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# SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

## Engineering Mathematics and Technical Section

MORNING SHIFT

Q. No. 1-25 Carry One Mark Each Solution:  For Q to be orthogonal we should have
Q × QT = I Þ Q-1 = QT
1. Which one of the following matrices is singular?
Now
 2 5  3 2
(A)   (B)  
1 3  Q−1 =
   2 3
  Q
2 4   4 3
(C)   (D)   3  −9 12  2  18 4  6  −36 6
3 6 
  6 2 
  Q =  −  −  −  +  −  = −1

7  49 49  7  49 49  7  49  49 
Solution:  −21 42 −14 
 
(A) |A| = 3 ´ 2 - 5 = 1  49 49 49 
 −14 −21 −42 
(B) |A| = 3 ´ 3 - 2 ´ 2 = 5 Adj. Q =  
(C) |A| = 6 ´ 2 - 12 = 0; hence singular  49 49 49 
 −42 −14 21 
(D) |A| = 4 ´ - 6 ´ 3 = -10  
 49 49 49 
Ans. (C)
This gives
2. For the given orthogonal matrix Q,  3/7 −6/7 2/7 
−1  
 3/7 2/7 6/7  Q =  2/7 6/7  » Q
T
3/7
  6/7
Q = −6/7 3/7 2/7   2/7 −3/7 
 2/7 6/7 −3/7 
 
Ans. (C)
The inverse is 3
3. At the point x = 0, the function f(x) = x has
 3/7 2/7 6/7 
  (A) local maximum
(A) −6/7 3/7 2/7 
 2/7 6/7 −3/7  (B) local minimum
 
(C) both local maximum and minimum
−3/7 −2/7 −6/7 
  (D) neither local maximum nor local minimum
(B)  6/7 −3/7 −2/7 
−2/7 −6/7 3/7 
Solution:  The graph of the function is:

y = x3
3/7 −6/7 2/7 
y
 
(C) 2/7 3/7 6/7 
6/7 2/7 −3/7 
 0 x
−3/7 6/7 −2/7 
  Point of
(D) −2/7 −3/7 −6/7  inflection
−6/7 −2/7 3/7 


## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 1 3/27/2018 2:52:22 PM

A2     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

At x = 0 the function f(x) = x3 has neither maxima Self-plate of base plate and steel column is
and minima, that is, it is point of inflection. neglected.
Ans. (D) Area required for base plate
4. A column of height h with a rectangular cross- =
section of size a ´ 2a has a buckling load of P. If Bearing capacity of concrete
the cross-section is changed to 0.5a ´ 3a and its
2000 × 103
height changed to 1.5h, the buckling load of the = = 2222.22 cm2
redesigned column will be 0.45 × 20 × 106
(A) P/12 (B) P/14 Size of base plate = Area = 47.14 cm
(C) P/2 (D) 3P/4 So, length of base plate will be 48 cm.
Ans. (D)
Solution:
Case I: Cross-section of size a ´ 2a 6. The Le Chatelier apparatus is used to determine
(A) compressive strength of cement
(B) fineness of cement
2a
(C) setting time of cement
(D) soundness of cement
a
Solution:  Le Chatelier apparatus is used to deter-
Here l = h. Now
mine the soundness of cement as per IS Code 4031
p 2 EI (Part-3).
P = Ans. (D)
L2
(2a)a3 7. The deformation in concrete due to sustained
p 2E
12 = p Ea
P = (A) creep
h2 6h 2
(B) hydration
Case II: Cross-section is changed to 0.5a ´ 3a
(C) segregation
(D) shrinkage
3a Solution:  Creep is basically deformation due to
0.5a Ans. (A)
Here l = 1.5h. 8. A solid circular beam with radius of 0.25 m and
(3a)(0.5a)3 length of 2 m is subjected to a twisting moment of
p 2E
1 p 2 Ea4 P 20 kNm about the z-axis at the free end, which is the
Pcr = 12
2
= × 2
= only load acting as shown in the figure. The shear
(1.5h) 12 6h 12
stress component at Point `M’ in the cross-section of
Ans. (A) the beam at a distance of 1 m from the fixed end is
5. A steel column of ISHB 350 @ 72.4 kg/m is x Point M
subjected to a factored axial compressive load of 20 kNm
2000 kN. The load is transferred to a concrete ped- M
z y
estal of grade M20 through a square base plate.
Consider bearing strength of concrete as 0.45fck, 2m
Cross-section
where fck is the characteristic strength of concrete.
Using limit state method and neglecting the self (A) 0.0 MPa (B) 0.51 MPa
weight of base plate and steel column, the length of (C) 0.815 MPa (D) 2.0 MPa
a side of the base plate to be provided is Solution:
(A) 39 cm (B) 42 cm
x M
(C) 45 cm (D) 48 cm 20 kNm
M
Solution:  Factored compressive (axial) load = z y
2000 kN
2m

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 2 3/27/2018 2:52:26 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A3

## For cohesionless soil, C = 0. Footing rests on sand

t zy = t yz = t max =
16 T
= 0.815 MPa surface, so, Df = 0. Hence in IIIrd term unit weight of
pd 3
soil will change and in IInd term g will be unaffected.
But txy represents the share stress at free surface or
in rest of planes shear stresses are zero. Case I: When water table is at base of the footing
Hence, txy = tyx = 0.
Bg sub Ng
1
qu =
1
Ans. (A) 2
Case II: When water table level is at much greater
9. Two rectangular under-reinforced concrete beam
depth.
sections X and Y are similar in all aspects except
Bg *Ng
1
that the longitudinal compression reinforcement in qu =
2
section Y is 10% more. Which one of the following 2
is the correct statement? qu − qu
(A) Section X has less flexural strength and is less % reduction in bearing capacity = 2 1

qu
1
ductile than section Y
g * − g sub
(B) Section X has less flexural strength but is more = × 100
ductile than section Y g*
Hence g sub = 0.5g *
(C) Section X and Y have equal flexural strength
but different ductility So, reduction in % = 50%.
(D) Section X and Y have equal flexural strength Ans. (C)
and ductility 11. The width of a square footing and the diameter of
Solution: a circular footing are equal. If both the footings
are placed on the surface of sandy soil, the ratio of
0.0035 0.0035
the ultimate bearing capacity of circular footing to
that of square footing will be
N A (A) 4/3 (B) 1
N A (C) 3/4 (D) 2/3
Solution:  No correction factor is required, because
footing is placed on surface.
For sandy soil, (C) = 0.
Section `x’ Section `y’
Ultimate bearing capacity of
Due to presence of more compression steel in
(i)  Squaring footing
section Y, neutral axis of section of Y is above than
that of X. It means Y is more under reinforced than (q ) = CN + g D .N + 0.4B g N
u C f q g

## (ii)  Circular footing = CN C + g Df .N q + 0.3B g Ng

X, so ductility of Y is more.
Since compression steel of Y is more so flexure
qu, square 0.4 4
resistance of X is less than that of Y. Now, = =
Ans. (A) qu, circular 0.3 3
According to question, ratio of circular to the
10. The percent reduction in the bearing capacity of a
square is 3/4.
strip footing resting on sand under flooding condi-
tion (water level at the base of the footing) when Ans. (C)
compared to the situation where the water level is 12. Bernoulli’s equation is applicable for
at a depth much greater than the width of footing, (A) viscous and compressible fluid flow
is approximately
(B) inviscid and compressible fluid flow
(A) 0 (B) 25 (C) inviscid and incompressible fluid flow
(C) 50 (D) 100 (D) viscous and incompressible fluid flow
Solution:  Basic equation of Terzaghi’s bearing Solution:  Following conditions must be satisfied
capacity equation is when Bernoulli’s equation is applied: Flow is steady
and incompressible, flow is along the stream line,
qu = CN c + qN q + Bg Ng
1
effect of friction is ignored (inviscid).
2
Ans. (C)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 3 3/27/2018 2:52:30 PM

A4     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

13. There are 20,000 vehicles operating in a city with That is flow density relation is linear and there
an average annual travel of 12,000 km per vehicle. after speed-density relation is linear, thereby
The NOx emission rate is 2.0 g/km per vehicle. The giving a parabolic relation between flow-density.
total annual release of NOx will be q = kV
(A) 4,80,000 kg (B) 4,800 kg

Speed
(C) 480 kg (D) 48 kg

## Solution:  The distance covered by all vehicle =

20000 ´ 12000 = 24 ´ 107 km
Total NOx emission = 2 g/km ´ 24 ´ 107 km
= 48 ´ 107 gm Density
= 48 ´ 10 kg
4

Ans. (A)

Pa
r
ea

ra
14. A bitumen sample has been graded as VG30 as per

bo
n
Li

lic
IS : 73-2013. The `30’ in the grade means that
(A) penetration of bitumen at 25°C is between 20
and 40
(B) viscosity of bitumen at 60°C is between 2400 Density
and 3600 Poise Ans. (C)
(C) ductility of bitumen at 27°C is more than
16. A well-designed signalized intersection is one in
30 cm
which the
(D) elastic recovery of bitumen at 15°C is more
(A) crossing conflicts are increased
than 30%
(B) total delay is minimized
Solution:  Number 30 indicates the range of vis- (C) cycle time is equal to the sum of red and green
cosity of bitumen {(100 ± 20) ´ 30} in terms of times in all phases
Poise. Therefore VG30.
(D) cycle time is equal to the sum of red yellow
Maximum viscosity = 120 ´ 30 = 3600 poise times in all phases
Minimum viscosity = 80 ´ 30 = 2400 poise Solution:  A well-designed signalized intersec-
Ans. (B) tion is one in which the total delay is minimized.
Crossing conflicts in signalized intersection are
15. The speed-density relationship for a road section is
eliminated and cycle time is the summation of all
shown in the figure.
phases: Red times or Red + Green + Amber.
Ans. (B)
Speed

## 17. A flow field is given by u = y2, v = -xy, w = 0.

Value of the z-component of the angular velocity
(in radians per unit time, up to two decimal places)
at the point (0, -1, 1) is .
Solution:  Angular velocity at point (0, -1, 1) is
Density
1  ∂v ∂u 
wz =  − 
2  ∂x ∂y 
The shape of the flow-density relationship is
(A) piecewise linear
1 ∂ ∂ . 2 1
(B) parabolic =  (−x.y) − y  = (−y − 2y)

2  ∂x ∂y  2
(C) initially linear then parabolic
−3y
(D) initially parabolic then linear =
2
−3
Solution:  Upto point where speed is constant we
3
have = × (−1) = rad/s
2 2
q = k ´ constant Ans. (1.5)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 4 3/27/2018 2:52:33 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A5

## 18. The frequency distribution of the compressive Solution:

strength of 20 concrete cube specimens is given in Md
rd =
88
the table. = g/cc = 1.76
Vd 50
Number of specimens with = 1.76
F (MPa)
compressive strength equal to f
23 4
28 2 Air
22.5 5 50 cc
31 5
29 4
Soil ws = 88 gm.
If m is the mean strength of the specimens and s is
the standard deviation, the number of specimens
1 1
(out of 20) with compressive strength less than Shrinkage limit (ws) = −
m - 3s is . R G
1 1
Solution:  Mean strength = −
r d /r w G
(23 × 4) + (2 × 28) + (5 × 22.5) + (5 × 31) + (4 × 29)
m= 1 1
20 = −
= 26.575 MPa 1.76 2.71
= 0.1991
Standard deviation
ws = 19.91%
∑(m − f )2
s = Ans. (19.91%)
n −1
4(26.575 − 23)2 + 2(26.575 − 28)2 + 5(26.575 − 22.5)2 + 5(26.575 − 31)2 + 4(26.575 − 29)2
s =
(20 − 1)

= 3.697 N/mm2 21. A core cutter of 130 mm height has inner and outer
Thus, m - 3s = 26.575 - 3 ´ 3696 = 15.485 MPa diameters of 100 mm and 106 mm, respectively.
The area ratio of the core cutter (in %, up to two
So number of specimens with compressive strength
decimal places) is .
less than 15.485 MPa are zero.
Ans. (0) Solution:
Aouter − Ainner
19. In a fillet weld, the direct shear stress and bend- Area ratio =
ing tensile stress are 50 MPa and 150 MPa, Ainner
respectively. p 2 p 2
D0 − Di
As per IS 800: 2007, the equivalent stress (in MPa, 1062 − 1002
= 4 4 = × 100
up to two decimal places) will be . p 2 1002
Di
Solution: 4
Direct shear stress (t) = 50 MPa = 12.36%
Bending tensile stress (s) = 150 MPa Ans. (12.36%)
According to IS 800 - 2007, Clause No. 10.5.10.1.1, 22. A 1:50 model of a spillway is to be tested in the
fu
the equivalent stress is fe = s 2 + 3t 2 ≤ laboratory. The discharge in the prototype spill-
3g mw way is 1000 m3/s. The corresponding discharge
(in m3/s, up to two decimal places) to be main-
Þ fe = 1502 + 3 × 502 = 173.20 MPa tained in the model neglecting variation in accel-
eration due to gravity, is .
Ans. (173.20 MPa)
Solution:
20. In a shrinkage limit test, the volume and mass of a
dry soil pat are found to be 50 cm3 and 88 g, respec- Qr = L5r/2
tively. The specific gravity of the soil solids is 2.71
Qm  1 5 /2
and the density of water is 1 g/cc. The shrinkage Þ  =  
limit (in %, up to two decimal places) is . Qp  50 

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 5 3/27/2018 2:52:39 PM

A6     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

##  1 5 /2 Q. No. 26-55 Carry Two Marks Each

=  
Qm
Þ  p
1000  50 
ò cos
2
26. The value of the integral x dx is
Þ Qm = 0.0566 m /sec  0.057 m /sec
3 3
0
Ans. (0.057 m3/sec) (A) p2/8 (B) p2/4
23. A 10 m wide rectangular channel carries a dis- (C) p2/2 (D) p2
charge of 20 m3/s under critical condition. Using
Solution:
g = 9.81 m/s2, the specific energy (in m, up to two
p p
decimal places) is . x x cos 2x 
ò x cos x dx = ∫  2 +  dx
2
Solution: 2 
0 0

q  2 1/ 3  (20/10)
2  1/ 3 x
1  x sin 2x cos 2x 
yc =  
x2
=  
 = 0.7415 = +  + 
 g   9.81  4 2  2 4 
0
EC = 1.5 yc  p 1 
2
1  1 
+ 0 +  − 0 + 
(for Rectangular Channel)
=

2  4   4 
Þ EC = 1.112 m 4
Ans. (1.112 m) p2
=
24. For routing of flood in a given channel using the 4
Muskingum method, two of the routing coefficients Ans. (B)
are estimated as C0 = -0.25 and C1 = 0.55. The 27. A cantilever beam of length 2 m with a square sec-
value of the third coefficient C2 would be . tion of side length 0.1 m is loaded vertically at the
Solution:  According to Muskingum flood routing free end. The vertical displacement at the free end
method is 5 mm. the beam is made of steel with Young’s
modulus of 2.0 ´ 1011 N/m2. The maximum bend-
C0 + C1 + C2 = 1 ing stress at the fixed end of the cantilever is
Þ C2 = 1 - (-0.25) - 0.55 = 0.7 (A) 20.0 MPa (B) 37.5 MPa
Ans. (0.7) (C) 60.0 MPa (D) 75.0 MPa

## 25. A city generates 40 ´ 106 kg of municipal solid waste Solution:

(MSW) per year, out of which only 10% is recov- P
ered/recycled and the rest goes to landfill. The land-
fill has a single lift of 3 m height and is compacted Pl 3
to a density of 550 kg/m3. If 80% of the landfill is d= 0.1 m
3EI
assumed to be MSW, the landfill area (in m2, up to
2m 0.1 m
one decimal place) required would be .
Solution:  Weight of MSW going to landfill is Deflection is given by

## 0.9 ´ 40 ´ 106 = 36 ´ 106 kg/year Pl3

d =
36 × 106 kg/yr
3EI
Compacted volume of MSW = P × 22
550 kg/m3 ⇒ 5 × 10−3 m =
0.14
= 65454.5454 m /yr 3 3 × 2 × 1011 ×
12
65454.54 − 54 3
Total landfill volume = m /yr Þ P = 3125 N
0.8
= 81818.18175 m3/yr `M’ at fixed end = P ´ L = 3125 ´ 2 = 6250 Nm

s max =
M 6250
= = 37.5 × 106 N/m2
Height given = 3 m
Therefore Z 0.13 /6
81818.181
Area of landfill = = 27272.7 m2 /year = 37.5 MPa
3
Ans. (272727 m2/year) Ans. (37.5 MPa)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 6 3/27/2018 2:52:45 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A7

28. A cylinder of radius 250 mm and weight 29. A plate in equilibrium is subjected to uniform stresses
W = 10  kN is rolled up an obstacle of height along its edges with magnitude sxx = 30 MPa and
50 mm by applying a horizontal force P at its syy = 50 MPa as shown in the figure.
centre as shown in the figure. syy = 50 MPa

y
P
x sxx = 30 MPa
W 50 mm

## All interfaces are assumed frictionless. The mini-

mum value of P is
The Young’s modulus of the material is 2 ´ 1011 N/m2
(A) 4.5 kN (B) 5.0 kN
and the Poisson’s ratio is 0.3. If szz is negligibly
(C) 6.0 kN (D) 7.5 kN small and assumed to be zero, then the strain ezz is
Solution:  Given r = 250 mm, W = 10 kN (A) -120 ´ 10-6 (B) -60 ´ 10-6
(C) 0.0 (D) 120 ´ 10-6
Solution:
D
P syy = 50 MPa

50 mm
W
sxx = 30 MPa

W = 10 kN
sz = 0

s xx s yy
A ∈zz = −m −m
P E E
−0.3(50 + 30)
= −6
= −120 × 10−6
B D 2 × 10 × 10
11
50 mm
C Ans. (A)
30. The figure shows a simply supported beam PQ of
uniform flexural rigidity EI carrying two moments
For rolling, the normal reaction should be zero
M and 2M.
when the cylinder just starts to roll.
M 2M
SMD = 0
P Q
P × AB − W × BD = 0 L/3 L/3 L/3
In triangle ABD
The slope at P will be
BD = AD2 − AB 2 (A) 0 (B) ML/(9EI)
= 250 − 200 = 150 mm
2 2 (C) ML/(6EI) (D) ML/(3EI)

P ´ 200 - 10 ´ 150 = 0
Solution:
M 2M
10 × 150
ÞP = = 7.5 kN P Q
200
L/3 L/3 L/3
Ans. (D)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 7 3/27/2018 2:52:50 PM

A8     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

Conjugate Solution:
M/EI
beam P

Air
M/EI M/EI
RP RQ
Oil S = 0.6 3 m
1 L M ML
RP + RQ = × × =
2 3 EI 6EI H2O S=1 2m
SMQ = 0

1 L M  2L L  1 Hg S = 13.6 0.5 m
Þ RP × L − ×  +  −
2 3 EI  3 9 2
L M  L L  1 L M 2L Pair + (0.6 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 3) + (1 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 2)
×  +  + × =0
3 EI  3 9  2 3 EI 9
+ (13.6 ´ 103 ´ 9.81 ´ 0.5) = 196.2 ´ 103
Þ RP =
ML
Þ Pair = 92.214 kN/m2
6EI
Ans. (A)
Ans. (C)
33. A rapid sand filter comprising a number of filter
31. A 0.5 m ´ 0.5 m square concrete pile is to be beds is required to produce 99 MLD of potable
driven in a homogeneous clayey soil having und- water. Consider water loss during backwashing
rained shear strength, cu = 50 kPa and unit weight, as 5%, rate of filtration as 6.0 m/h and length to
g = 18.0 kN/m3. The design capacity of the pile is width ratio of filter bed as 1.35. The width of each
500 kN. The adhesion factor a is given as 0.75. The filter bed is to be kept equal to 5.2 m. One addi-
length of the pile required for the above design load tional filter bed is to be provided to take care of
with a factor of safety of 2.0 is break-down, repair and maintenance. The total
(A) 5.2 m (B) 5.8 m number of filter beds required will be
(C) 11.8 m (D) 12.5 m (A) 19 (B) 20
(C) 21 (D) 22
Solution:
Solution:
Qup = 9CB 2 + a C(4BL). 99 × 103
Water to be filtered per day =
Þ 500 ´ 2 = 9 ´ 50 ´ 0.5 ´ 0.5 + 0.75 ´ 50 (4 ´ 0.5L) 0.95
= 104210.526
Þ L = 11.83 m
104210.526
Ans. (C) Water filtered per hour = = 4342.105
24
4342.105
32. A closed tank contains 0.5 m thick layer of mercury Total surface area required = = 723.68 m2
(specify gravity = 13.6) at the bottom. A 2.0  m 6
thick layer of water lies above the mercury layer. Now L:B = 1.35; B = 5.2 m and so L = 7.02 m
A 3.0 m thick layer of oil (specific gravity = 0.6) Therefore
lies above the water layer. The space above the oil
layer contains air under pressure. The gauge pres- Surface area of one filter bed = 1.35B2 = 36.504 m2
sure at the bottom of the tank is 196.2 kN/m2. The Total number of working units required
density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and the acceleration
723.68
due to gravity is 9.81 m/s2. the value of pressure in = ≈ 20
the air space is 36.504

(A) 92.214 kN/m2 (B) 95.644 kN/m2 One unit is to be added as standby. Hence total
number of units required is 21.
(C) 98.922 kN/m2 (D) 99.321 kN/m2
Ans. (C)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 8 3/27/2018 2:52:53 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A9

34. A priority intersection has a single-lane one-way The length and direction (whole circle bearing) of
traffic road crossing an undivided two-lane two- closure, respectively, are
way traffic road. The traffic stream speed on the (A) 1 m and 90° (B) 2 m and 90°
single-lane road is 20 kmph and the speed on the
(C) 1 m and 270° (D) 2 m and 270°
two-lane road is 50 kmph. The perception-reaction
time is 2.5 s, coefficient of longitudinal friction is Solution:
0.38 and acceleration due to gravity is 9.81 m/s2. S Northing = 101 + 419 = 520 m
A clear sight triangle has to be ensured at this
S Southing = 473 + 83 = 556 m
intersection. The minimum lengths of the sides of
the sight triangle along the two-lane road and the S Easting = 173 + 558 = 731 m
single-lane road, respectively, will be S Westing = 96 + 634 = 730 m
(A) 50 m and 20 m (B) 61 m and 18 m
(C) 111 m and 15 m (D) 122 and 36 m

Closure

20 kmph

## S Latitude = 520 - 520 = 0

S Departure = 731 - 730 = 1 m
Length of closure = ΣL2 + ΣD2 = 02 + 12 = 1
50 kmph
 ΣD 
Direction of closure = tan−1 
Solution:  ΣL 
1
SSD1 = 0.278Vt +
V2
= 0.278 × 50 × 2.5 +
502 = tan−1   = 90°
 0 
254f 254 × 0.38
So the length and direction (WCB of closure) are
= 61 m
1 m and 90°, respectively.
202 Ans. (A)
SSD2 = 0.278 × 20 × 2.5 × = 18 m
254 × 0.38 35. A square area (on the surface of the earth), with
But, as per IRC:66 of SD calculation at priority side 100 m and uniform height, appears as 1 cm2 on
intersection, the sight triangle at priority intersec- a vertical aerial photograph. The topographic map
tion should be formed by measuring a distance of shows that a contour of 650 m passes through the
15 m along minor road and distance equal to 8 sec. area. If focal length of the camera lens is 150 mm,
travel at the design speed [50 ´ 0.278 ´ 8 = 111 m] the height from which the aerial photograph was
Hence, option (C). (A) 800 m (B) 1500 m
Ans. (C) (C) 2150 m (D) 3150 m
35. The following details refer to a closed traverse: Solution:  Given A = 100 ´ 100 m2, f = 150 mm,
h = 650 m
Consecutive coordinate
f
Line Northing Southing Easting Westing S=
H −h
(m) (m) (m) (m)
150 × 10−3
Þ
1
PQ — 437 173 — =
QR 101 — 558 — 104 H − 650
RS 419 — — 96 Þ H = 2150 m
SP — 83 — 634
Ans. (C)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 9 3/27/2018 2:52:56 PM

A10     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

37. The solution at x = 1, t = 1 of the partial dif- 39. Variation of water depth (y) in a gradually varied
∂2 u ∂2 u open channel flow is given by the first-order differ-
ferential equation = 25
subject to initial ential equation
∂t2∂x2
∂u −
10
(0) = 3 is
ln(y )
conditions of u(0) = 3x and . 1−e 3
∂t
dy
=
dx 250 − 45e−a ln(y )
Solution: Standard form of wave equation is
Given initial condition y(x = 0) = 0.8 m. The
∂2 u ∂2 u
=c 2 depth (in m, up to three decimal places) of flow at
∂t2 ∂x2 a downstream section at x = 1 m from one calcula-
where u(x, 0) = f(x) and ut(x, 0) = g(x). tion step of Single Step Euler Method is .

## ∂2 u ∂2 u Solution:  According to Euler Method

Given = 25 and f(x) = 3x, so g(x) = 3.
∂x ∂t
2 2 y1 = y0 + hf ¢(x0, y0)
Comparing with standard equation we have
 − ln 0.8 
10

 1−e 3 
1 1
c =
2
⇒c= Þ y1 = 0.8 + 1  −3 ln 0.8 
25 5  250 − 45e 
By D’Alembert’s solution of wave equation  
x + ct = 0.793 m
u(x, t) = [f (x + ct) + f (x − ct)] + ∫
1 1
g(y) dy
2 2c
x−ct
 x + t /5 
1   t  
 t   y0 = 0.8 m

1
= 3 x +  + 3 x −  + 3 dy 
2   5 
 5  2(1/5)  y1
 x−t / 5 
= 3x + 3t x0 = 0 x1 = 1 m
When x = 1, t = 1, we have u(x, t) = 6. 1m
Ans. (D) Ans. (0.793 m)
38. The solution (up to three decimal places) at x = 1 40. An RCC short column (with lateral ties) of rect-
of the differential equation
d2y
+2
dy
+y = 0 angular cross section of 250 mm ´ 300 mm is
2 dx reinforced with four numbers of 16 mm diameter
dx
subject to boundary conditions y(0) = 1 and longitudinal bars. The grades of steel and concrete
dy are Fe415 and M20, respectively. Neglect eccen-
(0) = −1 is . tricity effect. Considering limit state of collapse in
dx
compression (IS 456:2000), the axial load carrying
Solution: capacity of the column (in kN, up to one decimal
(D 2 + 2D + 1)y = 0 (m = -1, -1) place), is .
-x
CF = (C1 + C2x)e Solution:  Ultimate axial load carrying capacity of
-x -x column is given by
= C1e + C2xe
At y(0) = 1 Pu = 0.45 fcnAg + (0.75 fy - 0.45 fck)Asc

## 1 = C1 (1) = 0.45 × 20 × 250 × 300 + (0.75 × 415 − 0.45 × 20)

y ¢ = C1e-x + C2 (e-x - xe-x) p
(2) × 4 × × 162
At y ¢(0) = -1
4
= 918.1 kN
-1 = -C1 + C2 (3)
Ans. (918.1 kN)
From Eqs. (2) and (3)
41. An RCC beam of rectangular cross section has fac-
C1 = 1, C2 = 0 tored shear of 200 kN at its critical section. Its
Therefore y = e-x. At x = 1, y = e−1 =
1
= 0.368
width b is 250 mm and effective depth d is 350 mm.
e Assume design shear strength tc of concrete as
Ans. (0.368) 0.62 N/mm2 and maximum allowable shear stress

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 10 3/27/2018 2:53:00 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A11

## tc,max in concrete as 2.8 N/mm2. If two legged x1 = 35 x2 = 35

10  mm diameter vertical stirrups of Fe250 grade
steel are used, then the required spacing (in cm, up 9 mm
to one decimal place) as per limit state method will
be .
Solution:
6.1 mm
V 200 × 103
Nominal shear stress t v = u = = 2.286 N/mm2 200 mm
1
bd 250 × 350
Vu 200 × 103
tv = = = 2.286 N/mm2 <t cmax = 2.8 MPa
1
bd 250 × 350
Design S.F. taken by stirrups = (tv - tc)bd
= (2.286 - 0.62)250 ´ 350 = 145.75 kN
Ans. (89.9 cm3)
Now,
43. Consider the deformable pin-jointed truss with
0.87fy Asv d
Vus =
Sv in the figure.
p 2P
0.87 × 2 × × 102 × 250 × 350
SV = 4 Joint C
145.75 × 103
P
Sv = 82 mm = 8.2 cm
Ans. (8.2 cm)
42. The dimensions of a symmetrical welded I-section
are shown in the figure. 2AE AE L
140

9
AE

6.1
L
200
Given that E = 2 ´ 1011 N/m2, A = 10 mm2,
L = 1 m and P = 1 kN. The horizontal displace-
ment of Joint C (in mm, up to one decimal place)
is .
9 Solution:
2P
140
(All dimensions are in mm) Joint C

## The plastic section modulus about the weaker axis P

(in cm3, up to one decimal place) is .
Solution:
A L
Zp = (x + x2 ) 2AE AE
2 1
 140 × 9   (200 − 18) × 6.1   30.5 3.05 
= (35 + 35) × 2 +    + 
 2   2   2 2 
= 88200 + 1693.055 = 89893.055 mm3 = 89.9 cm3 AE

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 11 3/27/2018 2:53:04 PM

A12     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

## 2P 44. At a construction site, a contractor plans to make

an excavation as shown in the figure.

P C 30 Proposed

Elevation (in m)
Excavation Elevation: +20 m
P 2 20
3P
10 River
2AE AE Clay, Unit weight, g = 20 kN/m 3
0
P 2 3P Highly Pervious Sand
-10
P
The water level in the adjacent river is at elevation
AE
of +20.0 m. Unit weight of water is 10. The factor
of safety (up to two decimal places) against sand
-P 3P boiling for the proposed excavation is .

Buoyant force 10g sat 10 × 20
C P FOS = = = =1
Seepage pressure 20g w 20 × 10
2 1 Ans. (1)
45. A conventional drained triaxial compression test
was conducted on a normally consolidated clay
sample under an effective confining pressure of
2
1 200 kPa. The deviator stress at failure was found to
be 400 kPa. An identical specimen of the same clay
A 1 sample is isotropically consolidated to a confining
1
pressure of 200 kPa and subjected to standard
undrained triaxial compression test. If the deviator
1 1 stress at failure is 150 kPa, the pore pressure devel-
oped (in kPa, up to one decimal place) is .
Analysis of truss under unit load in desired
Solution:  For NCC (C) = 0
direction.
CD test
Force
Force Case I
due to PkL
Member due unit L AE
external
load AE s 1 = s 2 + s 3 = 400 + 200 = 600 kPa
 f ′  f
-P -1 Þ s 1 = s 3 tan2 45 +  + 2c tan 45° + 
AB L AE PL/AE  2 
 2
BC -3P -1 L AE 3PL/AE
Þ f = 30°
CA 2 2PL
2P 2 2L 2AE s1 = s3 + sa
2AE

5.41PL
∑=
AE
Therefore total deflection s3

## PkL 5.414 × 103 × 103

d HC = ∑ = = 2.7 mm
AE 10 × 2 × 105
Ans. (2.7 mm)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 12 3/27/2018 2:53:09 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A13

## Case II For clay, f = 0, so

s1 = sa + s3 1 − sin 0
Ka = =1
1 + sin 0

## Earth pressure when tension cracks are not

s3 developed:
1
Pa = (40 + 80.4) × 2.349 = 141.4098
2

 f ′  f ′
s 1 = s 3 tan2 45° +  + 2c tan 45 + 
 2  2
 30 
(350 − u) = (200 − u) tan2 45° + 
 2 2c ka = 40 kPa
u = 125 kPa
Ans. (125 kPa)

2.349 m
46. The void ratio of a soil is 0.55 at an effective normal
+
stress of 140 kPa. The compression index of the soil
is 0.25. In order to reduce the void ratio to 0.4,
an increase in the magnitude of effective normal
stress(in kPa, up to one decimal place) should ka gH - 2c ka = 80.4 kPa
be .
Earth pressure when tension cracks are developed:
Solution:

2.32 m
s + ∆s 
log  0
H0 Cc
∆H = 
1 + e0  s 0 
H0 × 0.25 140 + ∆s 
= log 
1 + 0.50  140 

140 + ∆s 
Þ  = log 
0.15
 140 
4.68 m

0.25
⇒ ∆s = 417.35 kPa
Ans. (417.35) +

## 47. A rigid smooth retaining wall of height 7 m with

vertical backface retains saturated clay as backfill.
The saturated unit weight and undrained cohesion ka gH - 2c ka = 80.4
of the backfill are 17.2 kN/m3 and 20 kPa, respec-
1
tively. The difference in the active lateral forces on Pa = + 80.4 × 4.68 = 188.136
the wall (in kN per meter length of wall, up to two 2
decimal places), before and after the occurrence of Difference = 141.4098 - 188.136 = -46.7262 kN/m2
tension cracks is .
Ans. (-46.7 kN/m2)
Solution:
48. Rainfall depth over a watershed is monitored
-2c ka through six number of well distributed rain gauges.
- 2c 2 ´ 20
= = 2.33 m Gauged data are given below:
g ka 17.2
(Depth of tension crack) Rain Gauge Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
7m
Rainfall Depth (mm) 470 465 435 525 480 510
+ Area of Thiessen
95 100 98 80 85 92
Polygon (´104 m2 )
kagH - 2c ka

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 13 3/27/2018 2:53:13 PM

A14     SOLVED GATE (CIVIL ENGG) 2018

The Thiesssen mean value (in mm, up to one deci- The carbonate hardness (expressed as mg/L of
mal place) of the rainfall is . CaCO3, up to one decimal place) for the water sample
is .
Solution:  Thiessen mean value of rainfall
6
∑ PiAi 470 × 95 + 465 × 100 + 435 + 98 + 525 × 80 + 480 × 85 + 510 × 92
i =1
Pavg = =
6 95 + 100 + 98 + 80 + 85 + 92
∑ Ai
i =1

= 479.09 mm Solution:
» 479.1 mm Total hardness
 60 
=  × 50 + × 50 mg/L as CaCO3
Ans. (479.1 mm) 30
 20 12.155 
49. The infiltration rate f in a basin under ponding
condition is given by f = 30 + 10e-2t, where f  is in min = 273.406 mg/L as CaCO3
mm/h and t is time in hour. Total depth of infiltra-  400 
Alkalinity =  × 50 mg/L as CaCO3
tion (in mm, up to one decimal place) during the  61 
last 20 minutes of a storm of 30 minutes duration
= 327.868 mg/L as CaCO3
is .
Solution:  Infiltration rate f(t) = 30 + 10e-2t
Carbonate hardness = 273.406 mg/L as CaCO3

## Infiltration during last 20 min of a storm of 30 min Ans. (273.406 mg/L)

duration, that is t = 10 min to 30 min 52. The ultimate BOD (L0) of a wastewater sample
1/ 2 is estimated as 87% of COD. The COD of this
= ∫ f (dt) wastewater is 300 mg/L. Considering first order
BOD reaction rate constant k (use natural log)
1/ 6
= 0.23 per day and temperature coefficient q =
1/ 2
1.047, the BOD value (in mg/L, up to one decimal
= ∫ (30 + 10e−2t )dt = 11.74 mm place) after three days of incubation at 27°C for
1/ 6 this wastewater will be .
Solution:  Ultimate, BOD L0 = 0.87 ´ COD =
Ans. (11.74 mm)
50. In a laboratory, a flow experiment is performed 0.87 ´ 300 = 261 mg/L
over a hydraulic structure. The measured values of −k27 ×3
discharge and velocity are 0.05 m3/s and 0.25 m/s, BOD3 = L0 (1 − e )
respectively. If the full scale structure (30 times k27 = k20 (1.047)T −20
bigger) is subjected to a discharge of 270 m3/s,
then the time scale (model to full scale) value (up For municipal sewage, at standard temperature
to two decimal places) is . value of k (base e) = 0.23 day-1. Thus, value of
0.23 day-1 given is w.r.t. the standard temperature
Solution:  Using Froude law, of 20°C. So

Tr =
Tp
= Lr = 30 k27 = 0.23(1.047)27-20 = 0.317 day-1
BOD3 = 261(1 - e-0.317 ´ 3) = 160.226 mg/L
Tm
Tm 1
Time scale (model to full scale) = = = 0.18 Ans. (160.2 mg/L)
Tp 30 53. A waste activated sludge (WAS) is to be blended
Ans. (0.18) with green waste (GW). The carbon (C) and nitro-
gen (N) contents, per kg of WAS and GW, on dry
51. A water sample analysis data is given below.
basis are given in the table.
Ion Concentration, mg/L Atomic Weight
2+
Parameter WAS GW
Ca 60 40
Mg2+ 30 24.31 Carbon (g) 54 360
- Nitrogen (g) 10 6
HCO3 400 61

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 14 3/27/2018 2:53:16 PM

MORNING SHIFT     A15

## The ratio of WAS to GW required (up to two deci- Solution:

mal places) to achieve a blended C:N ratio of 20:1
 r 
n 
on dry basis is . 365A 1 +  − 1 × VDF × LDF
 100  
Solution:  20 kg of C and 1 kg of N are required. NS =
Let x kg of WAS be taken. Then r / 100
Carbon in x kg = 0.054x kg 365 × 3000(1.0615 − 1) × 4 × 0.75
Nitrogen in x kg = 0.010x kg = × 10−6
0.66
Let y kg of GW be taken. Then = 76.45 MSA
Ans. (76.45 MSA)
Carbon in y kg = 0.360y kg
55. An aircraft approaches the threshold of a runway
Nitrogen in x kg = 0.006y kg strip at a speed of 200 km/h. The pilot decelerates
Total carbon is the aircraft at a rate of 1.697 m/s2 and takes 18 s
to exit the runway strip. If the deceleration after
0.054x + 0.360y = 20 (1)
exiting the runway is 1 m/s2, then the distance (in
Total nitrogen is m, up to one decimal place) of the gate position
from the location of exit on the runway is .
0.010x + 0.006y = 1 (2)
Solution:
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) we get x = 73.26 kg and
y = 44.566 kg. So Speed of aircraft = u1 = 200 km/h
200 × 1000
x
=
WAS
= 1.6438 = = 55.56 m/sec
y GW 3600
Ans. (1.64) Let V be the speed at runway exit. Then
54. Given the following data: design life n = 15 years, V = u + at
lane distribution factor D = 0.75, annual rate of = 55.56 - 1.697 ´ 18 = 25 m/sec
growth of commercial vehicles r = 6%, vehicle
v 2 − u2 252 − 55.562
damage factor F = 4 and initial traffic in the year Distance covered = =
of completion of construction = 3000 Commercial 2a 2 × (−1.697)
Vehicles Per Dry (CVPD). As per IRC:37-2012, = 725.09 m
the design traffic in terms of cumulative number
of standard axles (in million standard axles, up to Distance till stopping = 02 - 252/2 ´ 1 = 312.5 m
two decimal places) is . Ans. (312.5 m)

## GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 15 3/27/2018 2:53:17 PM

GATE-Civil Engg_Morning Shift_2018.indd 16 3/27/2018 2:53:18 PM