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A study of the effect of drag force on anmicropolar flow past a sphere specifying uniform velocity away from the boundaries. We find a similarity solution, assuming the fluid outside the sphere and satisfies the Eringen?s micro polar equations and applying no slip condition at the sphere of the surface. An appearance for drag force is obtained. It is found that the increase in the coupling parameter with fixed coupling stress parameter is to decreases drag. Further a reversed behavior is noticed

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7(5), 478-485

Article DOI:10.21474/IJAR01/9062

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/9062

RESEARCH ARTICLE

FROM THE BOUNDARIES.

1. Department of Mathematics, Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore-560098.

2. Department of Mathematics ,Vemana Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India.

3. Department of Mathematics Vivekananda Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………....

Manuscript Info Abstract

……………………. ………………………………………………………………

Manuscript History A study of the effect of drag force on anmicropolar flow past a sphere

Received: 13 March 2019 specifying uniform velocity away from the boundaries. We find a

Final Accepted: 15 April 2019 similarity solution, assuming the fluid outside the sphere and satisfies

Published: May 2019 the Eringen’s micro polar equations and applying no slip condition at

the sphere of the surface. An appearance for drag force is obtained. It

Key words:-

micropolar flow, coupling parameter, is found that the increase in the coupling parameter with fixed coupling

Drag , Uniform shear. stress parameter is to decreases drag. Further a reversed behavior is

noticed that the drag is increases andthe same is represented

graphically.

Copy Right, IJAR, 2019,. All rights reserved.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………....

Introduction:-

The earliest formulation of a general theory of microcontinua is accredited to Eringen [1] has considered as fluids

with deformable microelements. Eringen’s [2] ‘micropolar fluid theory’ is based on the assumptions that the

deformation of the fluid microelements is very small. This theory is still capable of taking into account the effect of

microrotational surface and body couples. The evaluation of uniform flow past a spherical shell in Newtonian stokes

flow has been extensively investigated in the literature, because of its application in lubrication theory, transpiration

cooling and other important applications. The stokes uniform flow past a porous sphere has also been investigated

by several authors with the assumsion of axisymmtric flow ( Padmavati et al [3], Berman [4], Rudraiah et al [5]).

However in environmental pollution problems, particularly in water pollution problem, it is central to consider the

effects of suspended particles on the flow past a sphere. The effect of these suspended particles may be taken into

account either using Eringen’smicropolar fluid model or using Saffman dusty fluid model. The Saffman dusty fluid

model does not much importance of the effect of micro rotation of balanced particles unless we consider principal of

angular momentum in addition to linear momentum. The micropolar fluid model has built in mechanism of taking

care of micro rotation.

The recently K. Ramalashmi and PankajShukla[6] investigated Drag on a porous sphere embedded in micropolar

fluid.Jize Sui, et al [7] is investigation for the shear flow and heat transfer of a micropolar fluid by means of novel

constitutive models is valuable .Jian-Jun Shu and JennShiun Lee [8] they obtain fundamental Stokes and Oseen

solutions for micropolar flow in three dimensions, so that the point force and point couple can be prescribed in any

direction. Karl-Heinz Hoffmann et al [9] they studied the resistant force exerted on a sphere moving with a constant

velocity in a micro-polar fluid.

Address:-Department of Mathematics, Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore-560098. 478

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

Presently the analytical study of micropolar fluid flow past an impermeable sphere specifying identical Velocity far

From the Boundaries. The expression for drag force is determined. The evaluation of drag coefficient on non -

dimensional coupling parameter N1 and coupling stress parameter N3 is discussed and presented graphically.

2. Mathematical Formulation

Consider a steady incompressible micropolar fluid flow past an impervious sphere of radius ‘a’ embedded in a

sparsely packed porous medium. The schematic representation is show in diagram under assumptions and

approximations made together with governing by the equations of continuity, conservation of momentum and

Conservation of angular momentum

q 0. (1)

p 2 q 0 . (2)

q 2 2 0 .

(3)

v

u

Porous region

Fig.1: Physical configuration of problem

U

H0

Physical configuration

where q is the velocity, is the coupling viscosity , is the angular velocity, p is the pressure, is the

coupling viscosity, is the bulk viscosity co-efficients and is the shear viscosity co-efficients is the bulk

spin viscosity co-efficients and is the shear spin viscosity co-efficients.

479

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

Stream function r , is introduced, such that the equation of continuity is satisfied in spherical polar co-ordinate

system for porous regions and defined as:

1 1

u ; v . (4)

r sin

2

r sin r

By removing the pressure term from equations (2) and (3) will obtained as:

E 4

N 2 E 2 E 2 0 . (5)

2 sin 1

Where E 2 is the Laplacian operator in spherical co-ordinate system.

2

r 2 r sin

N2

2 N1 N

N1 Coupling parameter 0 N1 1

1

N3

N3 0 N 3 m (m: positive real).

a 2 Coupling stress parameter

We now assume 0 1 , equation (5) using this resolution we get

E 2 0 0 (6)

E 1 N E 1 0

4 2 2

(7)

3. Boundary conditions

To solve the above governing equation we considered the boundary conditions are no-slip condition given by

( r , ) ( r , ) 0 at r 1. (8)

r

The flow has uniform velocity when Far away from the sphere given by

r2

r , ~ sin 2 , as r . (9)

2

4. Method of solution

The boundary condition from equation (9) suggests the following similarity solution

r , f r sin 2 . (10)

Substituting equation (10) in (7), then functions r, reduces to fourth order ordinary differential equation in

f r as follows:

4

f iv r f r 3 f r 4 f r N 2 f r 2 f r 0 .

8 8 2

(11)

2

r r r r

The corresponding f r , from equation (8) and (9) reduces to: No-slip condition of solid sphere at the surface is

given by

f 1 0 , f 1 0 . at r=1 (12)

Further, the uniform velocity extreme away from the boundary, from equation (10) reduces to:

480

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

r2

f r ~ as r. (13)

2

The solution for the equations (11) is obtained analytically by using thetransformation

g r f r 2 f r .

2

(14)

r

Substituting equation (14) in equation (11), it reduces to second order ordinary differential equation in g r as,

2

g r N 2 2 g r 0 . (15)

r

Further, consider the transformation function g r as

g r r wr . (16)

Where wr the arbitrary function. Thereby, equation (15) reduces to:

3 2

r 2 w r r w r rN wr 0 .

2

(17)

2

Which is the modified Bessel’s differential equation, and its solution in terms of modified Bessel’s function is given

as:

w r C1 I 3 2 rN D1 K 3 2 rN

.

(18)

Where, C1 and D1 are arbitrary constants. Thus, from equation (18) we have:

g r C1 r I 3 2 rN D1 r K 3 2 rN . (19)

Further, equation (14) reduces to a second order ordinary differential equation with variable co-efficient as:

f r f r C1 r I 3 2 rN D1 r K 3 2 rN .

2

(20)

r2

Equation (20) is an ordinary differential equation of order two with variable co-efficient; its general solution can be

obtained by the method of variation of parameters and is given by:

A1

f r B1r 2 C1 rN I 3 2 rN D1 rN K 3 2 rN (21)

r

Where A1 and B1 are arbitrary constants.

as r then I 3 2 rN . Therefore, the abovesolution is valid if and only if C1 0 . Hence equation

(21) reduces to:

A1

f r B1r 2 D1 rN K 3 2 rN . (22)

r

(8) and (9). Determining these constants and on substitution, equation (22) reduces to:

r 2 N 2 3N 3 1 3 1 r 1 N

f r 1 e

rN

2 (23)

2 N 2r 2 N

In terms of stream function, from the equation (10) we get:

481

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

r 2 N 2 3N 3 1 3 1 r 1N 2

r , 2

rN e

1 sin .

2 N 2 r 2 N

(24)

This equations shows the function of coupling parameter and coupling stress parameter

The shearing stress is given by

1 u v

r r

r r r (25)

On non – dimensionlisingequation (25) reduces to

r 1 u v

r (26)

U r r r

a

When the sphere on the surface (i.e r =1), the shearing stress becomes

r v

r

U r r (27)

a

U 3

r (1 N ) sin .

a 2 (28)

5. Determination of the Drag force

The drag force F experienced by an impermeable sphere of radius ‘a’ is defined by

2

Ft ( )

0 0

r r a sin R 2 sin d d . (29)

Ft 4 ( U a)(1 N ).

(30)

Further, the drag coefficient can be written as

Ft

CD

1 2 2

U a (31)

2

Substitution of equation (30) in equation (31), itreduces to:

CD

16

1 N and Re 2 U a

Re (32)

Where Re is the Reynolds number and if S=0, then equation (30) reduces to:

Ft 4 U a.

(33)

One of the result of Happel and Brenner [10]

482

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

-160

N3=1

-140 N1=0.8

N1=0.6

-120

N1=0.4

-100

CD

N1=0.2

-80

-60

-40

-20

Re

Fig 1:-Dependence of the Drag coefficient on coupling stress parameter N3=1 for various values of coupling

parameter N1

-120 N3=5

N1=0.8

-100 N1=0.6

N1=0.4

-80

N1=0.2

CD

-60

-40

-20

Re

Fig 2:-Dependence of the Drag coefficient on coupling stress parameter N 3=5 for various values of coupling

parameter N1

483

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

-120 N1=0.1

-100 N3=1

N3=3

-80 N3=5

N3=7

CD

-60

-40

-20

Re

Fig 3:-Dependence of the Drag coefficient on coupling parameter N 1 =0.1 for various values of coupling stress

parameter N3

-160

N1=0.5

-140

N3=1

-120

N3=3

-100 N3=5

N3=7

CD

-80

-60

-40

-20

Re

Fig 4:-Dependence of the Drag coefficient on coupling parameter N 1 =0.5 for various values of coupling stress

parameter N3

484

ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 7(5), 478-485

Results:-

In this paper we study dependence of drag coefficient with variation of coupling parameter and coupling stress

parameter for the steady flow of viscous. The drag experienced by a sphere embedded in porous medium, using the

no-slip condition at the solid surface and uniform shear flow far away from the region as the boundary conditions.

Also, the expression for the drag co-efficient CD is obtained.

From figures 1 and 2, we noticed that the drag co-efficient CD decreases with increase coupling parameter N1 for

fixed coupling stress parameter N3 =1 and N3 =5 near the solid surface and maintains asymptotic behavior away

from the surface. Further, figures 3 and 4 shows that the increase coupling stress parameter N 3, drag co-efficient CD

is increases for fixed coupling parameter N1 =0.1 and N1= 0.5.

Acknowledgements:-

The authors are grateful to research centre Vivekananda Institute of Technology, Vemana Institute of Technology,

and Global Academy of Technology, Bangalore, India.

References:-

1. Eringen, A.C.: Simple microfluids, Int. J. Engng. Sci., 2, 205-217 (1964).

2. Eringen, A.C : Theory of micropolar fluids. J. Math. Mech. 16(1), 1-18. (1966)

3. Padmavathi, B.S., Amaranath, T. and Nigam, S.D., Stokes flow past a porous sphere using Brinkman Model.

ZAMP, 1993; 44, 929-939.

4. Pop, I and Ingham, D. B., Flow past a sphere embedded in a porous medium based on the Brinkman model, Int.

Commun. Heat mass transfer, vol. 23, pp. 865-874, (1996).

5. Rudraiah, N., Shivakumara, I. S., Palaniappa, D.., and Chandrasekhar, D. V., Flow past an impervious sphere

embedded in a porous medium based on non- Darcy model, Proc. Seventh Asian Cong. Fulid Mech., pp. 565-

568, (1997)

6. K. Ramalkshmi, PankajShukla., Drag on a porous sphere embedded in micropolar fluid , Int. J. of Applied

mathematics vol 109 No. 10, 181-189(2016)

7. Jize Sui et al “A novel investigation of a micropolar fluid characterized by nonlinearconstitutive diffusion

model in boundary layer flow and heat transfer,Physics of fluids 29, 023105 (2017)

8. Jian-Jun Shu&JennShiun Lee “Fundamental solutions for micropolar fluids” J Eng Math (2008) 61:69–79

9. Karl-Arl--Heinz Hoffmann ,David Marx and Nikolai D. Botkin “Drag on spheres in micropolar fluids with

non-zero boundary conditions for microrotations” Article in Journal of Fluid Mechanics · November 2007

10. J. Haappel and H. Brenner: Low Renolds number Hydrodynamics, MartinusNijoff publishers, the Hague,

(1983).

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