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QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND SPECIALTY COFFEE

Coffee is one drink that is very popular with people throughout the world. Coffee is a
source of foreign exchange. Indonesia itself is one of the fourth largest coffee producers in the
world with a value of more than 0.5 million tons in 2013-2014, while the largest coffee
producer comes from Brazil which was followed by Vietnam, then Colombia as the third
largest producer. The largest coffee consumption with a value of more than 0.5 million tons
came from Europe followed by the United States, then the third largest coffee consumer with
a value of 1.2 million tons, namely Brazil which is the largest coffee producer. The level of
consumption of Indonesian coffee, including the fourth largest coffee producer, is low,
namely 0.1 to 0.5 million tons, while Vietnam and Colombia, which are the second and third
largest producers, only reach 0.1 million tons. When viewed from the planting area, Indonesia
has the second largest planting area with production of only 683,640 tons, while Vietnam
which only has a land area of 589,041 ha can produce coffee of 1,672,356 tons. Most of the
planting area in Indonesia comes from farmers.

There are several types of coffee in Indonesia that are superior including Toraja
coffee, Gayo coffee, Kintamani coffee. But what is widely cultivated is the type of robusta
coffee and arabica. Robusta coffee is coffee that is more widely planted in Indonesia than
arabica coffee, because robusta coffee is easier to maintain and yields more crops and is more
resistant to pests. The biggest production of robusta and arabica coffee comes from the island
of Sumatra, which also has the largest land area, 66% of the land planted on Sumatra Island
comes from farmers.

Results that are not comparable to the area of planting are a problem that must be
resolved by coffee farmers in Indonesia. Many problems occur from land and post-harvest.
One of the problems that often occurs in the area is that the plants are old and unhealthy, old
coffee plants will produce a little coffee. While the problems that are often faced during post-
harvest are the uneven maturity of coffee fruit, density of wet beans, long fermentation time,
which causes fungal growth. The coffee that has been picked is then peeled and fermented,
after the fermentation process the coffee is washed and then dried until the water content
reaches 12% before the roasting process is carried out.
Food safety regulation in Indonesia only uses coffee valuation with a cupping score
above 80, by looking at the total defect (broken seeds, perforated seeds, broken seeds) in 1
kilo gram of green bean. The minimum level of OTA and MT content in various countries has
been clearly stated, while in Indonesia only listed is no smeel of fungi on green coffee in SNI.
This is a problem that must be resolved by the government in Indonesia so that the security
and quality of Indonesian coffee is guaranteed.