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Introduction

Chapter 12 :

Kinematics Of A Particle

Mechanics

A branch of the physical science that is concerned

with the state of rest or motion of bodies subjected

to the action of forces.

1

Mechanics of rigid bodies

Statics Dynamics

Kinematics Kinetics

either at rest or moves with constant velocity.

of the motion

Kinetics – analysis of the forces causing the

motion

2

Dynamics

Chapter 12 :

Kinematics of a

Particle

3

Chapter Outline

• Rectilinear Kinematics:

− Continuous Motion

− Erratic Motion

• Curvilinear Motion:

− Rectangular Components

− Motion of a Projectile

− Normal and Tangential Components

− Cylindrical Components

• Absolute Dependent Motion Analysis of Two Particles

• Relative Motion Analysis of Two Particles Using Translating

Axes.

Rectilinear Kinematics:

Continuous Motion

specifying at any given instant, the particle’s

position, velocity, and acceleration.

4

Position

1) Single coordinate axis, s

2) Origin, O

3) Position vector r – to specify the location of the particle P at

any instant.

Note :

• s = Magnitude of r = Distance from O to P

• The sense (arrowhead direction of r) is defined by the algebraic sign on s.

=> + ve = right of origin,

− ve = left of origin

Displacement

The displacement of the particle is the change in its position.

r = r’ − r

The magnitude of r is : s = s’ − s

s is +ve if the particle’s final position is to the right of its initial position.

s is -ve if the particle’s final position is to the left of its initial position.

5

Velocity

the time interval t.

The average velocity of the particle is

r

v avg

t

The instantaneous velocity is defined as

r

v lim

t 0 t

dr

v

dt

ds

v

dt

Note:

Particle moving to the right velocity is +ve

sT, divided by the elapsed time t .

sT

v

sp avg

t

6

Example

Consider a particle travels along the path of length sT in time t.

sT

Average speed of the particle is v

sp avg

t

r

The average velocity of the particle is v avg

t

or s

vavg

t

Acceleration

Δt, is

v

a avg

t

where

v v' v

7

The instantaneous acceleration of the particle at time t is

v

a lim

t 0 t

dv

a

dt

dv

a

dt

or

d 2s

a 2

dt

Note:

=> v = v’ ─ v will be negative.

the left, in the opposite sense to v.

Decceleration is negative

8

Velocity as a Function of Time

Assumptions:

• acceleration = ac = constant

• v = v0 when t = 0.

dv

ac

dt

v t

dv a c dt

v0 0

v v0 act

v v0 act

Assumptions:

• acceleration = ac = constant

• v = v0 when s = s0

dv

ac

dt

dv ds

ac

ds dt

dv

v ac

ds

v s

vdv

v0 s0

ac ds

v 2 v02 2ac s s0

9

Position as a Function of Time

Assumptions:

• acceleration = ac = constant

• s = s0 when t = 0.

ds

v

dt

ds

v0 a c t

dt

s t

ds v

s0 0

0 act dt

1

s s0 v 0 t a c t 2

2

1) Coordinate System

specify its fixed origin and positive direction.

represented as s, v and a respectively and their sense is

then determined from their algebraic signs.

arrow shown alongside each kinematics eqn as it is

applied.

10

2) Kinematic Equation

variables a, v, s and t, then a third variable can be obtained by

using one of the three kinematic equations:

a = dv/dt, v = ds/dt, ads = v dv.

position and velocity be known at a given instant in order

to evaluate either the constant of integration if an

indefinite integral is used, or the limits of integration if a

definite integral is used.

EXAMPLE 12.1

Given:

The car moves in a straight line such that for a short time its

velocity is defined by v = (0.9t2 + 0.6t) m/s where t is in sec.

Find:

Determine its position and acceleration when t = 3s. When t = 0,

s = 0.

Solution:

Coordinate System.

The position coordinate extends from the fixed origin O to the

car, positive to the right.

11

Position.

• Since v = f(t), the car’s position can be found from v = ds/dt

• s = 0 when t = 0

ds

v

dt

0.9t 2 0.6t

s t

0 0

ds 0.9t 2 0.6t dt

s t

s 0.3t 0.3t

0

3 2

0

s 0.3t 3 0.3t 2

When t = 3s, s = 0.3 (3)3 + 0.3 (3)2 = 10.8m

Acceleration.

dv

a

dt

d

a

dt

0.9t 2 0.6t

a = 1.8 t + 0.6

When t = 3s,

a = 1.8 (3) + 0.6

a = 6 m/s2

12

EXAMPLE 12.2

Given:

• A small projectile is fired vertically

downward into a fluid medium

with an initial velocity of 60m/s.

• Due to the resistance of the fluid

the projectile experiences a

deceleration equal to

a = (−0.4v 3) m/s2,

where v is in m/s.

Find:

Determine the projectile’s velocity and position 4s

after it is fired.

Solution:

Coordinate System : Take the position coordinate to be +ve downwards

Velocity. dv

a 0.4v 3

dt

v dv t

3

dt

60 m / s 0.4v 0

1 1 1 v

t 0

0.4 2 v 2 60

1 1 1

2 t

0.8 v 60 2

1/ 2

1

v 0. 8t m / s

60

2

13

Position

• Since v = f(t), the position can be found from v = ds/dt

• s = 0 when t = 0

ds

v

dt

1 / 2

ds 1

0.8t

dt 602

1 / 2

s t 1

0 ds 0 602 0.8t dt

1/ 2

2 1 t

s 2

0.8t

0.8 60 0

Thus,

1/ 2

1 1 1

s 2

0.8t m

0.4 60 60

When t = 4s,

s = 4.43m

14

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