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# APL102- Introduction to Materials

## Science and Engineering

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Time Institute
Day Group name by CC
Groups

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Monday 3:00 to 5:00 pm 1

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Recap

## • Significance of Materials Science

• Materials Tetrahedron
Structure-Processing-Properties-Performance

## • Broad Classification of Materials

Engineering Materials

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Examples of Each Material Family

## Our daily life uses most of them in some form or the

other!! 5
Materials: engineering, science, processing and design, 2nd edition Copyright (c)2010 Michael Ashby, Hugh Shercliff, David Cebon
Equilibrium and Kinetics:
A Review
Why imp. to review the concepts of
Equilibrium and kinetics??

in the material

## e.g. change in shape, size, composition, structure

Equilibrium
Concept of stability and metastability

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3

## 1. Metastable, 2. Unstable, 3. Stable

Mechanical push to
overcome
activation barrier

System automatically
attains the stable state
Otherwise Unstable

## Local Minimum - METASTABLE

State of Materials

## The materials which we are using in

metastable state: Al, Fe

of Fe??

## May be the most stable state may not be

of great use for engineers
Thermodynamic Properties
Thermodynamic Properties
Intensive properties: independent of mass

Pressure
Temperature

## Extensive properties: dependent on mass

Internal energy
Enthalpy
Thermodynamic Properties
U = internal energy

## Consider a body, which performs work w and absorbs

heat q. Thus the total change in the internal energy of
the body, U, is

ΔU = q-w

dU = dq – dw

at constant P, dw = PdV
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Thermodynamic Properties

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Thermodynamic Properties

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Demonstration of PV term in solid

## PV = 0.1 x 106 N/m2 x 7.09 x 10-6 m3

= 0.716 J

U = 6 x 56.4 KJ/mole
= 338.4 KJ

## Hence H and U terms can be used

interchangeably in case of solids
Can we use H or U to determine the
stability of the system??

## So now we have to look at some other

stability criterion

## Lets just first define entropy…

Entropy
The entropy of a system can be defined by two
components:

independent

## No. 2 is only possible in case of crystalline

solids
Thermal Entropy
Any atom can have three kinds of motion

1)Oscillatory

2)Rotational

3)Translational
Thermal Energy
Atoms in solid oscillate about mean position
with varying amplitude and directions

T , frequency

## ν = 1013 s-1 around 200 K

This oscillatory energy available can be
defined as—Average energy per atom
per mode of oscillation = KT
Thermal energy
K = Boltzmann constant
1.38 x 10-23 J/K

## Average thermal energy per mole of atoms per

mode of oscillation is NKT=RT
In crystalline solids, large ensemble of
atoms, some may loose energy while others
may gain

average energy

## The probability that in an ensemble a specie

has energy ≥ E* at a given T
n  E  *
 exp  
N  kT 
Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

n  E  *
 exp  
N  kT 

## Fraction of atoms having an energy  E*

at temperature T
Configurational Entropy
Boltzmann’s
Epitaph

S  k lnW
W is the number of
configurations having the
same energy
N!
W  Cn 
N

n!( N  n)!

## N=16, n=8, W=12,870

If n>>1

Stirling’s Approximation
ln n! n ln n  n
S  k ln W
N!
 k ln
n!( N  n)!
 k[ N ln N  n ln n  ( N  n) ln( N  n)]
Free Energy
Gibbs Free Energy
G  H  TS

F  U  TS

## In solids since H ≈ U, G and F are used

interchangeably
The variation of G with temperature
Gibbs Free Energy
G  H  TS

## Condition for equilibrium

≡ minimization of G

## Local minimum ≡ metastable equilibrium

Global minimum ≡ stable equilibrium
G = GfinalGinitial

G = 0  reversible change

G < 0  irreversible or
spontaneous change

G > 0  impossible
Kinetics
Kinetics
Arrhenius plot
 Q 
rate  A exp  
 RT 
ln (rate)

Q
slope  
R

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T
Consider a reaction between different
atomic species A, B and C:

## For this reaction to go in the forward direction as indicated,

A and BC must come into contact, the bond between B and
C must be broken and the bond between A and B must be
formed. This usually involves an intermediate step through
which the reaction has to proceed:

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Q

## The rate of the reaction is proportional to the number of species n with

energy equal to or greater than that of the activation barrier, as well as
to the vibrational frequency.

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