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General

Introduction
Chapter 12 :
Kinematics Of A Particle

Mechanics
 A branch of the physical science that is concerned
with the state of rest or motion of bodies subjected
to the action of forces.

 It can be divided into 2 areas:

 Mechanics of rigid bodies

 Mechanics of deformable bodies

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Mechanics of rigid bodies

Statics Dynamics

Kinematics Kinetics

 Statics deals with equilibrium of a body that is


either at rest or moves with constant velocity.

 Dynamics deals with accelerated motion of a body.

 Kinematics – treats geometric aspects


of the motion
 Kinetics – analysis of the forces causing the
motion

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Dynamics

Dyanamics of a particle Dyanamics of a rigid body

Chapter 12 :
Kinematics of a
Particle

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Chapter Outline
• Rectilinear Kinematics:
− Continuous Motion
− Erratic Motion

• Curvilinear Motion:
− Rectangular Components
− Motion of a Projectile
− Normal and Tangential Components
− Cylindrical Components
• Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles
• Relative Motion Analysis of Two Particles Using Translating
Axes.

Rectilinear Kinematics:
Continuous Motion

 The kinematics of a particle is characterized by


specifying at any given instant, the particle’s
position, velocity, and acceleration.

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 Position
1) Single coordinate axis, s
2) Origin, O
3) Position vector r – to specify the location of the particle P at
any instant.

Note :
• s = Magnitude of r = Distance from O to P
• The sense (arrowhead direction of r) is defined by the algebraic sign on s.
=> + ve = right of origin,
− ve = left of origin

 Displacement
 The displacement of the particle is the change in its position.

 If particle moves from P to P’, the displacement r is

r = r’ − r

 The magnitude of r is : s = s’ − s
s is +ve if the particle’s final position is to the right of its initial position.
s is -ve if the particle’s final position is to the left of its initial position.

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 Velocity

 A particle moves through a displacement r from P to P’ during


the time interval t.
 The average velocity of the particle is
r
v avg 
t
 The instantaneous velocity is defined as
 r 
v  lim  
t 0 t
 
dr
 v
dt

 The speed of the particle (magnitude of v) is

 ds
 v
  dt
Note:
Particle moving to the right  velocity is +ve

Particle moving to the left  velocity is –ve

 Average speed is defined as total distance traveled by a particle,


sT, divided by the elapsed time t .

sT
v 
sp avg 
t

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Example
Consider a particle travels along the path of length sT in time t.

sT
 Average speed of the particle is v 
sp avg 
t

r
 The average velocity of the particle is v avg 
t

or s
vavg  
t

 Acceleration

 Let v = the velocity of the particle at point P at time t,

v’ = the velocity of the particle at point P’ a t time t +t.

 The average acceleration of the particle during the time interval


Δt, is
v
a avg 
t
where
v  v' v

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 The instantaneous acceleration of the particle at time t is

  
 
 v 
 
a  lim  
t 0 t
 
dv
a
dt

 The magnitude of the instantaneous accelerationn is


   dv
  a
  dt
or
   d 2s
  a 2
  dt

Note:

 If the particle is slowing down, its speed is decreasing


=> v = v’ ─ v will be negative.

 Consequently, a will also be negative, therefore it will act to


the left, in the opposite sense to v.

Decceleration is negative

 If velocity is constant, acceleration is zero

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 Velocity as a Function of Time
Assumptions:
• acceleration = ac = constant
• v = v0 when t = 0.

   dv
  ac
  dt

v t
 dv   a c dt
v0 0

v  v0  act

v  v0  act

 Velocity as a Function of Position


Assumptions:
• acceleration = ac = constant
• v = v0 when s = s0
   dv
  ac
  dt
dv ds
 ac
ds dt
dv
v  ac
ds
v s
 vdv  
v0 s0
ac ds

v 2  v02  2ac s  s0 

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 Position as a Function of Time
Assumptions:
• acceleration = ac = constant
• s = s0 when t = 0.

   ds
 v
  dt

ds
 v0  a c t
dt
s t
 ds   v
s0 0
0  act  dt

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s  s0  v 0 t  a c t 2
2

PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS


1) Coordinate System

 Establish a position coordinate s along the path and


specify its fixed origin and positive direction.

 The particle’s position, velocity, and acceleration can be


represented as s, v and a respectively and their sense is
then determined from their algebraic signs.

 The positive sense for each scalar can be indicated by an


arrow shown alongside each kinematics eqn as it is
applied.

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2) Kinematic Equation

 If a relationship is known between any two of the four


variables a, v, s and t, then a third variable can be obtained by
using one of the three kinematic equations:
a = dv/dt, v = ds/dt, ads = v dv.

 When integration is performed, it is important that


position and velocity be known at a given instant in order
to evaluate either the constant of integration if an
indefinite integral is used, or the limits of integration if a
definite integral is used.

EXAMPLE 12.1
Given:
The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time its
velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 + 0.6t) m/s where t is in sec.

Find:
Determine its position and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0,
s = 0.

Solution:
Coordinate System.
The position coordinate extends from the fixed origin O to the
car, positive to the right.

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Position.
• Since v = f(t), the car’s position can be found from v = ds/dt
• s = 0 when t = 0
ds
  

 
v
dt

 0.9t 2  0.6t 
s t

0 0

ds   0.9t 2  0.6t dt 
s t

s  0.3t  0.3t
0
3 2
 0

s  0.3t 3  0.3t 2
When t = 3s, s = 0.3 (3)3 + 0.3 (3)2 = 10.8m

Acceleration.
   dv
  a
  dt

d
a
dt

0.9t 2  0.6t 

a = 1.8 t + 0.6

When t = 3s,
a = 1.8 (3) + 0.6

a = 6 m/s2

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EXAMPLE 12.2
Given:
• A small projectile is fired vertically
downward into a fluid medium
with an initial velocity of 60m/s.
• Due to the resistance of the fluid
the projectile experiences a
deceleration equal to
a = (−0.4v 3) m/s2,
where v is in m/s.

Find:
Determine the projectile’s velocity and position 4s
after it is fired.

Solution:
Coordinate System : Take the position coordinate to be +ve downwards
Velocity. dv
   a  0.4v 3
dt
v dv t
 3
  dt
60 m / s  0.4v 0

1  1 1 v

  t 0
0.4  2  v 2 60

1 1 1 
 2 t
0.8  v 60 2 
1/ 2
 1  
v    0. 8t  m / s
 60
2
 

When t = 4s, v = 0.559 m/s

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Position
• Since v = f(t), the position can be found from v = ds/dt
• s = 0 when t = 0
ds
v
dt
1 / 2
ds  1 
   0.8t 
dt  602

1 / 2
s t  1 
0 ds  0  602  0.8t  dt

1/ 2
 2  1  t
s  2
 0.8t 
 0.8  60  0

Thus,
1/ 2
1  1  1 
s  2
 0.8t    m
0.4  60  60 
 

When t = 4s,

s = 4.43m  

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