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# Lecture 7

Lecture 7
RF Amplifier Design
• Amplifier Design
– Stability Analysis by S-parameters
– Design Cases
• unilateral two-port, maximum gain
• unilateral two-port, specific gain
• bilateral two-port, maximum gain
– “simultaneous conjugate match”
• bilateral two-port, specific gain
– conjugate match at one port, mismatch the other port
– design method using “operating gain”
– design method using “available gain”
– Noise in a Two-Port
– Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA)
Johan Wernehag
Electrical and Information Technology
Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

## Stability Analysis by S-Parameters Unilateral Figure of Merit

• S12 is hardly never zero, but can at some times be close enough to justify a unilateral
approximation
• A tool to decide this is “Unilateral Figure of Merit”

2-port
• Consider the ratio to decide how “unilateral” a specified two-port is.

## • For an arbitrary source ΓS and load ΓL

A unilateral two-port (S12 = 0) is
unconditionally stable if and where

A bilateral two-port is
1) unconditionally stable if where • IF the input and the output are supposed to be conjugate matched, i.e.
ΓS = S11* and ΓL = S22*
2) conditionally stable if and some
some ΓS gives |Γout| < 1 ΓL gives |Γin| < 1 where

NOTE – this discussion is not necessary if you have access to computer analysis when
you easily may calculate bilateral!
Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

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Amplifier Design Power Gain Definitions
General design case
ZS
ZS’

ES
Input
matching
network
Two-port
network
Output
matching
network ZL
ES PAVS PIN G PAVN PL ZL

• Given this:
– two-port (S-parameters) and
available gain
– source ΓS’ and load ΓL’

## • The stability analysis gives allowed values of ΓS and ΓL

operating gain
• After a proper choice of ΓS and ΓL
the matching networks may be designed
transducer gain

## Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

Case 1
Design Cases - Gain and Noise Figure Unilateral Two-Port, Maximum Gain

## Amplifier Design • Choose and

Approximation
suitable for
hand calculation
i.e. apply conjugate match to both input and output

## Maximum Specific Maximum Specific Minimum Maximum Unilateral Transducer Gain:

Gain Gain Gain Gain Noise Figure

## There is hardly no reason

to use these methods for
computer analysis. Compromise Assumption: and
Gain - Noise Figure

## Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

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Case 2 Case 2
Unilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Unilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain
For gS < 1 and gL < 1 there are lot of solutions. Described by
• The gain is expressed by circles in the ΓS-plane and the ΓL-plane

Input:
(Unilateral Transducer Gain)
Gain circle
Gain circle output,
• Split up note that input, ΓL -plane
ΓS -plane
ΓS ΓL

• Result: Output:

ΓL
where
ΓS
• When only one solution exists: and Constant
How do you select conductance
circle
• If and there are lot of solutions. Described by circles “smart” ΓS and ΓL?
in the ΓS-plane and the ΓL-plane
Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

Case 3 Case 3
Bilateral Two-Port, Maximum Gain Bilateral Two-Port

## • At “simultaneous conjugate match” the

• Maximum gain is achieved when and maximum transducer gain is:
i.e. apply conjugate match to both input and output

and
• With K set to 1 the quantity Maximum Stable Gain is derived:

## • These equations need to be solved simultaneously,

that’s why it’s called “simultaneous conjugate match”
• At a conditionally stable two-port K may be altered by resistive loading of the input
or output without changing the ratio |S21|/|S12|.
• Explicit solution:
• But for a conditionally stable two-port
and where – doesn’t make any sense to the quantity “maximum transducer gain” and
– the simultaneous conjugate match doesn’t have any solution.

## • Therefore, the method changes to case 4

• NOTE! The solution only exists when
when there is conditional stability.
the two-port is unconditionally stable, i.e. |D| < 1 and K > 1!
Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

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Case 3 Case 4
Bilateral Two-Port Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain

## • The procedure will be like this:

• In the unilateral case it was possible to handle
1. Calculate the “maximum stable gain”:
the input and output ports separately.

2. Back off a few dB or so to set a safety margin. • BUT at the bilateral case the conditions at the input port depends on
the load and vice versa.
3. Use the reduced gain as specific gain and design according to
case 4.
Yes it is:
Is it possible to
• At a conditionally stable two-port disengage the ports from Assume conjugate match at one of
each other? the ports and the other is
– may strictly any arbitrary gain be selected mismatched to obtain the specified
– but as the gain increases, the risk for self-oscillation escalates gain (GT)!
– GMSG is in this sense the absolute maximum level. • Then

## Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

Case 4 Case 4
Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain
Assume conjugate match at one port and mismatch is applied to the other! Design by “operating gain”

## 1. use “operating gain”

Can we affect S21?
2. apply mismatch at the output
1. S21 is known, determine gP to obtain the wanted gain
so that GP = GT and solve ΓL
3. conjugate match the input (Γin known) 2. what ΓL complies with the selected gP?
then GP = PL /PIN = PL /PAVS = GT • there are a number of solutions at a circle in
the ΓL-plane

## If a mismatch is wanted at the input: ΓS = Γin*

Stable
1. use “available gain” area ΓL
Stable area Γin
ΓS
2. apply mismatch at the input
so that GA = GT and solve ΓS ΓL gP
3. conjugate match the output (Γout known) 3. select a “smart” ΓL! Constant
then GA = PAVN /PAVS = PL /PAVS = GT 4. calculate Γin and conjugate conductance
circle
match the input
Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

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Case 4 Case 4
Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain
summary
Design by “available gain”

may be written as
• If a two-port is conditionally stable:
1. Calculate stability circles

## 3. Select ΓL, (ΓS ) at the gain circle in the stable area

1. S21 is known, determine gA to obtain the wanted gain
2. what ΓS complies with the selected gA? 4. Calculate ΓIN, (ΓOUT )
• there are a number of solutions at a circle in the ΓS-plane
5. Check if conjugate match is possible
• i.e. if ΓS = Γ *IN (ΓL = Γ *OUT ) is located in the stable area
• if not, return to step 3 and make a new choice
• alternatively lower the demand for gain

## Noise in a Two-Port Noise in Cascaded Two-Ports

ZS
GA • The total noise figure is
ZL
ES
PNo

## • The signal-to-noise ratio is deteriorated due to noise

added by the two-port

## • Friis’ formula: No decibels

• The noise figure (F) denotes the increase of noise by the two-port, here!
assumed a source noise temperature of T0 = 300 K

but leads to
• NOTE: all variables must be denoted in linear quantities!

## Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

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Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA)

## • The noise figure: where

• The noise power from a transistor depends on
– the source impedance
– the quiescent point (IC , VCE) Fmin - the minimum noise figure
RN - determines how much F increases
when YS deviates from Yopt
• There is an optimum source impedance Yopt - the source admittance providing Fmin
that gives the minimum noise figure for a
specified quiescent point • The noise figure denoted by normalised parameters:

where
• The source impedance for minimum noise figure does
unfortunately NOT coincide with the source impedance
• The noise figure denoted by reflection coefficients:
for maximum gain

## Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) Summary of Amplifier Design

• There are a number of ΓS that provides a specified noise figure
1. Decide if the transistor is unconditionally stable
• These are found at circles in the ΓS-plane 2. Calculate stability circles if necessary

GT GT , F
3. Choose a method for specific or maximum 3. Choose the method for specific gain using
gain available gain
4. Assume conjugate match at the 4. Assume conjugate match at the output
input (or the output) 5. Draw noise and gain circles
Γopt
ΓSO 5. Calculate a gain circle to obtain the wanted 6. Select ΓS in the stable area that provides
GP (or GA)
F a suitable compromise of noise and gain
6. Select ΓL (or ΓS ) at the gain circle in the 7. Calculate ΓOUT
stable area
7. Calculate ΓIN (or ΓOUT )

## 8. Check if conjugate match is possible

Constant noise
figure circle – i.e. if ΓS = Γ *IN (ΓL = Γ *OUT ) is located in the stable area
– if not, return to step 6 and make a new choice
– alternatively lower the demand for gain and return to step 5
9. Design the matching networks and verify stability at all frequencies of interest