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Prismatic truss

Prismatic truss frame

Truss and Space truss

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright © G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Truss / shear wall 1 2 3 A B C D d h Isometric Roof plan Section Truss Joist (should rest on truss joints only) Roof braces (resist lateral load in roof plane) Shear walls (transfer lateral load to footing) Effective depth d = 8’ at center, d = 7’ at support height h = 16’

Assume: Steel trusses on pilasters (column attached to wall) Gravity l d G it load DL = 20 psf LL = 12 psf (60% of 20psf for tributary area > 600 ft2) = 32 psf

Uniform load w = 32psf x25’/1000 w = 0.8 klf Joint load P = 0.8 x 10’ P=8k Shear V = 7 P/2 = 7 x 8/2 V = 28 k Global moment M = w L2/8 = 0.8 x 802/8 M = 640 k’

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Chord forces C = T = M/d = 640/8’ C = T = 80 k Top chord (KL= 10’) Try DL4x4x½ (DL=25.60 plf) Pall = 99 k > 80 Try P6 (DL=18.97 plf) Pall = 101k > 80 Use ST4x4x3/8 (DL=17.27 plf) Pall = 89 k > 80 Bottom chord (KL= 0’ - no buckling) Use 4x3x1/4 (DL=10.51plf) Pall = 85 k > 80 Vertical bar (KL = 7’ @ support) Max compression C = max shear C = 28 k Use ST4x2x1/4 (DL=8.81plf) Pall = 32 k > 28 Diagonal bar (KL= 0’ - no buckling) Max tension (graphic vector) T = 49 k Use ST4x2x3/16 ( (DL=6.87plf) p ) Pall = 56k > 49

DL = double L

Truss and Space Truss

Copyright © G G Schierle, 2001-06

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Rectangular Tubing: 4” width aligns with ST4x4

Pipe

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4 Tw = 136 k Use ST 6x4x 5/16” Pall = 155 > 136 Max. web bar tension (KL=0.3 P = 23.2>22 111’ 25’ 123’ Joints MUST be concentric (center lines of bars meet at ONE point) 6 Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. Munich. no buckling) Tw = V Lw/d = 105x9.6’) Cw = Tw Cw = 136 k Use ST 6x4 x ½” pall = 150 > 136 7.3’) ) Use DL8x8x1” Bottom chord (tension) A = T/Fa = 486/22 Use W12x79 L = 123’ d = 7.9 x 12. Printing Plant Architect: Von Seidlein et all Wind bracing Result of a design competition. the plant consists of 2 wings.3/2]2+7.75 7.5 D Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.9 klf 1.4’ 2 . joined by a circulation spine with north light A B C D E Offices Newsprint storage (fire rated concrete) Printing Concourse gallery Processing C A B C D E 33.4’ Span Truss depth Chord bar lengths Lc = 123’/10 panels Uniform load w = 50 psf x 38’/1000 Global moment M=wL2/8=1.9x1232/8 Chord bar forces T=C=M/d=3593/7.3’ w =1.42)½ Lw = 9. web bar compression (Lw = 9. for previous slide 7. for previous slide 4 111’ 25’ 123’ P P P P P P P P P L = 123’ e = 38’ truss spacing Assume: Steel trusses Span L = 123’ Truss spacing e = 38’ Truss depth d = 7.4’ Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. 2001-06 press Esc to end.9 Joint load P = w Lc = 1. for previous slide 5 7.6’ DL = 32 psf LL = 18 psf (60% of 30 psf for tributary area > 600 ft2) = 50 psf Uniform load w = 50 psf x 38’/1000 38 /1000 w =1.Süddeutshe Zeitung.4 k Global shear (governs web bars) V = 9P/2 = 9x23. 2001-06 press Esc to end. for next. 2001-06 press Esc to end.6/7. for next.4’ Lc =12.4 Top chord ( p (KL= 12.3’ Web bar lengths Lw = ([12.4/2 V = 105 k Max.5 37. for next.9 klf M=3593 k’ T=C=486 k Pall=496>486 A = 22 in2 A = 23.4’ Chord bar lengths Lc = 123’/10 panels Lc =12.

1 kPa (22.278 x 22. Steel trusses span between outriggers called Gerberettes after 19th century Gerber Beam inventor. Lateral load is resisted by: • A-bracing between trusses in width direction • X-bracing in length direction Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.214 k’ C =T = 222 k Pall = 222. Paris Architect: Piano and Rodgers Engineer: Ove Arup The Centre Pompidou has six exhibit levels 60x166 m a mechanical zone at rear and a circulation zone in Front. for previous slide 7 Uniform load w = 24’ x 22. 2001-06 press Esc to end.6 kPa (12. ABT Assume: steel truss Allowable stress Fa=22 ksi Truss span L = 217’ Truss spacing e = 24’ Truss depth d = 19’ DL = 0.9 psf /16/1000 Global moment (M = PL/4+wL2/8) M =18x217/4+0. Heerenveen.9 psf) Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. no buckling) Use W8x35 Top chord unbraced length KL = 217/12 Use W12x53 Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.9 psf / 1000 Mid span point load (center truss carries round end loads) Tributary area A = (217/2)2/3 Load per truss (16 trusses) P=12.55 klf A= 12. Holland Architect: Van der Zee & Ybema Engineer: Arie Krijegsman.214 / 19 Bottom chord (KL=0.55 x 2172/8 Chord bar force C = T = M/d = 4. for previous slide Centre Pompidou.278 ft2 P = 18 k M = 4. for next. 2001-06 press Esc to end.5 kPa (10. ok KL = 18’ Pall = 227>222 8 press Esc to end.4 psf) = 1. The Gerberettes prevent eccentric column bending.5 psf) LL = 0. for next. for previous slide 9 3 . for next.L = 217’ Speed skating rink. 2001-06 w = 0.

122 m KL = 6.065 m2 f = 157 MPa < 165 Uniform truss load w = 12. for next.236/(2x207x103) = 2(A/)1/2 = 2(24.122 Allowable buckling stress (from AISC table) Fa =23.122 6 4/0 122 Fa =23. 2001-06 press Esc to end.4/0. 2001-06 press Esc to end.236 kN A = 24.5 Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.725/)1/2 Compression bars (try 2 375x30 mm) Radius of giration r =(D2+d2)1/2/4 =(3752+3152)1/2/4 = 122 mm Unbraced length KL = 44.590 kN-m C=T = 10.2 kN/m2 (67 psf) LL = 4.82)/8 Max.0 kN/m2 (167 psf) w = 102 kN/m M = 25. 2001-06 press Esc to end.82)/8 Max.0 kN/m2 (167 psf) w = 102 kN/m M = 25.8 kN/m2 (100 psf) ∑ = 8.2 kN/m2 (67 psf) LL = 4.236 kN Uniform truss load w = 12.8 m (8 kN/m2) Global moment M = wL2/8 = 102(44.145 Cross section area (2 bars) A = 2x10-6 (3752-3152)/4 Stress f = C/A = 10.4/0.88 ksi/0.8 m (8 kN/m2) Global moment M = wL2/8 = 102(44. for previous slide 12 4 . for next.Assume: Max compressive stress Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi) DL = 3.8m/7 Slenderness KL/r = 6.590/2.590 kN-m C=T = 10.88 ksi/0.725 mm2 2 177 mm r = 0. for previous slide 10 Assume: Max compressive stress Fa = 207 MPa (30 ksi) DL = 3. for next. chord bar force C = T = M/d = 25.4 m KL/r = 53 Fa = 165 Mpa A =0.5 Tension bars (2 bars) A = T/(2Fa) = 10. chord bar force C = T = M/d = 25. for previous slide 11 Slenderness KL/r = 6.236/(0.065x103) Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.590/2.145 KL/r = 53 Fa = 165 Mpa Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.8 kN/m2 (100 psf) ∑ = 8.

for next.Gerberettes Define zones for circulation in front and ducts at rear Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. for previous slide 15 5 . for previous slide 13 Lateral bracing: length direction width direction Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. 2001-06 press Esc to end. 2001-06 press Esc to end. for next. 2001-06 press Esc to end. for previous slide 14 Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. for next.

2001-06 press Esc to end. for next. taking advantage of continuity. 1 Simple beams over three spans 2 Reduced bending moment in continuos beam 3 Failure of continuous beam due to unequal foundation settlement. Staggered trusses provide story-high depth and large spaces between trusses. Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. for next. g p Mid-span truss panels designed as Vierendeel without diagonal bars provide openings to pass between adjacent spaces. Connecticut Architect: Brennan Beer Gorman Engineer: Wexler & Associates Truss span Truss depth Truss spacing Chord bars Web bars Floors ~ 60’ 10’ 28’ 10” wide-flange 10” tubing 8” concrete planks Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. The Gerber beam has hinges at inflection points to reduce bending moments. 4 Gerber beam with hinges at inflection points reduces bending yet allows unequal settlement without failure. for previous slide 16 Staggered Truss System Staggered truss systems consist of story-high Trusses that span the entire width of the building. caused by unequal settlements of 19th century railroad bridges. Trusses alternate from floor to floor with trusses at each floor between trusses above and below. a 19th century professor at Munich. for previous slide 18 6 . 2001-06 press Esc to end. causing one span to double and the bending moment to increase four times. 2001-06 press Esc to end. for previous slide 17 Staggered Truss System Mystic Marriot Hotel Groton. for next.Gerber beam The Gerber beam is named after its inventor. The Gerber beam was developed in response to frequent failures. to allow settlements without axtra stress. Gerber. Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.

for next. 2001-06 press Esc to end. 5.PRISMATIC TRUSS AND TRUSS FRAME IBM sports hall. for next. 2001-06 press Esc to end. UK Architect: Nicholas Grimshaw Sainsbury Center. for previous slide 19 Truss details 1. 2001-06 press Esc to end. UK Architect: Norman Foster Engineer: Anthony Hunt • Truss frames may consist of prismatic trusses or flat trusses. for previous slide 21 7 . 4. • Truss frames provide both roof and wall support and resist both gravity and lateral load • Prismatic trusses resist buckling Prismatic truss graphic web bar adjustment Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. 2. for previous slide 20 Javits Convention Center New York Architect: I M Pei Engineer: Weidlinger SPACE TRUSS T Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. 3. for next. Partial truss Gusset plate to join double L bars Gusset plate to join double channel bars Gusset plate to join pipe bars Welded tubing joint Truss bar options: • Double L-shapes • Double channels • T bars T-bars (alternate chord bar with double L’s) L s) • Pipes • Tubing (square or rectangular) Note: Use concentric joints to avoid bending stress Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.

10’x10’. and Larson The space truss is expressed inside and along the roof edge outside. Top and bottom grids. Denver Architect: Muchow. offset by half modules. for next. Top and bottom grids. are joint by web bars. joined by gussets. are offset by half a module and joined by pyramidal web bars. for previous slide 23 Larkspur ferry terminal.5. also 10. for next. The space truss has four modules of 240’x680’ combined length. The span/depth ratio is 6. 2001-06 press Esc to end. The truss is two layers deep to reduce buckling length of web bars. Pneumatic roof panels provide natural lighting. the space truss was raised by hydraulic jacks. respectively.Currigan exhibit hall.8 m. Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. San Francisco Architect: Jacques De Brer Engineer: Kaiser Engineers The Terminal for 2000 daily passengers is an equilateral triangle of 192’ side length Three inverted truss pyramids support the truss Plastic roof panels provide natural lighting Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. Osaka Architect: Kenzo Tange Engineer: Yoshitomi Suga Six towers support the 108x292 m space truss. Expo 70. psf. 2001-06 press Esc to end. Ream. 10. for previous slide 24 8 . for next.8 m square. Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. 2001-06 press Esc to end. Assembled at ground from 350-500 mm pipes and Mero joints. DL = 13 p p p . Truss bars consist of twin-Ls. for span/depth ratios of 11. for previous slide 22 Festival Plaza.5 and 8 in length and width. Inverted truss pyramids support define the organization.

61in2) Am = 5.400# / 10000 press Esc to end. Meneringhausen.037 Compression web: 6x4x1/2 (A = 8. for previous slide Ss = 5 Sg = 1:50 Eo = 30000 ksi Em = 1500 ksi Sf = 1:10.009 in2) Point loads Pm = Po Sf = 23. for next.07” use 0. for next.61/625 = 0. 2001-06 press Esc to end. for previous slide 25 Mero joint The popular Mero joint provides concentric onnections for space truss bars in any direction. for next.0001 Cross section geometric scale Am/Ao = Sg2 Eo/(Em Ss) Am/Ao = (1/50)2 x 30000/(1500x5) Top chord: ST8x8x1” (A = 30 in2) Am= 30/625= 0.0138 in2) Tension web: 6x4x5/16 (A = 5.2x0.2” use 0.Olympic Arena Barcelona Architect: Arata Isozaki Engineer: Mamoru Kawaguchi The 1992 Olympic arena features a 106x128m space truss of 5 (Pentadome) units with hinged joints for assembly near ground and hydraulic lifting to final position.36 in2) Am = 8. Mero is an abbreviation of: the first 2 letters of Dr. the inventor. Hinged columns along the periphery allowed the lateral displacement needed during erection.2 in2) Am= 23.2x0.2/625= 0. A B C D E F Node Web bar Chord bar Roof support Wall support Joint support Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle. and the first 2 letters of Rohr.34# 27 Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.000 Sg = 1:625 use 0.36/625 = 0.2x0. Linear skylights accentuate the intersection of the five units.2” use 0. Truss and Space Truss Copyright © G G Schierle.048 Bottom chord: W12x79 (A = 23. 2001-06 9 . 2001-06 press Esc to end.045” Pm = 2. German for pipe. for previous slide 26 111’ 25’ 123’ Static model Assume: axial resistant model Strain scale (to amplify deflection) Ss = m/o = 5/1 Geometric scale Steel original Wood model Force scale: Sf = Ss Pm/Po Sf =SsAmEm/(AoEo) Sf=SsSg2Em/Eo= 5(1/50)21500/30000 Sf=0.25x0.

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