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Practical Research I  Preservation and improvement of the quality of human life

 Discover new facts or new “truths”

 Share research experiences and knowledge
 Find answer to a problem
 Explain the importance of RESEARCH IN OUR DAILY LIFE
 Improve existing method or techniques
Nature of Inquiry & Research
Purpose of Research (students)
 Inquiry
 Improve reading & writing skills
- To look for information by asking various questions about the thing you are curious
 Familiarity to the basic tools and types of researching gathering data and
- Learning process that motivates you too obtain knowledge or information about presenting research findings
people, things places, or events
 To avoid spoonfeeding
 Research
 To work independently
- Discover truths by investigating on your chosen topic scientifically
 scientific/systematic
- Derived from a French word “cerchier” meaning to seek or search
 In depth knowledge
- A process of scientific thinking which lead to discovery or establishment of new
knowledge and truth  Developed Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

- Analogous to inquiry (both involved investigations of something through Characteristics of Research

1. Accuracy - data/references
- Process of executing various mental acts for discovering and examining facts and
information to prove the accuracy or truthfulness of your claims or conclusions about 2. Objectiveness - facts/not opinion
the topic of research
3. Timeliness - fresh/new and interesting
- Find answer to a problem
4. Relevance-instrumental in society
- Improve existing methods and techniques
5. Clarity-simple/direct/concise/correct language
Why do we need to conduct research? 6. Systematic-organized/ and orderly manner
 For more explanations, for verifiable truth, to make discoveries
Essential Factors in Research
 Preservation and improvement of the quality of human life
 men
 Discover new facts or new “truths”
 money
 Find answer to a problem
 materials
 Improve existing method or techniques
Good Research
Purpose of Research
 Produce – processible result, specific result, generalizable result, interpretable S – Scientific
E – Effective
 Gathers new data, solve problems, develop theories, requires expertise, logical
and objective, carefully recorded and reported, with accurate observation and A – Active
description R – resourceful

Difficulties Encountered in Research C – Creative

 Recognizing the problem H – honest

 Duplication E – Economical

 Indifference of people to research R - Religious

Factors in selection of research problem Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

 External factors Points of comparison Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Type of data not-numerical numerical
 novelty, importance in the field, availability of data and method, institutional or
Process involved Analysis/observation/Theme devices/observation
administrative cooperation
 Personal factors Parts (Chapter1) Assumptions/conceptual m Hypothesis of the study/conce
(chapter3) odel ptual framework
 interest, training, cost, time etc.
Treatment of data No statistical Treatment with statistical treatment
Ethics of Research  Qualitative research requires non-numerical data, which means that the research
uses words rather than numbers to express results, the inquiry or investigation
about people’s thoughts, beliefs, feelings, views, and lifestyle regarding the
What are not research problem?
object of the study.
 Self enlightenment, personal problem
 Quantitative research-involves measurement of data; presents findings referring
 Comparing two sets of data to the number of frequency of something in numerical forms (percentage,
fractions, and numbers)
 Answerable by yes or no
Classify the following according to categories: quantity/ quality (quantifiable and not
 Ethical or moral question quantifiable)

 Does not require mental struggle Behavior, attitude, color, height, texture, smell, appearance, weight, heart rate,
speed, culture, IQ, EQ, academic performance
 Can be answered by a machine
Quantity Quality
 Metaphysical question ( is there a god?) IQ Behavior
Height Attitude
Researcher must be : Calmorin (2004)
Weight Color
R – research oriented Heart rate Smell
Academic performance Culture
E – efficient
Speed EQ 1. Case-Study
-long time study of a person, group, organization & situation
2. Ethnography

Characteristics, Strengths, Weaknesses & Kinds Of Qualitative Research -study of particular cultural group to get clear understanding of its organizational
set-& lifestyle
 Qualitative Research
-nature, characteristics, of culture
 an act of inquiry or investigation of real life events
3. Phenomenology
 put premium or high value on people’s thinking or point of view conditioned by
- Study on how people find their experiences meaningful.
their personal traits
- To make people understands their experiences about the death of their loved
 Takes place in soft sciences like social sciences, politics, economics, humanities,
ones, care for handicapped person, friendliness of people, etc.
education, psychology, nursing, & all business-related subjects
4. Content & Discourse Analysis
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
-study on the language structure to discover its effects of sociological, cultural,
 Human understanding & interpretation (individual’s mental, social, and spiritual institutional, and ideological factors on the content
understanding/values, beliefs, likes and dislikes)
-uses a set of questions as a guide in the analysis
 Active ,powerful & forceful(not fixed, varied ways of getting answers)
5. Historical Analysis
 Multiple research approaches & methods (varied, descriptive, exploratory,
explanatory case study, etc.) -examination of primary documents to make you understand the connection of
past events to the present times
 Specificity to generalization
-result will help you specify changes in unchanged aspects of society through the
 Specific ideas directed to general understanding of something/inductive years
 Simple-complex (conclusions & generalization) 6. Grounded Theory
 Contextualization (involves all variables, factors, or conditions/understand -discover new theories to underlie your study at the time of data collection and
human behaviour) analysis through your observation on your subjects, you will happen to find a theory
that applies on your current study
 Diversified data in real life in a situation(data are collected in natural setting)
-interview, observation and documentary analysis are the data gathering
 Abounds with words and visuals
techniques for this type of research
 -with big quantity of words/all done verbally/presenting people’s worldviews in
pictures, drawings, videos, &graphs Strengths of Qualitative Research

 Internal analysis -examines data traits of subject individuals, people’s perception,  Naturalistic approach (understand things based on what they find meaningful)
investigation centers on theories & principles
 Promotes full understanding of human behavior/ personality traits in their natural
Kinds of Qualitative Research setting

 Instrumental for positive societal changes

 Way of understanding and interpreting social interactions - It allows control of variables or factors affecting the study

 Increases the researcher’s interest in the study as it includes the researcher’s - Collect data in controlled ways through questionnaires or structured interviews
experience or background knowledge in interpreting verbal and visual data
- Data collected are recorded in numerical or statistical forms using numbers,
 Offers multiple ways of acquiring and examining knowledge about something percentages, fractions and the like.(quantitative data)

Weaknesses of Qualitative Research Example: Field of medicine

 A lot of researcher’s activity To produce a medicine; a medical researcher subjects the data to a controlled
laboratory experiment
 Hard to know the validity/reliability of data
 Naturalistic
 Open-ended questions lead to “data overload”
 Naturalistic Approach
 Time-consuming
- People oriented
 Several processes, greatly depend on the researcher’s views or interpretations
- Data collected present personal views, attitudes, thoughts emotions and other
Importance Of Qualitative Research Across The Fields subjective traits of people in a natural setting

- Collection of data is done in family, homes, playground, workplaces, or

Fields of Knowledge schools.

 Anthropology - In these places, personal traits or qualities naturally surface in the way they
manage themselves or interact with one another.
 Business
- Focuses in discovering the real concept to meaning behind people’s lifestyle
 Communication and social relations
 Education  Triangulation
 Engineering  Mixed method
 Law

 Nursing

Basic Research Approaches: RESEARCH-DESIGN/TOPIC

 Positive or Scientific
Guidelines in Designing a Research Topic
 Scientific Approach (Laursen,2010):
 Interest in the subject matter
- Gives stress to measurable and observable facts instead of personal views,
feelings, or attitudes  Availability of information

- It can be used under hard sciences or STEM(Science & Technology,  Timeliness and relevance of the topic
Engineering, Medicine) and natural sciences (Biology, Physics, Chemistry)
 Limitations on the subject
 Personal resources Ranges from general to specific questions (could have varied
Research Topics to be Avoided
 Controversial Topics
 From general to specific
 Highly technical subjects
 Relate local to global/global to local
 hard to investigate subjects
 Include proper citation
 Too broad subjects
 Present the problem /present scenario
 Too narrow subjects
 Present legal basis or records based on researches
 Vague subjects
 Present tense: Motivation and justification, as in “Labor is the largest expense in
Sources of Research Topics the production of…

 mass media  Past tense: Review of literature, as in “Studies showed that…” or in the present
perfect tense as in “Studies have shown that…”
 book, internet, peer-reviewed journals, government publications
 Objective as in “The objective was…
 professional periodicals
 Include concluding paragraph
 general periodicals

 previous reading assignments Scope and Delimitation of the Study

 Experiences - This is the scope or coverage of the study

- It involves the period of conduct of the actual study

Research Justification
Statement of the Problem
 Research Problem
- This includes the general problem of the study and the specific problems which will
– the one which makes you worry and pushes you to exert considerable effort in
be addressed in the study.
finding a solution for it; you are incapable of answering
-It is either stated in question or in statement form.
 Background of the problem

– search from the expert, professional and learned people from readings, RRL Conceptual Framework/Conceptual Model /Research Paradigm

 Research questions -It is a guide of the whole research/study

– based on the problem and background knowledge about the topic; RRL /it is where - it serves as a backbone or blue –print
the type or method of research depends
-It shows the variables of the study, methods/processes/output

Avoiding Plagiarism in Research

Sources: difficulties in life, social relationship, government affairs, institutional
practices, cultural patterns, environmental issues, marketing strategies.
Th APA Guide to Citing and Referencing  it in more detail, and

 if one wants to balance his strategies of citations

 American Psychological Association (APA) style is an academic format
specified in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,
 Know – How’s of Paraphrasing
a style guide that offers academic authors guidance on various subjects for the
submission of papers to the publications of APA. 1. Read and understand the source carefully as you should keep the original
 The APA states that the guidelines were developed to assist reading meaning of the text.
comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of 2. Rewrite the original ideas in your own words using your own style. (using
communication, and for "word choice that best reduces bias in language. synonyms is effective)

Plagiarism 3. Change the order of words and the sentence and grammar structure.

 1995 Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary – “use or close imitation 4. Convert long sentences into shorter one
of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as
5. Identify the author’s treatment of the subject and make sure that your paraphrase
one’s own original work”
reflects it.
 Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary –to “plagiarize” means:
6. If you want to retain terms of the specialist, enclose them in quotation marks.
- to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own,
 Example of a Paraphrased Selection Using the APA Style
- to use (another’s production) without crediting the source,

- to commit literary theft ORIGINAL TEXT

- or to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing “Reading and literature are two important facets of education that tend to
source. reinforce each other. Through reading, one has the opportunity to explore and absorb
ideas which have been preserved in written form throughout history. On the other hand,
Different Strategies to Avoid Plagiarizing Researches literature takes readers to a world beyond their imagination.” (Gutierrez, 2010)


Learning Centre of the University of New South Wales (2007) as cited by Gutierrez (2010) points out that reading and literature are two allied components
Gutierrez (2010), states that paraphrasing is a way of presenting a text, keeping the of education. When one reads, one becomes aware of the ideas that have been
same meaning, but using different words and phrasing. It is used with short sections of preserved through generations. With literature, a reader experiences the inconceivable.
text, such as phrases and sentences. A paraphrase may result in a longer, rather than
shorter, version of the original text. It offers an alternative to using direct quotations  QUOTING
and helps students to integrate evidence/source materials into assignments.” With quoting, one directly states the ideas from the original source. A quote is
Steven Krause (2007) as cited by Gutierrez (2010) cites reasons why one resorts used if the exact words of the author have to be included in a text.
to paraphrasing. He states that it is ideal to paraphrase if: One may also resort to quoting when one expresses one’s agreement or
 the author’s exact words are not especially important to the point one is trying to disagreement to a writer’s idea. All quoted words, phrases or lines must be enclosed in
make; quotation marks (“ “) (Gutierrez, 2010).

 if one is expounding on a particular piece of evidence in order to interpret  Example of quoted lines in the APA style:
Gutierrez (2010) cites that reading and literature are interrelated. He states that  Gardoce, et al. (2009) further argue that the growth of seedlings are more likely
“reading and literature are two important facets of education that tend to reinforce each due to….
other. Through reading, one has the opportunity to explore and absorb ideas which
have been preserved in written form throughout history. On the other hand, literature  Growth of seedlings are more likely due to… (Gardoce, et al., 2009)
takes readers to a world beyond their imagination (p4).”
D. Organization Author (organization is commonly abbreviated)
First Citation
APA or the American Psychological Association documentation provides
research writers in the fields of psychology, education and other social sciences with a  According to Program for International Student Achievement (PISA, 2003). . .
set of conventions for presenting content and organization of manuscript, expressing  This is . . . (Program for International Student Achievement (PISA), 2003)
ideas and reducing bias in language, style, citing sources and providing references
(Cornell University library PSEC Documentation Committee, 2010). Second Citation
Standard conventions like the APA ensure uniformity in manuscripts and present  PISA (2003)
elements of papers in generally understood way (Perrin, 2007, in Whitfill, 2008)
 This . . . (PISA, 2003)
APA also guards the writers from academic misconduct like plagiarism.
E. Unknown Author
 If the cited material has no author, cite the source by its title. Titles of books and
1. TEXT CITATION reports are italicized or underlined; titles of chapters and articles are in quotation
A. One Author
 Although most writing instructions take place. . . (“Making Writing Conventions
 Comrie (2007) points out that in treating.. Explicit”, 2001).
 In treating… (Comrie, 2007)
F. Two or more works in the same parenthesis
B. Two Authors  When citing two or more works in the same parenthesis, order them as they
appear in the reference list.
 Luz and Diaz(2005) in their study on Nipa Husk Ink agree that Nipa can be…
 Institutional Organization has an impact on achievement. . .(Greenwald, Hedges,
 Nipa can be… (Luz and Diaz, 2005)
& Laine, 1996; Lee & Vryk, 1989)
C. 3-5 Authors
G. Authors with the same last name
First Citation  When citing authors with the same last name, include the authors’ first initials
followed by the last names to avoid confusion.
 According to Hidalgo, Nicolas, and Ordanza (2008), there are differences in
the growth of chickens….  (E. Barth, 1980; F. Barth, 1969)
 There are differences in the growth of chickens…. (Hidalgo, Nicolas, and
H. Two or more works of the Same Author in the Same Year
Ordanza, 2008).
Use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year:
Subsequent Citation
 Conor (1996a). . . 3. 3-7 AUTHORS

I. Personal Communication (e.g., interviews, letters, e-mails, and other List all the authors separated by commas, and the last name should be preceded
person-to-person communication) by the ampersand & (Author, A. Author, B. Author, C. Author, D. (2010).

P. Dilay claimed that. . . (personal communication, June 18, 2006) 4. MORE THAN SEVEN AUTHORS

(P. Dilay, personal communication, June 18, 2006). (Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F. (2010)


If the cited source is taken from another source, include the original source in UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Species. (2003)
your citation. The original source should be listed in the reference list.
Wong (2000, in Hedjazi & Omidi, 2008) observed. .
 Author, A. (date). Title of book: Subtitle too (# ed). City of publisher: Publisher’s
Wong (2000, as cited in Hedjazi & Omidi, 2008) observed. . . name.
K. Electronic Sources Conklin, Harold. (1949). A brief description of Hanunuo Morphology and Syntax.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Follow the author-date formula.
L. Unknown Author and Unknown Date
Pawley, A., & Syder, F. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: Native-like
For the unknown author, include the title of the book, chapter, or article. If the Selection and Native-like fluency. In J. Richards & R. Roberts (Eds.) Language and
date is unknown, use n.d. (no date). Communication. London: Longman.


The reference list is an alphabetical list of the works cited in your manuscript.  Author, A. A. (2010). Title of the Book. A. Editor (Ed). Location: Publisher
According to Whitaker (2009), “all the sources in your paper must be found on the
reference list, and all sources on the reference list must be cited in your paper (p.31).” EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST
The following are the rules for handling works by one or multiple authors using
Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Science Teaching
the APA style for any type of works. (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bascarra, L. (2005). World Literature: A Tertiary Textbook for Literature II under the
Schachter, J. (1990) Teaching competence revisited. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J.
New Curriculum. Manila: Rex Bookstore Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.) The development of usable teaching strategies (pp.
39-49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dimalanta, O. & Manta, V. (2001). Philippine Contemporary Literature: Tradition and 2.2 PERIODICALS
Change. Manila: UST Publishing House.
Journal Article
 Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle too. Journal Name Capitalized, Degelman, D. (2009). APA style essentials. Retrieved from
volume number (issue number), pp. ##-##

Article in a Magazine Informally Published Web Document (no author, no date)

Harrel, E. (2010, <arch 15). When the Earth Moves. Time, 175 (10), pp. 14-17. Gender and society. (n.d.) Retrieved from
Article in a Newspaper
Book, Downloaded from Web
Alcazaren, P. (2010, March 15). More of Viruses Activity. The Philippine Star
24(236), D1-D2.  Author, A. A. (Date). Title of book: Subtitle too (# ed.). Retrieved from
Organization Web site: http://address
Letter to the Editor
Power point Slide, Downloaded from the Web
Rubini, M. (2010 March). Toyota’s Troubles. (Letter to the Editor). Time, 175(10), 3.
Whitfill, J. (2008). A guide to APA citations (Power point slides). Retrieved from:
2.3 OTHER PRINTED SOURCES guide to APA citations.pdf

Theses or Dissertations Entry in a Wiki

Banaag, L. A. (2004) Gemilina Particle Board. Unpublished thesis, Divine Word dgrey. (2006, February 14). Knowledge Mapping. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from
College of Calapan. KnWiki:

Government Document

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical Training in Serious Mental Illness
(DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing

An Entry in an Encyclopedia

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp.
501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.


Article from an Online Periodical

Rivera, T. and Ganaden, M. (2001) The Development and Validation of a Classroom

Environment Scale for Filipinos. The International Online Journal of Science and
Mathematics Education 1, (issue number if available). Retrieved from:

Informally Published Web Document