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Submitted on the event of


Gayatri vidya parishad


V.nagabhushan rao B.V.Phani krishna

IIIyear B.Tech IT III year B.Tech IT

06B21A1233 06B21A1237

Blu-Ray Disc
Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD) is the name of a next-generation optical
disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of leading
consumer electronics and PC companies (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG,
Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson). The
format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video
(HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. A single-layer Blu-ray Disc can hold 25GB,
which can be used to record over 2 hours of HDTV or more than 13 hours of standard-
definition TV. There are also dual-layer versions of the discs that can hold 50GB.
While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-
RAM use a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead,
hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily
be made backwards compatible through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup
and allow playback of CDs and DVDs. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that
it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser
spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less
space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD.
This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to
hold 25GB/50GB.

With the rapid growth of HDTV, the consumer demand for recording HD
programming is quickly rising. Blu-ray was designed with this application in mind and
supports direct recording of the MPEG-2 TS (Transport Stream) used by digital broadcasts,
which makes it highly compatible with global standards for digital TV. This means that HDTV
broadcasts can be recorded directly to the disc without any quality loss or extra processing. To
handle the increased amount of data required for HD, Blu-ray employs a 36Mbps data transfer
rate, which is more than enough to record and playback HDTV while maintaining the original
picture quality. In addition, by fully utilizing an optical disc's random accessing features, it's
possible to playback video on a disc while simultaneously recording HD video.
In 1997, a new technology emerged that brought digital sound and video into
homes all over the world. It was called DVD, and it revolutionized the movie industry.

The industry is set for yet another revolution with the introduction of Blu-ray Discs (BD).
With their high storage capacity, Blu-ray discs can hold and playback large quantities of high-
definition video and audio, as well as photos, data and other digital content.

What is Blu-ray disc?

A current, single-sided, standard DVD can hold 4.7 GB (gigabytes) of information.
That's about the size of an average two-hour, standard-definition movie with a few extra
features. But a high-definition movie, which has a much clearer image, takes up about five
times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage. As
TV sets and movie studios make the move to high definition, consumers are going to need
playback systems with a lot more storage capacity.

Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back
high-definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data. The advantage to Blu-ray is
the sheer amount of information it can hold:

• A single-layer Blu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to
27 GB of data -- that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of
standard video.
• A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 54 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of
high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video. And there are even plans in
the works to develop a disc with twice that amount of storage.

Building a Blu-ray:
The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-
mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore
prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective
lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. Because the data
is closer to the surface, a hard coating is placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from
scratches and fingerprints.

The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are
built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is
sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence.

1. The two discs are molded.

2. The recording layer is added to one of the discs.
3. The two discs are glued together.

Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces
cost. That savings balances out the cost of adding the protective layer, so the end price is no
more than the price of a regular DVD.

Blu-ray has a higher data transfer rate -- 36 Mbps (megabits per second) -- than
today's DVDs, which transfer at 10 Mbps. A Blu-ray disc can record 25 GB of material in just
over an half an hour of time.

How do Blu-ray formats work?

Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that
run from the center of the disc to its edges. A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the
bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. The more data that is
contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. The smaller the pits
(and therefore the bumps), the more precise the reading laser must be.
Unlike current DVDs, which use a red laser to read and write data, both Blu-ray and
HD-DVD use a blue laser. A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red
laser (650 nanometers). The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read
information recorded in smaller pits. Blu-ray discs and HD-DVDs can both read pits that are
much smaller than the pits on a DVD. That's pretty much where the similarity ends.

The recording layer on Blu-ray and HD-DVD differs. Whereas the HD-DVD recording
layer is sandwiched between two 0.6 mm layers of plastic -- much like the recording layer on
today's DVD -- Blu-ray places the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. The
smaller pits, smaller beam and closer recording layer together enable a single-layer Blu-ray
disc to hold more than 25 GB of information -- about five times the amount of information that
can be stored on today's DVD and about twice that of an HD-DVD.

When will Blu-ray be available ?

Blu-ray recorders are already available in Japan, where more consumers have access
to HDTV than in the United States. Outside of Japan, once more TV sets come equipped with
a high-definition tuner, and more films and television shows are produced in high-definition
(which is expected to happen by late 2005 or 2006), Blu-ray movies and TV shows on disc
should become widely available; but the format is already available for home recording,
professional recording and data storage. HD-DVD is expected to arrive in stores at the end of

Even when the new video standard begins to replace current technologies, consumers
won't have to throw away their DVDs; but they may need to invest in a new player,
depending upon which format they choose. HD-DVD will work on today's standard DVD
players, while a straight Blu-ray will not. JVC has developed a Blu-ray hybrid disc that pairs
a Blu-ray disc with a standard DVD -- this type of hybrid disc will survive the format
transition. In any event, the Blu-ray coalition is planning to market backward-compatible
drives with both blue and red lasers, which will be able to play traditional DVDs and CDs as
well as Blu-ray discs.

What will each format mean for consumers? Blu-ray is billing itself as more high-tech,
offering greater storage and capabilities, while HD-DVD is boasting lower costs and a less
radical departure from the DVDs we already know and love. Comparing it to the old VHS-
Betamax battle, HD-DVD looks more like VHS, and Blu-ray like Betamax. But at this point,
industry insiders say the format war could go either way.

Ultimately, which format prevails will have a lot to do with its backers. HD-DVD has the
DVD Forum behind it: a consortium of 230 consumer-electronics and entertainment
companies, as well as movie studios New Line, Paramount, Universal and Warner Bros. Plus,
Microsoft plans to support HD-DVD with its next Windows operating system, code-named
Longhorn. Blu-ray has more than 10 of the top electronics companies behind it, plus the
support of Columbia TriStar, Disney and MGM studios. Also, it has been rumored that the
new PlayStation 3 game system will support Blu-ray.
Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray Drive Blu-ray Player

Key Characteristics:

1) Broadest Industry Support :

History has shown that unified industry support for a particular format is most likely
to lead to success. Therefore, the participation of the world's most renowned consumer
electronics manufacturers and IT companies are leading in the success of the best standard
for next generation storage: Blu-ray Disc. Blu-ray Disc is supported by leading hardware
manufacturers across the CE and IT fields from the U.S., Europe, Japan and Korea,
including Dell, HP, Hitachi, LG Electronics, Matsushita (Panasonic), Mitsubishi, Pioneer,
Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony and Thomson/RCA. Finally, major blank media
manufacturers including TDK are supporting the Blu-ray Disc format as the successor of
DVD. This broad industry support will lead to a broad selection of Blu-ray Disc products,
including home video decks, PC drives, PC's line-fitted with Blu-ray Disc drives and blank
media, to be available when the format is launched in the various regions in the world.

2) Lifespan :
The Blu-ray Disc format is designed to stay relevant for at least10 to 15 years. It's
high storage capacity of 25 to 50 GB allows for the best possible High Definition video
quality and satisfies even the most demanding data storage needs. As we have seen with
DVD in the past, most premium titles require two discs. This is why Blu-ray Disc
incorporates the additional storage space that High Definition High Definition feature,
including bonus material, requires in the new standard from the beginning. Formats with a
lesser capacity are only suitable as interim solutions, requiring them to be replaced much
sooner than a format that takes tomorrow's data storage needs into account from day one.
This will of course require multiple investments in production equipment, and will lead to
increased consumer confusion.

3) Content Protection:
Blu-ray Disc provides some of the strongest copy protection schemes ever
developed for any consumer format. It makes Blu-ray Disc the best choice for any content
publisher wanting assurance that their valuable assets are protected from piracy. Based on
feedback from the content industry and taking a quefrom the lessons learned by other
formats, the Blu-ray Disc format incorporates a robust copy protection mechanism, which
not only relies on implementation at the playback device, but which also includes
precautions at replicator level, which will be strictly controlled. Unlike the voluntary
implementation of CSS protection in DVD, the copy protection mechanism for Blu-ray
Disc is mandatory and will be governed by strict licensing procedures.

4) Cost :
Blu-ray Disc is developed to offer the best long-term profitability model for
content providers. Although it might require a nominal investment in advance, it provides
greater and longer-term profit potential. This is because the format is designed to last for a
period of at least 10 to 15 years. Due to its enormous storage capacity short term
replacement of the technology is unnecessary, unlike other format proposals that might
require less investment in advance, but higher investments in the long term due to the
replacement of the technology when it becomes outdated. At comparable volumes, Blu-ray
Disc production costs are within 10% of DVD production costs, although a Blu-ray Disc
offers 5 to 10 times the capacity. It is by far the cheapest format measured in cost per GB.
Since Blu-ray Disc requires less slots in a replication line compared to other formats, it
will bring costs on par with DVD, or even cheaper, much sooner. Production facilities can
produce many more Blu-ray Discs in the same time period as DVDs. Also, contrary to
some rumors circulating, Blu-ray Discs do not require cartridges for any of the format
variations (BD ROM, BD RE, and BD R).
5) Capacity:
The Blu-ray Disc format offers the highest capacity of any consumer media
format to date, also greatly surpassing the capacity of other format proposals. Blu-ray
Disc's huge capacity allows not only for the highest quality High Definition video to be
recorded at large bit rates (thereby eliminating the need for tight compression that could
affect picture quality), it also opens up the doors to new and existing applications. Think of
extra sessions on a disc that could be unlocked when a user's Blu-ray Disc player connects
to the Internet to validate authorization. Or what about bonus material and special features
that will eventually also be recorded in High Definition quality? With Blu-ray Disc's large
capacity, these extra's can be included in high quality on the same disc, so there is no need
for separate bonus discs to accompany the movie title. Only Blu-ray Disc will be able to
offer these value added options.

6) Robustness of disc:
As the result of recent breakthroughs in the development of hard coating for Blu-
ray Disc, the discs offer much stronger resistance to scratches and fingerprints than other
existing and proposed formats. Hard coated Blu-ray Discs do not require a cartridge and
can be used as a bare disc, similar to DVD and CD. This avoids extra production costs, and
allows for small form factor applications, such as the implementation of Blu-ray Disc
drives in a notebook computer. The hard coating technology is used for BD ROM discs,
giving them the same bare disc look and feel consumers know from DVD, and it can be
applied to rewritable and recordable Blu-ray Discs as well.


1) Record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss

2) Instantly skip to any spot on the disc
3) Record one program while watching another on the disc create playlists
4) Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc
5) Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a
6) Access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features.

1) High Definition Television Recording :

High Definition broadcasting is vastly expanding in the US and Asia. Consumers
are increasingly making the switch to HDTV sets to enjoy the best possible television
experience. The Blu-ray Disc format offers consumers the ability to record their High
Definition television broadcasts in their original quality for the first time, preserving the
pure picture and audio level as offered by the broadcaster. As such it will become the
next level in home entertainment, offering an unsurpassed user experience. And since the
Blu-ray Disc format incorporates the strongest copy protection algorithms of any format
or proposal to date, the format allows for recording of digital broadcasts while meeting
the content protection demands of the broadcast industry.

2) High Definition Video Distribution :

Due to its enormous data capacity of 25 to 50 GB per (single sided) disc, the
Blu-ray Disc format can store High Definition video in the highest possible quality.
Because of the huge capacity of the disc, there is no need to compromise on picture
quality. Depending on the encoding method, there is room for more than seven hours of
the highest HD quality video. There is even room for additional content such as special
features and other bonus material to accompany the High Definition movie. Furthermore,
the Blu-ray Disc movie format greatly expands on traditional DVD capabilities, by
incorporating many new interactive features allowing content providers to offer an even
more incredible experience to consumers. An Internet-connection may even be used to
unlock additional material that is stored on the disc, as there is enough room on the disc
to include premium material as well.

3) High Definition Camcorder Archiving :

As the market penetration of High Definition TV sets continues to grow, so does
the demand of consumers to create their own HD recordings. With the advent of the first
HD camcorders, consumers can now for the first time record their own home movies in a
quality level unlike any before. As these camcorders are tape-based, consumers cannot
benefit from the convenience and direct access features they are used to from the DVD
players and recorders. Now, the Blu-ray Disc format, with its unprecedented storage
capacity, allows for the HD video recorded with an HD camcorder to be converterted and
recorded on a Blu-ray Disc. When the HD content is stored on a Blu-ray Disc, it can be
randomly accessed in a way comparable to DVD. Furthermore, the disc can be safely
stored for many years, without the risk of tape wear.

4) Mass Data Storage:

In its day, CD-R/RW meant a huge increase in storage capacity compared to
traditional storage media with its 650 MB. Then DVD surpassed this amount by offering
4.7 to 8.5 GB of storage, an impressive 5 to 10 times increase. Now consumers demand
an even bigger storage capacity. The growing number of broadband connections allowing
consumers to download vast amounts of data, as well as the ever increasing audio, video
and photo capabilities of personal computers has lead to yet another level in data storage
requirements. In addition, commercial storage requirements are growing exponentially
due to the proliferation of e-mail and the migration to paperless processes. The Blu-ray
Disc format again offers 5 to 10 times as much capacity as traditional DVD resulting in
27 to 54 GB of data to be stored on a single rewritable or recordable disc. As Blu-ray
Disc uses the same form factor as CD and DVD, this allows for Blu-ray Disc drives that
can still read and write to CD and DVD media as well.

5) Digital Asset Management and Professional Storage :

Due to its high capacity, low cost per GB and extremely versatile ways of
transferring data from one device to another (because of Blu-ray Disc's extremely wide
adoption across the industry), the format is optimized for Digital Asset Management and
other professional applications that require vast amounts of storage space. Think of
medical archives that may contain numerous diagnostic scans in the highest resolution, or
catalogs of audiovisual assets that need to be instantly retrieved in a random access
manner, without the need to "restore" data from a storage carrier. One Blu-ray Disc may
replace many backup tapes, CDs, DVDs or other less common or proprietary storage
media. And contrary to network solutions, the discs can be physically stored in a different
location for backup and safekeeping.


We’ll probably have to wait until some period for Blu-ray recorders to become
commonly available. The driving force behind the development of Blu-ray Disc recorders is
the need to record HDTV programming and currently the only country where HDTV is well
established is Japan. There's still only a few different Blu-ray Disc recorders available to
consumers in Japan, but as you can see in our Blu-ray Recorders section, most well-known
consumer electronics companies have their own prototype Blu-ray Disc recorder in


1) (official site for blu-ray disc)

2) (referred to the white paper by john.paulinghton)
3) (general information source 1)
4) (referred to a 4 news reports by WARNER BROS and
5) (general information source 2)