares
Between Accessions 408466.730 1 408466.730 2.085 0.157NS
Specific Heat Within Accession 7445752.771 38 195940.862
Total 7854219.502 39
Between Accessions 0.000 1 0.000 .163 0.689NS
Thermal
Within Accession 0.000 38 0.000
Diffusivity
Total 0.000 39
Between Accessions 0.014 1 0.014 0.056 0.815NS
Thermal
Within Accession 9.825 38 .259
Conductivity
Total 9.840 39
NS = Not Significant (p<0.05

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1800
1600

Specifc Heat( Jkg-1oC-1)


1400
1200
1000
800 Specifc Heat
600 improved
400 Specifc Heat
200 Native
0
0 5 10 15 20
Moisture Content (%)

0.000002
Thermal Diffusivity(m2/s)

0.0000015
Thermal
0.000001 Diffusivity
improved

0.0000005 Thermal
Diffusivity Native

0
0 5 10 15 20
Moisture content (%)

1
Thermal conductivity(W/moC)

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5 Thermal
conductivity
0.4
improved
0.3
0.2 Thermal
conductivity
0.1
Native
0
0 5 10 15 20
Moisture Content (%)

Figure 2: Graphs for the effect of moisture on thermal properties of Jatropha seeds

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Table 6: Regression Analysis of thermal properties of Jatropha Seeds


Improved variety Native variety
Equation R Square Equation R Square
Specific heat 435.05 + 49.283M 0.972 439.35 + 69.053M 0.995
Thermal
Diffusivity 1x10-6 + 5x10-8M 0.918 9x10-7 + 5x10-8M 0.983
Thermal
Conductivity 0.0654 + 0.0423M 0.931 0.0167 + 0.053M 0.9647
M is the moisture content of the seeds

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