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MORNING SHIFT

Q. No. 1-25 Carry One Mark Each Solution: For Q to be orthogonal we should have

Q × QT = I Þ Q-1 = QT

1. Which one of the following matrices is singular?

Now

2 5 3 2

(A) (B)

1 3 Q−1 =

Adj. Q

2 3

Q

2 4 4 3

(C) (D) 3 −9 12 2 18 4 6 −36 6

3 6

6 2

Q = − − − + − = −1

7 49 49 7 49 49 7 49 49

Solution: −21 42 −14

(A) |A| = 3 ´ 2 - 5 = 1 49 49 49

−14 −21 −42

(B) |A| = 3 ´ 3 - 2 ´ 2 = 5 Adj. Q =

(C) |A| = 6 ´ 2 - 12 = 0; hence singular 49 49 49

−42 −14 21

(D) |A| = 4 ´ - 6 ´ 3 = -10

49 49 49

Ans. (C)

This gives

2. For the given orthogonal matrix Q, 3/7 −6/7 2/7

−1

3/7 2/7 6/7 Q = 2/7 6/7 » Q

T

3/7

6/7

Q = −6/7 3/7 2/7 2/7 −3/7

2/7 6/7 −3/7

Ans. (C)

The inverse is 3

3. At the point x = 0, the function f(x) = x has

3/7 2/7 6/7

(A) local maximum

(A) −6/7 3/7 2/7

2/7 6/7 −3/7 (B) local minimum

(C) both local maximum and minimum

−3/7 −2/7 −6/7

(D) neither local maximum nor local minimum

(B) 6/7 −3/7 −2/7

−2/7 −6/7 3/7

Solution: The graph of the function is:

y = x3

3/7 −6/7 2/7

y

(C) 2/7 3/7 6/7

6/7 2/7 −3/7

0 x

−3/7 6/7 −2/7

Point of

(D) −2/7 −3/7 −6/7 inflection

−6/7 −2/7 3/7

A2 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

At x = 0 the function f(x) = x3 has neither maxima Self-plate of base plate and steel column is

and minima, that is, it is point of inflection. neglected.

Ans. (D) Area required for base plate

Factored load

4. A column of height h with a rectangular cross- =

section of size a ´ 2a has a buckling load of P. If Bearing capacity of concrete

the cross-section is changed to 0.5a ´ 3a and its

2000 × 103

height changed to 1.5h, the buckling load of the = = 2222.22 cm2

redesigned column will be 0.45 × 20 × 106

(A) P/12 (B) P/14 Size of base plate = Area = 47.14 cm

(C) P/2 (D) 3P/4 So, length of base plate will be 48 cm.

Ans. (D)

Solution:

Case I: Cross-section of size a ´ 2a 6. The Le Chatelier apparatus is used to determine

(A) compressive strength of cement

(B) fineness of cement

2a

(C) setting time of cement

(D) soundness of cement

a

Solution: Le Chatelier apparatus is used to deter-

Here l = h. Now

mine the soundness of cement as per IS Code 4031

p 2 EI (Part-3).

P = Ans. (D)

L2

(2a)a3 7. The deformation in concrete due to sustained

p 2E

12 = p Ea

2 4 loading is

P = (A) creep

h2 6h 2

(B) hydration

Case II: Cross-section is changed to 0.5a ´ 3a

(C) segregation

(D) shrinkage

3a Solution: Creep is basically deformation due to

sustained loading, also called plastic deformation.

0.5a Ans. (A)

Here l = 1.5h. 8. A solid circular beam with radius of 0.25 m and

(3a)(0.5a)3 length of 2 m is subjected to a twisting moment of

p 2E

1 p 2 Ea4 P 20 kNm about the z-axis at the free end, which is the

Pcr = 12

2

= × 2

= only load acting as shown in the figure. The shear

(1.5h) 12 6h 12

stress component at Point `M’ in the cross-section of

Ans. (A) the beam at a distance of 1 m from the fixed end is

5. A steel column of ISHB 350 @ 72.4 kg/m is x Point M

subjected to a factored axial compressive load of 20 kNm

2000 kN. The load is transferred to a concrete ped- M

z y

estal of grade M20 through a square base plate.

Consider bearing strength of concrete as 0.45fck, 2m

Cross-section

where fck is the characteristic strength of concrete.

Using limit state method and neglecting the self (A) 0.0 MPa (B) 0.51 MPa

weight of base plate and steel column, the length of (C) 0.815 MPa (D) 2.0 MPa

a side of the base plate to be provided is Solution:

(A) 39 cm (B) 42 cm

x M

(C) 45 cm (D) 48 cm 20 kNm

M

Solution: Factored compressive (axial) load = z y

2000 kN

2m

MORNING SHIFT A3

t zy = t yz = t max =

16 T

= 0.815 MPa surface, so, Df = 0. Hence in IIIrd term unit weight of

pd 3

soil will change and in IInd term g will be unaffected.

But txy represents the share stress at free surface or

in rest of planes shear stresses are zero. Case I: When water table is at base of the footing

Hence, txy = tyx = 0.

Bg sub Ng

1

qu =

1

Ans. (A) 2

Case II: When water table level is at much greater

9. Two rectangular under-reinforced concrete beam

depth.

sections X and Y are similar in all aspects except

Bg *Ng

1

that the longitudinal compression reinforcement in qu =

2

section Y is 10% more. Which one of the following 2

is the correct statement? qu − qu

(A) Section X has less flexural strength and is less % reduction in bearing capacity = 2 1

qu

1

ductile than section Y

g * − g sub

(B) Section X has less flexural strength but is more = × 100

ductile than section Y g*

Hence g sub = 0.5g *

(C) Section X and Y have equal flexural strength

but different ductility So, reduction in % = 50%.

(D) Section X and Y have equal flexural strength Ans. (C)

and ductility 11. The width of a square footing and the diameter of

Solution: a circular footing are equal. If both the footings

are placed on the surface of sandy soil, the ratio of

0.0035 0.0035

the ultimate bearing capacity of circular footing to

that of square footing will be

N A (A) 4/3 (B) 1

N A (C) 3/4 (D) 2/3

Solution: No correction factor is required, because

footing is placed on surface.

For sandy soil, (C) = 0.

Section `x’ Section `y’

Ultimate bearing capacity of

Due to presence of more compression steel in

(i) Squaring footing

section Y, neutral axis of section of Y is above than

that of X. It means Y is more under reinforced than (q ) = CN + g D .N + 0.4B g N

u C f q g

X, so ductility of Y is more.

Since compression steel of Y is more so flexure

qu, square 0.4 4

resistance of X is less than that of Y. Now, = =

Ans. (A) qu, circular 0.3 3

According to question, ratio of circular to the

10. The percent reduction in the bearing capacity of a

square is 3/4.

strip footing resting on sand under flooding condi-

tion (water level at the base of the footing) when Ans. (C)

compared to the situation where the water level is 12. Bernoulli’s equation is applicable for

at a depth much greater than the width of footing, (A) viscous and compressible fluid flow

is approximately

(B) inviscid and compressible fluid flow

(A) 0 (B) 25 (C) inviscid and incompressible fluid flow

(C) 50 (D) 100 (D) viscous and incompressible fluid flow

Solution: Basic equation of Terzaghi’s bearing Solution: Following conditions must be satisfied

capacity equation is when Bernoulli’s equation is applied: Flow is steady

and incompressible, flow is along the stream line,

qu = CN c + qN q + Bg Ng

1

effect of friction is ignored (inviscid).

2

Ans. (C)

A4 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

13. There are 20,000 vehicles operating in a city with That is flow density relation is linear and there

an average annual travel of 12,000 km per vehicle. after speed-density relation is linear, thereby

The NOx emission rate is 2.0 g/km per vehicle. The giving a parabolic relation between flow-density.

total annual release of NOx will be q = kV

(A) 4,80,000 kg (B) 4,800 kg

Speed

(C) 480 kg (D) 48 kg

20000 ´ 12000 = 24 ´ 107 km

Total NOx emission = 2 g/km ´ 24 ´ 107 km

= 48 ´ 107 gm Density

= 48 ´ 10 kg

4

Ans. (A)

Pa

r

ea

ra

14. A bitumen sample has been graded as VG30 as per

bo

n

Li

lic

IS : 73-2013. The `30’ in the grade means that

(A) penetration of bitumen at 25°C is between 20

and 40

(B) viscosity of bitumen at 60°C is between 2400 Density

and 3600 Poise Ans. (C)

(C) ductility of bitumen at 27°C is more than

16. A well-designed signalized intersection is one in

30 cm

which the

(D) elastic recovery of bitumen at 15°C is more

(A) crossing conflicts are increased

than 30%

(B) total delay is minimized

Solution: Number 30 indicates the range of vis- (C) cycle time is equal to the sum of red and green

cosity of bitumen {(100 ± 20) ´ 30} in terms of times in all phases

Poise. Therefore VG30.

(D) cycle time is equal to the sum of red yellow

Maximum viscosity = 120 ´ 30 = 3600 poise times in all phases

Minimum viscosity = 80 ´ 30 = 2400 poise Solution: A well-designed signalized intersec-

Ans. (B) tion is one in which the total delay is minimized.

Crossing conflicts in signalized intersection are

15. The speed-density relationship for a road section is

eliminated and cycle time is the summation of all

shown in the figure.

phases: Red times or Red + Green + Amber.

Ans. (B)

Speed

Value of the z-component of the angular velocity

(in radians per unit time, up to two decimal places)

at the point (0, -1, 1) is .

Solution: Angular velocity at point (0, -1, 1) is

Density

1 ∂v ∂u

wz = −

2 ∂x ∂y

The shape of the flow-density relationship is

(A) piecewise linear

1 ∂ ∂ . 2 1

(B) parabolic = (−x.y) − y = (−y − 2y)

2 ∂x ∂y 2

(C) initially linear then parabolic

−3y

(D) initially parabolic then linear =

2

−3

Solution: Upto point where speed is constant we

3

have = × (−1) = rad/s

2 2

q = k ´ constant Ans. (1.5)

MORNING SHIFT A5

strength of 20 concrete cube specimens is given in Md

rd =

88

the table. = g/cc = 1.76

Vd 50

Number of specimens with = 1.76

F (MPa)

compressive strength equal to f

23 4

28 2 Air

22.5 5 50 cc

31 5

29 4

Soil ws = 88 gm.

If m is the mean strength of the specimens and s is

the standard deviation, the number of specimens

1 1

(out of 20) with compressive strength less than Shrinkage limit (ws) = −

m - 3s is . R G

1 1

Solution: Mean strength = −

r d /r w G

(23 × 4) + (2 × 28) + (5 × 22.5) + (5 × 31) + (4 × 29)

m= 1 1

20 = −

= 26.575 MPa 1.76 2.71

= 0.1991

Standard deviation

ws = 19.91%

∑(m − f )2

s = Ans. (19.91%)

n −1

4(26.575 − 23)2 + 2(26.575 − 28)2 + 5(26.575 − 22.5)2 + 5(26.575 − 31)2 + 4(26.575 − 29)2

s =

(20 − 1)

= 3.697 N/mm2 21. A core cutter of 130 mm height has inner and outer

Thus, m - 3s = 26.575 - 3 ´ 3696 = 15.485 MPa diameters of 100 mm and 106 mm, respectively.

The area ratio of the core cutter (in %, up to two

So number of specimens with compressive strength

decimal places) is .

less than 15.485 MPa are zero.

Ans. (0) Solution:

Aouter − Ainner

19. In a fillet weld, the direct shear stress and bend- Area ratio =

ing tensile stress are 50 MPa and 150 MPa, Ainner

respectively. p 2 p 2

D0 − Di

As per IS 800: 2007, the equivalent stress (in MPa, 1062 − 1002

= 4 4 = × 100

up to two decimal places) will be . p 2 1002

Di

Solution: 4

Direct shear stress (t) = 50 MPa = 12.36%

Bending tensile stress (s) = 150 MPa Ans. (12.36%)

According to IS 800 - 2007, Clause No. 10.5.10.1.1, 22. A 1:50 model of a spillway is to be tested in the

fu

the equivalent stress is fe = s 2 + 3t 2 ≤ laboratory. The discharge in the prototype spill-

3g mw way is 1000 m3/s. The corresponding discharge

(in m3/s, up to two decimal places) to be main-

Þ fe = 1502 + 3 × 502 = 173.20 MPa tained in the model neglecting variation in accel-

eration due to gravity, is .

Ans. (173.20 MPa)

Solution:

20. In a shrinkage limit test, the volume and mass of a

dry soil pat are found to be 50 cm3 and 88 g, respec- Qr = L5r/2

tively. The specific gravity of the soil solids is 2.71

Qm 1 5 /2

and the density of water is 1 g/cc. The shrinkage Þ =

limit (in %, up to two decimal places) is . Qp 50

A6 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

=

Qm

Þ p

1000 50

ò cos

2

26. The value of the integral x dx is

Þ Qm = 0.0566 m /sec 0.057 m /sec

3 3

0

Ans. (0.057 m3/sec) (A) p2/8 (B) p2/4

23. A 10 m wide rectangular channel carries a dis- (C) p2/2 (D) p2

charge of 20 m3/s under critical condition. Using

Solution:

g = 9.81 m/s2, the specific energy (in m, up to two

p p

decimal places) is . x x cos 2x

ò x cos x dx = ∫ 2 + dx

2

Solution: 2

0 0

q 2 1/ 3 (20/10)

2 1/ 3 x

1 x sin 2x cos 2x

yc =

x2

=

= 0.7415 = + +

g 9.81 4 2 2 4

0

EC = 1.5 yc p 1

2

1 1

+ 0 + − 0 +

(for Rectangular Channel)

=

2 4 4

Þ EC = 1.112 m 4

Ans. (1.112 m) p2

=

24. For routing of flood in a given channel using the 4

Muskingum method, two of the routing coefficients Ans. (B)

are estimated as C0 = -0.25 and C1 = 0.55. The 27. A cantilever beam of length 2 m with a square sec-

value of the third coefficient C2 would be . tion of side length 0.1 m is loaded vertically at the

Solution: According to Muskingum flood routing free end. The vertical displacement at the free end

method is 5 mm. the beam is made of steel with Young’s

modulus of 2.0 ´ 1011 N/m2. The maximum bend-

C0 + C1 + C2 = 1 ing stress at the fixed end of the cantilever is

Þ C2 = 1 - (-0.25) - 0.55 = 0.7 (A) 20.0 MPa (B) 37.5 MPa

Ans. (0.7) (C) 60.0 MPa (D) 75.0 MPa

(MSW) per year, out of which only 10% is recov- P

ered/recycled and the rest goes to landfill. The land-

fill has a single lift of 3 m height and is compacted Pl 3

to a density of 550 kg/m3. If 80% of the landfill is d= 0.1 m

3EI

assumed to be MSW, the landfill area (in m2, up to

2m 0.1 m

one decimal place) required would be .

Solution: Weight of MSW going to landfill is Deflection is given by

d =

36 × 106 kg/yr

3EI

Compacted volume of MSW = P × 22

550 kg/m3 ⇒ 5 × 10−3 m =

0.14

= 65454.5454 m /yr 3 3 × 2 × 1011 ×

12

65454.54 − 54 3

Total landfill volume = m /yr Þ P = 3125 N

0.8

= 81818.18175 m3/yr `M’ at fixed end = P ´ L = 3125 ´ 2 = 6250 Nm

s max =

M 6250

= = 37.5 × 106 N/m2

Height given = 3 m

Therefore Z 0.13 /6

81818.181

Area of landfill = = 27272.7 m2 /year = 37.5 MPa

3

Ans. (272727 m2/year) Ans. (37.5 MPa)

MORNING SHIFT A7

28. A cylinder of radius 250 mm and weight 29. A plate in equilibrium is subjected to uniform stresses

W = 10 kN is rolled up an obstacle of height along its edges with magnitude sxx = 30 MPa and

50 mm by applying a horizontal force P at its syy = 50 MPa as shown in the figure.

centre as shown in the figure. syy = 50 MPa

y

P

x sxx = 30 MPa

W 50 mm

mum value of P is

The Young’s modulus of the material is 2 ´ 1011 N/m2

(A) 4.5 kN (B) 5.0 kN

and the Poisson’s ratio is 0.3. If szz is negligibly

(C) 6.0 kN (D) 7.5 kN small and assumed to be zero, then the strain ezz is

Solution: Given r = 250 mm, W = 10 kN (A) -120 ´ 10-6 (B) -60 ´ 10-6

(C) 0.0 (D) 120 ´ 10-6

Solution:

D

P syy = 50 MPa

50 mm

W

sxx = 30 MPa

W = 10 kN

sz = 0

s xx s yy

A ∈zz = −m −m

P E E

−0.3(50 + 30)

= −6

= −120 × 10−6

B D 2 × 10 × 10

11

50 mm

C Ans. (A)

30. The figure shows a simply supported beam PQ of

uniform flexural rigidity EI carrying two moments

For rolling, the normal reaction should be zero

M and 2M.

when the cylinder just starts to roll.

M 2M

SMD = 0

P Q

P × AB − W × BD = 0 L/3 L/3 L/3

In triangle ABD

The slope at P will be

BD = AD2 − AB 2 (A) 0 (B) ML/(9EI)

= 250 − 200 = 150 mm

2 2 (C) ML/(6EI) (D) ML/(3EI)

P ´ 200 - 10 ´ 150 = 0

Solution:

M 2M

10 × 150

ÞP = = 7.5 kN P Q

200

L/3 L/3 L/3

Ans. (D)

A8 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

Conjugate Solution:

M/EI

beam P

Air

M/EI M/EI

RP RQ

Oil S = 0.6 3 m

1 L M ML

RP + RQ = × × =

2 3 EI 6EI H2O S=1 2m

SMQ = 0

1 L M 2L L 1 Hg S = 13.6 0.5 m

Þ RP × L − × + −

2 3 EI 3 9 2

L M L L 1 L M 2L Pair + (0.6 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 3) + (1 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 2)

× + + × =0

3 EI 3 9 2 3 EI 9

+ (13.6 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 0.5) = 196.2 ´ 103

Þ RP =

ML

Þ Pair = 92.214 kN/m2

6EI

Ans. (A)

Ans. (C)

33. A rapid sand filter comprising a number of filter

31. A 0.5 m ´ 0.5 m square concrete pile is to be beds is required to produce 99 MLD of potable

driven in a homogeneous clayey soil having und- water. Consider water loss during backwashing

rained shear strength, cu = 50 kPa and unit weight, as 5%, rate of filtration as 6.0 m/h and length to

g = 18.0 kN/m3. The design capacity of the pile is width ratio of filter bed as 1.35. The width of each

500 kN. The adhesion factor a is given as 0.75. The filter bed is to be kept equal to 5.2 m. One addi-

length of the pile required for the above design load tional filter bed is to be provided to take care of

with a factor of safety of 2.0 is break-down, repair and maintenance. The total

(A) 5.2 m (B) 5.8 m number of filter beds required will be

(C) 11.8 m (D) 12.5 m (A) 19 (B) 20

(C) 21 (D) 22

Solution:

Solution:

Qup = 9CB 2 + a C(4BL). 99 × 103

Water to be filtered per day =

Þ 500 ´ 2 = 9 ´ 50 ´ 0.5 ´ 0.5 + 0.75 ´ 50 (4 ´ 0.5L) 0.95

= 104210.526

Þ L = 11.83 m

104210.526

Ans. (C) Water filtered per hour = = 4342.105

24

4342.105

32. A closed tank contains 0.5 m thick layer of mercury Total surface area required = = 723.68 m2

(specify gravity = 13.6) at the bottom. A 2.0 m 6

thick layer of water lies above the mercury layer. Now L:B = 1.35; B = 5.2 m and so L = 7.02 m

A 3.0 m thick layer of oil (specific gravity = 0.6) Therefore

lies above the water layer. The space above the oil

layer contains air under pressure. The gauge pres- Surface area of one filter bed = 1.35B2 = 36.504 m2

sure at the bottom of the tank is 196.2 kN/m2. The Total number of working units required

density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and the acceleration

723.68

due to gravity is 9.81 m/s2. the value of pressure in = ≈ 20

the air space is 36.504

(A) 92.214 kN/m2 (B) 95.644 kN/m2 One unit is to be added as standby. Hence total

number of units required is 21.

(C) 98.922 kN/m2 (D) 99.321 kN/m2

Ans. (C)

MORNING SHIFT A9

34. A priority intersection has a single-lane one-way The length and direction (whole circle bearing) of

traffic road crossing an undivided two-lane two- closure, respectively, are

way traffic road. The traffic stream speed on the (A) 1 m and 90° (B) 2 m and 90°

single-lane road is 20 kmph and the speed on the

(C) 1 m and 270° (D) 2 m and 270°

two-lane road is 50 kmph. The perception-reaction

time is 2.5 s, coefficient of longitudinal friction is Solution:

0.38 and acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/s2. S Northing = 101 + 419 = 520 m

A clear sight triangle has to be ensured at this

S Southing = 473 + 83 = 556 m

intersection. The minimum lengths of the sides of

the sight triangle along the two-lane road and the S Easting = 173 + 558 = 731 m

single-lane road, respectively, will be S Westing = 96 + 634 = 730 m

(A) 50 m and 20 m (B) 61 m and 18 m

(C) 111 m and 15 m (D) 122 and 36 m

Closure

20 kmph

S Departure = 731 - 730 = 1 m

Length of closure = ΣL2 + ΣD2 = 02 + 12 = 1

50 kmph

ΣD

Direction of closure = tan−1

Solution: ΣL

1

SSD1 = 0.278Vt +

V2

= 0.278 × 50 × 2.5 +

502 = tan−1 = 90°

0

254f 254 × 0.38

So the length and direction (WCB of closure) are

= 61 m

1 m and 90°, respectively.

202 Ans. (A)

SSD2 = 0.278 × 20 × 2.5 × = 18 m

254 × 0.38 35. A square area (on the surface of the earth), with

But, as per IRC:66 of SD calculation at priority side 100 m and uniform height, appears as 1 cm2 on

intersection, the sight triangle at priority intersec- a vertical aerial photograph. The topographic map

tion should be formed by measuring a distance of shows that a contour of 650 m passes through the

15 m along minor road and distance equal to 8 sec. area. If focal length of the camera lens is 150 mm,

travel at the design speed [50 ´ 0.278 ´ 8 = 111 m] the height from which the aerial photograph was

along major road. taken, is

Hence, option (C). (A) 800 m (B) 1500 m

Ans. (C) (C) 2150 m (D) 3150 m

35. The following details refer to a closed traverse: Solution: Given A = 100 ´ 100 m2, f = 150 mm,

h = 650 m

Consecutive coordinate

f

Line Northing Southing Easting Westing S=

H −h

(m) (m) (m) (m)

150 × 10−3

Þ

1

PQ — 437 173 — =

QR 101 — 558 — 104 H − 650

RS 419 — — 96 Þ H = 2150 m

SP — 83 — 634

Ans. (C)

A10 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

37. The solution at x = 1, t = 1 of the partial dif- 39. Variation of water depth (y) in a gradually varied

∂2 u ∂2 u open channel flow is given by the first-order differ-

ferential equation = 25

subject to initial ential equation

∂t2∂x2

∂u −

10

(0) = 3 is

ln(y )

conditions of u(0) = 3x and . 1−e 3

∂t

dy

=

dx 250 − 45e−a ln(y )

Solution: Standard form of wave equation is

Given initial condition y(x = 0) = 0.8 m. The

∂2 u ∂2 u

=c 2 depth (in m, up to three decimal places) of flow at

∂t2 ∂x2 a downstream section at x = 1 m from one calcula-

where u(x, 0) = f(x) and ut(x, 0) = g(x). tion step of Single Step Euler Method is .

Given = 25 and f(x) = 3x, so g(x) = 3.

∂x ∂t

2 2 y1 = y0 + hf ¢(x0, y0)

Comparing with standard equation we have

− ln 0.8

10

1−e 3

1 1

c =

2

⇒c= Þ y1 = 0.8 + 1 −3 ln 0.8

25 5 250 − 45e

By D’Alembert’s solution of wave equation

x + ct = 0.793 m

u(x, t) = [f (x + ct) + f (x − ct)] + ∫

1 1

g(y) dy

2 2c

x−ct

x + t /5

1 t

t y0 = 0.8 m

∫

1

= 3 x + + 3 x − + 3 dy

2 5

5 2(1/5) y1

x−t / 5

= 3x + 3t x0 = 0 x1 = 1 m

When x = 1, t = 1, we have u(x, t) = 6. 1m

Ans. (D) Ans. (0.793 m)

38. The solution (up to three decimal places) at x = 1 40. An RCC short column (with lateral ties) of rect-

of the differential equation

d2y

+2

dy

+y = 0 angular cross section of 250 mm ´ 300 mm is

2 dx reinforced with four numbers of 16 mm diameter

dx

subject to boundary conditions y(0) = 1 and longitudinal bars. The grades of steel and concrete

dy are Fe415 and M20, respectively. Neglect eccen-

(0) = −1 is . tricity effect. Considering limit state of collapse in

dx

compression (IS 456:2000), the axial load carrying

Solution: capacity of the column (in kN, up to one decimal

(D 2 + 2D + 1)y = 0 (m = -1, -1) place), is .

-x

CF = (C1 + C2x)e Solution: Ultimate axial load carrying capacity of

-x -x column is given by

= C1e + C2xe

At y(0) = 1 Pu = 0.45 fcnAg + (0.75 fy - 0.45 fck)Asc

y ¢ = C1e-x + C2 (e-x - xe-x) p

(2) × 4 × × 162

At y ¢(0) = -1

4

= 918.1 kN

-1 = -C1 + C2 (3)

Ans. (918.1 kN)

From Eqs. (2) and (3)

41. An RCC beam of rectangular cross section has fac-

C1 = 1, C2 = 0 tored shear of 200 kN at its critical section. Its

Therefore y = e-x. At x = 1, y = e−1 =

1

= 0.368

width b is 250 mm and effective depth d is 350 mm.

e Assume design shear strength tc of concrete as

Ans. (0.368) 0.62 N/mm2 and maximum allowable shear stress

MORNING SHIFT A11

10 mm diameter vertical stirrups of Fe250 grade

steel are used, then the required spacing (in cm, up 9 mm

to one decimal place) as per limit state method will

be .

Solution:

6.1 mm

V 200 × 103

Nominal shear stress t v = u = = 2.286 N/mm2 200 mm

1

bd 250 × 350

Vu 200 × 103

tv = = = 2.286 N/mm2 <t cmax = 2.8 MPa

1

bd 250 × 350

Design S.F. taken by stirrups = (tv - tc)bd

= (2.286 - 0.62)250 ´ 350 = 145.75 kN

Ans. (89.9 cm3)

Now,

43. Consider the deformable pin-jointed truss with

0.87fy Asv d

Vus =

loading, geometry and section properties as shown

Sv in the figure.

p 2P

0.87 × 2 × × 102 × 250 × 350

SV = 4 Joint C

145.75 × 103

P

Sv = 82 mm = 8.2 cm

Ans. (8.2 cm)

42. The dimensions of a symmetrical welded I-section

are shown in the figure. 2AE AE L

140

9

AE

6.1

L

200

Given that E = 2 ´ 1011 N/m2, A = 10 mm2,

L = 1 m and P = 1 kN. The horizontal displace-

ment of Joint C (in mm, up to one decimal place)

is .

9 Solution:

2P

140

(All dimensions are in mm) Joint C

(in cm3, up to one decimal place) is .

Solution:

A L

Zp = (x + x2 ) 2AE AE

2 1

140 × 9 (200 − 18) × 6.1 30.5 3.05

= (35 + 35) × 2 + +

2 2 2 2

= 88200 + 1693.055 = 89893.055 mm3 = 89.9 cm3 AE

A12 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

an excavation as shown in the figure.

P C 30 Proposed

Elevation (in m)

Excavation Elevation: +20 m

P 2 20

3P

10 River

2AE AE Clay, Unit weight, g = 20 kN/m 3

0

P 2 3P Highly Pervious Sand

-10

P

The water level in the adjacent river is at elevation

AE

of +20.0 m. Unit weight of water is 10. The factor

of safety (up to two decimal places) against sand

-P 3P boiling for the proposed excavation is .

Buoyant force 10g sat 10 × 20

C P FOS = = = =1

Seepage pressure 20g w 20 × 10

2 1 Ans. (1)

45. A conventional drained triaxial compression test

was conducted on a normally consolidated clay

sample under an effective confining pressure of

2

1 200 kPa. The deviator stress at failure was found to

be 400 kPa. An identical specimen of the same clay

A 1 sample is isotropically consolidated to a confining

1

pressure of 200 kPa and subjected to standard

undrained triaxial compression test. If the deviator

1 1 stress at failure is 150 kPa, the pore pressure devel-

oped (in kPa, up to one decimal place) is .

Analysis of truss under unit load in desired

Solution: For NCC (C) = 0

direction.

CD test

Force

Force Case I

due to PkL

Member due unit L AE

external

load AE s 1 = s 2 + s 3 = 400 + 200 = 600 kPa

loading

f ′ f

-P -1 Þ s 1 = s 3 tan2 45 + + 2c tan 45° +

AB L AE PL/AE 2

2

BC -3P -1 L AE 3PL/AE

Þ f = 30°

CA 2 2PL

2P 2 2L 2AE s1 = s3 + sa

2AE

5.41PL

∑=

AE

Therefore total deflection s3

d HC = ∑ = = 2.7 mm

AE 10 × 2 × 105

Ans. (2.7 mm)

MORNING SHIFT A13

s1 = sa + s3 1 − sin 0

Ka = =1

1 + sin 0

s3 developed:

1

Pa = (40 + 80.4) × 2.349 = 141.4098

2

f ′ f ′

s 1 = s 3 tan2 45° + + 2c tan 45 +

2 2

30

(350 − u) = (200 − u) tan2 45° +

2 2c ka = 40 kPa

u = 125 kPa

Ans. (125 kPa)

2.349 m

46. The void ratio of a soil is 0.55 at an effective normal

+

stress of 140 kPa. The compression index of the soil

is 0.25. In order to reduce the void ratio to 0.4,

an increase in the magnitude of effective normal

stress(in kPa, up to one decimal place) should ka gH - 2c ka = 80.4 kPa

be .

Earth pressure when tension cracks are developed:

Solution:

2.32 m

s + ∆s

log 0

H0 Cc

∆H =

1 + e0 s 0

H0 × 0.25 140 + ∆s

= log

1 + 0.50 140

140 + ∆s

Þ = log

0.15

140

4.68 m

0.25

⇒ ∆s = 417.35 kPa

Ans. (417.35) +

vertical backface retains saturated clay as backfill.

The saturated unit weight and undrained cohesion ka gH - 2c ka = 80.4

of the backfill are 17.2 kN/m3 and 20 kPa, respec-

1

tively. The difference in the active lateral forces on Pa = + 80.4 × 4.68 = 188.136

the wall (in kN per meter length of wall, up to two 2

decimal places), before and after the occurrence of Difference = 141.4098 - 188.136 = -46.7262 kN/m2

tension cracks is .

Ans. (-46.7 kN/m2)

Solution:

48. Rainfall depth over a watershed is monitored

-2c ka through six number of well distributed rain gauges.

- 2c 2 ´ 20

= = 2.33 m Gauged data are given below:

g ka 17.2

(Depth of tension crack) Rain Gauge Number 1 2 3 4 5 6

7m

Rainfall Depth (mm) 470 465 435 525 480 510

+ Area of Thiessen

95 100 98 80 85 92

Polygon (´104 m2 )

kagH - 2c ka

A14 SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

The Thiesssen mean value (in mm, up to one deci- The carbonate hardness (expressed as mg/L of

mal place) of the rainfall is . CaCO3, up to one decimal place) for the water sample

is .

Solution: Thiessen mean value of rainfall

6

∑ PiAi 470 × 95 + 465 × 100 + 435 + 98 + 525 × 80 + 480 × 85 + 510 × 92

i =1

Pavg = =

6 95 + 100 + 98 + 80 + 85 + 92

∑ Ai

i =1

= 479.09 mm Solution:

» 479.1 mm Total hardness

60

= × 50 + × 50 mg/L as CaCO3

Ans. (479.1 mm) 30

20 12.155

49. The infiltration rate f in a basin under ponding

condition is given by f = 30 + 10e-2t, where f is in min = 273.406 mg/L as CaCO3

mm/h and t is time in hour. Total depth of infiltra- 400

Alkalinity = × 50 mg/L as CaCO3

tion (in mm, up to one decimal place) during the 61

last 20 minutes of a storm of 30 minutes duration

= 327.868 mg/L as CaCO3

is .

Solution: Infiltration rate f(t) = 30 + 10e-2t

Carbonate hardness = 273.406 mg/L as CaCO3

duration, that is t = 10 min to 30 min 52. The ultimate BOD (L0) of a wastewater sample

1/ 2 is estimated as 87% of COD. The COD of this

= ∫ f (dt) wastewater is 300 mg/L. Considering first order

BOD reaction rate constant k (use natural log)

1/ 6

= 0.23 per day and temperature coefficient q =

1/ 2

1.047, the BOD value (in mg/L, up to one decimal

= ∫ (30 + 10e−2t )dt = 11.74 mm place) after three days of incubation at 27°C for

1/ 6 this wastewater will be .

Solution: Ultimate, BOD L0 = 0.87 ´ COD =

Ans. (11.74 mm)

50. In a laboratory, a flow experiment is performed 0.87 ´ 300 = 261 mg/L

over a hydraulic structure. The measured values of −k27 ×3

discharge and velocity are 0.05 m3/s and 0.25 m/s, BOD3 = L0 (1 − e )

respectively. If the full scale structure (30 times k27 = k20 (1.047)T −20

bigger) is subjected to a discharge of 270 m3/s,

then the time scale (model to full scale) value (up For municipal sewage, at standard temperature

to two decimal places) is . value of k (base e) = 0.23 day-1. Thus, value of

0.23 day-1 given is w.r.t. the standard temperature

Solution: Using Froude law, of 20°C. So

Tr =

Tp

= Lr = 30 k27 = 0.23(1.047)27-20 = 0.317 day-1

BOD3 = 261(1 - e-0.317 ´ 3) = 160.226 mg/L

Tm

Tm 1

Time scale (model to full scale) = = = 0.18 Ans. (160.2 mg/L)

Tp 30 53. A waste activated sludge (WAS) is to be blended

Ans. (0.18) with green waste (GW). The carbon (C) and nitro-

gen (N) contents, per kg of WAS and GW, on dry

51. A water sample analysis data is given below.

basis are given in the table.

Ion Concentration, mg/L Atomic Weight

2+

Parameter WAS GW

Ca 60 40

Mg2+ 30 24.31 Carbon (g) 54 360

- Nitrogen (g) 10 6

HCO3 400 61

MORNING SHIFT A15

mal places) to achieve a blended C:N ratio of 20:1

r

n

on dry basis is . 365A 1 + − 1 × VDF × LDF

100

Solution: 20 kg of C and 1 kg of N are required. NS =

Let x kg of WAS be taken. Then r / 100

Carbon in x kg = 0.054x kg 365 × 3000(1.0615 − 1) × 4 × 0.75

Nitrogen in x kg = 0.010x kg = × 10−6

0.66

Let y kg of GW be taken. Then = 76.45 MSA

Ans. (76.45 MSA)

Carbon in y kg = 0.360y kg

55. An aircraft approaches the threshold of a runway

Nitrogen in x kg = 0.006y kg strip at a speed of 200 km/h. The pilot decelerates

Total carbon is the aircraft at a rate of 1.697 m/s2 and takes 18 s

to exit the runway strip. If the deceleration after

0.054x + 0.360y = 20 (1)

exiting the runway is 1 m/s2, then the distance (in

Total nitrogen is m, up to one decimal place) of the gate position

from the location of exit on the runway is .

0.010x + 0.006y = 1 (2)

Solution:

Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) we get x = 73.26 kg and

y = 44.566 kg. So Speed of aircraft = u1 = 200 km/h

200 × 1000

x

=

WAS

= 1.6438 = = 55.56 m/sec

y GW 3600

Ans. (1.64) Let V be the speed at runway exit. Then

54. Given the following data: design life n = 15 years, V = u + at

lane distribution factor D = 0.75, annual rate of = 55.56 - 1.697 ´ 18 = 25 m/sec

growth of commercial vehicles r = 6%, vehicle

v 2 − u2 252 − 55.562

damage factor F = 4 and initial traffic in the year Distance covered = =

of completion of construction = 3000 Commercial 2a 2 × (−1.697)

Vehicles Per Dry (CVPD). As per IRC:37-2012, = 725.09 m

the design traffic in terms of cumulative number

of standard axles (in million standard axles, up to Distance till stopping = 02 - 252/2 ´ 1 = 312.5 m

two decimal places) is . Ans. (312.5 m)

GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 16 3/27/2018 2:53:18 PM

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