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Lecture 7

RF Amplifier Design

• Amplifier Design

– Stability Analysis by S-parameters

– Design Cases

• unilateral two-port, maximum gain

• unilateral two-port, specific gain

• bilateral two-port, maximum gain

– “simultaneous conjugate match”

• bilateral two-port, specific gain

– conjugate match at one port, mismatch the other port

– design method using “operating gain”

– design method using “available gain”

– Noise in a Two-Port

– Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA)

Johan Wernehag

Electrical and Information Technology

Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

• S12 is hardly never zero, but can at some times be close enough to justify a unilateral

approximation

• A tool to decide this is “Unilateral Figure of Merit”

2-port

• Consider the ratio to decide how “unilateral” a specified two-port is.

A unilateral two-port (S12 = 0) is

unconditionally stable if and where

A bilateral two-port is

1) unconditionally stable if where • IF the input and the output are supposed to be conjugate matched, i.e.

ΓS = S11* and ΓL = S22*

2) conditionally stable if and some

some ΓS gives |Γout| < 1 ΓL gives |Γin| < 1 where

NOTE – this discussion is not necessary if you have access to computer analysis when

you easily may calculate bilateral!

Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

1

Amplifier Design Power Gain Definitions

General design case

ZS

ZS’

ES

Input

matching

network

Two-port

network

Output

matching

network ZL

ES PAVS PIN G PAVN PL ZL

• Given this:

– two-port (S-parameters) and

available gain

– source ΓS’ and load ΓL’

operating gain

• After a proper choice of ΓS and ΓL

the matching networks may be designed

transducer gain

Case 1

Design Cases - Gain and Noise Figure Unilateral Two-Port, Maximum Gain

Approximation

suitable for

hand calculation

i.e. apply conjugate match to both input and output

Gain Gain Gain Gain Noise Figure

to use these methods for

computer analysis. Compromise Assumption: and

Gain - Noise Figure

2

Case 2 Case 2

Unilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Unilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain

For gS < 1 and gL < 1 there are lot of solutions. Described by

• The gain is expressed by circles in the ΓS-plane and the ΓL-plane

Input:

(Unilateral Transducer Gain)

Gain circle

Gain circle output,

• Split up note that input, ΓL -plane

ΓS -plane

ΓS ΓL

• Result: Output:

ΓL

where

ΓS

• When only one solution exists: and Constant

How do you select conductance

circle

• If and there are lot of solutions. Described by circles “smart” ΓS and ΓL?

in the ΓS-plane and the ΓL-plane

Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

Case 3 Case 3

Bilateral Two-Port, Maximum Gain Bilateral Two-Port

• Maximum gain is achieved when and maximum transducer gain is:

i.e. apply conjugate match to both input and output

and

• With K set to 1 the quantity Maximum Stable Gain is derived:

that’s why it’s called “simultaneous conjugate match”

• At a conditionally stable two-port K may be altered by resistive loading of the input

or output without changing the ratio |S21|/|S12|.

• Explicit solution:

• But for a conditionally stable two-port

and where – doesn’t make any sense to the quantity “maximum transducer gain” and

– the simultaneous conjugate match doesn’t have any solution.

• NOTE! The solution only exists when

when there is conditional stability.

the two-port is unconditionally stable, i.e. |D| < 1 and K > 1!

Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

3

Case 3 Case 4

Bilateral Two-Port Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain

• In the unilateral case it was possible to handle

1. Calculate the “maximum stable gain”:

the input and output ports separately.

2. Back off a few dB or so to set a safety margin. • BUT at the bilateral case the conditions at the input port depends on

the load and vice versa.

3. Use the reduced gain as specific gain and design according to

case 4.

Yes it is:

Is it possible to

• At a conditionally stable two-port disengage the ports from Assume conjugate match at one of

each other? the ports and the other is

– may strictly any arbitrary gain be selected mismatched to obtain the specified

– but as the gain increases, the risk for self-oscillation escalates gain (GT)!

– GMSG is in this sense the absolute maximum level. • Then

Case 4 Case 4

Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain

Assume conjugate match at one port and mismatch is applied to the other! Design by “operating gain”

Can we affect S21?

2. apply mismatch at the output

1. S21 is known, determine gP to obtain the wanted gain

so that GP = GT and solve ΓL

3. conjugate match the input (Γin known) 2. what ΓL complies with the selected gP?

then GP = PL /PIN = PL /PAVS = GT • there are a number of solutions at a circle in

the ΓL-plane

Stable

1. use “available gain” area ΓL

Stable area Γin

ΓS

2. apply mismatch at the input

so that GA = GT and solve ΓS ΓL gP

3. conjugate match the output (Γout known) 3. select a “smart” ΓL! Constant

then GA = PAVN /PAVS = PL /PAVS = GT 4. calculate Γin and conjugate conductance

circle

match the input

Johan Wernehag, EIT Johan Wernehag, EIT

4

Case 4 Case 4

Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain Bilateral Two-Port, Specific Gain

summary

Design by “available gain”

may be written as

• If a two-port is conditionally stable:

1. Calculate stability circles

1. S21 is known, determine gA to obtain the wanted gain

2. what ΓS complies with the selected gA? 4. Calculate ΓIN, (ΓOUT )

• there are a number of solutions at a circle in the ΓS-plane

5. Check if conjugate match is possible

• i.e. if ΓS = Γ *IN (ΓL = Γ *OUT ) is located in the stable area

• if not, return to step 3 and make a new choice

• alternatively lower the demand for gain

ZS

GA • The total noise figure is

ZL

ES

PNo

added by the two-port

• The noise figure (F) denotes the increase of noise by the two-port, here!

assumed a source noise temperature of T0 = 300 K

but leads to

• NOTE: all variables must be denoted in linear quantities!

5

Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) Design of Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA)

• The noise power from a transistor depends on

– the source impedance

– the quiescent point (IC , VCE) Fmin - the minimum noise figure

RN - determines how much F increases

when YS deviates from Yopt

• There is an optimum source impedance Yopt - the source admittance providing Fmin

that gives the minimum noise figure for a

specified quiescent point • The noise figure denoted by normalised parameters:

where

• The source impedance for minimum noise figure does

unfortunately NOT coincide with the source impedance

• The noise figure denoted by reflection coefficients:

for maximum gain

• There are a number of ΓS that provides a specified noise figure

1. Decide if the transistor is unconditionally stable

• These are found at circles in the ΓS-plane 2. Calculate stability circles if necessary

GT GT , F

3. Choose a method for specific or maximum 3. Choose the method for specific gain using

gain available gain

4. Assume conjugate match at the 4. Assume conjugate match at the output

input (or the output) 5. Draw noise and gain circles

Γopt

ΓSO 5. Calculate a gain circle to obtain the wanted 6. Select ΓS in the stable area that provides

GP (or GA)

F a suitable compromise of noise and gain

6. Select ΓL (or ΓS ) at the gain circle in the 7. Calculate ΓOUT

stable area

7. Calculate ΓIN (or ΓOUT )

Constant noise

figure circle – i.e. if ΓS = Γ *IN (ΓL = Γ *OUT ) is located in the stable area

– if not, return to step 6 and make a new choice

– alternatively lower the demand for gain and return to step 5

9. Design the matching networks and verify stability at all frequencies of interest

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