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APL102 Lectue 2

- 1977 Chemtrail Report
- Thermo
- Robijn - The Return to Oikonomia 2015
- Gromacs Development
- ME2202 (1).pdf
- RRV1
- Entropy Generation at the Onset of Natural Convection
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- dec.-2013
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- Basic Thermodynamics July 2013
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- Alex Hankey - The Vedic Interpretation of Quantum Theory
- Lecture29_30
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- Syllabus
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- gaia y máxima entropía en los ecosistemas

You are on page 1of 39

1

Time Institute

Day Group name by CC

Groups

1

Monday 3:00 to 5:00 pm 1

2

Recap

• Materials Tetrahedron

Structure-Processing-Properties-Performance

Engineering Materials

4

Examples of Each Material Family

other!! 5

Materials: engineering, science, processing and design, 2nd edition Copyright (c)2010 Michael Ashby, Hugh Shercliff, David Cebon

Equilibrium and Kinetics:

A Review

Why imp. to review the concepts of

Equilibrium and kinetics??

in the material

Equilibrium

Concept of stability and metastability

2

1

3

Mechanical push to

overcome

activation barrier

System automatically

attains the stable state

Otherwise Unstable

State of Materials

metastable state: Al, Fe

of Fe??

of great use for engineers

Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic Properties

Intensive properties: independent of mass

Pressure

Temperature

Internal energy

Enthalpy

Thermodynamic Properties

U = internal energy

heat q. Thus the total change in the internal energy of

the body, U, is

ΔU = q-w

dU = dq – dw

at constant P, dw = PdV

15

Thermodynamic Properties

16

Thermodynamic Properties

17

Demonstration of PV term in solid

= 0.716 J

U = 6 x 56.4 KJ/mole

= 338.4 KJ

interchangeably in case of solids

Can we use H or U to determine the

stability of the system??

stability criterion

Entropy

The entropy of a system can be defined by two

components:

independent

solids

Thermal Entropy

Any atom can have three kinds of motion

1)Oscillatory

2)Rotational

3)Translational

Thermal Energy

Atoms in solid oscillate about mean position

with varying amplitude and directions

T , frequency

This oscillatory energy available can be

defined as—Average energy per atom

per mode of oscillation = KT

Thermal energy

K = Boltzmann constant

1.38 x 10-23 J/K

mode of oscillation is NKT=RT

In crystalline solids, large ensemble of

atoms, some may loose energy while others

may gain

average energy

has energy ≥ E* at a given T

n E *

exp

N kT

Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

n E *

exp

N kT

at temperature T

Configurational Entropy

Boltzmann’s

Epitaph

S k lnW

W is the number of

configurations having the

same energy

N!

W Cn

N

n!( N n)!

If n>>1

Stirling’s Approximation

ln n! n ln n n

S k ln W

N!

k ln

n!( N n)!

k[ N ln N n ln n ( N n) ln( N n)]

Free Energy

Gibbs Free Energy

G H TS

F U TS

interchangeably

The variation of G with temperature

Gibbs Free Energy

G H TS

≡ minimization of G

Global minimum ≡ stable equilibrium

G = GfinalGinitial

G = 0 reversible change

G < 0 irreversible or

spontaneous change

G > 0 impossible

Kinetics

Kinetics

Arrhenius plot

Q

rate A exp

RT

ln (rate)

Q

slope

R

1

T

Consider a reaction between different

atomic species A, B and C:

A and BC must come into contact, the bond between B and

C must be broken and the bond between A and B must be

formed. This usually involves an intermediate step through

which the reaction has to proceed:

38

Q

energy equal to or greater than that of the activation barrier, as well as

to the vibrational frequency.

39

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