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RF Technology for 5G mmWave

Radios

THOMAS CAMERON, PhD


Director of Wireless Technology

09/27/2018
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Agenda

►Brief 5G overview
►mmWave Deployment
▪ Path Loss
▪ Typical Link Budget
►Beamforming architectures
▪ Analog
▪ Hybrid
▪ Digital
► Bits-to-mmWave radio
►Q&A

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2023
>1B 5G SUBSCRIBERS
“Ericsson Mobility Report June 2018”
5G: A Flexible Network for the Future
10 Tbps/km2
10 Gbps peak 500 km/h Mobility
100 Mbps everywhere

Broadband
Everywhere
(eMBB)

107 Devices/km2
Massive Mission
10 year battery Connectivity Critical
(mMTC) (uRLLC)
10X Energy >99.999% Reliable
Efficiency 1ms Latency

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Global Mobile Data Growth Continues
…….with no end in sight

Forecasted Mobile Gap


Data Traffic Growth

Forecasted Capacity
Growth

2018 2028

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5G Toolbox

Capacity (b/s/area) = B X N X h
B = available bandwidth N = number of cells/area h = spectral efficiency

C-band + mmWave Small Cells Massive MIMO

3GHz 6GHz 20GHz 40GHz

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5G NR for the Basestation Radio

► 5GNR radio expected to be initially


deployed in new spectrum
▪ Below 6GHz: Carrier BW of 5 MHz to 100 MHz Macro Small Cell
▪ Above 6GHz: Carrier BW of 40 MHz to
400MHz
5G NR
► NRwaveform will be very similar to LTE
(CP-OFDM)
► Flexible numerology Massive
mmWave
MIMO
► Beamforming will be prevalent above
2GHz

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5G mmWave Deployment Scenarios

Suburban

Dense Urban

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Path Loss

Typical
Urban
Cell

Reference: T. S. Rappaport et al, “Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Fifth-Generation (5G) Wireless
Networks-with a focus on Propagation Models,” in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Special Issue on
5G, Nov. 2017
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Link Budget Example

Assumptions BTS CPE Link Budget 200m link @ Downlink Uplink


Power per PA 9dBm 1 dBm 28GHz (Access Point) (CPE)

Number of PA 256 64 Total Conducted PA power +33dBm +19 dBm

Number of 256 64 Antenna Gain 27 dB 21


antennae TX EIRP 60 dBm 40dBm
Gain per 5dB 5dB Path Loss 135dB 135 dB
element Received Power -75dBm -95 dBm
Front end loss 2dB 2dB Thermal noise floor -85 dBm -85dBm
RX Noise Figure 5dB 5dB
SNR per RX element 5dB -15dB
RX Antenna Gain 21dB 27dB

RX SNR after beamforming +26dB +12dB

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Beamforming Architectures

DAC DAC
n
ADC ADC

DAC
Digital DAC
n Digital
ADC
Digital ADC Pre-Coding
Port mapping

DAC
DAC
n
ADC
ADC

Analog Beamforming Digital Beamforming Hybrid Beamforming


Beam formed by weighting RF paths Beam formed by weighting digital Beamforming a combination of
paths analog and digital
Low power/complexity Highest power / complexity Moderate power/complexity
Good for coverage Highest capacity / flexibility Compromise between analog and
digital
Single beam – single data stream Frequency selective beamforming Best choice with existing technology
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Analog Beamformer
RF Beamformer


Bits to mmWave


ADC 90˚ 90

x
Digital

90
DAC 90˚


PLL/VCO

Ref Clock
PLL/VCO
Fan out

CMOS
SiGe
GaAs/GaN

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Analog Beamformer

TX Array Gain and PA Output Power vs Array Size at Fixed EIRP


90
DAC 90˚

PLL/VCO 

PLL/VCO 

Assumptions:
▪ 60dBm EIRP per beam
▪ 800MHz BW
▪ PAPR =9 dB
▪ 2dB switch loss

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Analog Beamformer

TX Array Gain and PA Output Power vs Array Size at Fixed EIRP


x
High P1dB
Low Integration
90
DAC 90˚

GaN
PLL/VCO 


PLL/VCO
Low P1dB
GaAs
High Integration

Assumptions:
▪ 60dBm EIRP per beam SiGe BiCMOS
Bulk
▪ 800MHz BW SOI CMOS CMOS
▪ PAPR =9 dB
▪ 2dB switch loss

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Technology Fit Per Radio Form Factor

▪ Higher EIRP pushes PA


technology toward III-V
GaN EIRP

▪ Lower EIRP allows for highly


integrated silicon based solutions

▪ Larger array allows for the use of GaAs

silicon PAs

SiGe / SOI
▪ Larger array adds complexity and
CMOS
cost

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Technology Fit Per Radio Form Factor

▪ UE is clearly in CMOS
technology domain
GaN EIRP

▪ CPE spans CMOS and SiGe


BiCMOS

Wide Area BS GaAs


▪ Low power access point spans
CMOS, SiGe BiCMOS and Medium
GaAs Local Area Range BS SiGe / SOI
BS / CPE
CMOS
▪ High power Basestation spans UE
GaAs and GaN

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Analog Beamformer Power Consumption

90
DAC 90˚

PLL/VCO 

PLL/VCO 

Assumptions:
▪ 60dBm EIRP per beam
▪ PAPR =9 dB
▪ 2dB switch loss
▪ PA Peak PAE – 30%
▪ Core PAE - 13%
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Analog Beamformer Power Consumption

TX and RX DC Power Consumption vs Array Size at Fixed EIRP


ADC
90˚ 90

90
DAC 90˚


PLL/VCO

PLL/VCO

▪ Overlay TX and RX power consumption Optimum


Array Size

▪ Optimum array size is 128 to 256


elements

▪ TX power consumption ~ 80 -100W


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High Integration Beamformer Assembly

Antenna on Substrate
▪ Compact implementation
Beamformer Beamformer

▪ Supports wide range of beamforming in


both vertical and horizontal Digital DAC

ADC

▪ Scalable for higher EIRP Beamformer Beamformer

▪ Thermal challenges
Example:64 element array

Antenna on Substrate
▪ Difficult to implement front end filters
RFIC RFIC
Heat Sink
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Semi-Integrated Analog Beamformer

Integrated Beamformer with TR Module


1:n RF beamformer
TR Module


ADC b 90˚ 90

4x

4x
FPGA
Digital DAC
RF 
90

DAC

PLL/VCO

Ref Clock PLL/VCO


Fan out

CMOS
GaAs/GaN
SiGe
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Semi-Integrated Analog Beamformer

▪ Opt to drive a sub-array with each PA


to leverage the array gain
Pros:
▪ 8X less PAs and beamformer ICs
DAC
Digital

▪ Planar implementation ADC


Pre-Coding

▪ Printed front end filters possible


▪ Conventional thermal management
▪ Scalable for very high EIRP
Cons:
RFIC RFIC
▪ Reduced scanning capability Heat Heat
Sink Sink

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Semi-Integrated Analog Beamformer

▪ For EIRP = 60 dBm optimum DC


power consumption achieved with 128
elements for single beam

▪ PA output power is 24dBm (suitable for DAC


Digital
Pre-Coding

GaAs or GaN) ADC

RFIC RFIC

Heat Heat
Sink Sink

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Hybrid Beamformer

▪ Combines digital and analog ADC 90˚ 90


beamforming to enable x
Digital
spatial multiplexing x


DAC 90˚ 90

▪ If m=8 and n = 128 then


total array size is 1024 FPGA
Digital
Pre-Coding


▪ While scalable - the power
consumption adds up very ADC 90˚ 90

quickly x


DAC 90˚ 90

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Digital Beamforming

ADC
▪ Phase shifting performed 90

ADC
digitally +
4x

DAC
90

DAC

▪ First step toward massive PLL/VCO


FPGA
MIMO at mmWave Digital
RF baseband
PLL/VCO
frequency Port Mapping

DPD Ref Clock


Fan out
ADC
90
▪ Enables path to higher ADC

TX efficiency through use + 4x

DAC

of DPD DAC
90

ADC 1:n
Switch
90

ADC

Observation Receiver
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Digital Beamforming
Digital
Pre-Coding

Similar implementation to semi-integrated

ADC

ADC
DAC

DAC

ADC

ADC
DAC

DAC

analog approach

▪ This is beamforming – not massive MIMO

▪ Simply moves phase shifter from RF to digital

DAC

DAC

ADC
ADC
DAC
DAC

ADC
ADC
Digital
Pre-Coding
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Bits-to-mmWave Radio
RF Beamformer


Bits to mmWave


ADC 90˚ 90

x
Digital

90
DAC 90˚


PLL/VCO

Ref Clock
PLL/VCO
Fan out

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Bits-to-mmWave Radio - Example

ADMV1014
AD9208 ADL5569
ADC
90˚ 90

ADRF5020
4x

FPGA/ASIC To/From
4x

Beamformer
AD9172 ADL5335
90
DAC 90˚

ADMV1013
HMC7044 PLL/VCO

Ref Clock
Fan out
PLL/VCO
ADF4372

Reference: 5G Millimeter Wave Basestation,


http://www.analog.com/en/education/education-library/videos/5804450511001.html
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Summary

▪ 5G mmWave use cases emerging

▪ Fixed in near term  nomadic  mobile in future

▪ Various approaches to beamforming


▪ Analog Beamforming
▪ Most efficient implementation with existing technology
▪ Digital Beamforming in future

▪ Bit-to-mmWave Radio
▪ Requires leading edge technology – available now!
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