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- An Integer is a Positive or Negative, Whole number

- Ex. –9, +25, 0.
- Rules for Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying, and Dividing
- Adding a Positive plus a Positive = a Negative
- Negative plus a Negative = a Positive
- Positive plus a Negative = Positive/Negative depending on
the greater amount
- Subtracting (+8) +(-2)= 6
- Multiplying two Integers with same sign will result in a
Positive answer
- Product of two Integers with different signs will result in a
Negative answer
- Dividing, When dividing the rules apply in the same way as
multiplying (ex. positive x positive=positive)

Ratios, Rate, Proportions

Ratio is a fraction comparing 2 numbers or quantities with the same units.
(ex .cm : cm)
Rate is a fraction that compares numbers or quantities with different units.
(Ex liters: miles)
Proportion is a statement that equates 2 ratios.
Ratios: 25:100 =1:4 etc always reduce to lowest terms when using ratios
Conversions of Decimals Percents and Fractions
- To convert a Fraction to a Decimal divides the Numerator
by the Denominator.
- Convert to a Percent by moving the decimal place two
spots to the left
Ex. 1.20 = 120%
- Find the LCD (Lowest Common Denominator)
- Use the same rules as when using integers
- To convert from a decimal to a fraction find the amount
that is expressed (how many numbers there are on the right
side) ex. 1.20=1000 1.200=10000 Etc.
Number Classifications
Natural numbers: any number starting from one

Whole numbers: any number starting from 0

Integers: negative or positive numbers including 0

Rational numbers: any numbers that are fractions, integers, and/or whole

Irrational numbers: almost any number including square root of –1 etc.

Rules of Dividing and Multiplying Fraction
-To divide simply multiply the Reciprocal of the second fraction
-To multiply, multiply numerator and denominator by each other
-To Subtract find a common denominator and then subtract
-To Add find a common denominator and then add(ex.3 + 2
1 3
=9 + 2
3 3)
-Bedmas is the order of operations of which to do calculations in.
-It goes in order of –Brackets (9+3x(5-2) )
-Exponents 92= 81
-Division 90/10
-Multiplication 90x270
-Addition 7+6
-Subtraction 90-35
Linear and Non-Linear Relations
- A Linear relationship is when the exponent above all the variables
is 1
- A Non-Linear relationship is when the exponent above the variable
is not 1
- A Linear relationship between 2 variables forms a straight line,
they can be approximated with a Line of Best Fit
- A Non-linear relationship doesn’t form a straight line, they can be
approximated by a curve of best fit

Distance and Time Graphs

-A Distance and Time graph is a type of graph that measures the distance
over a period of time of an object
Independent/Dependant Variables
- An Independent variable is the variable the affects the Dependant
variable, it goes along the X axis
- The Dependant Variable is affected by the Independent variable, it
goes along the Y axis

- An Outlier is a piece of data that varies significantly from the rest
of the data, sometimes it can be removed from the data
Correlation Types
- A Positive Correlation is when the Line of Best Fit points up and
to the right of the data
- A Negative Correlation is when the Line of Best fit points down
and to the right of the data
- No Correlation is when there is little or no correlation between the

Correlation Coefficient
- A Correlation Coefficient is a single number between –1 and 1 that
describes the strength of the relationship between two variables
Correlation Strong Weak
Positive 0.7 to 1.0 0.3 to 0.7
Negative -1.0 to –0.7 -0.7 to –0.3
Little or no Correlation –0.3 to 0.3

Relationship Definitions
- Primary Data- Data collected by you (you count the amount of
people eating healthy vs. non healthy)
- Secondary Data- Data collected by someone else (you find a study
that says there are only 7 panda’s in the world)
- Sample- A small portion of the population (all the Asians in
- Census- The whole population (everyone in Canada)
Unit 3 Polynomials

- Terms- A product of numerical expression and a variable ex. 5y

- Like Terms have the same variable and exponent ex. 5y and 7y
-Polynomial, one or more terms added together ex. 5nm+7y

Type Of Polynomial Number of Terms Example

Monomial 1 7x
Binomial 2 5y+9s
Trinomial 3 45y-9x+35z

Degrees of Terms and Polynomials

Term Sum of Exponents Degree
93 3 3
8yc 2 2
9xyz+ 7x8 11 11
The Distributive Property
Is when you multiply all numbers on the inside of the bracket by the
number out side of the bracket Ex.3 (7x+8) becomes 21x+24

=x2 + 4x

Exponent Rules
When multiplying an exponent by another exponent you add the
exponents, when dividing you subtract the exponents, and when you have
a power of a power you multiply the exponents Ex. 5n5x 7n3= 35n8

Multiplying and Dividing

Multiplying: When you multiply simply add the exponents of the terms
Ex: 5n5 x 4x7=20n5x7
Dividing: Subtract the exponents of the terms
Ex: 5n7/36n7
Power-to-Power: When there is a power to beside each other and no sign
is indicated multiply the exponents of the variable/term.
Ex:(54 )(56 )= 510

Unit 4 Algebraic Equations

Equations: a mathematical statement that says two expressions is

Solution: the value of the variable that makes an equation true
Constant Term: a term that does not include a variable (Ex:5)
Changing signs: When moving numbers over the equal sign there
sign changes to the opposite of what they were.
Ex: x + 4 = 13
X+4 –4 = 13 -4
- When solving simply equations bring the variables to one side and
the constant term to the other side
- LS/RS is a good way to check if your answer is correct
- LS: x+4 - RS: =13
LS=RS there fore x=13
Multi Step Equations
Multi-step equations are solved by using the exact same rules as
simple equations (Bring all the variables to one side and all the
constant terms to the other)
Ex: 7-2k = 8-5k

Solving Equations with Denominators #1

- Find the Lowest Common Denominator

- Multiply each term by the LCD
- Eliminate Denominators by reducing fractions and multiplying the
denominator by the numerator
- Solve the remaining equation
Ex: 2/3x=-8
Solving Multi-Step Denominators #2
- Eliminate Brackets Using the Distributive Property
Ex: x-1/3=x+2

Modeling with Algebra

All algebraic equations should contain the following
1) Let statements
2) Starting equations
3) Full solution
4) Clearly stated answer
5) Therefore statement

Ex. Let n = 5
Therefore n is equal to 5

Unit 5 Slope
Intro to Slope- slope is equal to rise/run another word for slope is m
For linear relations slope is equal to Delta Y/ Delta X
Slope Point Formula
Slope Point Formula uses 2 points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)
M= y2-y1
First Differences
5 -1
6 -2

7 -3
8 -4
The differences on theFirst
x side change by +1, and the y
side’s changes by +1 making the slope 1
Unit 6 The Line

Slope Intercept Form- is y=mx+b where y is the y coordinate, m the slope,

x is the x coordinate, and b is the y-intercept.

Standard Form- Ax+By+C=0 A is equal to the slope, x is once again the x

coordinate, B the y-intercept, y is a y coordinate, and C is the negative
form of the sum of Ax+By.

Parallel and Perpendicular Lines- a parallel line is any line that has the
same slope as another, a perpendicular line is any 2 lines which slopes are
negative reciprocals.
Unit 7 Geometry

Angle Theorems- CAT- Complementary Angle Theorem- Angles who

measure up to 90 degrees

-SAT Supplementary Angle Theorem- When an angle adds up to 180


-OAT Opposite Angle Theorem- States that all opposite angles are equal

-ALT (Z) Alternate Angles- When two parallel lines become intersected
by another line, resulting in a Z pattern

-COR (F) Corresponding Angles- When 2 parallel lines become

intersected by another line, they then may form an F pattern
-INT (C) Interior Angles- any of the angles that are on the inside of a

-ITT Isosceles Triangle Theorem- States that the base angles are the same
on each side

-EATT1 Exterior Angle Theorem for a Triangle 1- Angel A + Angel B=

Angel C
-EATQ Exterior Angel Theorem for a Quadrilateral- All the angels in the
quadrilateral add up to 360 degrees
-ASTT Angel Sum Theorem for a Triangle- Angel A+ Angel B+ Angel
C=180 degrees