~rnerrnblfr to:

• ~kim ~1la;1iI the: '~t "!IlI!Iiddy,

• {!J full i:llrlil'll'!' key worns and ~1m!'3SI!S im the~'lIIs.

;t hi!lhlii'ght lila I'IU~~UIiI U1e text. lfufis wJ'U help )lOu to(~~~ i nf6'~m,atlQI1 more Cillil nc kl~

QJlesUO;III.12~ Wtli.llt tyPt()!~ iilllb ls MatHiew look,ing fur? How W<I!.Ild you de!icr~bll! {!he jt) P ~€! Im:a~; now? (pi1Ir;1~ra~h 9~ Q:l!£es~Qln 31: KWI.y. ,Mike (ljlil ~ REi bJ\!IC(;a {lt~ 11rulflilioi:l 1:i1iJ<lJIiI'~io'li dfffi.c!.!lt~~, Wh.rl was Ul,a ~LlII' (II ealCh c1li~e~

Qlmesi!iie:n 7~ Whidl pJi!rs~JoII lM!!lrks fGIf ~:riin I irler.lld? (~[lrn~:t<Jl!J h ,W

QuLe.sliioln I~ WhEd (hie.s 'da:~IilUlilg' m,El31f1? (pa!'aJg:r~pi1l1.~:r~m~a~e "dOlUJllilt:ee' IIIi1 lP~r· r 13.


P A. R 1"" .

-- ------

An"S\iVcer questions t~t2 by relf'erring to th-e ne\N'Spap~r articl.e about unhlersitystudEmts. an d t~e jabs tney h ave chos~ n on p!;;'ilgE! 7..

ilrldicatJ!:l YlJUW an,5;wews on tlheselparalle anSWE!lr sheet.

For questions '11-fi:, al1lS\l!Jler by matchirng the opinions expnilss@d w~th the people listed (A~E) on 'the riqht bellow"

Som,E of th~ c1noic:.€'s may be r'equ~red more than once.

Note: When more one answer is re'quir,ed, these may be g~\len in anyomer',

111 .r.,j
12 5 ....

A Mattnew Bas hford B Mike Hale

I( P,ete Fulford

D Kelly Moore

E R.eb~ccal Jon es

Whkh person

stop psd work after a shortti me?

has a fuIHJime-te'mporary job7

had ito do somsthi ngl lHlIWil Ii ngly b"ec8Ius,@ of a poor financ.~a I SlfWatHon?

misses frie ncs 'on the cour~?

has not left university yet?

finds am .!lllit@:m.ait~ve IDa Job wnth a salary?

fsels conf~dent aboU!1I:ffinci i n~1 <3_ job 7 fourli~d it diffi cult to 19 at 0 [11 with colleagues?

is not verry amb~tiou.s with r@galrd~ci futu re ]obS?

found a job oosiliy7

lea rnt .a lot from a job?

:rE~'Tl, IPA,Fl'E.IR 1

-. f

Riles 0'_ passage

WeI!(iOirne t·'O d1:eworld ,of wD:rk~ How do ,shJdent5 Imake the ·lJansitio.n fro.m CDm~pu.s to colreer?

THE'RE are aspects of smdent. life t:l1jj1t mOs;l graduateswill bappily leave behind: not: m;1lny will miss wriljng e~says at two in the Morning ,Of ~rnmJiili~g for exams. But for some students the only tIl:i:llg more daunting !ban doing a degree is finishing one. "Students have ~t ensy" - It's one-orthose ~uilartillg things 1:I131l, people !i.ay. If's event more irri l<l!tiflg when mey tom Qut [Q be right

Giving up student staars means Ienouncing the laid-back li~estylc alld three-moafh summer ho·hdays., l~!;,leai:J; there is a soul-destroying search fol!' work to. leok fOFW<wd to, So are this year's graduates ready for the itr!l'llsitic!n '?

Matthew If,ashford gradlua·~e.-d a yem' !iligo from {ht\ Uruvers~ty of liumbe.rsid,e, with a degr~ in Business Studi.,es. "It's .awfu~." he s,a,Ys. "It make'S yO'll. WfI!nl!l to go back ,iL1iId be 11 :stud:ell'~ again. YOIl find it difficu]'t~o gel w!)d. if! tb.~fus;t place, and when you do, it's stuff and the office politics are a nightmare = Ws nor casy [0 make friends," On tOP Of that, fun-little]lJlt li1ta~ not brought the d~]ugc. of easn Matthew expected ... "After the increase in rent, hi Us •. alld Income tax, I was better off as a mdem than: I am now in terms !of dis posable inceme," he says. He is still. seeking a permaneat position

For others, it is not only findi.Qg tile job a

problem, but ~lI]SO accepting !:be resp01lsiil1lility hat goes with it. Mike Ha]e left Heri:IDordshire Unlversity wi~h a law and ceo .. omics degree. Lack of money meant be W<.l.S, forced, home whidl felt "like a regres ion", and he found it hardto adjust to the nine-to-f ve routjne. "The thing is," he says. "eollege is. so free and ej:]sy ~<I!l eveathe (hm~gh:[ of doing 40 hours a week is a bill. int:imid~lli[l:g. But you can ~ 1 fi,ght it, you've gOl to earn mOf!ey. 'you baw~' to become PllXU orthe syste •. "

A (iber working [01' nine months as a gcuit<l'I" toohnkiall,. Miik.e bad saved enough money to go leavening. an:linCTeflsill1fgl.y common chciee for college. leavers, But I:bQse who t~lke "the bactpac.k1.l1J;lroCJIute have: [0 start at the bettnm ef me career I,adder woe]): tbey return, Mike 50]\,.00 tlbii"S prui[jlem by s:tmling his own business,

Anotlle:r commen pifol!]en1J is tbalt leaving unIversity means losing the structare thalt a degree CO%ll'se p;l.1Jv~des" Pete F,utford, who ]en Co¥enh"y Uuiverst·ty wit]] a BSc in i ndl/J! project tWiO y,ears ago, S~]ys, "I got a bit depressed becau se there was a lot (l,f camaraderie 01"1. n'!!y em! rse, we werea very closs~k:iljl gioup. There WOO!i. this institutien that I was a part of, and ~1e\f1 tt was gone, ]I lett a kind of void .'"

A year after leaving Brighton

with a. degree m! history. Kell,y Moore was g:oiTJIg ltmJL]gh s.hniJ.a~ emotions. She said, "Going to lectures. b6tng pan of the sysl·~m.i[gives you. ~. sem;e; of security, and you Jose thal wben you ~Ieav,e."

Not ~] srudears are ilaunted by the lite of passage. from university ttl the jobs mru1OO.t Rebecca Junes, a student of French and German from Ll \~erpoo~ Un i versity, is looking forward to leavi,1!J!.g ooli]eg-u. and earning 80m.· money" She wm take "any job goin.g~' to payoff heir debts, 3/]thougfu leng-term career plans are vague, She mentions relurwog to France, w.b,e:re she spent psrt ·of her. degree, and Itbat she would be disalpppinred if she 'd~d'tn.·~ use her language skills, I·you don't :kn:ow what ifs goi ng to be ] ike ~utlU you get there, do YoOu1"

Maybe not, but it is possible to p~aJn. Thosewh« haVie cO'ped best are tbose 'Who have thought abOiUilt dle diffic:ulties- they might (ao:~ aad are open to the diverse range of oppormnides that may arise,

"f knew it was going to be hard,' says KeUy, ,"btU ~ had @ game plan. j[ wanted to get.a job tbat would help. me payoff my debbi .. and I ~;tocned app]y~~g as soon as I I1nisbed my course, I wa~ offered a job 8.S a person nel manage:!' 01] '!:he day I'gradeated, It certallliy wasElI'lmy ideal po'sitkl]"JJ,. btu ]Jt waf". en ~bgolul:eJy brmian~ experlence. It taught me se1f-discipJ.ine~ l10W to organjge myse~f9Jld a great deal about the workplace, My adviee ~s. don't just hope t]uit ,wtlllethilil,g win ·come along, sWl planning what you're going [() do as early as possibLe. It makes It so much .easier,'

TeST 1, PAPER. 1


P A,~·T 2,


Her research aJ~1) reveals that certain types, of goods are moreIikely to be bought on impulse than O'thera. Those mostf.T>@;quep,tly reported - clothes. jeweUery, omaments - are closelyrelated to self-imsge and.ap'pearance. This fmrii.D;g Is, eontra:ry tP. uSllfal tJiJe.od,es about im.pulse shoppi_ng~ which explain it as a s:hort-tenn gratification winning Q111,t over longje:l;l-term co:m.i~ms such as d~bt,


In. tither -word.s, shoppers were more willing to wait far "low impulse" g~)Qd s smc,h as kl kh,enwsre, than they were for dothe~l)r othel' !'higb impulse" i tems .. , How~veri it was found that some of the 60 (;{I.l] SURlers asked. to main biu2. shopping diary for the study o:frel1 regretted their imp:oJsive purchases. Dr Dittmru:" said, ;~When people had. ,e::;:;plicldy bough'~ fOol' seU·im.age reasons, r-egret l\faJS mare Uk~1,y eo OCCur.~1

The OOIl.cLusions drawn by Drr Dittmar about the treatmen t of oomp1l11Lsive shop,pers are that p[,escdbing anti-depressant, drugs might so]n the problem bu.!. olllyats long as sufferers continue; to take th'em. Instead; 't:il:e:y n~eded. therapeutic help to address the underl:y'ing causes such as poor sellf-im,;,~ge,

"In no g'!}n(:le do these peopl~ directly fOlrc,e anyone to buy anYthing. ]But they are 'very sOIphi:sticated. making ~dv(l:ftIseM<en.ts and ,~hopp]ng environme.nts very seductive au,d playing on the idea ,that if you buy pl' X y'o'u will be much more ~.ntracJljve,.>!

For qlfesti"ons 13-18. you must chaos€' which of paragraphs. A.-Gon page 9 fit into the numbelred gapiS in tliefollowing newspaper artlde, There ~s one extra paragraph which does not fit in any iof the .g:aps.

Ind~cat@ your answers on the 'selparate answer


II hQPpjng ?-s.e W .be nothing ~:o!i.". e t.hana wa.,-y of oMamlng food, clothmg and oth~r

nooessWtiea of life. Tod.a.y~ however~ shopping synu,bou,ses Ute eultnre o.f west9l"n society and itspopillarity as a leisure 3!ctivi~y re,tl~o(!ts the rifl~ of COF.llSumeri,s·w.

Having more mODey has mt:!afI.t spending pa.tterfiS have changed. While b,adtt.iona] models of econondc beha'!i'iour assume that consumersare lration~l and. w1eigh up the oosts find be'"nefits befor.e .alting a purebase, anyon,e who has ever walked into a !lhOP~Dd Ieftfiveminu res Iater with a ne'w j :1lI, and. £8.0 less in tb~ r waUet knows tha.t this thelll'Y does not always hoId true.

Hf!.l' r-ess!.'Iilch on COIiIH.1Ifier behaviour identified im.pulsive bnying as an att~pt by shoppers to boIsteI'~heh' s(llf~im.age, panij!1!1lal"ly fin' these whoJ suffered from so-caned compulsive buying or shopping addiction" a condlitiQn that affects 2 to 5 pe:r cent of ~dullits i.nthe We-st.

The tl:fi\ee--y~. Jr study tlo:mpaI'ed excessive b1Luy,e'rs to Iii aimib.l'gfOup of cl'dina:ry censu mers, Ex.cessive shap~ers were tnore maJ.ter~aJi9tie and believed that buying goods was way to 6UoteSS, happiness and id.ootity. "Exeessive buying is a c, strategy tllflill the gaps between. how sh~ppeM fe'el about themsehres and the person they wantto be,~ Dr mttm<l.l' said.



A Dr Bittmar said tha,t the idea, that ecnsumers' impu[s:i.venes.s differed, depending on the type of gti(ub'l was also supported by the 'finding' tltatt shoppers were less winIng' m delay gratification fOt, items bou-ght on -imp'u]:s~-

B But there are pitfalls. such as debt and add ietion to buying. Addicts shop for shopping's SaR. l'athe,l' than to bt::ty what 'fu~y ne0d.

(' Helg:at Dittmar, senior lecturer in. psychology at Sussex U ni V'el':Sity, has found that consumer goods are the ma terial sy:mllol.s of who a person is and who they would like to be.

o Her reeearcb alsQrais'e,s questions over the m,elhods used to attract s11:.oppef""S and encourage them to buy. A1.thougb advertisers and !'e:tailers incr-.e8is]ngly appeal to consumers' self.image, Dr Dittmar said it was very diffirnil,t to argue that ~ese fadon; wel~e; r-esponsible for eompulsiva shopping.

Tip Strip


• lead the main text fir!;t, igllol:'ing the gaps.

'. '1rI~81nli!!:ht WIiJ'r~s 'lh3'~ fe-Fer t 'p@ p,te. ti iiR~ nefemnce:s mu:1 ~inkling wmd[s .

• ' look. 'for lifilks both l!Def~,re and :arfl:.e'r the gaps. The text die'ScriTbil!s ttlsearch'~ ntl(j, t(llnsum~r ardG;litli'o'1iI :50 ~tlit!l ~ for iUnks between i!X!P'lall'laitions, example's and conclusions.

E JiJ..thl:l1i,1l;g'h th~re were: (i,th()t ways ,of dealing with poor self-image, such as cver-exeeeising- or alcohoUsm; she said that sMp,ping had become one of the mos.tirnporW.nt strategies. This was espedaUy true for women, who were three times mot'S lik!cly to be compulsive shoppers than men, as ,shopping was a. socially approved'Y. and allnwedthese who do net go OlJ:t to work. to get. out of the ho,use. Dr Dittmar said,

IF But this finding was ambiguous be-cause shopping addicts were more m.oti vated by se] nr,dinary sboppers and were more likeIy to ~egret tll:e:h:' actions. "It's not quite dear whiph way rOlllnd this relationship goes, but the'l',e is a link between being very ecnceened wi til self~im.a.g,~ goods and. regrettmg impulse buying,"

G This, has been made possibl,e by th.,a 75 pet' cent ]1'1I.crease in dmpo:sab~e income in the past 20 yeats. The number of credit cards in use has mon - thalli quadrupled., and the am.ount of ou ts.t,anding consumer debt has almost tripled in the SIDn~ pedod.

QUles,tiol:l '~",: WhQ doe:$: ~he:r' Nlhi'r't'O?

QlileiStion 2I'~ 'in oth@'fwQJI1d!;.· sliIggests tl1a/t tl'ie mii:slSoIf1!g Pilrag~a!p tn: .s-'!\I!i t ~Ie ~!ilme 'thill,g. g'S this one'.

'Question 11: Who are 'these p~qphn






- -

Read the followln.g newspaper article and answer questions 19-:24 on page 11. On your answer sheet, indicate the letter A, S, Cor [) a.gainst the number ofeach question 19-:24. .. (jiv,e C)!I'"lly one answer to each question.

Indicate your answers on tihe separate answelr sheet.

i] hetilist .~hi~9 ,C!, ny ~rOd~sirl~~docml" wh~, also Wfl~iS gets. os~ed is, How do you

I R nd ·th!e time?' A combi:ned career olUgh~! ill theory, to be per~eclly possible: wni~e:l's and dodors ore boih only firai ned observers, Alld ither,e is 0 dis~i n;grui:shed Illi 5. ,o,f Iliwrary m.edic5,. BUlt Cllmo~t ail end yp doing one orfhe· Q~her. Andl if they greany g:ocrd as writers, ihe~,fie1hos.oope fo,kes seGorrdl plcc:e. TheHI' never seems to be, ti me to do bqth pmpei~Y.

But WiU:iam CcmlosWiilllklms, the groo~ Moderln]st Ipoevl :suoc,eeded. Wi II iClm.~, wh,o WCI:S; born if! 1 883 orid died 'in 1963, alter a series of :s~rokes, 'Wos, no:t only (:I prolific poectr, cri~ict rI.ov,el·is,t ,and dromatrsf, but ,dlSQ .[1 lir~il,on9'r fullHirme gener'CI~ rpractirtioner im ~~utlherfQrdr New Jersey. Alth'OuS,h he e,o:uld hgve ,eol$ii~y set up Q p'rivate practioe in Manhtll1ito n.l, hie cho!Seinst,ead ~o work' in o workhtg doss industrii.o'ltowliIshj'p wi*, many Irecent iFllmigrQl1Ilts L-ofli'l Ikdy and E'o:st.'em E.ur-ope, whQ spoke Ilime Ene'lish.

His iDoctor Stories' deal wah crises

unci!El'rstood by any cont'empo;r(lry illiner'-c,i;1y GP: stiU birth, ,au~opsy, patients who refus.e ,ex_ominoltio"", or ,cannol undlersJOlld reassurance, never-endringmmily oorlsuhcl'rio.l1s in 'broken El1glisht fiIrle pClrti'cyll!oll" test of night-Yisi~in!il. My vi:s.its ar,e<made Io .t!1,fg 'OO!'lllC'J1~he Itower·bliOCks of Tower HClrmlh;~~$ in. I.ondods East End, ,and the new immi'gr,onts ore lTom Vietnam andriBonsJladelsh.

There is no other wrifer who deals, wHh how to, listen, how to cere, haw t,o be there at die moment ·oF IPhysko,1 need, 'He must have jol'ted

these fee!i ngs, down en prescription pad 0"" rmotebook~ then ~ran5'cribed the:m on h~s labor,atory typewriterl 'when hammlsrill'lg o~n olwo~e b ischi:ld ren, 'By ~he fq,me we Clnemb'~ed for brooklas't,. he had p~obably allt"eody done an hour's stint/ lIecaUs hiils physidcm eon W~lliam.

As much os his indush·y,. Ili!ke his I:aoanic kme.

Hi s 'temdemeSis, ls hard -edgedl, his hUffiani sm sl~9'hdy 'eyni:'ool; best o'f aiL he is nlilYer seFltirmerntall about fuEl! O;pp~tl'ssed. And there is the shee:r qualify of his IIJlerorry work.

WUllliams, whose rmoilher was Pu'ellito Rko n I wo;s, onlly tlJ :seoond~9100enJltioll El'nglish ~peaker1 so he stn.l9glled to devei~op atroly American voice., Hi:silnno:,v·otions were 01 sll~ple w,oy o~ wlii~ng wuhr 11110 simiiles and metaphors I using ,0 s,yntax and rhythm based on luna breaths. It produced '0 wondetfult s.til,1 woeFuIII,)" ullderr'o'red bOdy of work, rangring from the IOP9rlbve"poemr I Asphodell I lb, the h(lliku - rike Iii its in J1Pkwlr-esfrom Breu'gel'.

Williams ~s heroi.c IbeC01IJ1S'& he wos 0 pr,ophet illl! his OWin land!; bec-ouse he redl'oiirned poetry 'rom European-imikdion «lcademics 'o:nd because he stayed (j workiog dbctor ~Qnd enjoyed it, 'I l1Ie¥er felf, he' wrote, Ithat medi,cilne in.terFer·ed wilh me but rather that iJ was my food and drli:nkJ Ithe verythingr that mode ~It possible to write.' So' whenever I became disgrun~ed tlll:iQU)t the workloo:dr I mllite'if g phrase of wnll~am's db01lJ~ one ·of his patients, which sums, up my own mi~edileelin9's obou1 pradisullgr in the East End: 'her sml'l:e~ with 01 shrug, ailways won me.J


119 HOW is WilHam Carlos WiII'iams, unUk,e other lirtera.ry doctors, according to David Widgery?

A He enjoyed working as a doctor.

e His work as a doctor was a source of ideas fOir his writingi.

c: He managed to continue both careers, for all hils I,ife.

0' H is powers of observation developed wirth h ls writi ng.

20 The problems that encountereo among his patients A were typical of the time.

S exist i iii sin1j I ar setti n 9 s today.

C have dlsappeared with sdvences lin rnedidne. [D were s,p ecif~c to the region where h e worked_

21 In which area is there a :similarity between WjilHam carlos Williams and DaNid Widgery?

A literary tastes

B t,empera me n t

C family origins

D! working environment

22: When did William Carlos WHlliams do his literary work?

A at night

B after even ing su rg.elfy ,e during the sfternoon D'i f1 the earlly rno rn ing

2:3 According to Davd,d Widgery, the reputation of Wimam Carlos Wlilliam.s A is now h i'gher thea n it has ever been.

B is not as high as it deserv,es to be.

e h as oeCil ined s~nce his death.

D' has been overshadcwed by that of his mnrtemporaries.

:2:4 Rega reli rng h is own medical worik r Davi dI Wi dlgrery A fails to ftnd it challenging',

B semen mes wish es he - ha d less to do,

Ie continues practising for the sake of his paltients. D' finds it interferes \NIth his aims as a writer.


Tip Strip


• ski m tij,e t:e::Ilt for gene tta[ lin cl elrstalldllng. D'I::1I1;'l wol1fY if yatU don't ll'IH;iefs:tal[ld every WaN. Q.u(!stli:o)iils

reQlui Fie you to. interpret 'pecrliic parts of the text, and not illidlividllJill[ wOIrds.

• lookf3t the ql:lestioJrl!l, bliilt not ~he foLlr

e ~tiorn;s bemrE! lre:adlillS' Hie tlext III more d!etailL

.. firnd~h:t 'Setliol'l onhe text Ui@t .relates tel e-acb Qltle,s.t~olil.

• an !l'e,rll,lIE! kJey W(lf4$. inr the I~ u:!lsU OIPilS ilIInd 'GP~ion,s.

Q~!!!sfjlolil il9~ ru~ all. the op1ioWlS truJe? Wh3t Is ~he ke'V word in tlhe qu;est:~on?

'QUe:SUO:1I 2ll! Is there a time mtllljicmed in the fourth p~rng,r,apli?

Q.u:e:slion 23;:' Wlh~t does 'W!~efuIUl'y undiHJa'h!c" 1111:1311 !1iI palr, 6? Is th~ me,!ll'lilng pOllit~v.e Qi' liIefjdti'lJle?


Ii, 51rip

le:!lts ~ U'! P.i1tt.ii. ilnav 1m ~ dilitdled imo SetUoniS. Oll~ .rpp:r~lirCh to this task is in:

~ ~ad thmugj'J tl:iiJE! Ilist sectton of the text only. the iii ~I!ad thro ugh all 'fhe qiLll!' ,t:i'ol'ls·. ma,t.&n'ing the questions that r'e'f(ir 't€l' ~lmat settiM.

• 'dO' the SeLlille with'the ,U1E!1r Sleclio:rts, g~aduallty reall'cl ng t:he r1Il,mber of qlJlE!Sti'IJ'ilS, yol.l have: to OOl1ls:i,cl ar,

Q,1JI,!$otliom :lI~: Aritin riI'1 e{'lt in.vol!llls addilflg up and] '5.j!I sU!;u:ti'ng nlilil'ib@Js. W'illo m,entions this,?

Q,IIesti:O'fI 33, Wha'l was Eli2allejh '8reru urnable to do alul' 'Wh~?

'lJl,u&.stlolil 3181: Who

III ~eiv,ed OJ rererelu:e from a S!j:hool? W lriat kintl of A leveL rei5il!dts did Ui.ey get?

Whkh f,am,il~Y f!Ii'u=,mbell'

s,ays fellow-pupils e)(lP~cted to find jobs nea r Wher-e they IliVled?

had potential that was not wealli~d early? re 9 rets til e lack of c.a reer choice 7'

suffered from no.stil,ity from people of the same age? had an education that dii,d, not continue to secondary lev,el?

did mental ari,thmetic7

passed an examination to go. on to seoond,ary' education?

had pa re flits who suffe red fi na ncia~ Iy to support. his I her education?

was prevented by the school from doing the desirsdchoke oJ sub,j,ects 7

changed schools dluiilg secondary education? had teachers who treated boys and girls in the same W;JY?

r,ecognised the benetns of a different lealrningl approach?

had to stud}' with the· consta 1111. fear of e,xpulsion? exceeded theschool's expectations?

use,d 'h:chno'iogy to commun icate with pUlp~ll:s in

another country? 39

f a~ I ed an i mportant ,exam? 40

had derided on a p:rufeS's.lbn before ~eaving' schobl? 411

was forced to study a fsvourite sUlbje.ct outside school? 42.

TIEST 1, PAlflil'R 11

29 .1M ••
38 Answer questions 2!5-4.2 by reJerfing to the informatJion members of the Brettf,amily give about their education on pages 131-14 ..

lndicate your an s;weJrs on tiheseparrate a nswell' s.he'E!,t.

for questions 25-42 choose your answers from the list of family members (A-D). Some choices may O@ required more than once.

Po freda
B: Brian
C Mike
[) E Ilizabeth An English Family, 80 Years of

Freda Bretl~, 85,

" ---

I stil:rLtlCl school when 1 was cfQJJr. 1 di.dn't learn anything:at nly firM scho,oi~ 'we jU'lJ:~ pbred. Then W,e nifJJCY'i1'~d and I went~o a school a mile from hOn'le-] uS,eQ to willk lvith mybmther, the 1'00& were ,sare tllefll. the [l:eadm:lIster .reaUy W<lSfI cruel man} he used to beat rh~ boys, I wa.s about dgh['wh~'n we mo,vlid agaEn and] went h) anutn,er school where r wacs very happy. I don't think we learnt all tb,d much - we did readi ngi! wr;itins~ ~dthme'li".lus~oty and g~ogra.phy. Theb Qys did S~T-clfn]ng and the girls did rieoed[e'WOli'k and bQu~ew:ifery., The whole schoe~ was in one roorn, diviQled [rno classes. We sS!t tnwws of WOQdeu desks f'ac::ing the teacher whewould wti;~e on the board arid aJsk qlllesdclin:S. We lesrut. to addup in om heads ~ th.ey ~a.ll;t diOttlait n~w. We neVo(~r.g~'E any hQl'lil,ewoik.We had slwgi:rnrs: ]essiO'ns' but no pjj;llnp~ TIrete were-nature k~S9ll'l$ b1iat Jill;! art ]e5Sij~.l s, Only hm pe:Qple ."rent DI:I. to ~erond<l(y ,ed:UOl.l]On in my time. We had nQ ambitioi1,. bktl om: !?I.'trenitsneve.r put us forwOllri~ either. 1 suppose it was M m.uchas,they uould do to support us. [ wish we had the opportunity t.o ba.v;e· done more - there were nQt the ehauces tbJere are 1l0Vl'. We;nev,e,r had <lny special

ttll~nin;g fQIf ~ nyt'hiug ~qloedfic .at 01. .'

ID. lscipllQe was e:n:fo~rcOO. hy fear at .~ny first :!'.CnoaL I •• / Th~ headmaster was Wlf}' brutal, TheJea{h~~ ~fFl!ded tD be elderly spinsten" MOISt Ieaming \V3..'l Iby rote, Tiwllr wll1S]1j"tlJi. great deal of individual atte'I1t~oll!. and no ~Iomework. Scll!o~] was wry much d]Yorced from your h~lne and. p.anl[JJi:s.

We were a \l\l?~y poor- fam>Uy,.[ t wilIIs,'a griritl just to ~lay alive. Yon nOld no expecsatioas really. EverYQn.e ",·"Ork:ed IQ(iill~iy. Each ycar the lOp d,lISS. was entered for the c{;lul:'I~Y scholarship {;xam for g.ramma.r school in StDlIVJ:lrn:a:r,ket,· Only one place each rear l.,;rerll to semeone f!lQm my 'Sch:ctol~ alld r gotut. My parents hBirl~o ruake a gfe!lit Mru1ciaJsacriflcew sendme there, My fees were pafCl fu]i'j 'but I needed things Jike a uniform l!vhiihoQ&l two or three wt\~ks' worth of' my fathce'sw,!g~s" J ~Gt a. ike bus pass l'H1I.d \~·S entitled to free school mealsteo, but tha.t WiiIIS l,oQketil )L]pan by mypa:rerfts <ls,char:ity~so T

t:Q@k ;S:arl:dW:iches,. If I nadlrltt go~ the 8~hobI.shi pj] would ~l;a:V:e g,o;ne to the area. si;.6Da~ and left: ilt about].::I. hl;sl:e:ad,my parents s;igned a piece of p.aper sayi~,g I w(ntkl,s,ta}' until I was t6, They '!~[e aware lit. 'rn:ight Iead 1:0 somethi'ng better.J t ten.ded. to mean you went fhnrn h]ue ooHa.r 00 wnrf.c -eol lar; ]lic'll:aJS :ltl outcast an'long my OWn ];;i[l.([: vidua.IJy o8.trncl,s.ed. It Was ve;ry difficldtj not bei ng p<ld. of the troop that roamed tl.t:t vill.3Jge.

We d~d E~].gUsh gramm Sir 'Il"D~d. Htcrllw.r~> dwm.islry, IJ C]~;~uy <lnd religiQllS ed uca tion, Prench was COmpliJllSory; The fJjrls did mokery andprepar,ed school. meals, the boys did -wnodworlc Th~'r,1;! W'e~ n.or vlsual aids, There WJ:S much: .s-reate!: di~d,p~]ne because there was 8lhvays' the'threer of being expelled, [tW:;IS « very narrow educatjion.

-- - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Mike Brell~ 42

1- went to four diffe-rent primary schools, I quite liked _ sehnol, 'although I didn't knowwhar '1~~goil1;g on. My ~.Jst felIlf W<l8 spent in a middle-class urbaj[] school thstwas much more formal There W<i.$ a.~O't of roteLe~in'ing, and I was jn~rlJduced tlJ some subject'S for the firstt~ime~ Mlrn as classics, It WlIS obvious that the 1 I ~ plus examlnatlon figured. promi nemry i nthc schuol's thoughts. Lthlnkit was a shock to my parents) because it "vas8ilsQ chvious that n wasn't goirlgtDp3iSS it, Th-ey got me a p'I"ivate t~uor. but I fin~d anyw{'!y. My falheI: W0'Ii8 very diS'<lPPo][It".e<L AU my fri',el:U!ds bar one passed the 11 :pius; that stm hurts~oday; It \'\I'~st:qlany in~q'Uitoij$. I [-elt~. fa:ilure fer rea[~a:fh:r that Bdllcation forme was a dawnmg process: [ was a late developer. My mothertold me 'recently [i.Mt~.vhel1 one teacher wrote: 'He- wJ[l neveri:1lch'ieve ,anylhin:g ~n IIf~~ in my report, r Wi'lS ~et:ermil1Ledto prove him wrong,

So I wcnt to the se_conda.ry modern, DisapJ:ine ,vas rigorously enforced, Some of the teachers were ·absolut:ely brutal, ]1 iJ.~S palt of the culture of the 'unSlLinution. It W'<'!:s expected that every,one in my class '",'OItud do 0 lie'l.fe~ ex!1lmh1La~~Qn&, [ scraped fi\."e. My fllt:h~T was amilz.ecl. I \;f.)S s(Jrpdsecl~. to be honeS'~. ] l)eu.l:cHibf:rIl1Y p.aren:fs v, the scborOl. rll!er~ had been some discussion a~ home about my progress .. 1 had another pl']vare tutor rot a few ye<L~ so' 'l~ey 'Were Qbtv.~ouslrim~r'~l>ttd and oonca:r!Gd. Th~y U~oyght of


education as j;l positive force in ~ifu~ 11 passport. M~y motile." in particular wanted. me to haw ,the opporturiities she hadn't had. And by then] knew l wanted to te;'l(h.

We. moved, and I applied for 3. place ;It Pelixstowe Grammar School. The head wasn't too keen [0 take, me, but ] got ful te do his,tory. gwgr<lphy and economics A levels, One of my economics teachers was q uite differenl from other teachers I'd had. He asked 1.15 to [\ei3in thing.s and dbcUiiiS them, 1 £.01.1 nd it much easier to IC'8m that wa.y. ] even remem ber ha.v1;ng a 'lesson nn a fishing boar, But the other subjects were still taught fun.ually from the teacher's notes, a very :pr~S'cript:ive appwach.

The school wouldn't support my going to university.

J was pointed rolll!,amS teacher training. But then the Aleyelexamina tion Ie~i.1~U' came O~ll,t, the scheol changed Us mind and gave mea reference, so 1 went to Lancaster University m read history and economics,

- -

Elizabeth IBrett, 14

-- -

M· ~ - urn ta:ught In: ~.o read before I went to school, I _ remember W<\ltu-:1,g for Dad to come home SO tha.~ 1 could read to him; I used to lo,,'e it. At school you had

reading cards to take home. You had to read th ree more pages of your book t~ yo:ur parents, tben they had to' sign a cardto say you'd done it. llo,~ed prirna.fY school. 'The tniing 1 elljoye'd the 111OS,tVlras the music, . I p]ayec] the recorder ill school coucerts and started tp; learn the vl0Hn. We bad penp,ds in 'Iasm aula who we mmmuni~~d whh by computer. There W<lS lots of painting. Most of my teachers made particular emphasi-s ~hat boys aad girls are equal: if one of the chijdiren made a se~st ,comment, the teacher ,always made sure they were ,'jl'oppeci.

My present SlC:hooi is very big. You don'e feel like an individual r,eaHy. I had to decide on OIly GCSE examination options last menth - it was really hard.I 'ooul:dn't do what] wanted to do - musk and two .L<lingua,ges. They wouldn't Jet me, they insisted 1 t.ook a course lik:e home economics, child de"iie~Qpment or busi Jlt:SS, 1 could see the point but fen it WilS p,utting, me behind in what I wanted to do. I'm having to do an C'X'i:ra evening class in music which means more wor.k.

I don't know what ['d1ike to, do afterwards - something to do with musk; I want to gOo to uni.I,,'u5ity dcf 11 ild:y, I'm proud of whllt In)' parents h ave done and 1 don'tihink they'd have got this far iftbey hadn't gone to university. 1 don't just want to leave school and get a jo b. I don't think r\i be relldiy to rnce the world. •


PAPEH 2 consist5.of two parts and you wi II have to ali"l5Vl,ile'f two questions in total. Que:stionsspecify the type, of \lwirting req l:j,iroo (e, 9. letter, report, ertide or leaflettl

an d J:hetar'get a udience (e. g. -company, coil ea 9 lie, frrenlld or magalZi ne readers)"

Pad 1 (pages 16- ~ 7)

In til is part there is a campoli lsory q uesnon to anS\IVe~, You willi haiVe to read up to. 450 words ot input" such as a letter or ad'!lertisem~nt. before you start, writing. :Sometimes there arer 'handwritten' notes on the input material which you must also ta ke into account.

Part 2 (pa;ge 18)

In this part then~' ,an:! fou r questions a nd you m ust do 0 n€ of them, Each question is described in about 4-5 lines. Therie will always be one worlk~relaited question.

for each aoswer you should write about 250 words.

IExam ti,ps

'. Yo:u do not :hl~e to i31W1&wer the fhs,t 'qlu~ionfl~liil, Vou ca 1:1: s~art witb ~nlf qu,e,sUon.

'. M ali;e S !,lIre ''!fo'l! I!.flQW the ,lay-out ron - form ilI,1 lette r!i

- .nlfonmd leth!l'!li

- memo,s. reports,

- newspaper magazine articles

- brochu res, ~@lane-ts

• FjJr Pa:rrt .1 i ncluee 'i1Il~ ttl e' fie~e'~an information rr,om the' in put, Ayo it! us! ng whots' phrases ~m'm the 1Dexts. Usee '10'llllf oWi1w'~i:'ds.

• For Part 2. choose ill topic YOILa, ilI,re 'tamitiar VIUI'I.

• For eath I!llu,estioll" ~ead the iln,strlu~tion!i cah'lfully and 1~lighlight key we rds, The,se wUl 'leH yIOU:

~ th!f! tYlpe of wiri'tting requilnni

- the ta,rget audielllce

- the poinitstha1 m!!,t be laduded

• Decide Oli!! a suitable re!istef'far your tatget allJdienoe.

• De.tide 011'11 the number of lfa'~aJgrap\hs b~f1:i:r,e y~ MI Sola rt wr.iIUng. Plain, the tonoont of each par:agr,

• Follow VPIJr pla'~ aiiif~d Wrilt!e you r ,answer ence. You m,ay not. hall,e time to do a :firs!: draft and a second V8rs'iolll.

• Allil),W time to C:heckyou.rr worl< cal"efullty .. ,Ma,kie sur,~ you have lilil,duded .aWI, tile points In'I;l'ce:ss,ar:y and that yow alii swer is about the right length.

H!ow is the Writing Pap,er marked?

Ea(n question ls marked 01"1 131 six-pomtscale 6·f 0-5. There is a 'gene(~I' impression mark-scheme that epplies to a,ll questions and i'e,fers to g:ene'ral features such as;

- task achnevern e-nt or com ple,lion of a task with no


~ use of ana ppropri alh~ reg i ster - the effect on tliue targ,et reader,

- dear and consistent orqanisation of materiai.

- natural and accurate use of language.

- use of a range of voc.a:bu'lary and gr,ammaticEI,1

stru ctures,

- U5'e of a va'rietyof cohesive devices.

There is also a task mark-scheme produced for each pa rtkular q uesucn outl i ni ng the poi nts that must be' mel1ltiorned.

Each paper us marked by two trained examiners, alld the scores a readded togeth er to provide the totel mark for this paper.




(I(, 'd#f ,~,

Wr'iti ngl (2 hours)

1 You have recently been on holiday in the USA. During youir holid.ay you were injured and had to p:aJy for rnedkal t(,eatment. You made ij cliclim on your travel insurance policy and have now reC!eived Q' 'letter from the insurance oompany.

R.ead the I,etter from, t'he' insurance cornpa ny below with Jiioulr h'.3lndwritten notes on it, and your medical bi'lt the 'Exc:ha11 Qle rates given and the newspaper artide on pag,er 17. Then. usi ng the, inrf,ormation carefu II,y, write a rep Iy to the i nsura nee company's 'I,etter explaining why you are' not satisfied with their offer,

Wri'te a!:;lpr,oxi m.atbely 2,50. wqrds. You shou Id use you r own words a s far as possl ole. You do not need to ~ncl ude addresses,

Apex Insurance 'pie

] Ledbury Square Me~ches:wr We-ssex MCl ZAN

After givirg careful OO'.s~ .. icn to yrur claiJrl, it teE hEel; dacidad th:tt it is rot possible for us to P:!Y' }"O.K' aWical ~ in this case. 'ioor claim ca."1OOt ~ Jl'et ~ it is excludai by tiE terms or too iP,w,.~ p:)licy , clearly swt€1 (Seccioo 4".1 (al):

'The o;lilp3n'j shaIlltt be liable m roaet rre:lic:al ~ irIo.Irnd as a !'eSLI1t of \o;d.lful a.-d re:idess self-~ to .Wnger of tile ~ Insup;d.'

. l1:J..ever. as a gesture of g;::al;.rill, l,\;e ate ~ to C'IJ'.'er tl:Je cast of w m'r rairoc sh:::.e.r;; that yw '~ qblig<.tl ttl pJ~ .in FlOriw, ard for \~m Ytlli selt us ~ ~pt ~fur $100). 1i~ ~:fure ~ a dJj:qle fur no.

,ie do hp> th¢ "'" _ "', Mly """""" &m tha ini-· \

YCUIEsinoarely '7~ MM·~ le~.

Fera .. · US Wolff 7etMe' ~& 'l4U" did

~ ~ «d.e?

Fe..11JU$ \'lblt!

Chief Clalrrs Negotiator


fott (.alildeli' 'fl,orid"t


Fracwre of right wristbone Two brOKeI1 fingers Laceratiol1$


paid, :3 April,' 20 - -

ri' '


Tip 'Strip


1 APRI 20-- ,

Boyresc'lJIed 'from Alligator Pool

AI'FiI!Id Lauderdale ,Z-oo early yesterday iltllllmiiilg a sDoJJl!iliMild Iloeall boy, Lan'}' Detgado! was ~ued btl UJe lIIio.k of 'lime tim," the :sRi!,pping jaws ,of ,31 dozemalliig:atlD.l.s.La.RY had dimbed Ute fe;n~e, jiud beklfek!ediingtime, to ,gel a lbetter \lie-W, when he lost h~!i baIJillltce, and reU ill'!to the alligator ,POOlllmmeiilial'ely, a dozen "unlilY mOQsters adv.!!iooool towards lliim~ LucikiJy fur laJrlll, a visitor t~ tile ~, I~Ueved~o, be ,iii tOlilnd mm ,Europe" lleapt over the tMlOO and helped LII1JY 'IQ safetY, '6dIile J~l!uili'ng Off lhe' !l1I:I~~Of$ wllhl Illowsi'wm OJ roI~~i'\Up n:ews,paper and some welkaimad kicks iat: ibeili nose-$. LilJ11)' was unhurt ilmd ~on reunHied with Ih:isallDliolls liIam~ but QIIII' hero' sulelied a severe, Illite tOi the Ihland and was i'mmediitely 'taken to bm:r;,po:mal irm an OImib!u)iln:ce. 1he illl[ptmr:s ,colifleldedtIllemsetw.s witb c!h_,ewjRgII.!,p! twGl bmail:k Iledllfu' sl!:o-es ililndl,a, CllI,py of 'til'!!' LllIlldln:n1 J'nnes.

o. .. u!\s~h~n :1: Think aboJlt YQUlr targ'%!t <lItJldie-nJ:e, 'Y6~ Wiill need! to ~'I,Iriil'& J11I wrmal, 'tetle!r. Ilndude:

• the n!;lme of the persof!l 'YOlll, ilR:! W~it;tiil;g 't,(3

• a SIl Iita b Ie d'ale £'01' ym.H lener (~IOW !(lIl,g afu!r Uie letl)l!:f '~ou reiCiIl'ill'M,:r)

·a s'u iita It! le ronm!ll e ijdill'!,g Oook at. the ending i II the i IlP'lIt teU@r,

Rem ernbea:;- res n-'o'l J1rete.5sary to lnelude aiM r,e'SS~S_

• la'ki'e your liIla~1'I p-~'irlrts from tho.e aiilll ®ita~ii ans on [hiE! ILett!e~ iIIf1:dl plaTllY'OluilnSW!r.

'I 1Ji$!i!! tlM,e,qn,l::Dli.ltl~x.~s to plfo'll'ide e~f~ence ttn ~SJJPp~Ht Y,Q'!H argIJllln:li!l'Its. SL!III'I ma rcisf!' il'llimma'lio", in tilE! l'IilWSI~\ilpef Jt!lulrt but ~r~s it inl (I Ileutral wav- Avo;ld irlfolllll,!d p:frF,lISe'!1j, sl!Icih as 'iqlJllsrY mon$l'e'~' - UJS!! the word "aniga~ofst instei31d.

• Wl'IlteAl' leSist~hlree pal"agr.aphs,. Be poli,re bl!lt ~t the same time ,ellpr~5&your diss~Usfil,ct:iOiIl. LteaJily stalteo your demand (m.are C:(lJlil,penlsa~loll) in ljCIU1r final lililr:a,grapJ1 •



QJln!sl~OIl, 2

'. y~u haw to write an artkle fO'i neW$papet reCl~en so ~e:

- a h&iJdIUne.

- $clod n.headi'ngs.

- II fairrl,y' ,e:ollD'lil,ufal


Ii Write O)IDOl,lt MID () F thfi;!·~ '~s:JtalJ rants, Name them :ami say where they ,are.

• AcId paJnt~!Of vom own - tlM'e p,hlr<il1>e "ilrld £0 (i'll' enc;outages you to ~l)'lhi:s •.

Ii Writ'1i1! an aJrti:{Je which 115 tffilplHm,ent;ary.


Ii T1n'is is a fo.:rmal r~pol1 so t'i:lV i't Olll'l.ike this:

lie:: ...

• YoOlU can Inumber flile par,!:IgraJ)ils and I or gi!,i'i!i them treadi nrg,s.

• Ma~e s!lJre yOM g:iiM'1! eMmplu, 'of and suggest SOIuUO'IilS 'tot each JI,robtem ..


• oGiiil,lls:iiCl,elr YI)I,u target audience'. Use an iTiforllTHd and 'f'ail1y (;olloqllWial ~tl}le.

;; Write a Ileadlin'fj! fiim,,rn use sub·heedings ll~s~d 01'1 key '"'lords in the: q,u,est1ml1, e.g.

The pleasures or ,n Po.ssiible I1Lrqblei'lil'ls §g~ipmellt you will need

Ho,w mIlch wiill 'it tOlSll'


PAR r :2

Choos@ Oi"l,e of thefoJiowing writing, tasks, Your answer s,hould follow e,xadl,y ,th'e illstructions given. Wnite approximately 2'50 words,

2 A,loca'l newspaper has invited readers to, send in an artideabout two or three restaurants, in tine area which they thi rJ k ,a,re vvorth esti n galt. The restsura nts can be from Piny price Hmg,e, but they must be worth recommending from s particular point of \Ii ew, such as, quality of ,cooking, pleasant setting, va,lu e fur money and so on. The article wlll be published and the newspaper wW pay for a meal for two ,at one of the restaurants described"

Choose the restaurants yOlJ would recommend and write the .rn"ti,e.h;!_

"3 The principal of the school ~or college) when~ you are studyir'l'g English has received many complsints fromstudents that the bui.lding ,is untidy, is not cleaned properly and needs, some rep(l~r5<. The principal, has asked you. to write a report, describing the most serious problems and suggesting how things carl be ,improved.

Write your report fol" the principal.

4 A student magazine i'5 running a series of ertides entitled 'Starting a New Hobby or Spot'. The edit,or has asked you to contrlbute an artrcie to this series, Describe the pleasures and possible problems of your chosen hobby:Or sport, Mention any ·equ.ipment that is nesded and what costs are involved.

Writle your ,artk:I,e for the mag.azine-

5 You have seen the foll,owingl Job advertise·d and have decided to alPIP~ly for tile post

Melchester Alrts Festiv,al Organising Comm~ittee,

AdmiiDisfl'8tiwe AS1si·sla,ftl

Ful1~bli'ie Te.pOI'BJ' It,one·year, P' Salary £25,080

We ar~ loo'king for tomeon€! 10 undertake a wide 'range of admil'listrati,\I'e duties lin cOflJr1l!3ctioi"l wilh fh~ Melchesler Am ihestival whl:cn takes. plaoe in Ju'ly and AJUglJs~ every year. The successful cal'ltJii:date need not pre'llioui5 e:xparienoe of t!'il,s 'lype o~ work but mlf$'l:

• speak Engnslnl and at least one otherli)lnglJlage.

• h,ave a pleasanl ~'epl1one manner.

.' be meU'I,ooicaJl aM In'ave an ey'€,fo'r

Write' your Ilette'f' ,of appUcatmolil,

QiJesfiQm1 5

.. This i sa ro' (see Question :!). You wit! need a bout five pinagraphs. .. Makle sure you mell:Uol'l:

- the .tob . ··ou are ,ap~tying fll,r ,UlId wilel'.e. you saw the' adverNSieinuml.

- your 'educaUo,l1Ial qu.aontatio11S.

- Yo'ur pre:v:lol~ So ~xiperier](!e.

-evidel'u:e fliii1l't yOll h,ilIV,e ~h'ii! {Ifimee a,bUHties melltioned in t'tile iCIIl!Ivertisement.

-'rlhe.1iiI y,OI ti ar\'ai'i~ for Ii l'l~eTView.

T5ST L fiAPIEf! 1

PAPER.3 has six parts, and a total of 80 questions, For ead, ,pa rt th ere ls a sn ort text on whkh th e qu,esti ons alre ba&ed,

This paper tests your knowledge of \locaoulJa ry, g:fi:!! mmar, sp.~ni ng and PUfidui3ltion, error correcti on, word t,ormatfoll, styl:e a nd n~g ister; and coh eren ce and cohesion in texts, You must transfer your answers to an answer sheet (Slel? pages 124-1,25).

'a rt 1: M ulltip,1 e Cho,ilce' CI az.e (p,age 21)

This is a text with 1 5 sin .£lIe-worn gaps. For each gap, you choose' your answer from fo IJr options: A. B r C or D"

This q1Jas1ion 15 mainliy a test of vocabulary, but ma,y cont.ain some g'rammatAcsl words, such as linking word's.


.' IReald through the text for meanillg bef1,)r~ readwng the feu r opfi'~ns~.

.' n,1! four wl)J1d~ oifte~ ihal'lffl Similar meamlillgs but only one wiH CioUocate wlir1m ~he other words. i n the Sl!nteti(~. Look (grre~uUy a~ the 'l1li'0 rds surreu nd iIIm'g the gap.

'. fitxed ,expreSs(olMls and phras,al verbs may be b~SJb:td ilnl this type {If question.. 'OU shoulld lesrn ph rases HIU1elr than llust single 'wlog:ds.

" GUlfSS, if nece::ssary. You will not Ilose marks by choOtsJing a wf'oTi1,gans,w'et.

• W!h 11 y'Olu haw fi[}'ished" Iwead the text i;l;gain to chec:k tll,'ll y'Our anlswers rna ~e sense.

'a rt 2,: Ope n Cloz'e (p:a ge 2.2)

Thlls is a text witi'! 15 sing,le-word gaps. ~ou have to comple1te the text with structural words such as: has. been, the, 50, which. in. This question tests your knowledge of grammaticall patterns,

balnil tiips

.' Iile,<':!,d nu~ teJ(:t Qnce s1ta igh~ thit:(ll~grh 'ror ~ fU!f,a i understanding.

• hfelrn'tifv t he tvp~ of wOfd mrissirng g Ii ,e.Kh :gap.

• You know aU the wo'rds - 'the problem is to think olF them. Try tibil'lki'!::I,g' t~e all,xii~iaryve,'I'bS'j proneuns, re[atives and rnepos,itio,ns.thil1l( you I(now.

• The words which snd whose alw.ilIY:S Sil\i~'m diffiClI.II.t to get .. B,ear these two lHQrds, in m nna. wt:! en yCl'U can't fiU 11 gaJp"

• Only write one 'Word illHl' each gap.

• Look c.:;uefWlUy at the s'lmoulIld]ng oonmxt ofealcn gapped word. (he,ck that YOllr wOlid milikes sense.

Palrt3:; Erlro,r' Corired:h:m (page23:) The tas:kwilll be'either:

11 a t,ext in wllicn most lines have an extra wrongl word.

VOLI have to iderntity the. extra words, (pca'ge 23)


2a text which contains spelling alild punctuation

mistakes that you have to correct. (page 47}

Thls task tests el1:her yoW knowledge ot g.raimmatical patternsa nd sentence strurtu Fe ill you r knowledg.e' of sp-e,Jlfnlg a rid punctuat~on" Both task. types test your ability to read with care-and attention.

Ex:am tips

• Read thro~gh the whote text once fur se!'1i,eral understandillilg.

• Remember that mQst li11'H2'5 have a mistake .. OnllV 3-5 ll mll'1S are GO 1ife13t.

• Sll1.11t1y th~e)<~mph!s carefully b~(alu:se the'\( gJirve y'Olll vOiluab~e nflrormatilfin iilb!)ut hOIlN to ~t,COlrd YCl.I1r i1Inswer$.

For tasks whtch test wrong wo ~d,s;

• ¥ouare Looking for wo rds tl'l at are wrong, nlOt jus,t Ul[llnec!e'ssary.

• The wn;mg words are us.uaUy Si10If:t, ftif example, prep o;;ltiorl's" artt des", aJUIxilia ny Vli;'rbs.. ~onjllJ ncttons; I' YO'li will need to read t~e wihlQle SE!lI1t.ell'iu::e across selll'f:en;d Hnle5" not ~tI:S[ o;rm I1rm. !~ order t,t! 'fi'lIl.d

wro nrg wo~ds.

• A wrong wo rei does 11 at appear !wi ce in ~I:i~!iiilme liine ..

Fo,r tasks wlhik:h test .spelling. tll'ld punctuatio:n look for U'lElS'~ t}lPes of errors:

• doublied fil'liliL consonants.

• omissi O'llil of s,illent letters,

• add itiQ:m;f~ fina,1 e,

• um:orr.ectly speUed l;m~'f1x,es ,a nd suffi,xes ..

• C;QimnNUi~ 'fun stops. Sind br,Eu:k,ets whiclml are ,either unlfil 9icessary ,1)1' m l(SiSi1Iilli •.

• s,maIlILefh1H:5 lnstead of (~rpitql's,. or the ether wa.y round.

• Clpostrophes, either rnissingar UllllnBr€'5sary. .. l1yphe Ins. eithelf m ftssi,Fil,g or ILm Il1I ecessjlJ'y.


P:art 4: W'ord Formationl (page 24)

This conslsts of !\NQ short texts with 1 5 gap.~ ii n tote I. For eech g~p, a base \i¥Drd (the prompt word) is given. YOll have to form 'the correct word for the gap usin91 tPii:s prompt word.


• RiE1'liI,[I through the texts ~~rst: to :get iliIn idea 'ot' w:nart thev ar,e abolLlt.

• Decide wha,t part oif speech y~,u need fbI' each gap.

The word 110 u need (OU Id be a nou Il, verb, ,aldj;ecNve er ac:ivel'b..

.. Look a: ~he, base word. You may need lJo: - add a 'prefix (art th~ b''j:'mmngJl,

e .. g,. appear:> disappear

- add iii s.uffiilt (at 'tlhe end),

e.g" diSapp.ear > disapP'f!aram:e ~ dUlilllge the mid die.

,e.g. st(Oti'g :> strerl'gth

... or a c'ombinatioJ'l ofthese.

Ii, At leas,t ene word i n ,e-a,~h tei!;t will. nee d a. fH'Effirlt.

• f,he'!liE! m,ay bill tim an one chanme to '" 'W'ortl. A ch,angtl usualliv jnllOllIe's m,aking tho!;! wOlid longer,

'.' !ale'talreful lib out D'leg,Uives a,nalpllyir:i!.ls. Make :sure th,at the: t'ff~ makes sense as who,l~.

P,art 5: IRegister Tr'an:sfer (pilge 25)

This consists of two short texts in different sryiles, The second teo:rt has 13 9'i3 ps and rn est be completed IUsin g th e infolrmatioii'l. but not me words. i Ii the first text,

I!xa,1fI (ip.s

t! Ille'ad thirtoru,gjIIi bofhbext.s first ls U:u~ 'first parl more form'iil 01:' &eslS frQrmiill till an the second ]part, wbich you ha~ to, c,omp'~ete?

• ln some q [Iesiti,ons, ~he:re ma,), !'IO't be ,~, Vel,! obvio WlfS diff~renc:e.n style oet\¥een tII:le two texts, but. tine texts Will be 0'11" d'ifijfe'rE!'IJi'I,t typ'e,S' a nd d ife'd.e!~ to a dUfu reent ta rg:e'l reader.

• The first palJit con1:;3Iins all the linfuirma.tiol1ll/ou ne~.d but 11:1 ot tile W!(H'~'!'t Highlight the w.ords alfld ph r-aStes that you bave to re-ex;press.

• ['heck ~he imlstruction for th~ nl!ilmber of worrd~ you can use - u su~,llly (I-i'le 'O~ tWIO in eac!h gia p.,

• Check, tlhat the mnformatiQf1I iin the gap'p,ed [,E'!xt is th,e S.ilm~ 8S, in the 11 rst text.

Part 6: D i SC,JOUlrsre Clloze (page 26)

This part consists of a text wi,th six clauses. phrsses or short sentences, missing" You have to identify the missung phrZlSoes or sentences by choosingl from a list of ten options.

Exalml t~ps

• Read the text q'LJI,kkly td get an idea ,of wllat its aDolIDt.

• wok co;! re,fitJUy at WOJds iJlrnd phras~s such as, 'it',', 'l:refallIse",. and "on the oUler !'land' and hy to work Olllit what Uu.!iY refer to. Ttl is, WiU h elp \to u '~oUaw the seq ~.E!Ill(fI uf hl!1l<J's .

., Com .. ,ide'f whether the writer lis giviiliilg an 'ex3rnp,l.e. m8iki'lilg a n ad()]iitiona~ point Qr poi ntibs: out a disa,dvanit.age. lh~~ v.tiill. h;e!~p Y'ou tiO dU)Qse an apP,ro,pl'iate arls,we!'.

111 I n some w;dS,aU ti::l eo o,p~ions wiil ~t gw~rn fIill!!l:tJi:caUy so pay aUenti'on to the.lliI.ean]ng. You na'ed to unde'r51alild the text as a who,le.

• WI'I'lHI you haVlefinished. ~l!'ad t:he Ciompleted ~e;J()t! chec.king g:rarmmarr ·3l1i1.d p'l,mduatii:m cal'!fuI1ly.

Ho,w is the EngU:sh in Use IP,a1pe,r ms'rked'!'

Paper 3) is marked 'by trained markerS"'using a maf~~scheme. There is one mark per answer and correct spelling is essentlal. Or:1ce the. tlInswer sheets have been mar~ed, thay can be r,e.a(j by an Optiical Mark Reader (OMR).


Tip Strip

R:em~mbl!r 00:

,~ l'elld UIJOl!Igh tile t!!l':it fllrr 'mellning, before looking at the four options.

• ~OI!'lSr:der caw!irmV U\ie words <$l!In~'i.llrldi IiIg ,emGhgap.

• clleck. that your ClJ1i5WerS rna ke. se~<ie-,

Question ,2: Wlin Icltn Wi!)'~d ts most ,closely

assodi:!wCiI with anilmats?

IQJJ:I!!i~iOIfl 4= The m,e~lnIing [5 de~r~y liI,eg.atJlve. Whlicl1l wmd em,pi'ha-sls!es tlhis! Qu~Stl:01l U: Which ''Ii·ell'b coHeciites wit iii "to ex,tincti(m'?

Question! 13': Which word me<lll.5 a p el'1'llane,ii'It chani!:!:! ill 'th e we,!)Uill!!1'1 'lhl,esiion 1:5: Wlil i:c Iii wont WIlI}~ilte5 \l'ltith ''Of sl!llill~'lltll''!

E,ngilish in Us,e (1 hour 30 minutes)

For questlons 1-15! read the text: below and then decide which word best flts each space. Put the letter you choose 'for each question in the correct box on yO!Jf atlltswe r sheet The exsrd ss beg ins wrth alO exa m pie (0)"


History Set in Stone

Mall)' species of animals and plants hav disappeared from the earth, hey have died om, or become (0) •.. ; . BUBOl'lflelirne.s alum ... I' Or plant U) ... , . call be found buried inl"'Ociks.Ib::se are' c'I.]](~d, foslills. Imprints in l''()c~ .(2) ( .... prin,'I:.ll for c.l(~mp~'I;!) are also caned fossils.

Not-every creature (3) ... , ;,'15 a fossil, Many simply rot 3\\!ay completely and Lea .. 'c no (4) .... of th eir existence, Because many creatures and plants have disappeal!"ed

wi thou t leaving any £o-S15~~,S; we will never know an~dli;og about them ..

The st'lldy .of fossils; 0:1" palaeontology, to give' it its sdrnlinc (5) .... , became c:;titbl.i.shed at the beginning of tho nineteenth century. Before lhis .research began people did not beHev~ that fossils had once be, n (6) .... " Lal:'ge foss~l teeth were seen as evidence of a: race of giants in the past, whiJ~e ammon i tes, 3 very

(1) ... , lype of fcssll whkh you H'lfl,ght e.a_~i.l.y fmd yourself on a beach or 0li111ollg melts. were called litluke-stiOllles. because of thelr !ilJa~~":]~~r;; (S)o . .... . People beUU'i;'1;.!d I~h~lt snakes had been (~I) .... 1.0 stone by a m:irade,

The most farnam .fossi'ls of all are the dinosaurs. Th!;:I" are, of COUl!'e, no dinosaurs on (lO) ." ... in 7AOS. They were not (m 1) ... " to extinction hy luumm ' as som anhnal~ have been, but became extinct rnillions of years before our 0\'\1]1 species developed. The r'l1<l1!N.(Xll l'l'lly the dinesaurs became exfinetis still a mystery" Many theories have (112) .... the dlsappearance of dinosaurs with n1~,or (13) •... change,

One possibility is that a gig.mtie-meteorite crashed into the earth (4) , ... so much dust into abe aunospb re thatthe (15) ... , of sunlight was reduced. TIle temperature would have f-allen and, as a con sequerrce , many l)'pes of plants <lnd anl:malswould. have becenn e extinct.

0 0 extinct B exti n gluished c: remote 0 obsolete
1 A bone'S B· 'evidence C parts 0 remains
,2 A toe B paw c: palm D hand
3 A Ilasts B S'U rvlves, 'C continues D dellJellpps
4 A rnerks B proof c remnants D trace
5, A name B term 'C description ID, status
6, A a,live ,B physical 'C IliMing ID flesh
, A common IB usual c norrnel D frequant
8 A type 18 manner c shape D figluwe
9 A petri~iled B made C oss.i'fied D turned
10 A exhibition B appearance C silght Ii) display'
1111 .A. hunted IE!. brouqht c chased D driven
12 A connected B joirt@d C expra~ned D initiated
113 A climatic B temporel c weather ID seasonal
14 A disturbing IS, disp,la cling C putting 10 pushing
15 A heat B, amount C degree [) period
T E S T .~ . P iii P ,E Ft 3: ... Tiip ,Strilp

Ii!~me'mlbe r to:

Ii read rhe text 0 liIee through for

ull'ld'e rstalltdilft£;.

• idenli'liy ths type 01' wo~ missillilg.

• eonsider 'the

so rroUlndij ng co IIltext~

• onlly writ:t! (lJi!e word in each space",

IQuesli:,," 16: Whichwol"d m:el<lns ! less 'thal'l'? Q.u,eSUOli1iS 19 ~Il,d, 28:' Think (If aUtihe phra,s~s \lYiUh '"'al', e.g. <It last. at length. aHirst.

'Q,liIe.stilm z9~ Whllc~ word '"0 ~Ioc: .. res wiith ~'lJe,Il"i!

QU'e$lion 2~; Has

'lliI'UIiI1I b 11l,'j" been mll!'nti'C<lIiIed before?

'Qjilesti.tHi 25~ The 'b~lIk liP" '(Jif ~alilgl.lilg~~' is refened to. hen!. Which alJiXiHiI'ry V'erboslil.!Jlut"dvou Ill'se?'

For questions 16-301 complete the following a;( by wr'iting each mlssin'g word in the correct bo;:t<, on your answer sheet. U:s;e ,only one wOlrd iiO'F each space, The exerd5le beg ins wirth an exam pi e {OJ.

Language Variety

Tbe fact tha:t English has been spoken in En,gland for 1~500 years but

in Australia for only 200. e.."'tpl.ains (OJ ." " we have a. great wealth

ofregional d.i.a~ec:l;s in England that-is more or Iess totally lacki:llg in Australia. It is often possible to tell wherean English person comes from to (16) .~ ... , ..... about, 15 miles or less .. In AUJS,trallia, where

(]7) has not been enough time for ehanges to bring about

(18.) regional vari:,ation. it is almost impossibletn tilU where

somecne comes .u1om at (191) ••• , •••••• " f11thoug,h vel",Y smaJl differences

are now beginnh'l.g to appear. It isunlik,ely; however that there will (20) •.... " ... ,. be as much dialectal v:;i;1:'iat'iCIJ.II in AtiLs,trana as there is iIDI England. This, is beca use modern transport and eernmunica tion

conditions are vel'Y dif(el'ient from (21) " .... , .. they WElte 1,500 (lIt"

(:22) ~ , " 100 y,oors ,ago. Even (2'3) ", .. English is nOW spokeu in

many different parts of the world marry, housands of miles apart" it is ve:t:y unJ[kely that EngH.s.hwill ever break u,p into (2:4) ., ... " .. ". number of different non-intelligible languages in the same way that

Indo-European and Getmanic (25) German lind Norwegian

became 'diffe:rent languages beea use the. ancestars of the speakers of these two languages movedapart geographically, and were no

(26) in touch and. comnl.'unicating with one another; In '~he

modern world, berring unforeseen catastrophes, (2-7) w ill net

happen ~at (28.) ... " ..... in the near futur-e. As long as .A:melica.ns and! Bdtish people, for instance, are in touch with une another' and want to communicate with one another, it is most unlikely that their

dialects {:29} Idrit}..sO far a.~:MlriIJ (30) ,. to become different



Ti' Str' __ I' - _rip


~ on'ly 3,-slilles ar~ Clilr're(l.

~ y~ u eire Ili!ilokrng fur wr'otlg words.

• you nee'o to ~ead the ,wn®tJe s'Ell'llietice to firnd tile wm ng w(uds.

'_, Incorrect words, (il'lily occ,l!Ir on[~-e Ulil a Itine.

Line 31: Is he phrasal \1llrbwr~ed?

Itine ::Ii(: Is the rre a p,re!2l0IlS mentlolil O[~ 'illsi IiIC~ I'~ remarks and fJilttery','

UllIce 37: hi, r~ IS 'tal'lmt '!Iniq:ue' to humans? Se'€ lfnes 31-)2.

Lillie 40:, Titiet-e ,are t!ln-ee' pl'e'poliiliorls ill this ilIne" Are Urell il~1 n,ecess<lry? I~nne ,41.: i]{D you need a r,eJlexive verb herot'!?

In most lines of the- follcrwin9 text there is one unnecessary word. It is, either

9 ra m matkaHy i ncorrect or doe'S not fit in wijh the sense pf the text, For leadi numbered line 91-46, find this word and then wrilte ilt ~n the box on your answer sheet. Some line5 are correct Iindicate those lines witha tick (.I). The exercise' begins with two examples (0).

o 00


The ability to deceive :;UIY others is thought b}' so me pS}"Cho]ogist$ to be a characteristic that has been geneti.cally selected through

h uman evohrrion, Comparisons have been mad.e up 'I,.:vith an imal deception" sud, as '(he camouflaige andmimi ry.For hundreds of those generadcns, it is argued> the abili ty ro make

believe such insincere remarks and promises has conferred ;;idVMm:gc~ in snuggJes 'to control resoulcesand win m;~ulng

3[6, with partners, The less cunning have, quite simply, produced

37 fewer offspring. and a. unique talent for ,crea'ting &~Sie impressions

38 has dominated the human. gene pool. Wbatever the merits or

39 shortcomings of this line of sharp rhinking, there are undoubtedly

40 mapy ofoccasions In everyday social encounters when people, rOJ['

4'1 one reason of 3nothel'~ wam '00 avoid themselves expressing their

42 true £eeHngs .. The ahi]i~)" to do this varies and success [ends to

41.3 breed :S:UC'De'S&. Those who lie effix.ti'l;rely win have rend to ] ie more

44 nften, perfeering their social skills in the process. Those who fan

45 are deterred frorn some; ~i.ltUI-e-atteJnp'[S 'and get less practice .. "Ilitb

46 Iyin'!!;. <lIS is with everyth ing else, practice makes perfect.


lip Striip


• c:leddewhfch pilrh'f §petl~~h 1Jtl'!..! rN!!e<s 'f~r each gap.

,iii art least glil!.~ word In each t'e.xt wi n ina"'!! a p'refill •

• ' dl~(k thalt the le:xt lirIa'l<ies sel'lS!e as a 'o'Jhole.

QO'E!SdOflI48:, Does, 'uw\men't' g;tve YOIJ a due?

'QILll!'stio:n ,50~ liS it singular or Ilillraf?

QuesJlon 53~ Is lih1is lIlosilive or negative? Qu!!S1:i,(lIJI51= [How riMIf\'Y ,adj.e~tives tao Y(lu oorm fftlm 'sa~isfY'1

Q,u,estlol'l S8: Be ,c,a~tull of tlle spellillg of nlls Mlr,d,

'Q;l!Iestii(jJII 61_;: Is this SiIlSIlJ;:U Of I!'hilml?


ForqLlestion54·7...!fj" read the Mia texts below, Use the words in the boxes to form one word that fits in the same numbered space in the text Writle the new word in the co rrect box on yOUi r anSV!lef sh eet. The @xercjsEl beg~ ns witih an er<ample (O).


Appilical:ion deta,ills

A full job {OI} lAtH] be 'Sent ~ alii those selected for

interview, but before sending in your appllcation fol" this post; pl'ease note th,s.t the OV8 rseas Mar!seting OUic€'r

has (4·7) , Tor:

*' (48) and enrolment of O\l',e rseas sh.Jderns.

* confirminQl students' 'suitability for courses. This

includes c neckingl educational qualifications .. * rnarketi 1"i9 specialist courses un tschnl a·a] and

(49) training.

'* 9iving plesenita.tions to staff and (510') .. , .. ." ". of overseas or.ganisaUons.

* providing advbe and assistance 'thal will (51) ., .

students to complete visa and' immigration (52) .

sati.sfactor'i Iy,

* prepanng IleaUets., brcchu res, and other informationa.! material for dj:stJl'ibution lin overseas markelts.

I F'ltervi'81NS wi 1.1 beheld on 30 Ju ~y. If you haViEi not heard from us b~l 20 JlljlIV. you may assume tha'l youI' applicat!ion

has been (53) on ttl ls. occastcn.


A job in the thea,tre

The Red 'Parrot Theatre Oompany is putli ng on a, new

prod uctlorr of Macbeth a nd is '!ookin 91 fm an (54) .. , ,.

person to take x:haJQI€ of (55), ..... , ..... Sinc€ weaJe an

amat,euf eompany we can't off·er any (56) reward

but if you am interested ln lhe theatre, itt ls very (57) .

work. lit's part·time; 0.1 course, because we only coahout three plays (58) .... ".... . The job i rwolves O\aking

(5191) with printers. and' placing adlvsrtisements in

nJ~wspapers and wnatever else needs doing. AU

expenses, such as phone cans wi~1 be (610) ". and

you get tour fr€€l tickel:S lo.r every (61) If you are

inls'rested, come abng: to our 'first rehearsal on 27 June for an informal discljssio:n of what is involved.


(49) COMME.Rt'E
(5,11) ABU
(~52) PHOCE:ED
(53) SUCCESS {54" tNERGY
(55,) PUBLIC
(57) SAT~5FY
(58,) ANNUAL
(5.91) ARRANGE
(6C1) FUND
(61) PERfORM Tip Strip

Remember w}

• read thrqu,ghbiOtb t.e:ll:fs first, Is, the f'i f's'l !p:ad nU,I~:e' formal I ;or :If~s 'I'Qrmiil~ tha n til! s~C1'lld part?

• highlight informlaflolil ilnillile 'Iii'rst ted that you have to

Question ,62: Wha~ is a 111'1 cue fOJmal wo rocll f:or 'turned II ~/?

Q.uestion, 6S:: The key phrase is ''all r,eps'. They :a,llllilad the.:S.ame !Opinion. so what was com pletJe? QlJlesfiiolll ,66: The 'leUln I)lses, 'the colloqtllial

pilras.e 'w'()Js,Q Ihii! I!Isel.esS:" iii IIId the memo has the word ~Ilot ".,,' • '(Oll neEllIiI a pOiSmVtl! warn ttn

go with it.

ijU,til~'ol'l ,68; UU'!lllgh' ij n the sensa of slIcc,essftltly te~e,pllol1e i~ lh.e rdelQ Ut:at you IiIIi!e:tI to re·express. Wha,l \-'l'ele lirre'Y.lJllaltd'e to do? QLlElStll,Ofl 72:

R'ep~~senta!~ives, iliIo!iil't wanUo, be, k.e'pt"in th~ oarJ!'. t~m you th!:Ii1'1k. of 'afn aidle'ctiili>! mean i'ng ·n~'l:IO kn@w'~


For questions ,62-14, read the followin,9 informal note that you nav,e received from a mUeagueand use the lnformation to complete the numbered gaps in the memo. Then write' the new words j Ii'1 the correct space on yOl!r a nswe r sheet. USJe nOl lfli'IQ,f\e than two words fOir each gap. The words you need do not OC'C'IJr in the note. The 'g'X"'ercise begins, with an example (0).

bamplle,: 1 .... 1_0_, .... 1_·.4_~··_tt_· IL-, __ ,O_-!

OtJ,;;fr BotJ

COdJld you do me ili faltOur and writ~ Ii memo far m~ (to the twD) about j!'e6tetday'~ mc~tit1g? lYe had to ,go to OlM" Edil'lb.urg'h offl(;t:: (arl ~mug~rJcyJ), Here;;'Sl/"e tl'u: detajJ~:

.Everyone 'tL1rned up, We Btlirted ,afUr ~ul1oh' o1ll'fdfini!;i1'edat 4.30. AU rCflf] complained th~t. tf"Ulfr c~ro were too~m~U tQ carry ~It the fJtuff t~u~y bJjd to .1liMOIIV the CUflitom~m pMd a,q}o that theIr car·phone~ were wona;ethan U~leE~f} in mo~t part6 of the 50uth~~V~~t. Ale;o they (;ouJdl1't ~et;. through to Head Office aftew ~Ix evc;tyb'o.dy "ad gone home. They algo want-ed to know why t1Q.body got I;Iack totl1ern or eVei'l fe;t them kr1'OW 'When til CiU$f,Ot.tu:r·cornpfairu:d - bt:c&luf}~ they ofi;l$l1 c:alle'd orr a Cr.i!'ltomtlr <iJf1dfound they were in tile dark .aboLJt a probl~m he or ehe ~1a6 navl~. I eaid I'd look into thing€> and eeo them again - but: we' didt1't; fix a d<ilte"



Titan ~gricultural PrioQUct,s PLC

!Jl:l= ~~ !:ate:


Char Ie'S Knightly; Managmg D~r;ectof' An~oJnet te Desmol i nes

,3 March 20 --

Sales Representatives' Meeting, 2 March 210 - -

(0) the sales representatives fr,om the South-West Reg[on

('62) " ; the meetlng.which commenced at 2 p.m. and finisl'lI~d at 4.30.

The representatives expressed '(63) or •••••••• with the CelI'S the company had

provided them with 0]1. the grounds tha t th~y WI.'lJ.1e' too smallfor the

(64) .. , .. " .. "' .. " ,~hat tlrn.ey were obliged to carry wHh them for customers to

exarn'ine. There was complete ~(5) , , .. GIll. this poi nt They 'also said that

H'l1eh car-phones W€T~ 11,01 (66) ." ...... , , , in large paris of the Sou~h West

Another ,~67) , they made was that they we:r~ tmable (68) , , , ..

Head Office in the 1(69) .. , "." " "beGlIlIS~ it was (70) " H Another

problem was that when a customer 'complained, no one from Head Office

(71) of the' situation. Often they would visit a customer and find

that they were (7.2) " .. " of the sltuafion. [promised (73} ,., ,

these mattersand report back to them at ,(74) " .. , " .. " meeting.


Fa r qLJe~tion s i' 5-80, rood ihe fdlow[ng text and lhen ch Dose from ine I r st A-II 9 iV®ri below 1he bes~ phrase to ~ II ooc h d 1he spElces_ Ind i cate youiii' iI.ns.wer on the

sella ra1i:e .i~m:swer shee:t. E?cli corrscl ph rase may cmh; be used onea. S,Q,me .of ·th e osuggested answers: do mot fiit ;:'I~ a I L

lliip Strip

Rienem b~j-~6:

~ LOQ!!; c:arefu'lly at w~ rd's OJ nd phr'lls:es sllch .iI~

• b E'!i#! use', .i.1d:5o', 'w~ii(h' and try to wo~~ out what ft'i ev Iref! F to,

• w\hen' you h~ve fin~5Itlied. ~ead the tex1t ca'II1E!~L1llly; chJe!C~irlii g grnliff1mar a uid

punldu atro·lIl.


Staying Healthy in Space

fli ghL Bod ~ ly chan ges beg] n as soon a~astmnaut~ ~o into ~pace ('6) ..... AJ:J1!ong themost serices i.':I calcium Joss, whieh causes i!~ marked rcdU!Gtio]] i ml the mass and strength ('if bones. There isalso a progressive ]os:£ of red blood cells .. What causes these effects is not known, ('7"1) .•.... .. The heart muscles, with ]]0 gra vity to balde against., start to 'IN aste aw my. Theleg muscles starr: to waste away too, since walking" as done 011 Barth, P'8) .,... . Eserc ise also helps to red ueemusele wastage (79') ...... No one yet knows [he .~ i mh of human endurance In space. r f astronauts c~~n with stand.two year;; or more of ton~1nl1fOU8 wemghMes:S'ness, then mankind's dream of visitiug otber planets (8iO) .....

The 'of tOQd~ available [,0' _ _ asbt)lnrunlg. ls v as[) and great care is tak"e,m to ensure [bat j[ looks and smells appeds"in,g. Mea]s are organised to provide ail it ve:rage of ~~OOO 'ealcries a d.ay.~ which seems high fO[ living in an enclosed en vironment ]R which there is no gra vi ty. B:ut a stronaats can expend fl great 4e;;1 ~ of energy .in dotng tile si III plest things, For eX'al1ipl:e, if

- ..

they try to turn ,~ handle, they tun]

themselves ~IS we U. If ~b.ey bend down to do up a sheelaee, (75) ... , , Finding unusual way s of doing such ordinary tid l~gS uses up the excess calories, The space diet is hmlal1c~d rather d ifferenrly f110m a terrestrial diet, This _]Sw try and, compensate for changes tlll:li[ rake place [n the body duti u~ space

'~uestr,o.n 7~~ IUse VOIJlr ImQlNled:ge _ o~ff col1Jdi~ronllt se Ilt~n~.e5.

Q!lIe5~r,Qnl 16~ line' fi~st part anhe sentence !liP/S • b Elgin'. The- second: part shoul<!l n;:ferHY '! ia:ter Hml1!.

Q,u:e'stitOn Tl~ Are !ll!'il~llti:!li~5 W\;e~:Y rn~nd out or li1ot?

Q;l!!e5~]O!1J ?9~ Is lhe·~,e .a phr~e 1hat ~omments 0111 tile im!~orla.ffil(e- o,f ~;;wJ(iSe

Q;MeslmO"8'~i Which word is ~he. opposite. of \ciIreti3iI1fl'?

.A and the q uestion must be answe red before I onq-dur etion space-flight is safe I. and sre q IJI ite not! ceable, after ellen a week

C th e:y start' tlJrn i ng' sornerseults

10 and wli I ~ n@V€f bs known

IE wh lch ils rather more tha n astronauts Facti ~y need

IF' and is vita'i on very Iiong fligbts

G cou Ide bewme re~ I ity ~n the l3"_arUy diecades of the next century IH can 'o·nly b~ done if a'stn:malJts put on their heavy5pt8,mSu~ts.

but the'y do not ~@riO!ijsly thrzaten the. health of astronauts


PAPER 4 consists of tour parts .. Parts 1, 3 and 4 a.~e heard twice, but Part 2 is heard once only. The spoken texts will resemble r,adj 0 prog r am mes., telephone rnessaqes, rnrervievvs. 'personal statements, conversations". talks a nd rKtm~s, and reail litle· situations.

Th is paper tests you r un derstan di ng of the tsxt as .CI, whol)e, of aetaifced informgtion. opinions and attitudes, and context and fYlldion. You must transfer your answers on to an answer sheet (see page 126),

Palrts 1 alnd 2 (pages 28 and 29)

These are monolooues wi1h a high informational content. To answer th~e parts, ypu willi ha"IJeto complete sernences or na~es on ;3 table or gri d.

Part 3 (page 30~'

This has two or more speakers who willi express various attitudes and opinions. To answer Part 3, you will either:

-l:ia,\le<ro , sentences or notes,


- choose fr,om m u Iripl'e choice options,

P,I,rt 4 {pa,ge 31)

This "onsists of five short extracts from five different speakers,all sp@il! on a similar theme. To answer Pant 4, you will either:

- niil'l,l1210 match the spe~kers to two sets of flve (out of ~lght) topics, contexts, situations or contexts,


- choose from ten three·option ,(A, S, C) mul·riple·,cho.ic,t!! qeestiors.

How Ilsl:ihe Us,tll'lning P'ap,@r m~ark!ed? P@er 4, is marked by Ira i ned markers uSirl9' a

nntlrk~sdh erne. Tbere is '0 ne mark per a nswe r a nd ill so me csses correct spellli ng may not be esse ntia I. Once the anSl.lve r 'Sheets halve been rna rked, they (din be read by an Optical Mark R:~a de r (OM R).

IExa'Rl tips

.' Use levery opportunity to, Listen ~o Engli5h inil!! m "Y di1ff~rem stmatiol'lS as po.ssible~Q:rlver5atio'{J.s,. radio •. ,te1e'Visioln. lactutes, a.nnourllcemel1lts., etc, Alii these ma.y fei;l!tllre in Palper 4.

" US~Em to dift"I'lIl"@'l!lllt accents. Paper ill may ~atum B.ritish regiona ~ a()ce'nts" a Ild non·B'rciU~h aCU'!i'llts.

'. LeQirlll to Ii~lel'lllo:t just ~.() wila~ peo pte $«11', ,but to th,e way ltheV~say it.

Parts 1 .• 2 all,d j

'. 'Che;ck ~~hetllu!1' )lOll must answer with a letter. a IlU m ber, a! W'ordiQr a short phrase. Paper it questions OJS k fo r ,a:mS.W@lrs, I [1 a v~rietY' QHQfmats.

'.' R~:ad til e Jlj ue'stlli:li1Il$ beforle y.()U listen to try aiif'! d

pr,e;ditc~ ~ne millst lH'kieJy ,8 n~j'wE::r~

.' 1I!IiI co mpl9'te SJ! !1Itences often p.araphl rase whirl Is I) 1'1 the ~e'[Ilmil!1lg,. s'o rnsten fow dffferent ways of sayi!1'I1!: the same thing..

• IIIiI senlleru:e compl.eUoliI tasks,. check thatlhe word Iijli' Iphr<l!se fits· gl'ilmmaticaUy •. Pay' attention bJ whel~ier yo!..! !IiIe:~d to use a Sil1igilil.8i" ora plura~ ..

•. For mul.tipl~·l:h'oke questions read the st:elillls before li.ste rn ng. but !lot tihe (llptions. Wh ~n yOILl IHsten mr 1!he ~lrsttJh;e 1I'I,llte ·dlowlliI the a:nswei'.s,. B,eoolre the seam:d Ust!1iI ill a: re:adl tile I) ptlcnn s ,~are'funy ilInd (irOo.seu.tble best iiiI'fl5We r~

P'Qrt .4

• Befo~e listening f1I!!liiid tile '(jllle'stions arl;d think of wonis yOI!Jl 'e~p~cUQ hear 'in cOU'lnedion with the topic.

• For the "Second taslk. YO'U m a.V haVe to listen to UI'e' tOiIiJ e fif ViI::Ike ';;irl d t:he i\lUitud e of the s,pe,a i!{e [.

, Talke care when ~ra'UD s(e UTi I:Ig. ycmr a i1ISWeWS to the a'r!,swer sheet, Ke.ep fh em ;in the Iconll!rt nrder,


Rl3'mil!mber to:

·r~~iID 'tlhe que;s,tiolll S beroreyol,l Usia'liI to try ii1nd p;fed+ct the nil ®1St:

Hke[y answerr. 00 lan,y of tJhe qlJeg;~iCUls. lrequi~e ill l1am,a or 11 l1umber?

'. .cilrecik. th,~t your wor,d or plluiilse flits graii1lma'~r:£aR'V.

Qu'estiofl 2: PrepiU yt:IlLu'Bcell b e[ore you Ii'st,ehl by using cemmtO,iI:I!!ilense'. The rulnk te Us you wba~ kind (If Iilileetingt!l:ilis is, What are p.ei\iP p Ie" net lli'esentUkely tD i'eQ'elw?' Q!!!:e'S1I'Ion 5: Try (I'nd

~lJess what T.MAs lare be'i'oreyolil II ste,m. ({mid tiley be examrinati(lnIs? COl.use ~ooks? o!!'Ssaysl Q.lJIl!s!l:io!1 '1~ II s it li~,e;ly that TMAs should, have iii n '~l(ali:J IIUl,mbew (lJ words?

L'ist,en,ing (approx. 45 min utes)

You will h'ear a lecturer tBUdn.g to students at the be,ginnin'9 of tn,eilr course, For quesnons 1-10, filii in the mi,&sing intormation.

You willi hear the re,ording twice.

r r r r r r r ~ ~ ~ 1 1 1 1111

Course name: 'LI ~ .L__1_____'l

:People rTot present win re,,~eive a LI ~ ~ _JI_2;____.I' J

This wiill be forwarded by L..1 ~_~ __ ____.._3-,

The two topics 'for dis-cu:is iOIl t,oday ,a re tti e

! 4 I and how to study for the course.


HoW many TM A'S a ret· tH.ere? Is,

IMAs, must not be' ,-L ~ ~ _ _.__6~

'You can treat specified word length as


!11 possible; TMAs should be Il__~ __ ~ ----L_B_ .. _J

At the en d l:J,f the liM A students she u I d inell u de


I, 101


iip Strip


~ dled: whe~rner you I'IlIIJ~sl<l n_swe'l' wUh II l.eU!e,r. a Iilum b~r, a

wo:rd OJ a siliarE phrase. " f;lotite th alt th e ru btk sip ecr~e.s 'tl1e lellgth of ~he answers,

Questlorut: Think in a.d'l'alilce of th e ki lid of a~~idents thilt CC,1l lqjJl hilppen "Ii nro fneml!;!1iI for tht! righhme. QIl'e:stiDn 0: A~tHol!lg:~ ~'O u li.ealr tl'iis o~lV a lIIee" Ille Infllrmlilli:o iii may be repealed il1l iii slightly dIfferent w,ay. US't'~lfI fur ~hj.s.

Q!Jes~i',on '43: How many t~pe-5 of train are tn,em? (Nat very m,a,ny)

Q~es~ioJIl 14: Tl'Ilrm'k. of ~O\l'l ~ railwaJY is

d!S-c~ belli, P[oba lilly wit~ Ute names,ofthe dUes it goes til (111 d 'i'rom.

You win hear a ra,dio announcement about travel problems on the rc,ilway. !For questions 11-200, complete the notes ac:cordrng to the information you hear:. using one or two words or a time.

lLiis,tern 'very cilllr.e,fiull!ly as: yOUJ will hea:r' the recomi 11191 ON CE onl~Y~

'Tr'avell N,ews

Kij n d of accident

In I

Ti me of accident:

Type of tra,in irwolved:

Name of the blocked line:


Cause of accident:

Trains subject to delay:

Tr avell ers from Sou t h Wa les wi II arrive

I 17 I

For trsvellers from Gloucester to Swinoon, everythling is


Iravellers from BErth to PQlddingtDH will arrive

Iravellers to Wales, wifl find the journey takes

Tip Stlrip

[t.errre1rl:h.elr to;

• listtll for differ@ll~ WIlYS ohayingfll1e same tihllil.:g"

Qu,esUon 22: Can. you guess will> mig>1lt. comm~ssion, su;clil a §;unrey?

Q,u,es"ion t.3-1Z5: Wit%

'Ill i!!I estiiolilS tli! at ,askfo r two orr three answers, 'if does not matter w~at Qrder you put tlie ~'i1swer's ln,

QlJI:es,flan 26: Which areas might be rll'sJ!!ardl~d i II ~ehIU~:)if1l to WQl'ik?


- -

You wi,U hear a radio interview wlth a resear-cher,. ShirleyG.rain'ger, who has been ifii\festigating the I/I;tOrking situation of .a~tre5Ses, For questions 21-30., complete the statements.

You win h.ea r the recordiing twice_

Actresses at Work

Compared too men, the roles actresses play represent people who are

The survey was commissioned by .1,- ____....I.,1_2_'2_.j' I

I Z3 ]

As well as gender; age and type of role, researchers investiqated

The SIJNey found that male actors are busiest when they are

In order to be wel'l~paid for rad~o jobs, It is essential to have

Wjth re:9,ard to lack of parts for women, producers blame

In the afternoon, most of the people listening to elrama are


TEST 1, P'APER: <1


j atthrcugn it FS best to do Taslk One (iii! the fl~5t nsteniJ'li! af1;~' Task 1iw<I '(I'nlhe sscon d li5,teflillg. YOLI sheald rea~ Task Two be:f(lne YOll lislen tht~1il rst 'flme.

• t~nas:k TWGI' listen for the :attitllde IlIf the speak,er;

ms,1l( (I,lIfe'

IB~ What ,worl'l5 ,010' Yl:IlI aSSOciate with tile Job of setr~taJYo 'et,.? Do VQIII hea r any Of ~liIem in the nrst eI)(,Ua€t,?,


I!I: What wOl'ds do vpu expect t.Q in conn ecUro 1'1 ll'IIJith nmnn:i,H cbi&fI~E!$?

You wiil hear five short extracts in which different people taik about :Iosingl jobs.

Losingl Your Job


For cuestions 31-35, match the extracts as you hesr them with the professions, listed A-H

AN star

B secretary

( b(;llnK dark

D therapist

E: drama producer

F employer

'G advertis.i n.g executive

H cound I ,emp IlQyee


For ~uestion:5 ,36-41.0, rnetch the extracts as yQt! hear t~lem with the' statements about tf1e spe,akel"S-, lisI€d A-H .

. A. eppredates a positive approach

B, has made financial changes

'C advocates adoptinq a routine

o was d i sa ppomtsd a bout monetary arr a ng emen ts

F has come to terms with the situation

G was gi~ven ~,ome I'll 9 of what WGI'S to Iha ppen

H admits to benefitingflrom the experience

Re,mem cyo!U must cOnrl,p:le,t,e both tasks as yo u ll st.en. You win hear th e r,eoo:i'd i ngtwice.

TEST 1, I?AIPEfii 4


I Guide to PAPER 5 Speaki ng

PAPE.R. 5 mnsFsts of four parts. There are tlNo students

i3lnd two examiners. One' examirl.ercommunicartes with

the students and the otherconcentrates. on assessment. DUlring the tes:~ students talk with the examiner. with each other and indi,viduaHy. Pictures and othe:rViis~all prompts are used to stimula,te discussion.

This paper tests your ability to describe and comment on visuals, to negotiate and c;oUi3Iborate with your partl1er,

a nd to summa rise and dervel,op conelu slons,

"art 1: :S'ocial Inte'radio:n (pag,e 33}

The examine rs wi U lntred uceth smse IVies then ask wne,tIl,er you and you r partner k.nQw each other. They wi n invite you (10 ask each othergen@ra'i questions on topics such as your interests, current studies or job, or future plans,

In,t~ is part you shoutd:

• ask and answer general information questions.

• ti3llk about your cummt job, studies, interests, living condlnons or p~a,ns for the future ..

'. ,e"xp ress opinions about any of these topics.

Part 2: Iindividua,~ Lo:n,g Turn (page 33)

You talk for one minute w,ithout interruption, in re~poInSe' to pnotogra phs, diagr.a rnsor c13 rtocns. You then make a brief (20 second) comment on the other candidate's phctcgraphs after he I she has spoken for one minute,

In th~5; part you shou I d:

.. compare and contrast what you can see ; nth e pkturss, and the ideas sugg~sted by them,

.' give reasorrs for; and expl,1;I nations ot, the situati ons shown in the photos and related situ.ations and topics.

• -talk about pos.sib~litie-s, What might have, happened and what could ha,p pen in the futu re,

• com merit briefly on the pictures that the other c:and i date speaks about for one min ute.

• not ~nterrlipt the other candidate,

"art 3: CoUabo:rati,ve Task. (pag,e 33) You and your partner discuss a decision-making l probie m~ol\l'ilr1g task, ill ustr;ate,d by visual material.. without ii1'te~ruption by the examiner. The tesk may invo~\re speclllilt~ng or priorutising.

In this Pi! rt yOll should:

• glll.l: Y·OlJlF own opin io ns a nd ,I lsten totl1lose of th e other candidate.

• expol al~n and j IJstify your opinions .

.. makesug'gestions and discuss possibilities.


• agree or diiS39rne, giving. reasons.

• Ir,eac:hi;H1i;1gn~ed decsion or ag['ee to dis.c'Q'Fee.

Pa,rt ,4: DiscU5:sion (pa,~'e 33)

Pa rt 4 is an extension of Part J, The sa me task j 5 discussed but now the examiiner joins in the dscusslon,

In thls part you should do everything you dcd in Part 3, and a!so:

• su m mar,ise you r discussion,

'.' ~evel,op points further in response to the @xaminer"s comments.

Exali11 tiplS

• lsten car,efu ~t.V to questro i'lsasklilG blifL1I'iiE! examl neTS; <J Ind your paJlitne'l'.

.' Sho,w ifltefe'5t lin what your palrtneris sayililg~

• Do not say t,lFIa£ you 'don't kn'ow' a.bout a pa rtk:ullar t:o'pic. Trry ~o HId .si)IiI1I.e:tl~lilmi''inelevant to say.

• Do iIfIlot try 'to r,e'i1eal'se \.yiinlat you wi.' say because tihlis will 'itie obvio:llls, to tile examine 1"$. they 'may hllt:er:mptyou with ,qll,!.e~tions that I',e,qunre umeheaT51ed 1I:nswel's.

.. DOl l'iot worry ifyoJ.l thilliilk '!tour partner is 1Iin'!1lfch better 01' worse tlhrilln you.. The examinefSili1e nolt comparil!'llg ;rOil with 'iJlQUf pill.rtrlH'3or. They alfe giving you eac~ a sep.a r:a~e ma rk. ~cco I'd ilmlrg 10 the ils;sessme'nt cliitelria.

• If V0U do IIiI ClUJ nd ~rstalillll Siome~h]ng.a5k tcn d.a.'rifkatb:m. f~lrryil"ig aut Ute tiilsl< depends on YlIU'f ulldersUilldifiilg wba.t tiI'lIe -examil'le,f has asked yOlll to do"

How is 'the :Speaking P'aper mlarked',? Yo U ere 9 rv,en marks for:

G,rammar and V:cu::abl,dary: This refers to' the accurate and apPi"oprialte use of grammar and vocabulary. The

r ~nge' of voeebu ih;ll!"y used is al5.o assessed.

D'i:sccUIi'SiE! Mana,gelillent: Thi~ indludes student's ability to express ideas and opinions In coherent .• connected speech, Students are e'xpected to e,~pf'9'5S 'Or justify opinions using a range.o'f linguistic structures,

PI!loiu.mdatiion: This Irefers to student's ability to pmduce comprehensible Engllis.h, as wen as the natural linklnq of woros, and the tt')-€, of stress and i:ntof1 atlo n to convey meaning.

Inteii'actiiw 'Communication: This applies to Parts 1 and 3 and focuSM on student's, ability to tak,e tu rns Q,nd participate Qlcbvely in dlsw~sions.


TIp Slr1ip,

• OOIil't piimic if you are give:1'I iii piittu re and you dCl )l@,t kn ow th i! words tD descrilbe \yhiat us~n "to u~ ~a;aphrase and e~~ssIQns slich as 'Ule tliiillg inl ttl I!

comer' I' 'Ul~ s,tl!llf he~s. jil3l~ryb1:S' ailild ·th e IN iilg USjfo for ' .. +ili8'.


• , Co,o!1er-ale wiUliI YOUf PIiIrtne'F. lake 'tIUIi1S ~ml pm'!t1de il'IlIPortlUl'li~iies for Y·lllil r partn.el'~o cllntillue speakiTliIg (In ~he' ~me' 'I:opic. Ask qtle~tionso r In'ake ~l:atem~lIIts that: ~n,v, tEl ~. r,tsp Clilse.

Speaki ng' (1 5 imli n utes)



(3 minutes}

The examiner gets 'both candidaites to talk briefly about themselves by asking questlons such as:

How do you tr,avel to work I OJ~ I,egle?

Are yousa tisfied with the p ubi ie transport system 1m this town? What is }I,our favourite form of transport and why?

You each talk for one minute without interruption in- response to a visuall prompt. YOu are encouraged to malke, a brief comment after your partner has spoken .

11he World mWo'rf" (Des,tribl3" and com mentj

Turn to picwres, ~-3 on p,age U9 which show people working very hard.

(a n didate A, describe what they are doi n 9 a n d why you til ink they a re working ~n tlh is way. You have' a m~nute to do this.

Candidate B. in which pnotoglr,aph do you think people are working hardest?

[ UVilfllgl Dangell'o'lilsfy (tlescrili)e and 'Calm mem)

Turn to picture·s; 1-2 on page 1300 whic:h show peopl,e in dangerous sltuanons. Candidate B, compare and contrast these situations, saying how you think they happened. You have a minute to do this.

Candi,diate A, whi,eh situation do you 'think. ils tbe most dang:emus?

EJA R __ T --~3--

(3: or 4 minutes}

Yo,u bod'll discuss a dedsio n-ma king I prob lern-solvi ng ta sk, mustrated by 'IIJSL!a ~ mate riall, withe ut lnterruptlon by the ex,alminer.

I Freeti I1U~ Activities (Prior; and discuss)

Ti.J rn to piau res " -5 on paige 1 31 take I'll from a leafl ei ebout a cne-month su m m sr course to study EngJish in Engl,and. .. It shows some of the things that students: could do when .dasses halj\@ ftnlshed, lif oolly three of these activities can be provided, which do you think students: would prefer?


PAR r 4


(3 or 4 minut,es)

The examiner encourages you to develop the discussion in Part 3 by asking questions such as;

D [d you reach ag reem.ent? How do your opinions differ?

Do you think the age olf students makes any difference?

A:re there any other aldhlities yo LI wou I d recommend for such a cou rse?

TEST 1, PAreR 5


Tip Strip


.. 'hig)IIJttht ~ey words and ptn,ase;s, in the qluestiillills. ~l!Ch as Idlangerol:lrs im;ident' or 'iHIlQ~H err [i<!l'ee r', You willliind tl;)~se wonls. cr words 'ellq)ressillg the' $O;lme i,dea. ijill the te~t.

.. hi;gh,Ught t~e na,mes ~n ~he questions al1d in tile .'e:Kt. This wI![ heip yro 11.1 I'ImllJ'he ififorJlllatiQI1' quick~V'

Q.u,e!i~DIi)B 6; What kind (If Un'll1g5 can "domestic dirffl'wUies,· remr to'? QiJ~lollil 9: What experiem:es mi;sht ma'ke a 'spDTtsmanree'i like <In outsider?

QlJle5tlolil ~1: Wh~t ~Ilts could f;f'IIi:I a spoa.iilS c.wreer sD,dd'enly?

IRead i ng (11 hour 1.5 mi nutes)

Answer questions 1-16 hy neferring to the ne\Nspaper article, about sportsmen on page· 35"

Indicate your answers 0:111 the sep,a"ateansw'i!,r 'sheet .

For questions 11-16. answer by cihoosingl from th,e list (A-iF) on the 'right below. So me of th e choices ma¥ be required more than once,


Whiich person

descibes a vefY dangerbus inddenf? 1

he,lps other sportsmen adjust to the I';lndiing of

th@1r careers? 2.

seem s to have experienced the least difficulty? 3

said something that left an interviewer speechless? 4 appeared to be- someone who wou!ld cope we'll

with the' end of his sports career? 5

experienced d omesnc d~HicUllties? is

returned to his sport after trying other things? 7

felt angry at no longer beiing a star?' 8,

'h~'lt a sense of bejng, an outsider?

says that ex-sportsmen may have-to start new Jobs at the liO'\l'llest le\lieP

experienced a sudden and unexpected end to

his career? 1'1

reoeiv,ed accurate' advic-e from his coach? 12

compares; lealvlngi hssport to the death of a

rei alive.? 13

returned to his sport and then found another

career? 14

was replaced in his team by someone e'lse? 15

m entions a poss i bls loss of :i 111 come? 16


10 ....

A Stan Bowl,es

B Rodney M arsh ( Bob Latchford D Frank BIrUIlO'

E Brendan Batson 'I" John Watson


1;y]j,en.the,gihJt!3go out. But in .spqJI.i" thfl fa]) e~n beh;~u'd and. slIl!(b::lap+,JQhnWq:tson was one of Bjl"itairff.g l~adi~!rF1Jrmulanne d.riven; until :l.9S3 w]-U!ll he W9JS ;sudd.e:wy mop}?e1iJi by A'IbI:~a:;ten in ftr,?,ollll' of A1:ain P¥,·(]lS;t" ''Y'(l1Ul b:-y to put. it off, Y9U try n9t to thID.k a'bout it,thougb you know it can hnplp en,' SSiyS Watson. '"P...n.d. .it hurts when sl.llIdderi]y yau alle not part of it a11any mO[\lii. Wh~n .I went back .t,oa GtanQ p~~x in. BelgiuHl in 1984., IWO\l:lkoa into' the pad!d:(H::k andtelt like a stra~el"> like I just didn"f; belong hel"e !3iny mo!!'.€: even afi;er. ~n yearr;; in the, game. I c~me away i~n a ]].Qjt",e:q ~m:l emlP1I:JlOfial sta~-~' Wa~f;s.oil'l was ]ru;1b; he .{$toV\C! (Olf· in sportsem- racing and! iB now a slltCc,est;ful brotadcas&e:r,

I~ SPQ",rt' e.iaU.f.l'\Om .. a~ar .. dam. c~ ... ~e hM_d and sudden,. Bame came toa tragtc ~nd,

oth.ers ddft ha:pp:i~y into mu~anie ,jobs ..

Retirement was ne'vel' ~p.l':oblem. for BQ\Yh~5> When he chattedw Cliff Mcn;"gan aJb.o1!,i!t l:J.dJs life ana ,e<'l:re~:rj Morgsm, asked him h9'w mu~h he )]lissei:li the !:Idw.ation,the glory" the HmeUght of pl:(lf(:sSIonail sport. Had he fe:~t lo:nely-? "Wen;' said Bor.vlf;\l:\i, "'1 know it d(le~ &ak¢oa 10't of play~l'lS ]ikie that. But YlJU hav'e to re:mem:ber .[ had my be'Uallgoo fain hnck o:n."'Mml'~D 'was siil'ent,.

tine of's ~am-m~te3 in 197Gs ro,otbaHI "Rmlney Marsh, was, ,outw.ardly prepared fur· the t!'l;insitiCln- more suc~gsfu1. :anmteUilgent man w:ith eehanee tQ do a bQ!S:t of thlrITg5 QuW;i:dle Q[' mside the game - bulr! lte was!l,"t ~~5 h,Ol;ppy-g(!l- 1~cky as. Bowles, He teUs. of driving- his CRl" down t!le C];'oonwell RMd a:ixe.l'ne had packed in the g~me. lIe got to .0]1 red light. '1' §U$t l)Ju)u;ght '\iVh:y na,t1' and put l;fJ:Y fOOit; down, I was l.oping $om¢thing was cOlning theoither way ~]JJi[ would _t:ra~h jmt;o. 1tI~" 1 j list had no idea:: what I wa$

•• '.J"

gom'g to UJO,

The proh~em:s sport'$m.en, faee once tbey DaVie to g~t to' ¢ips with r,eal ]if~ af!iet" a (~1Wee]" ~SP!:l!:r:t 'I]f flI· hmm 8W\e ye;ry re<ai. Some even go as far as killing tihem.selve-s, The anger in Fl"~nk. Bruno's eye5 as he. iElC1'e!iliillngiy 10iSt his, temper at home and which iureed his ¥.Me 1(.0 se.ek a '~1!.lIrt orilor again:s:t llhn is, say, f>om,e 8POl:'Iti;[?IS,ydlO]ogismi, piar~ of tbe, sams p:r..oble(Dl. - ·th.e frusJ;r:aLiCl.Ill of not. be:i_~g ~rnp'o(rla~t. Iq;f not bezing th.e' [(].Cull,of h<1f'lli~g to g"ettQgTips wit'h UwmWldane r~a]ity of nm;mal life. "When I came out of boXlng,it was lliilw abetoea.vetm!'n:t,~ says Bruno, ~Bvery moming; I had g,ot ~l(Ifu pP bed at f3atn 00 tr!3JiIl, :eveF.i! on Chris.tmas Day,an.d nOw I w~sgc:ttrng u~p with nothing to do. M::l' tr&inen.' woe warned me that the toughest fignt I wou]d ,e.'l.l'eV have would he out of the ring to ]if~.and he W~ rign.t I had so many c9nr1.1.s~d tho:ugh:ts, £ didn't know which way to ~turn. I went i.nto self-dg'stt'llet. ~

Th1l probl~mro'J' many sPQd;s ~QPl:e is that,iili,«y ]);~v:er q,'uioo g~t arcundto lllanning fu)"the d~y

The prlf;)lb[em ~~·'W'Of$~ltJlIOl!.l!gh, fOil' those wbose Ure has heen pUa:yed QUIt lID a team from 16 to· 35., ~'rh.e trouble iis that j'1011 neveil" irnagine~olLuse]( not -as fl. player," sa;ys Bob Lattcbfvrd. Evexkon .and Englandfoot'Q<3I]J Ce;[1ftf~-fQ'~'Yi.Ol:rd (If the 19170s .. ~OR m!IY novel' see the pQssibility that. one day YOlll. wo:n't be. paJrlb of it. .Even. if you've thought abQut it., heirtg dmplpe,d. i:n.tQ the rea] w~'r~d ~tiU comes ~8a shock" Me-nt@lly. it's V1~l"y hard w cop'e with the fact' that you'VE: got to do !5Jom.ethiug el~e for the next 30-'Qi:]d y~ars;:" Latcltfotcl '§tru;ggled. fQr a while, He ran a c;hildl:l:~j]!'lW(lar business, '['han he-wQrbd for a comllany nma ~et1iillg s:bQlpsand then go,t back lntotbe game asa Yifuth coaeh :at. Bhrmi!ngha;m. City FoutbaU Club.

For thamodern fooUilllUer,. though, Urings are mueh ~:,retter. Shlce U-!84·~tbe P~6~~$siQnal ,F:.ootbaUej"!l Association has run an ,eaUl:<litiDtl! to prepare playe:rs fur tbe 9lJJ1tad~ world., "~rs~ortsm:eu,th,e p:~ohlem is, that they !:Ire finj:s:h:ing a at 85,," says Ibernd.m B.atso[[ of the P'FA, ~theY~l'e gft;¢'1Ji ha' fu sW'~t i<'di the bottlom l'UJ1g of other professional ladders 'wher,e tJrei'rcmtem.po'ral"ieswe o&n 15 yelill's an¢ad ~f thef!.~. OFte~ j;;h~y have 00 tal«: ap<1ly~ut. ~oo,for w' they al"Gl) ~t pi~®pared." Ba,tsxll1l'ls own c~li!.er "waJs ,en9'ecl at 31 by injilll"Y, "'['bat is 1m.rd, ~ he saws, "'b~cal1:SJe you don't· have Mme W ad,ju;~t ~, •


Fo,r questions 17-22" you must choose which of paragraphs A-G, on page :g7fit into the nUlmber~d gaps in the folloWinglllewspap,er article. There is orr,e extra pal'agn'lptl which does nat fit in any of the gaps.

~ nd i cat1e your snswsrs on tih@, separate an swe r :sh eet,

sJt:l!ndrurls! The ITm.j ority of people have taken to sorting out their household waste. imo different pi1ecS" se"pllr~ril:1i,~ paJper.. Illet3iill and plastic, for exru:nple~ SQ tb:ilt specially designed dust carts C3itl ~!i!l<!e it away for lrecyd.iug.


D- AVIS. near Sacramenta, in CaUfomia. has a _population, of IDOny thousand, It also has forty tho1!]&-and b~cyclecs, M,d, just nine dlQl!S~nl,dc;;lrs. 12'ydi:sUs, have rigl1t of w,ay e:vt~l'YwheT~ j Iili the town, seveety kilometres, of bib Janes all to themsel Yes. and their own unit of specially trained cycle police. The American obsession with the motor car would seem [0 have been tamed, at least in this one smell comer of the USA.

[ 117 I

A:s a university ~owQ. Davis has.always had more than ies fair share of bicycles - and of ecological awareness too. It is home to the University of Califomia's Faculty of Agl'icul'tufe, and back in the early sevendes, a group of stndents and local people got togedler to draw uRIL conwn~bensjve environmeueal and social plan of acrion to Sl.:ee.r DaVNS' ;llway from the kl1ninaJ. urban sprawl that a.fflicrs 80 many other cities.

Energy saving is et the top of this ~OCl:lW agenda, .\nd by the year 200.0. the people of Davis expect .r:he Carli fomian sun to be providing half of iii]} th,eir energy needs. In pursW1! of this objective. th.e town council has tntrodu:coo, many reg1l..'llwtious w web ~re desi.gned 'to keep energy use, to, the absolilil'!e minimum.

This is a very qU~lh'n custom by American


T E S" 2', IF' A PE IF! "

The S1ze of bui ~dill,g plots has been dras:ticaUy .~~duC'ed,. so housing den sities am hmgh and 'there ]g enolllgIDl rOQ'."IU left over 00 make cheap aUot:me,nil:s, a,v~iLabJe to all flat owners withoi:u a gi;1lf'den.

There are popular street markets twice ill week where localJ:y grown produce is bought and sold. gi \ling everyone a ,chance to enj.oy fresh food and to p~ol!l:gh profits straight back into nei ghbouring 'f:1liil"illS ..

'IWolong=renn residents of the to'WI1, Jan and Jim Hogan, told an imerestlng story of ~10w, when [heir daughrer was in her teens, she could hardly Wailt Ito head out of Davis and make a life tor he.rselfin the. big city. But now she ffis back In the ~OWIl where she grew up, with her husband and small son in to,w, because she could 110[ Itl1lruml of a better .p:,I~c,e to raise her OW1'lI . family,

Given such a track record, it should not come as a surprise thaI! the vast majority of people in Davis Sl.lipport the changes th at 11a ve been made.


• highlight words tllf1~t "l'lfe'f t'(Ilt!aopl~. 1P,laces and e'll'l~nts.

j Look. lo,r dims III ~rore a lid :afier Ulle ga ps,

A Pbm ni ng by.- laws in Dav is are bawd on the premise fhat <I "green ci~y' ;IS not ill COl1llT,jldktion in terms, Houses art: restricted to two storeys and business premises, 'to 'four:

B This kind of persona] story is 11.0t surpri sing:

Davls has roo slums, no ghettos very ]hde 11I11emp[oyment!Ul:d the lowest crane rate in lb United Stites. People leave their doors unlocked. It aClUany works!

C It j. we 'townies' who are the ones with the most to g:ai 11 by putting tile: norian of 'the e nv~rollmelllt' Ilrmly at the centre of our lives - ill terms .of the aillir. we oreatlfle,tl1:e water we drink. tllecruuruily of Ollir food <!ndtl1e. cOlwjvi.aUty of OI;U' comnnmities,

D The fact mai[ one hundred and fifty bicycle. take 1lJP' tI~Je same spsee as lwenty cars means Hun (hey have been busily turning car-parks Into gt,een Q:±Ises rather than the other way arou nd ..

E At f(wty square metr-es. one of these allotments can provlde seventy percent of all fruit and veg for a two-person hoasehold If p'topedy managed . .organically managed, that is. - for Davis is, pretty much a pesticide- free town.

F Three of the students got themselves elected to' the city COUDcH and initiated a flow of Legislation that bas affecre;d every aspect of ~oca~. LUe slncethen, One of those students. Bill Carter, is the current rmll,yor of the town.

G Stricr MmHding standards are enforceldand tbousends of tr-ees have been planted to dis/courage people from instal] iug air-condi ticuiag. The trees provide shade exactly where it is most needed, People :lin Davis even hang out their washing to dry instead of throwing h in the tumble dryer.

O,Ul!'stiOIl 17,: JiiI,~ key w·ords arre 'carS" and 'bity,ciles' . Which p<llra,grapl1 makes tlflii's lililk?

l1!U'estlQ'O :!i!J: Which p'<lITtiraph m~ke:s a link beltweeru galr,mi;ii!r1S alfld gi'tlwiiJ1l!,. fogd:~

Qu@st~G1nl :1:21:; Whlc ~ paragrCllph -iiefen. to t.he s~~ijI' (If f;1h!! HO~!llI'Ifa.mlily?

1iltSll:. PAPEIR 1

!R:e-ad '~he ioillowin9 articlefrom Cl journal and then answer questions 2,3-29 on

pag,e 39. On yO'Uf answef sheet, indicat@ the letter A. B, Cor lDagainst the number of each question, 2:3~29. Gi\l'~ only one answer to e,acn question

Indicate your a nswers 0111 the: sepall'ate anlswer sheet.

, ART .3


'The wh~le: has no votce', wrote MGi1\iiille If! Moby Dick 'but then again what has the whale t,o Sat!!'?' Seldom have I, kI1O' ..... n ~nw proround be il'lg Uiat had aoytt1i ng 1:0 say to !his world. unless t,o Slammer out something by way 'Of

~ a'tting '6 living.' Not sa, Wh ales may not sinJJl for ~he<Tr suppers, but some of them ~erta.Jinly do sing. M~lvllle failed to hear them b~cause they sin.g t:.Jnderwat€r. Oth€rs have l1ea:rd ,:hern \'fflhoul r€l..ahsing it. If whaJes sijl1g: '(i,ear a wootlenl"boUomed bOat, sailors in their bunks., or l1ammpc~s may heN all ~~rLe melodious wad I from they know not wher,e. Hence. perhaps. the many sea·tal,es d lu~l:abiliils s.lIng by dr,owned aoileagues.

Why co lh.ey sing? First, spot the'singers, There are lwo sorts or whales: the t:OCllh(!ld wh'alss - such 'as sperm, 'killer and pilot lMlaJes - who are close relatives o,f the porpoise all(llh.e do,1phin: :aJnd "(he tootl1~~S$ '1)£i,leen' whales - slJch as the humpback, light and minks. The toothed wl'iflles. usually live qll stab1e and of'ganised 'groups: ill gang of killer wtJa:les may stay toglether for years on 'Md. Such o'reatures mak,e sounds, but have not boon known In sing. MarlY dolphi ns produea 'siglnature''''lhlsUes - eadl one has iii different oall-sign from his n~igh'boms. lhese seem to fUl1ctiOf'l as, names: a dolphin willi often produce his neighbour's, whistle' when ne.arby. S1milar'ly"each sperm whale: produoes a distlnctiVle .senes of clicks - known as his coca - arid will sometimes mimic a nearby whale's coda. KiUer wha!e.s harve iderUirtabte 'dialects thaI are specif&c to each ~amlly. It i:s tile b~leen whales, espe~ilally the humpbacks, who break into son.g. At al1y one time, all the sing 11119 whales in a population sing the seme songl. It gl'"aduallY

chanQles O\I'er Um~ M'd each whale learns aJld coeles Ihe new variations. This Irs, a formidable feat becauS€I thie song S, whicoh c2iln last up toO tnirty nfiinUles, are highly campl'ex. It is On Iy tM rnalas Who sing. and tha)! do SO chie-UY during '1Il!!) br,e;ed il'lg aeason. The w.ngs seem - like many bird SOri19!s - to. be a sort .01 d,lsp'aylhat males usa in competing with each other ror 'females.

Singing humpbacks have a wide vocal ranpe: Il1e nohas cart swoop down hom a high-pitched fa.c'tory w111stle to a reverberaling fog-horn. Play back a rec()lrdedll1 umoback son~ ,a,:t fourteen llmeslhe correct speed and it sounds like a nighlingal e. Sut bird-song is slhormf - and more si.gniricanl1y - not so structured as whal~ song .. WI1a.I~ song can be< broken down Tnto regularly repa.ati rJ.9 phrases, wil"1iC~ ln tum areorganfsed into themes, that

always occur in the same sequence .. Unlike birds" wh6liI9',s appear to have sbJdi~d some of the rules of classica~ eompositron.

By arialysl ng ~t1es.e themes and phrases, two sclanllsts have reached co:nclusions aboul whale culture that

\IItOU Id nave JS:11'IJck MefV~lle dumib. Whales seem lQ ys.e a $~ructure like rhyme in poelfY. And, IllI,e people. they may put in too rhymes to h.elp ihem remember their 5'Ol'\g$. The Nro' scienlls:!s, Miss Linda Guil'lee 01 ~he Long Term Re.searGh InstitiJle i~ linco1n, Mas:saohuseUs, and Mrs Kalharlne Payne of Cornell U r1iviersilY in Ithaca, Naw Yorlk. £m~ly$ed460 whale song,s lrorn the North Paciliic and 88 from Ihe North .Atlantic. from lh;e·ir th?y produced audio spectograms, oonverting sounds intO' strings of squig gle8 which can 'be- olassfied by shape. Having a catalogue· of whale songs helps marine ololog ists t,o 'track 'WtI~e PQP!Jlalitons 0111 liheir odys$I9¥s bY'showing where each singer come'S from. Ualso lets them study the songs as they evolV€', 8ince whi!i!!9Is learn thel r songs. such songs arYil an example of GlJltur~; and tile way Ihey change is an example of 'Gultural ev,olution.

It tllrnlS out !hat wh.a.les make much lise of phrases With the same emding!$ - i.e, rhymes. Miss Guilil~eand Mrs Payne found~at songs with malllY dif{erh1gtheme'S wem,. much mpre Ilkely to contain plenty of rhymes. They

found fhait rtiynJes wer~ oarrel ai~ed not wllll'l th,e.lsngthof a song but wilh th~ amount of dilf'erent materi'al to be rememberedi .. Simple songs di d not corrt$LIJ; B!ny rhyming passages. The rhyming p8ili1!ern~hen,ooLlld be a way to h€jlp the wllale mmemb-9'r what comes ne'xl itl a compl~ca~ed song. PI rhymi ng pattern helps peQP~e to learn and rememoer poetry b~! limitil1g the number of po,ssi ble words in a g lverr position. If you know Ihat

every ·third am;ifOl.lrth line of a stanl.Oll ina.given poem rhyme., and til at th~ 'thim line O"~ a sl:aniZa ends With

'love', yau k!now thai the next lim) might end wi;lh 'dove' Qut callinot end ..... ilih 'sparrow'. Adverrislng jingles oUeri use rhyme in lihe' jusHfted hop® that people Will rernemoer th;~ names of products .. You do not have to know too rnaanl ng of a word or $i9n in order for rhyme' to help you recall it (~hink of chi'ldren's nonsense rhym{!s), Posts u S9 rhyme for all eerts of r,~a$MS; bscausa l!hey are attraotive. musical, create a pleasing rhy~hm. or are mere~ i:Fllge:nious. or ru n ny.

MISS Guinee and Mrs Payne realise that t!heir evidienGe is inconcl u sive. because 'they eaonot ask the whales what they ·ar,e up to. Some will doubt their conolusion because it rmak~s. 'IoI'iIIlmes seem implalJsib~y human. Maybe they h<lJve I10t made whal€iS 'human' enough. Perhaps the rhymi n.g sirens of thl!! deep are simply tryirlg 10 please ~hemsetves and their audience.

fEST 2., PAPER 1

i3 Whalt: did MelVille be:lieve about Wh13ile$!

A They didn't produce vocal! sounds. B They had nothing to :sa,y.

'C: They couldn't jmitat@ ths human vake. D They (()'Uldn't sing.

lip 5,frilP


.' skim f'ea,d the rext mr g~1l eral unders'l:andi Iilg.

'" IIInderline key words in the qU@$1iQflsand iJI,pUOl'is.

24 Which ofthe fpl'lowing s.e:em to use, personal identiTkroion signals,?

A killer whales B porpoises

C sperm whales, D' baleen wh ales

QI,I"esfiQI'i~; Sometimes tli'ie text ami! the qlll'esnoifl use oiifferellt wOl'lcils,J(I r ~lhe sa m e Id:ea. Whith WOMS ill'llihe te);:~ mean 'dlidlfl'{ ",rodl!loo V'o[,al sOIl,n,ds'?

QJle5~iolil i2~' 11 f youl have highHihi~~d these £i"lrfe-r'i!!nt 'typeiS; of wi1-atOls in ~Ihe text. it wm he!~p \1'1)11 to hd ths inlformalioll vou lIIeed.

2'5' What Is known about the song of a humpback wha'Ie7 A lt is ideli'l'tical to that Of a nlg'htingaie.

B ItmuII,d be ta ken 'for b~.rdsang if it was sl~Qwer.

C lit mimics sounos produced by rnuskal instrurnents. D' It i.s !',ather more complex than that of birds.

26, Why doss th e write r s.ay 'Whalle:s appear to have stud i ed some of the ru Iss of classical com position'?

A He be,llieves whales are more ilnte;illigel1t than most people think. 8, He doesn't take the research seriously,

C He thin ks the re is evidence thet whalles have ~eamt throu 9 h contact with humans.

D' He is trying to a rouse his readers.

27 What did the two sdsntists discover?

IA There werafour hun dlred a n d sixty types of whale soOng.

B Whai,e song varled accordinq to, how fast the whales were tra;:vel!l,ing. ( Whal,@s responded when music was, playedto them ..

ID The songs demon strated wh ere the wh ales. arigli natedfrorn,

2:8: Where are rhymes most IliKe~y to occur!

A in sonqs which are, beinq learnt B in complicated songs

,e in 'son gls wh kh have' ch,;3Jnge,d

D' in tong SiQi'l g50

29 What is the con CiI u sion of the write r of the a r1ide?

A That the SCientists want to make appear too much like humans .. IS That 'the scientirfic work on whales lis too lnconclusive to be taken seriously.

C Th at sene ntsts may be missing ill slm ph!! and obvi ous explanation for whale song.

III That scientists may have found a w.ay of communicating with wha~@s.,



'. galhwJJlgh each SeGtll,CI!'! g,f Umf teJ<t fu:) tlurn te,g. A - RMe Tn.llWlDirn). nfItlittn ilJ{g qllJe:stJ~CHlI$ which refer ,tl) ft. ~y r:1lil~ tIline YOE] get ~~lh~ si"llh

sddilla 1'I.l!'CUI wi'n,na'ltl! nel[lrily <llli. tlli,e <lf1Is'We,rr5.

• M~~ H,nks j:)eme,e:n ctil~fNi!1'U p~fi[ei cQr iJnfilrrnl1llll'OlfI i'm, Umle...:;t .• i lithe 'SetHon Ojn IFi~~fOY M;~u;l.ea.JI!l" fl)r

I: .... amp.~~. wha;t is th.e 1:~i1k llel.~'IH!r! ":1,946' anij !~y'pewlI"nter' .1II1,e, 'New'r ag,ailil'?

An~wer questio n53.o-4,9 by (eferr~ng to the informat:ion writ'ers give ,a;Oo.llt t hem,sel1y,e~ on pag,es. ,tl1-42"

II nd kate YIlur answers en the !iepa ramea!15Wer sheet.

for questM~H'I s 30:-49 choose yow8Inswers from the If st of w~iters (A-f) on the rig hit be I.ow.

Som:ecihoice:s may be requi reo more tnain once.

Not@,: When more than one answeris required, these may be g~ven in amy ordler,


a dmits to be i n g! a bh~ to work 'a nyvvher@? 30

refer to someone who helps with the typing?

has u$ec ,3 word processor?

can ol1ly wowR, when thj;! room lsa particular temperature?

uses a~pewlriter?

used ,a typewriter in the past?

underta kes domestic duties befo re fI~ttling downtn writel?

expe.rienc:es.init:ial resistance to starting work?,

enj;oy fr-eqU€rlit:cGffee breaks?

mentions the need for peace and quiet? ref:er5, ito a previou sVifOri!<ing routine? have more than {)OS w'()r~plac'€'?

doesn't ,stop for ~uncIl7'

,exercises. ~ ndoers?

watch rv to reil:alx?

,31 .". 32 ....

38 ....

3.9 4ti'

411 ....

1 IE S T :2, PA PER 1

~3 ... , 44

.45 , ...

A. Rose 1rema~n EI, Patrick JS ale C JiUy Cooper [D' Julia n :Sarne'S' E Susan Hill

F Sir Fitzroy


:: ii



How and where dO' writers w(itel With coffe,e and c:acophony Of in austere' sile:ncle'? In warm kitchens or in lonely ames? Joanna T~ollop follolws' the mus,e' ,of su'(c9ssful no velis"fs ~

Rose Tretnoir:

l' V8 got the study I' ve ollways longed for. It looks oul onto a big sloping lawn, and as soon as I' ~go into it' in the morning, it ius!' ta kes me j n. I like lo start the day slowly,

9 i vii rlg, external attention [0 breakfast but some internal attention to the wrilling day ahead.

I'm at my desk by ten. I like to be alone then and I like silence. I hate winter. My siudy has to be ol leosl 70 degrees Of I can't concentrore. I write' j'o lonqhcnd wiln B€'Foi

Mi redo pen cl ls on recycled po per. r m owe re d th~ need to be fi ~ bod wen so I eat conscientiously ot luncht1me., I stop at 5.30, do exactly 35 minutes of yoga, put on

some Mozart or Haydn I and play around with foocC which is a wonderfu,1 Way of engagingl other senses than the ones I use all dory~.

Pafrick Gale

One of the ioys of being a writer is Ihot you don't have. io hove a routine', but when I've gO't a book on the. boil I really don 'f do onytnirJg else. My brafn only i~k)<f-b untit lunchtime and food is vitoJ to keep me going: digestive b;SCUf15 are a must and r do

confess 10 !:he odd chocolate crisis. I vvork unfit r m really h unglY, -and ,hen I take the' dog out to lhrash .QuI any problems. After {urich" I'll read - mosfly navels by dead Qufhofti 50 as not to ge, too demoralised. If it's worm, j' work in a summerhouse I bUill, whfch has a view of rhe garden. If it's very cord, i shut myself into the Joff. I have 10

con fe,S':; r work beffer Iruar;s. if's where ~he word processor ~;veS, alfhough l fike to work. witn penCil and exercise .book firt:;t, to tease ideos our. The ev.enings ore for the box. r love it. 1 video o/~ films, Thots my treot

r E sr 2. II APE It 1

Jilly Cooper -

When I'm an a book, I'll work all dai)/, every day. I stort about ten, and I'll g,6 on and on, until eight or nine,,, There's l10thinB in Ihe middle except a dogl walk and a chor to jhe horses, There's not even any 'food reo Ily. bec:<:lluse I'm a ~ways tryi ngl ~o los-e we i 9 h L The room where I work is serlous choos. The

room faces south. so my Itypist Monica and I trek about to whichever surloce has no sun a:nd Ihe lea st mess. I kee p long hClnd notebooks of all the even Is a rid chmac~ers in ilia' current book and a fi'le for each chapter.

If leo's het!!. lt1s greotl bSCOluse helll usually cook suppeL By then I'm onily fit to slump In fran I of fhe felly.

Ju/;on Bornes

When J gel" to my desk at about ten, j find I don't very much Want to be tnea;i. luckily. this feeling posses. My desk is in o fighf, upstofrs room pointed Ch inese yellow. Th ere are Iwo prunus trees .ou'side, which bulffincres seem fo like, and .once I saw 0 io1'. I'm fairly eaSily disftacted, and wilJ roam off to get mugs of coffee, biscuiJsand raisins, cmdwctU hopefully by Ine leiter box k» the posJrnan. The best creative lime is from fen to ane. I work on CI big brock electric fypewrifer. I doni! want Q word ptocesso« When I'm working on 0 novet rH pul in 0 seven-doy weet COQKing5 helpful if t'm .stu(:k. 'don'l rool/y reward myserf at the end of CI good day, "m ifJS~ reUevoo to fe.e! less gulff'(,

Susan Hill

When I W(lIS :S,i:rl9ie. I had 0: lorI/ely bl1gi morning ~hal began at about ej'ght, with

nobody ro th ink ob~ut but me, There's no doubt it's harder now, hoving got LIp 01 6)0 and done the school run, and having one's head seething with domestic ~h1ings, You hO"":E;il to guard agai:nst that dangerous, restless nme when you retLi m home a nd can get woy~a ~d 50 easily. I'm working in a Portoknbin in the garden while we convert 0 barn into my study, I take coHee tn there and sit qUietly, mysel,J down into I'he book again.

I have Ii nle breaks fo:r more toffee, but this doesn't ~nt,erfere with corcemrcnon ot all. nor does my s'lunn[ng view. I stop at lunco:htime and that's ii' Ireally. I use jumbo economy podsond write in longhand.. I prefer pencil.

I used to type the rncnuscrlpl myself but lhen

I found 0 wonderful ~ady who con read my writillg. I'm useless. wiih machines and Iheir noise would drown the words in my head.

T E ·S IT 2.. IP A Ii' E R; 1

Sir Fitzroy Maclean

J wrote Easfern Approaches 45 years ogo, and I've {lad Q bo.ok 011 the go ever since. IlraveJ oll/ne time and J gel' on with wrilihg_ wll'srev9r I orn, buses, helicopters, oitpotts, c1flyvvhere, In 1946, in America, I bough! a portabJe typewriter but when I'd typed

r 50~OOO words on ft, {tnought, 'Never ago;n.' r 'ike yellow spiroJ-backed pods and thosf! Hoahl1fJ balJ pens. My ideal is to wttte in the librdfX or in my specially insulated l7Qom ot home if! Scotland, Of of the kitchen .table in London, susb'ning myselF wifh a

huge pot of Chino leo. 1'( r m irovert'fl,9 I l fake o ftask for tea - it$ vital. J like regu1ar meafs and I'm inclined 10 sleep after lunch. My book is my fjrst thought every daX ond if's my escape from reat Me. r don 'f need 0' revvord al the end of a day, The wrifing is a prize in Uself.



D~i'lr_ ~

~ w •• ~ ",," ""he, "".~.n. ond I re oily .p~(""I A ~O, ,o",,"~ .n

til. "601 '" In,,""' •• '" ~.Ip "'. o~.n'" '"l' ~',",hd601 I"',"y. 1h.", "". ,"oro POOP" ,..,. to". I "'f"~ 00 I (!,",\:I .,,,,.,1 "" """'" p.i, of .onao· [O'"'10n• h •• · •

..... .w' t""O, 1'""."'" ",,"'11 .~,.., ~ut ,nfo""'."""'" 'Ori1",hln~ ho. ".pp..,.d

\'lfiicl1 b ca"MrJ;~ me a. lot of worl";j.

Ao yo, ,,"ow, .".,", ~D' ",o.t m! "'" ",,"tlo~ I~ my fatho, .. • """.

,~"','" of ""tl~"" .1111" _ tn bo kiI. ~" on ""P'''' ". it. Woll, whon Mum """

1».. 40' b.',~ from thel' ", .. , ... ow,,! .hoy wrY pl.a., ... at ,ho hail.' ....

,I I.~ • ," b'o' .. "0'''''' .,< ""', Wh .. ·ho"or. .., .foth"·""""""'"

~~"" tho ,ob'''' I. ",hi," h. ' .. p. hi. 0;1, er 1-1$. boon !""'~.o~ ••• .,.! • ""I us hit. ';iOO1'(j.11I ., .... t •• p"" w' ... i<;.'" - ",'. """" obOut tZPOQ "l'p ..... i1I. ,",r< _.r< 00 ~4n' ,01 ..... 1<- in, •• It \loC'! ,"uon I.o~' ., " one of ..,. '1"''''' ~u •• ""

.WI, ,.. 01 00'''.', m •• t col th em ""'" ''"1' frl 1'", su'" ,yOU,",,', ••• n)1o~1n~

Ilk' tho~ ." .""" "" .. 'non". of I,io.d •• M p .. ~. 1 .I""''' r sa 111 k""IV v.,. ""It ,' .. • '".,""~ ,,~O, ";,om! or _ """,,,h;n~ ,u'p'ci"U" at <ho p,,",~, .~M'4 ot .11

tf101'lt might help W ~i\le; \.l~ ~ clut'l. I ,(10 hopr:: you CtJI.r'! l1t:lp.

"",,,oily, I tri'. to pMno ~.u I ••• nlant but :/0" In •• '' ~.". ~.'" .ut. I 0'0 'lot t"""." to MI,h •• , (hi~ .,'",., 1.6211900 If """ w."" to ~'" in too.h) ,"" •• ''', :IOu, ; •• ,"'~ b"G~ i. 0"""'", ou' no h"<i't •• ,n .~hl"~ ,,""1"'0"., illI w. ",~,

1>1101>101".' I '""8"'~ •• ". ",IT"'" w. """,ao,"'I ,. "'"0,.0' ,. ot my po"",

.,' M i<'M~ ",. h. 00""" .oII'.r. '" ""' "" on ."".00''"'" ,i"~ ,.< .0 "" ."",1,

~,~I~ ~e: atllflouf!K;~rfI'vint IJntH he Gou~tI,

L .. ,," ,.OW * ~"" " .. ~ .~h'"~ '" tol' me. I'", .... pm •• od .~o", thi. _pO<

V1J6;ne~~" rH 't?~ ln Olfort1 In ~rou~ 'CW,o weeo'(6,

Lov.e F1~r1~

TIES!:2 PAn",

• ,r 0:: It ::1

Q,u!!'lstmGn .2. H!liS isa ltl!tter Mi a 'OO'1ili! Pcalil,\!!,; Sij;], sta.[t '[)'illllir :Sir otMad~m' a Iild elil:ml ''fgms fallth[~,lly·. ,A.~~E!rll:lativelYI fnNiflI1(a nJi!mEt fo r me man;:lg~f Q!f the ,~ollilP~ny ifnel &t!nt 'ID,ear Mr BFOOVIiI' and end 'YoUi'S sJ~,~erel~"

'ijI'~ "'.r o~e~ ~filg ~rent:en.c.e rllius<,t ma;ite it"'~~~r wWi;y y~na, aN! wtitilll'g- ta IFllf.l1W $ll!g~$~iOJ1{S ,<I bmm'l' libe Ie:isur~ 'l;~nfre, 'G,ive masQ~.s for each slJ(~~5tioll yalll IIJiI ~ke a,

Q,u!e!!ititOIll! 3: M<llke sure 'I!!01I deall wl~1i1 both tilIPi~g_ - tl:ll!.1[tai'l'd W lld.aJIijS'!it1. Slllllgges~ ilrn~,~@¥.elil'1lent mea:\ju~e:5.1~'[lt :~e%ate

dii ~€!(;l~y to tlr1es(!

1!l:r,@.IM~ miS SiWi clh es t\niIpl~y-ing sec!II rity gtIarIls, ~1iI5i~amng se~ll!1:~ity (;il!m.efals, !ClileJclki!lg sl!lldi,enl':Si. udi~liIl[ilV" c~rDls, 11ltt.

Qu~tl!illil lJ: Ii!. review mio~~miaTIly Iha~ tl:l~ nalilll e of the b®>ok tmd UII~,uJ~tfIa~ at Ute t(l~:. 1111 this £<lSle, Y~lII ·c,(lII!I~d: wl'iUe the originiit~ luUe iiiil!<d alrl E'llIgJ'i:sh lra,IlJ~]i!.tkm. Briefliy'summ:antsre U\i.e cafit~l1it Qft1he: bQ(I~, ~lmen olll;t!ij'n;e, tilf!E: OOiiSOI[l$ ij(ItU ii'r.e IngQe<n1iIirl!il'nd inrg it.

PART' 2 :

Choose on'e 01 the fo~lowiIn·g wrliting< tasks, V'qur anSYJleF shQuldfoliow exactly the lnsttuctions given. Wri,te apprmdmaftely 150 V\rords.

:2 I t1 th-etrown in B rf:tairn where VOl! a Fe :studying at a la nguqge sdl ool, ther@ is is prop\:l5:al to build iii Spo~ts and Le1sur~ CeJl1t~ providing a range Of :sporn: .and leisu re fadliities. The company whkh isg:oingto b LI i ~d the centre wishes to ~ now W~H'It facilfties (e"g, sWimming, wellghHr,Elining, tennis, martial' arts,etc) will be mpsl popular, You have carri'e",d out a s.urvey amorJg< the students at your school

~ n d hal\l'€! stu di;:,d me i r opl n ion~ a nd sUlgge~.tions W n021rnl n 9 5porrt~ f~til iti~i prices. an dI op enin,g he UI rs, ~lrite to the com pany surnmarisi ng the suggestions th at have been made.

3 I n the 001!le'9 e whe re y'Oueirre studying, til ere harv'E' been severa I C,a15Jes of i:h eft in recent weeks. ~tudems have lost personali be!oflging,~,and lternsof etlwpment such as. computers and cessette- piayei".s h~ve beern .st'O·II~n. lhe,re hav~ also been ads of vandalism. Stu,d·ents have hekj a mee<fingto di,SICUSS ways of Imprc:oving sec unity ~ ri the ooHege-. Send ill report to the princi pal of the· oolle~e with y01u r r~o:m m endptlion s,

Wnite your :re:p1o,l1j.

4, The editor ,of a student ma.g.!3lzine ~r1i BniilE,in hasa~ked ynu t.o white a revr~w ~in Engl~sn) of 1:1 book (in YD;lJr own lan·glUlagEl'). The boo~ -snQulld be su~t.Qb!€for students who are learn~ ng your hmgua,g,@ il n d have reac hed a .h irgh SUl ndard, but are not tpta I ~y 'f!uer'lt C h(;)G~e en appro!=ldat€l book and 'say whY' yD U recom m~end it The book m.ay b,e a novell, a !bioglraphy,EI ,tl'llliE'·Hrf·@ adv~rltur@, @~c:. Do not choose a book sp@da I ~ wrilU~n far ioreJg n students,

Wrj~e youw fev;iew.

5· lin the, building whe'i'e' yo~ work ~OU h.3I~'spedall resj:)cmsibility for he,a~th al("ld safety. YOli idenitHied t'viro potentia I safety problems,. Write a repcrtto the ma n ager,ex:pfa,i n i ng which asp~ct~ of th,e bu lI!di1l1gand t or WOl"k~ng pr~cti,e,s may be ,un,safe a~cI suggestirn.g wl1ait ~hould be d:one to improve tnings,

Write yo u r re~po:rt

~iI!SUOIii !i:~ Thlis is a report, so' choO\~ ~he c;errec:t: 1i!ly.o:ut Rememb!iH' yQlL! ~i1Jjve ttJee wri~e abollit t;'l.I'lfO t~~IiIS''S olt:lly. e'.g.1Gllffirr,~ oowdretl-e'll,ulllig; <In,cllllnln king,ailie01J5, pMI' aeeass t:o !Elrnergenc:y (!!J1lls, ·e~~. for e<ach 0111 •• yOI.l'mll:l!St ,~esc(tb,e tlhe probl'em an ~ .Sl,ll,g.g~~l a s.~hjrk!l·n. lQl!I, call.!lJ$e s!)I:b·hiilIQldillflgS ilifl your r'ep(lrt


Tip Str~p


• read ~hrQJJgh tine l~xt OiF!lCie [Q:r;geflll'ral ,ulllIiler5tand ~11i~.

• OOfii~idert tihe slllr'roUililll!lil1ig,o'fI~l'Il 1:"<l(Jefultly.

Q11llsti,on1i': nl'~ee of Uiie~@ wl!l,~d~ have me'i\ll1lif!~'S ~tI!(;11 are: 1'I'I:u:~h tOIU stm I1Tg wlr th€! c~l1le::d.

'Question ,~: AliI rul'ample Is h~ing givErn ilIere,SJo,lIl1 'iI!J<SU(iI(,t W~ ~1(f is ap:pre:priiate.

lQ.uestion 11$:: The spe:alker DI,~alrly th]nlks tih:at~his is Wf(I:rJg. WhiGh adljective best !J!:pU!!:5:se~ this r:ue<lll'lifilg-?

,Engliish in Us,e (1 hour 30 minutes)

p, A R.T '.1 h ~

Far questions 1-115, read the text below and the n d€Kide wh kh word best tits 'each .spa,C:€'. 'Put llh@ lett@ryolJ ChOOS!9 for ,each question In the corrett box on your answer sheet Th@ 8Xierdse [regJrfs with an @xarnpl'e ~O}.

1fhe[,e tsa revcdutioll in rhe retaU .world thatcaanot (0) .... toa!1.:tJ'act shoppers' neses. ~Ili the latest m,rrkeltin.s:pl.oy, smells arecreated in hibQ'!"atofi~s '1:0 be wafted arouad SWFtlS in order to (1) ., .. the unsu ~pecli.[1g i nto '~fe[l"ding more lDQt]ey. Seeret (2) "~'. af the'dcrsigjller' 1'>11'1elhare going aninfllJJOre tban a. hlmdrod ssoresacross B;ritailiJJ, indutlmg booksbops, petml s;ta~~;o]lS and a (3)., .. of elothes shops. The taii]or~made aromas (4) ,... <COCQn~t oll In Itrav~[ age1nJIts ((0 (5) .•.. exOtic hQ!I id.1YS). <lnd, ]eath.erl[l,£<tr showrooms (110 sl.I!g,gcsl (6) "... ~uanl:y). M!!Lu'keHng ArQmahc:5 ~ ~ COIIUp:a:[IY ·speciaiHs~rJ.g in ljhis area. bd.i.eves ttt1l.~ odours are under-used as a marketing r?l "... . U ntil now ~he most frequent (:8) .... has been. an superrnarkets where Ute stTI:eill Hum i n-S(.Qn~' biSJkeries has been Mown aI.'J:Th01l1l.g tile (91), ••• to boost sales of fresh rood . 'We are tilting things. one stage further,.' said D~vldf'dlowe&, the' s cnmmereial director. 'We can

bujld 0\1]. cu,sl'OM6r ]O'yalty by mak]~g customers (ItO) " •. a p,a.tticular smell wlih apwDticuhrr store .. I.t is aot iutrusive, lfut were it would defeat (he (ll) .,," .-

TI':Le smells are ed to wo.rk 011

w,ree ie'lle]s; to relax 'ppem by using

~.~mt1ij s.mellJs such .!I$ pe:p[)efillifi~; to bring back memories using odours such ll& a whiff (jf sell, breeee; and to en.cQllIrmge cu:swm.el["l!O~aHy 'by u sing a oO'lJlorn-iite perfame 'Iogul ~p (:[2) .,," iii

COlltP~J1y '05, - Dr Ge.orge Dodd,

scientific adv r 1:0 M~rke[i[lg A.rom-'llics, be~]ev,~ smellsces affetl p~>O.I?1eh; mneds, "I( is avery exciting tim,e, Sm.eUs ~.ave enortnous (ll,3) .... to behavh:fll!r/ he ".'l'-'1iid. Crities say re:UI~lel':S are (if4) _.,' 1.0 subliminal ard\';. 'Not reUing (OQI];SllUne1"S that this i .. happeroingis 01t1' (15) ...• i1m.vasioll of their privacy. People have the .riig-ilL to know,' said C-O:IlUI Foley of Liherty, the dvj l Ibert~es assoeiaticn.

0 A man.2I,gIe EI stQR C work (~) fail
1 A ennce EI trap C lan:e D 'dec€hf@
,2- A investigatilons, EI <31ni;'lilyses C operations 0 tr~aJ5
3 A soc:iety B' chain C company 0 network:
4. A include EI COiJfer C spread 0 spray
5 A remember B erouse C evoke D desir'El
'6! A eomplete EI expen$jvle C lasting D permanent
"1 A adverteernent B tool C ,gadget ,DI gimmicik
. 8 A ~rf,ect B collcept C type ID' a.pp! i cat! em
9 A. a~siffs B gangways C cerrldors II) w.1!~kways
10 A joln B BISSO elate C bond D merge
111 A targEl't B method c object D ttii,ng
12 A make B fix. C show [) ,express
13 A c;oncentrati on B stranqth c potential II) ability
14 A resortl n 91 B taking C movung 10 reacting
1!!1 A unde.servirng B u nj us~ttified C unofficial :01 un I i censed
11 E. :5 T 2: i P A P IE R :3 .. QuJ~stllbIil161:n rS Is det!I1~V ill ~~Elst!TilI:lil. SD whi~h O'l IlmmWy' V.ef~' is mfsliiHng?

Q,II.esHiGn 1~: This ls n,ot a nlilW J;entemlce, se ~he

a ri:$·w.~r i s 1Il0,t 'n'. W;nk~ word I!::<l I!II b.]! >a ~!,!bS~ljllUlefor'tit'?

Q,u!es~lol1l 25': The sJacf.lIHll PI.lJtOlfUIIf s'~ill~n'Le ~xpja~l'Is how $Qme1tliillg ~ti31ppe:n5. WhkUl ~,repo!!idO<!!I iI1I o~s U'1lis?

ip A R' T 2-----

, --

For q uestions 116-:30 comp lete the following 'artici e ~ writli ng ea,ch missi ng word in the correct box on yO!Jr ans,wew sheet. Use ,only one w,ord for each :spaoo'. The ex;e rei se begins with an exa m pie (0),


'Dangers and IBenefits

There a reflfteen capita II dtii:es in the w:or~.d ina p()I$~1tion~o be wip ed QUit

(1)" "." .seriously damaged by voiG~nk: 'fHU ptions, So why then

(16) , people continue to liv>e in (17) .'N,.,. .. dang'erous all';@as?

Mallr\y of these people -ate pOOl!" and have (118), .. " ehoi:ce, whille

ot~€:rs d~rsregardtJbe risk, (19) " ....... \. is, a.ft:elr aJII, rather (2()) ..... .., ... than the risks involved in s!m,ok~n.g or driving a. car, What attracts peoplete

vo,lcank ilIJe;;tS (2.11) c T,e;rtne landi. The s<pTbc from volicalll1[c.·~'itsh.e,s, are

light, eas:Hy worked, dra~n well and anerull (22:) •.. , ..... , pilant nutrients .. A Ugh~ fa~11 of ~islhr (2.3) ..........• it may.destroy one }tears crop, oft€!l pay;s

th e fa rrner (24) ."., i., •• ,. iln 'ftJItlJJre yea rs (25) thEfert~lilyi t adds to

the Sio]L Coffeeiri Golliom bla, vines Un Ita iy .and! rice i 11 J a pan are

(26) • ...... ...a~ew of the crops that.flourish qn volcanic: SQi ls,

lin ~calY:I' japan, New Zeal a net the United States find lceland the subterranean heat frOmViQllcano~s (27) .. " ....... used in geothermall power st.aI~li ons to' genera;te EHied~idty. in mafiliy ipJlaces, the vyay in' whkh thetlows of lava concentrate m~ 111 erailis (28) .. c ••••••••• Ul€'1i)1J at1Lrad'iv€ "Ito

mil rrl rig 00 mpa,ni'I!'s" There is growi ng ~vid@n Cf! [hat 910ld is (2,9) , .

the miner:~dsc(lilecte,ti by vo~canicn(Jw:s, ·an.d the diamond-mining industry iin South I~:fir~c·a takes 1;'I_dvantag@ ofth€< hug€ pressures, withnn past volcanoes ('310) .... "" .. hav'6 produced dialt'il'lOnci:s ..

Tip Strilp

• If a. ,corn-lin,a, fll.Il._5'iop Or briiicket ls mls:si n:g, ";!,u'tte it 'Wi~h 'EI'I~ t\V(i

WI) rdls (In e tiller side. If these puntll:lationl

mil rks are' Uinln.ece~1'!~ry" write the twOI words on efrther side but liIot the mak itself.

• lifth:e mistake is, tl!;ql:o with spl!!llhilg. tapl'ta[ or :;mallleU!l!'F:s'. an ,3P@<'s'lrQphe OJ I:lypi:um. w~ite' that onre word ~or,~e.dly.

lJi'ne 31: Is, the 'cOrlHna coned?

Line 32~: What part o'Fe tl'ur verb, is 'cI1Qse~? W!h<lll

pa rts are '\choose" and, 'chose!!'!

Une 33: Wha't iHhe rllle foD" 'Ie' and! lel' ~pel~iIl\JIDi? 1U1'Ie, 35,:,SomE!'lirnes> wDniJS wirth sHe lilt letters can be rnis;sp,eU.

Une 37~ What is fl1li! ,dlffierellc,e between 'iidvice' and, 'aoCilvrcs<e"? Whi:th Olile is a \lerb an,1iI1 wihich a 1l0:UII? Which one earn,go widll ~QniLe'?

tinli 4'u Bi'a}CI()ets :alwa~s oom,1! ~n parurs. tl1.eck d1l3't Daltih are preSlE!'Ilt.

LI nelj,2:: (h~k whe're senlencels.i>egiln .lind. e'n,c. kre there capital le~te,1i's and fulll stops?


!PART :3

In most lines of the folilowiing text, there is ,either iii spelling or a punctuation error, For each numbered line 11~, write the ,eo.rrect'ly'S'p·ellled word(s) or show the correct punctu atio n in the box on yo IJ r ,anSVlle r sheet 50 me lines are correct Indicate these

In nes wi th a tick (" i r1I the box, The exercise' beg ins with th ree exa m pies ~O)"

oOOr .~

Goin,g it Alnne

00 Or

When he was made redundant Ionr yeru:s a,go. John Spencer set up his O~\rn business dealing in rare and second-hand books. "I dlidnt expect to

loose Iny job," h said. "]1 happened very suddenly and [ knell\\' It would be diilknlt to rind another one.I'd ahvr,lYs been interested in books.


so thet seemed a good business to cho~e. I run the business frem home

3,Z n 34 35, !H5, 37 3,8 3,9 40 4,1 42. 43 44 45 46

and send ;'b.D.d recleve books by post so I dflIl"t need 111IY Qown premises, Sometimes I travell to book fairs and.someumes I have a stall in the market. It wa." a bit lngtening at first, being self- l'1l'lptoycd, but I've

got used to it now and I really ,appmci.aiI: the feeLing of independence ] get lrom being my O\,\'Ul.hOS:S. ,j, John got some adelse from his bank

manager abou~ the fID.tmciBJ. as~cts or his business and. also :l\uok (lU'~ a small lone to buy stm::k. }!dOOr oulv two years the business was making a proflt, The secret of sucess, aecordtng to J ehn, is to specialise ]1]

certain aeeas (detective 11cti:on~md cookery in hls case so that you

aJways li,ave the book the serious collector IS looking lor John posts books to his customers and then waits (or them 'to send payment. At lirst be wasn't sure V\.-'ethcr [!COpIe vllouM. p.~y up promptly "In [act this hasnt beenthe problem J thought it IUli.gbt be. Moot Clllslomers are

v'e:l11 honest and its onlythe oc.c~sion<ll one that causes problems."


rip Stri'p

• Idelil~ufy the' part d'e speech givell ,atnd tllilnk o'ftJlin'e oU'IIWmlrmS of that word.

QlitestiQI'i 41~ Wh.l'~ is t1'1 e lIoun?

'Question 5iZ~ WMt 'ki*ld of P'l\Il'fni!X !l,1) you need? How maiilY (~[lIrges dCDl yo.~ fl.eed ~ iIf1,akie1

Q,u1estiiolf 53: I s this singular '~H plUHIH

Q.l.Ie.stloiil ~: W,~at spelling change d01'oul II eetl to make?

Q)!Ire.s:tiLIllDr 5,9 i What is U'n'e pr'e'fiX1

Qu,esliiolll 6o~ 0,01 you need a doubleJeuer?

For questions 47.-61 read the two texts below. Use the words in the boxes to the right of the texts to form (lIne word that fits inthe-serns numbered space ill1' the text. rh'e ,exercis€ begins with all exampile (Ii)).



Glenera II I nstru:cti'ons

III an emer'9IElncy,Hlf.!' firrst (01 ... ", of all members of

st~ff l sto Ineye nt ~ njrUlrY 0 r 1~41~' , crf Ilii!!!. If '101.1

dlscuver a f~rel operate ~he nserast alarm, The (4tJ,} .

,officer or his (4'91) •• "" •••••• dlel~llJtv is responsibl,efur

e enta c'linQ th e Fire B rl Qlil1a €II. .

Ew:a cn atio Illi Plroe edu IiGS

Tne U;I~ ' siqnal lsa series of short pulses of the

a la rm, WhElin 'th~ S si,g ill a II ,sou Old s

• swiltc:hoff all m a eh il'll as

• 8\l\!itch off alii (51) and gas supplies

• sh ut w~n dlows

• 'eva eu ate physi ca Illy' (52) . " staff

E'w:acu;ation Si gn al

This is a eontinueus sou IfId illl gOlf; th e a ~a rm. On hs 81 ni"g this -signal. e-verv,orne should leave by the' nsarest fire exit,

• walk, don't run

• 1:1.0 nat stop t,geolll'act '~53)1 ...... " ....

• do not re-enter the bunding


(47) lOSE
(50) WARN
(,51) ElECT'RIIC
(5,.2) ABILE
(53) BELONG Ov~r 0 year, 0 {541'~ , to Our magazine wlll save you

£: 2 1 compared wiih rnckl ng c monrh Iy purchase at fhe newsagsnt's.

There ore :S-e\!.emll melhotls of {55) .,., .. , ... - cheque, eredlt cord or direct peoil. Our ~56l .",." ... costs me much lower

if you pay by direct debit; sa there is 0 [571 " of £2

in the price you pay - a lo!QlI {58) , ..... , .... of £23 over Ihe year. Wleas® n.ote too t I hi s extro d lscou n"t is not opplkoble if you pay the specie I sludenl rate). If you choose th is mel hod ,

you do~'r h~c~e to worry about [59'1 .. " 0000 use your

bonk will ~601 ", ... , trcnsfer Ihe money once n year. We

wi II send you 0 ~6 11 Q few weeks before it i 5 ~imeto

renew. You can concel ol iJny ime and will receive a full refund on any unposled copies,


(5,5) PAY
(58) SAVE
(5'9i) NEW
(61) f{[MINID iip Stdp


• hlshU:ght Ule ilrtformaJtjol'l in 'th:e 1ilirs:t te'xtlha:t you have to H!e~iI'ess.

p,1!kes1ffio:n 71; Wh jeh word wUl j:t:llilvey the mea ni ng of' lIlobody EI>l!c,epl' hi the first text?

qj.les~icUil1:3: If they are a·oce&5IbJe bv j:illF, Ihow d,o YOIll ~t tihere? Q.1I~tIQn1'i.: If ~tJe TJ1ust do!!s not provide sheets and mwel~. what 1iml$ \lOll i:loF

For questions '62-74, read the Historical -rrList Booking Terms l.eaf1let arid US€! the information to complete' the numbered gaps in the informal letter. Use no, more than two ",,",'O.rid!! fur each gap. The words you need d,Q not occur in the ileaflet The exercise be 9 i J11$ with a 1"1 eXIl m p Ie {O).

1l YOlO are reqelred t-o pay the mud price three months before ~rour holiday begins.

2- Payments must be in sterling (internationally recognised credit cards a~H: acceptable). 21 [f you cancel within thrc,e ll'lOl')iilis of the start of .your hotiday) you will "fonek the

booking fee (unless severe weather prevents you from reaching the property).

4 You must not enter till: property before 4 p.m. on the [irsl d~' and you must not sray longer than 11 a.m, on the Jas't dBi}' of your holiday. TlhlS" IS to 'enable our housek'eeper eo prepare the property for you and your successors.

S Dogs are permitted hut must be kept 'off the furniture.

6. Nobody except tile: pecple whose names ate lisl,t:d on the booking form must stay in theproperty, We mind VERY MUCH INDEED about this,

7 Although our properties arc in i.$o~ated areas, all are easily accessible by car, 8 TIle cottages are fully equipped but sheets and 'wwels are not provided.


Deal" Sophie,

I'm ~l'iclooing some imormation ;about an organJ£'lation that rente out il1te:rt:5til1g olet cottages. We stay;Bd in one la~ year and iit WB6> mllilrve!louB.

Ot1~ ~iji"'l;lalllbll36: [:;:i tl1at you f' p,!:li~;I (0) ., three mOrith~

(62) " , Also, th~y only accept ErJgli~h (65) " bLJlr. you C~.11 lJ~e <11

cred.ft C;;'lr'ti. Don't b-oolc unles.~ you are sure be(;,,al.J6~ If you cancel they will not

(64) , your money, unleea you cancer more: than three rncerthe h> you

il1tenJ to go, Qr u nli;~~6 th~ FOg41 "to yo ur c h o&iu1 cottage nai1l lleco me

(65) " , l,ltlGBu5f:; of bad W:fMi·ther.

Remember thG'lt you h.1'lIte to (06) after 4 p·.m. on tI1e fjrat day and

('67) Q6fore [la.m. on tht: last dillY so that "the houB6ke:eper Q.IlIn get

the cottage ie.a~ for yOUl, .i3!nGi the: people w~'m (68) , ,,"''' . It Wi'II b8

C6,9) "" for you to take you r dogt.7 bu,t;. Jon't ~et th em (10'),"' em

thtl furniture, Rem~mb;;w that th~ (11) , people who ma~ $Ieep 1t1 the

cott.age are thO€ie 'l!mOB~ name5 tire! on the ~oDkitilg form. The lrrue.t tabB thj~

m;!;lttllr C12) .

YOLI ,t;:;PI n (15) 0; ••• ,; .. to all the pmpe:rtieei:, ~oyo U C<1I n Mke with you wh2lte'fer

!you need. You wU11 have ito tak'e (74) I!1nefrt:.!!:'1 and 1:iOWeli6 tn ar1Y case.




Tip Stri'p


• read' \VOI!rr answer carefi.lU~; ,cfij;!cki ng gm:mmar and pUflctllla1tl01il.

QU:'ii!s~lol'l '76,: Which phrase gives <11'1 I!'x,amp[,e o:f g-<ld~el$?

'Qlllestion Tfl Wlln'!:rn words often foUow ·a~:JI:e·~·?

QU~sti0cm 78: What 1;l,i\3S the pl!J!fposeof formil'Jg the e.o III1liilrlY?

:P ART 6 -

For questions 15~80. reed Ihe following text end Ihen choo3e from ihe list A~~ given below the best ph rose to f,i II each of ther spcces, I ndkate yo U'I' ,a.nswe:r on the sepj~lit·arte answer sheet .. Each correct' phrcse may only be used once, Some, of the suggest.ed answers do not fit at allJ-

A tehJIl,hone 'Pii,oneer.

Henry HJJI]I1ings (1,8,43~86)

all sorts of gadgets, ('76) , . ., . A friend of Huonings with ~rnil,ar i,nwreSlts, ca.lled Cox' Wa]ker.) buill a telephone receiver, In '1880 an American 'called Anders visited Engl.and and ,fl ~ed Walker (77) ..... + He was impresse.d and oITered Hunaings £ 1.000 for the pat,e'I1L The offer was accepted and the Globe CompallY was formed (7,8,) ..... ~n 188.l Hunnings was granted (WoO patents 111 the United State' for hi, )Dvenl:iOllII. But bythis time so many poople and companies wore ;in'ilol~e4 in telephone design and manufacture 79) .... .. There was 11 famous COU11

ease in 1882 when the United Telephone Company look the Globe Company 101 court forarl alleged i nfringement of irs patents, At first ][ failed to have 'lhc Hu nnings pa'~ent declared Jnvalid (8U) .... . It then bough] t~lel"ights, to the entire patent

from HU'1'I11 ings, .

A wh lc h f'e-w pea pie known about B instead of solid canbon

C but later it partiaHy sucoeede d

D except that Hu rmling's ~nven tlon was superi or

E in breach of c.opj1right

F to make telephones in England G that corrflict resulted

H particUllar~y those' that dealt with mag.n,eUsm and electricity

~ if ha (Quid inspect the IHunnings transmitter

M- US[ people have heard of Alexander Graham BeH,. who invented the telephone in 1876. But ]l was a J:iIuLe~known EnghtSh priest .caUed Henry Hunnings who made the first big improvement. Bell's model could transm i t a voice up ~o,lbQUI 23km. A year after hs invenrion, 'I'hOll11<11> E,disOD improved on the model by attachinga sol ]d- Ci;l[bon button inside the meuthpiece. But Hurmlngs decided to experimem with granular carbon (7"5) .... . This. .i.mpr,oved the volee clarity and extended the voiee-transmission distance to about 12km. Hunnings was granteda patem fm hi si nvcntimlJ. ill December [818.

Bunning!' WI]S. bom in ) 843 neal" London. He bec~,nne a priest in Yorkshire and ,although muea of his time was taken up with Church 1'!f.1 aners. he had ·.1 profound interest In



lip SilJriiP


• H!ild the qlli,~slii:O~i b!1lfo ~e YOll ~istefl and trY'dJlilcl prJl1d iet tihe mOist lillllely il!lmSMlfer$"

!lUe5'~iQnI5~-J,n;.e I);~y \I'IIlli~~, ifl these:ntenCi!!~$, j~1.Il't'. 1!;ij'51ten for (iilis an di wtlud s wl1tc.11 have a. 5irmitfliF 1ilil:il!l'l.Iil~l'lg, Qliesti~Jn I; Iliil tills ~!(:!n1:~nM:!l' 'fingers' is the· k.ey "'l'ord,. init beWiiH'El o,f IiIfis~~,d~f1g n::fmre'lil ~es tha:~ ll,S;e the SQime w.oro.


PAR'T '1 '

You willi hear Q s;n:Grt talk abeut 'Safety in the Home'. For questiom1j~~O. ml in 'the m iS$i ng j r:liformatibil1.

YO'll w~ I ~ hea r 'the record iihg I.wi.oo .

Amanda Brown advises us to ta~!e greatcar;e with three things, that children pull at

~ I

For $pfety reasons, she suggests t hat we CQV@W up:


She -advi5ies U~ to lock up or keep out. of reach of children:


l 8 1

She says that we sho:uki tel.1 ch Hd ren n at to put the [r f ng ers In:

And she i~rwQrrl'ed about :small chi~dr~n trying to-operate: 110 ~


• c.lfled( whetlMlE!W you. ~'~ed ~~'~Ilswe'r WWl OJ ~efl:ew, IlUIliJIJ>e;r. worn or sliilO~rt phlr'>1.l!ilh

QlIel!t'l:ion :1.'1. Lis,ien fur ur1,MFml~it:T:cltlii be,!.ng giwn twiQ~ ~I'! d1ifll!!:rellt WilVS·, 'o.iJ~Uo~i ,6-48,; f'f'i a'nd g'llIieSS whit the thre~ thin~5 0I)I'i!'! hefore you lis'~fli.

'Q;ue-.stiGn:2ilil: Whtre.n tine ilIi;Jsw.e~ is,·a (~l1rIe. t:nere,

II re ~:ft:el'l mis~eadill'lg ref,ewen~!i to 'oJher lim ~s as w\1!l~. "i:\l:),1lI may hear rno'ril! ~nal1 one ti.l'lilE~ 1in'l1llltu'tll1led.

You will haar ar rnessaqe on 90m am,werphone about imp,or!a,ot changes to the timetable of .3 cotr'irer"@r1nt that you ere going to- frpr Ques,tiCl"HS11-210, complet@ the notes (iccoro i ng to the i nforrnafton ~Ol!! hear.

Usten very ICEllf,e1\ully as; you will hear ~he re'cordilil9 ONiCIEc'nl'y.

New time' of talk: r....l ----____j_-'1-1--.

New piace of talk: 1...1 -----____l_-1-12__J.

Accommodatfow1.: room numoer 61 ~ _J__1_,3_J

9.30 p.m.: Reception 1L[ ~ ---I._l_4.....1

7.15 p.rn.: Mew time of 1 ~ ---I._1_S....J ..

Three thingls to cellect 0111 arrival: L-1 __ ------------L-'-6__J


Contact number, LI __ ~~ .L-'_9...J'

rhO-rYe before: LI_~ --L_l_O-!

TEST .2,. IPAPln! 4

QUiesUon, Z~; Hew many m~ng$'Ca'iil you thrinK.of ,beFo:re YOLllislern? One of them, wiU b~ men'tioned O'n the tspe,

Q.1U~strGII 24! Wihc:t kin:d o'f structure d:oi!s the word 'as' iniiili&ate?

Que.stiolil 2"J:: (ant VOl! thlink o'f some Irkeiy wrong aiSSU mptiQI'15,? You wilH h ea ~ one oHhe,lII'1, on the t)8Jpe. Als.ol, t!liIl'a:! k. or att~le!c"tJhl'e5 li~a,t (;(illt~ ~a;te With 'make 'YOlil ",'.

liiP Strip

You willi hsara ra,dli.o int@rvi@wwith a doctor, ebout healtn and sport For questions 21---30, com plete ea ch of the' statements,

You wi II hear the record i ng twilce,

IHlea Ith and Sport

According 100 Dr Green:

W he n we start a newsp ort we, she u I d ta ke !i nto account ou r

H we alf€!' U III d er 35, ail sports shou Id be

S po rts wh ic h i nvol ve fast and su dden movements 5,110 LJ 1'c:J be avoided by people who smoke or who are:

If you restart a sport that you used to do; don't expect to be as

Cycling and swimming are safe, sports because you cench oose

Another safe aspect 011 these sp D rts is that there j,s support for your

Some people wrongly assume that exercise can make them

In fact to burn up toi 00 grams of fat would take four hours of

If we have been e'xN(is.ilng',. we should nat hevea saun a or cold s howe r

The most dangerous thing is to exerdse wihen you are


lEST 2, PAPER. 4

Ti,p St'ri,


~ Wh at ~~v wo:rdiS do you a:sso!;nO'lW wHh rach a~"tiivr~? Listen f~r, them. rilJEl!'llernbe'r tti'litlt ~hroe Q:ff~hE1Sie ac"titvilH'I'!S 'll.relilct m:l! IIIbi~'ned,. ~O! ~liIe a oo:efllc:,:eof key wn.i'd'S <)SSOlGt,j[!;ld \Mi;lh tlmQ'Se .a~~I~vuties Wi U. 'hfll[fJ y\ll1 t'o ei[¢h.lore ~lMem.,.

'. ~e e>sr!l!i!',d<l u,y 'C<1Irelilili about m!'ds :S1l~ch1f!i 'hdm~t' which ({lliid a~I~~YlO sev.ef3l dliffe1~eilil~ adi'l!jt'ij~s, ~f1 the U~t Ih!lsle:n for morn than on!.!: WU i@'l"~a.ry dllJe.


• Wn an )IOU <11l1'SWW"S U ~ these], ltste iii fa~~fOU~ ·~thie

srp,eii il:E!f'S t:OIilrE! of voice. ~l may $Wi! you a jot of lnrollllllatio1n.

Yo u wHI h ear fiv,e shortt. eKtmqtS i n whi~h diffe rent pMp JrE! ta I k about s,cddents they have hed.

A -: cidents CC~ '. ~ _


For questions 31~35, match the eX'tracts as you hear them with the types of accidents, I lsted A~-H.

.A pa rachuti n'g

IB $Bli'ling

1(: pl.aying footballl

D dlr~ving

(i ho rse ri ding


For quesMns 3'6r40., match '~h@extracts as you hear them \Mith the diifer'!f!r'lt feeUf"Ilgs exp erie n"e.Q lrn m,edi,a teuy ~fter ttl!€! acrl dent by the spea kers, I ~sted .~HI.

A terror
113 sadness [EJ
c stupidity ~
I) surpnss I- JssJ
E despair
1 ] 39 ]
F hope,
G res! g nation CB
H >anrgrer Remem breI' that you must ,compWete both fj:asksas you listen., ¥clrL..IwmM hre!i;uf the reClord i n.g twh:.e,



Part 1:: Rem'l:!m 1tIJ!1I' °rl1(if~ In 1. tile ~mi ~ef speEiks ~e, bo<th'5, .lInd Ute (iandidates SIP e'aJkmo e~d Qtn~[;

Pall1 ~~ V9UI dQI1'lb,avf!~o da'Slcrib e the p~h~tGiS, inl ~ne[lt detaUi. fhe

~ml!Wna Illtthi!lg i~ ~~, dlis'll! s<sthie, t~pk lhail Hiite IP~lIiI01 iUlIIsJ;rates.

lP,aIi11: RIHIIHmI ber to lnek at the o11m,er~amlld;are. not aUi1,1!: filKiiminlll, Don't Sllil~~k tOIl qlL!.ill!!t:~y:-lhe .e:l;[llnllfle,r needs 1(1 h ea r ~lIhat yq 1.1 are, $ayiflg:.

IP~rt ~. I !II thlfi iP~rty(lll wUU b,~ to'b~llng-at thee 'e~1fI inle:r iililld al:5(O at '~h e 1ltibe:r '~<ln dlida:le. ,Allway:s ~~;[Ik aJt Urnll! j;lerS.(l1'I 191.1

in!! Sp~aJk,rlilgfllll.

Sp:ealki ng (151m ilnlftes)

(3 min~tes)

Answ@r these q uestiQns:

Wh1:lt a re you stu dyi n 9 nowand whe ret

Wh:at 'M~ YQUrfu~ur!~ plans wuth r~9alrd to your :;t:udi'es? How wi II you r stu dies hte1f1 y!a.u~o '9 et t~e job you want?

Wh03It changes have 'taken p~ace in the last few years in the way that students study?

lurn to pkturss 1-3 on p\i3ige 132 whuch show peop~e ce~ebr'l'lting in rome' way~

Ca n didate A, drestribe what they <3ire doi ngl and why yOIJ tlhi ink, th 8y are aelebrating in this way: You have .a mii n !LI~e to do 1:n iiS_

Cand:~dateB, which levent would you most like to join in?

'lurn to pi:ctures 1-3 on p~ge 1: 33 which '5~OW people 'e'ating in d~ffel"ent sitILulltiCln:s. Cand i date B,. 'com pare an~cI contrast these situatlim16, saying why you th inti:: tn ese people, have ciho(Sen to eat in that way, Yo U have a minute to doth is,

CancHdate .A, wh icn of these ways. 'Of eating most Gi ppsa r s to you?

(3 or 4- min utes)

1iu rn to pktu res 1-5 on pa gel 34 which show people usi ng mobile pho nes, What do you ttl ink th ey are u si n;g' tinem fo r? For wn ich pe rson in the pi ctIJJ res is a mobile phone most u seftJI?

(3 or 4 minutes)

Answe r qu esbons:

Did you n~a(11 agreement?

H ow do your opin ions diHer?;

n yO'Ui h.3vea mQb.ile p hone youw~elf, hoW' dio you U:fie irt? What wou ltd you use a mobi Ie pn one for if ~ u had one?

What if all1y1:h~ng. do you, fUllld irritatinq about the way people use molbil!e phone's?



R'eadling (~ hour 1 S minutes)


Answer questions 1-17 by ref'erring to the newspaper artide about curricuium vitaes on page 5.,.

In dicate your a nswerson the separ.ate answer sheet.

'flip S'tI'iEP

Qwet.lams 3.14: Looik; for remrel'lI::es to makiil'l& the· rf1(iSI o~ ~kl U.s ,md t~ se IUrn,S; y.o III rse'lf. QI:.!~llolii 14! (!tee k wll1at t'opi~YOl! il<re .advis~d to put Ilaslt,. Tlrren find out Ilow imp't'lUal1t It ts,

(bIesthm 15~ How mllllly typo&r!'!.plhic;a~ fe~Ul~S> can you think of beifore tead;il'lg the, iln:Ude? CI'Nil~k to ~!'!e if the words yOi~ ha!lil'e thought (Iff a,ctlllaUy ot'c'u'r iln t~ Ii! text,

for questions 1-11, answer b~ choosing from the sections of the article (A-f). Yo u may choose any of the sections more tha nonce.

Note: Wh en more tha n one a nswer IS req u ired, they may be .gijve.n in any order,

Whkh section

emphasises that your CV must rriake the reflder sit up and

pay attention 7 1,

mentions the usefumess of a CV during the intei'IJj,ew? says that self- prornotl on isebsol ut:eI'Y vita P emphasise'S the importance of telling the truth?

advises rete nri n'g to yourself as 'he' o r 's he' rather thril n 'I'? suggests YDU need a diff'Enent (V for each job you apply for? deS'c.nbes two diff,sr,ent types of CV?

advise,s pa.y:ing attention to the vocabulary you use'? sugges.ts that what ji"ou ,d ~d at schaol may n CIt be.i m portant? W.3 mrs of t he consequences. of a bad'y~w.rittl2n CV? emphasises linking 'your most important abilities to the requilrements of the job?

states that what you put last is of great importance? mentions typoglraphicall features that you can put in your CV? sug.gests that a CV should not be hand-written?

emphasises the importance' of your most recent work?

4i .....


6 7 9

:8 .....


14 .... 15;




YOUR curriculum vitae i!;. your rHOSI critic a tl iieJlillg document If you gel it right il will bllJd you the interviews YOIl W:.IIIiI'!: gel .it wrong and yolilr baril-earned work eN]le:l'1i~[lCe eeuld be eonsj,gned to the w,asteb~ (1.

A~':it i~ the onlyl:hi1lfg ITIj]t )'tJlQ.l can fQllly COl1Jln)J ln the job selectlen process, it is vi tal 'th~t your CV puts across everything you \Iv.anl to say a!bout yO'lJn;;elf in the most impressive way. It mUSIL I:dgWighl yOllr val!.!e to the. potential emp,ioyer, as we U as lea";i,ng Ute i nrlerv iewe.r w.it1h ,n clear reminder of wh1l!t you co,uld do '~o:r tihem. Not only Ihat. if ~l gets you on the shortlist, it Yo' i I] help provide a structure (01: the interview and encourage your [0 focus 001\ 'yOIU achie!leUlell'l\'l.

YOUR aim' i s to '1l1Ue it as eas)' aspcssible tor your potential employer to· selecr y~)O, so ensure that YOUI!' skills abmti~ a~d ,experience li~r,i!llIy sh.Ol!!l out fro~ the pa,ge:

Ke.ep It brief but full of sllb~ulflce.., so thal they C<IIil see at a glance that you would be capable of the job"

Most critical is !hal }101li !.:vritc for the reader. Ideilltify what tt is Uuu your pote'l1I:lial employer is looking fO'[; W that your CV fOC0l8~ 01'1 theirneeds, ldeaLly:. you should tBiI()l: your CV for each jlob. Keep senreaees shon;~J]e;y are cas:ier to lieadiill1(1 have yeale, impru;:.t . .&arn.i:Ile: each word tim yo!:! have used to describe yourself to see if' a more powel'f'lil one oolilld be used. Avoid j3l'gqn.

Write your CV i fi (he third person, radJef titian the. I]rst so that you CIU'I -g~~c yourse1f proper credi [ w'iU!I,otll <IppeariQg b:r.ish.

KEEP ytmr CV up to dat.e. The- intetvifiiwf:( is more interested in what you are dOJlIIg n'Qw and the pertinence oi Y!J'II:r cli:rrent skins and ell.perien~'ed'iall in What you were doing ten years ago, Headllllm~r$ l:iQ,\;v,adays advise !:hat yuur eareer atod cio~esl.)('I! acll'ievememls ar,e bith.U,ghtedUJ p front, So afU:lr rOll'r name and address and OOllta;ct iI.lluuher at the top, go' f1til'aighiu j n~O details about your ~mp]oYlllent history, .followed b)' Y'Oll.r education and q'lJa.;.fications .finishing w1th YOIJ,r persona] details.

Always put 1{Qor DIQ1Sl ~t~nl job first aad then work};: jon chn:m:o~'o,gi.cai Ol:'dBr. As people read from left to riigh[, put ~he ntOSl i ri!~p.o:rt41:tlt 0'1], lh.e [[eft side of [he page, so' state the titt~ of the job you had first~ then for \!I.iJJ.Q{1Il }lOll did if md fillllUy when you did it. Give <I brief de~crlpli()n of ~hti seale and scope of the cOlUpany you worked for. You <eW:!l'iOl assume your reader will have heard Of-It.

Under e~ch particular job y'Ou mennon, your OWJl achievements lire more important than vour !,[~ijPQn:sibilities. Q:u8:llti()' mld qualify what "{OLI ,act~]'lthr dtd i il, your role, lQ sing I'mld fa"ls re denJons1I,al,e LIi,~ tarngihtc belle:fhs you bn:mght.

IF yml lrnve· been _ill a career lora long ti rile, you do not need to include yu~r earW edncatien and qualifieatieas, Write tile illf'O.imal!U~ in reverse order and put. the qualification you achi~ved, then, where you achieved them. foUowed !fly the date. lnetude any appropriate eourses yOLl have:. b(~1li 01"1.

Ap,u'tflom yOll:r mli:t'ie." address and COlltl!1C1 nU'ooibeli'll., whk11 should go at the top of yOl1.r CV, all otlrer personal details, ilJiCludililC yOUi' date of binh, mal1i.taJ status and inte;l~-SI:S should be; I~A. to the end,

[lll,e.l)es·'t8, are l'trni rnportant pan .of your Cv. They can re,aUy bring you alive, say so:mcth:ing .£Ibout YOli as a person, and diftbe,nJ!i! from the rest, Midre sure what you. put down ,addis v:3il:ue.

HAV1NG worked 011 the content, make .~U re 111e byou l does not let you down. It must look professioaal and be dear and easy to read. Use head'jngs to hel:p the leader (0 SC;J.l1 tile. d{tCU,tt'ilml and bullet points to focus onkevi Ilfo.rmat]oll. Pu:!I'H iton [quaJi,ily ]:Iifiper W ensare 0), gmdity impre.ssJo]J,

]DBAL[.Y. you sho~lld cnsremise 'your CV for each job yO'I1 are goi [lg for, but this may nor be practiual if you are going for dozens of jobs at a time. What differs fundamel1ltaUy about the CV you produce. is whether it is buill around your present job or aiined at a. chsngcin YOlU carnceT. CV s appmpriate Eor a ch<li!lgt in career will need to pull OLd :re.lev,;lIIl tr.<lIJis.fe1f'1lble :.dcil1~- ~l1d L~,i~~ can. be dcn:be hy having a skills and experience section ahead of the C areet , umaiaryThese four to five key skillS \\lil.1 match what is OlD. the job specification,

At the ead of the' clay. yOIl:r CV is all about packaging. If yoOu can't sell )'Qu.~lf~ how will YOM be able to pnllHote. the company you are w~rk:ih~ fa;'? And you JillIUSI feel cnmtortahle with wh a ,{ you have written . and couflde'IH you can back it up.



,For q uesti ons UI,...23:, you must CnOO5l9 which of the paragr sphs A.eGI on pa9'1? 59 fit into the numbered 'g.ElpS lin the following magazine article. There lis one ,extra

par ag ra ph which does not fit in any elf the

Indicate y.our answers on the sepalrate ans:w'er she,et_

I-s I e'~ip ~ 'easy'" -".'


It's three olclock inthe morning .. You're e,xha1Js.te'd. bUll just can't sleeo. Relaxl Millions like you, suffer from sleep

prcl'b leriis, Conslderin 9 how essential s'l~epis"~ life. We understand surprisingly little about it Because we are semi-consdcus when we s!leep, the whole process is veUed in myth and mystery,

TheJI~ re not pr'ob1ems. ill ~h,em5el'!Jes until they begin [0. affect the surferers waking hours. MalsomRifa, how€ver; is often snon-U:mm and dir·ectly relateq to a str'8ssful one-of e\I'I!!nt

You 5:E!i@, sleeping problems are caused qu i~e ~ilffiply b1j modem day lirvirng. A5 we become illone1:ls:ingiy OUit of tUllE! wi1tJh 01,1 r bMfes a no ,their needs,o-ur primary funct:iiO:ns, suffer. Iinsomnia is only one type of sleep clisord@f. Bad dreams.. malsomnla, even snoring jf i[ wakes V'OLI - they're a~lsl eepd isorders, ~hou;g n mostilyshort-term and IU sually r,el!1:lt@d tea sudden cha nge in l,if,esl:yle, a n imminent e\i'Eml or stress, ifmuble many begins, whe,n 'thes.e short-term problems becoma chronic. So whatever type ofsl!eep discm:!ler you .are plagilaed by •. it's tijrne to nip it ~rn the bud,

You're not alone!

What's the pro bllem l'

I nsomnie literaHy means sleeplessness and shoUl~d not be confuSed With light or erratic sleeping thr,o,ugnoiut the ni,gnt. l,nsonll1i.ll falls into two categmie:li, both of which can be short-term or chronic 'Some i~s.omilia(s C.ain't g:et to sleep at night They tum (l.ft" the light .'!Iliil,d their mind races, tlJminQ tholi.!ghits over and ov-er, Lmtil[ney become so despelfalie to sl'eep ami so afn~id of staving awa~.e tha~ their despair prl@v,ents them from sleepiing.leavlng them ment,ally eJ:Jhaus"l!ed by the ·early h ours af th·e mmnijng. TrnfrY fall i ntQ prolonged deep sleep which deprives [hem of neces,s.ary men-lal sleep.

MalsQmnia means bad sleep, which can aliso faH into two categ ories, Hght sleeping and broken :sle'epi ng.

How lei cop,e

If YOli have dlscounted IJh~skal causes as the root of your sleeping problems, then it's tlme 00 look a littlle deeper, Yo.ur first step is to try netto worry too mu rh, Fea.r of not sl'eeplng and the consequences of lack o.f sleep can lead to stress and despa i r; wh ich then cause insomn la, You are C:1lught i:n .a downward spiral and you na\ile [0. brle~k the cyde. Don't piCIni-c!

Iinstant self h@lp

Cou ntlngsheep may sound a diche but monetenou 5 o:r regular mind ,games can help li'1duc:@ drowsiness. TflJ

I~sting pleas-ant things. Try add~ng up ij 10091li,)t of figur~~ Of co·unting; ha,ckwards from sen Anythi IiIg to lu II your mind to sleep, ltcsn work! Contentr1l!te on the rh~rl:hm of your breathing. S~eeJP wl~11 yom e'ar on the pmGWj or agai nst your arm and listen to your heart beat.

Although drugs a,re ohern the first thing pa'Eienls reach for when they can't sleep, tihey hav,E! a Dad track pecore. when it comes to long-term results, al1d should o,nly be used if ever(thhg else has 'failed.

SlleEliP secrets

Don't be misled by your body1s lack of movement when you are' aslee p, Sleep is a period of great rest but als-o of actllviry for YOLllr body. Th.ere sre three of sl.eep, and Nicih

se rves til V'e'rji d iffe.r~m and i rnpertsnt 'function, A5 you re la1x, y,our brain gradually slows down and. after abeet fifte,en

mi [limes your brain wave'~ beceme synch [rOi'lised. This happens gradua'lly uurjl'!g th e -ttalns~tJi(,Ji"I b~trNeen wa'k@flJln~55 and sleep. Once YOlllldually drop aU to sle~p your brain tlt.ti'!Jh.y contl n lie'S to slow, u nfi I ~ftlli!r an 11 0 ur or ninety minutes you're in " deep sleep, After about an hour an,d a hallf of deep sleep you pass into a totally phase. of sleep known as ~'EM (rRilp~d Eye, MtJvemeor)sl eel);


111 e" bra~rn waves beco m,e shorter ~l'Idfastel and your eyes;aroU'nd under your dosed lias, At the-'sam@ time your mmdes beoomecv.ery relaxed. a I most p~.ralys:ed, and Yl1ur hreathfng einraltuc~ Thfs Ilas:rus 'b a boutren minutes and is C:QJ'l"Imgrrlllly associated with dreaming. When the th~lrd stag e fi nshss you g:o back: ilnto a de~p s leep stage agaJin., S,tages two ami three are rep'.ea~ed thmughqut. the fiji qht uotu! you wa~.

A Mile! exer~~5e li~e slow walking Ciln help before oE!dittimeo, b~t beware, of TII"(ilmh: .. exercise late at nrghrl because it ~tillffliLams you r he-art: walte a nd will ~e'P 'tOu ~l'!Nake.

uerds_e du r! ng the day p~ays a key 1'O:le ~n a hea Ithy Iir~s~le - .and gooiJ health is f!'S'se:ntiOiI fOf ,slj]!~p.. R€ la'MIUon

ledln iqlles, can ,also ~m:lpa re you for s leE'p.

. 8 Slig:htly less common is 'tHe. i nSOmrl~at wM f.alls ,asl~ep upon Mninig Old thee ~igh!i only 1'0 a,waken agalin In the fllrl.y h{lurs of' ths mOMing ullab[e to return to sleep lIntil tM€ next fven~lilg. Their ql,litlliW of sleep i~FlI!ile - ~hey're

sf mply not geuilng enolJ g'h,

C O'!Jle"reatin g can cause inS()mht('l and poor s}eeping patterns IJIlrnus@' your d~g€sti'l,fe system ~I ows dawn dUi11ng·sl eep, It is alro worth steering clear of caUe-ine drinks, stlich as CO'ffe~ tea or (,Ol:a, ~;sne at night as t~y ca n stlm ullalte YQl,lr bra~1li and kee p ~ou awake. MHk)' d~r~nks sire the trsd i:riOif"il.a~ bermJil1er:ompalliGnsoi~ the tmubled ~~Ieepeir.

[) III is now known that REM sleep serves . .:1 different

func.tion to deep sleep, Deep slee p restores the body, allowing groM'h hormones! ,alUibod~es to be re:le,ased into the hloodi to crepi:!ir t~II5., R EMlil eep rests the mind, 1-IM!Jwing it to :5mtthrough the day's adli),litles ilnd

wx~e:~e iIlC~S ~nl (]'rde'F~(r 'file' Ih~mn lor furMe. r@f.@rem:(!', [)tepri'vatiOI"l of ~ilh ~J of th€5e wm h:av~ different effEtts for the. -sMfferer. One wm leijve yO!] physi'c2Illy e~hr.a1us~ed, the ojher mentall ~y,

~e:!i~li~on li8:: Pili ragtaJjIl {Ol1ltw<;!sts wi'tih 'm~ltlilllfIJdl mY$tery' by suggle'sHng more things win c.e drs,~rerd?

'QuedhrJil-::2=:: Tije p'araglll[l'n b~im'ra says 'IIY ~OUOl wcny1:00 lITi!)!cn'. Wh ut~ ;Pllhre ~ pa:ra~iI'aph mentio ns \i'!!',QuieS" "<ind an~i'€tffe5~

The .average person [n Europe- ·5Ieep:s around sjx ho urs a nig ht - nat the baditional eigh:t as you mig nt e:<_pect ,and m..3n,y doctors are beginnlng til) bel i~'Q',e this is qujr[e ·suffidentto lea)/e.vo iJI healthy and weH- r~s(€d. B,urt P{!,QP~e' often u nQel"e'stf mate' ene, emou nt of s~eep the~ g:et sjmpl:y be(aus~ the mimJEe$ J:pent Mngr awake, ttyi ngro get to ,s:Ie<~P. a pperu 101 go -sIQw1y.

Sl~ep problemsr o'3lrise when people ignore th~i r body Slcg rni!i~s an d so develop bad slleepjng ha bits .. I( someone hssa 'sleeptess niglht but isn't ahle~CI sleep dur'ingrhe next da~. [hi3ij are furood to disr'€gard th~lr body's needs a no erratic sl eep pauems resu It

E AI most I!M3'rJll'Jfl a sUiffur:~ (TOJlfI some scrt of sJe.ep d~5md:er at some u me in ~heir lives. But fo r some the suft'e:rliflg ,goe~ on and Oil. You GIn"t al.ways spot tihe typical ~Iflsomniacs, They don't yaw,rn mnstafliUy, ha,~ r'@d.-rimml!ld syes, or fall aS118E!p at their dies!{s, NdM~ a re they inva,ria~ly creative ge niuses, Sleep disord:~r .sIjjH~ rers are .a silernt majO:rily - e\le~yday

p E'()p~e Wilh a alm:mh: problem .

F ,S,talrt by hiding YOUT alarm doct fJl~m vi,ew. If you don't ~I"IO:W the ~ime.l youl won't woJrr)'abo.utit Read a rel~:o:~n9! book, or perhaps try IJis[€llirng to a relaxatJion tape before turn ing out the fig fit. D.urlng the d.3yti~, try to ill !"la~1fS!e yOur lif,ew~ind fn::aus~ fOT you r slleeplessne~Y. It Ihe.i,ps to ask yom5~~f a f@w b.ask qu€!Stiom like: rAm 'I happy 1 ~8iti5jfi,ed?', 'Carl I wpe?', 'Whai will ma~e me hap py f saltis{uedr MOSE.(nr,onrc inwm'tl~aLCS are chronic 1!IV'oiders of pmbl ems. So try [Q fac€ up (Q and SiQ Ive' ~Orllr worri:eslJIthefwI:se aJllxietie's you rnarve during the ,day wim fQ~IQW yOy to bed at niQlht

G Sleepung.dismders have, Ire,7.lche-"d epidemic. proportions in th!t Western World, On Iy now are sl eep scientists b:eg innirig to look more closely tit me probl'em, not: w find a CUJe but to er(ldic-al~ thE!', causes And they'm d~5mlJewirng[hat ~['S. not so much the qualnblty but the quality of sleep tlhat counts, This muld exp,lain lhe·sulCcess O'f certain famous Hght

~s!eepers, .

Q.ue:uili!il!'l2:2: W:M~1'n lO:ar~g:rap~ mElnij~lils a~~!vl~jle~ d\Iii:lt

qo IIItrast wIllh (:olJllltilng, ~reathi 1i'I~:: ~Ii]>t!lta ~iJrJg ~r:L!gs? Qr~es~ml!lnl 23 ~ Which p~rngwillph r~fi!fsto e"¥e rriiOl;Iemllifl't if! OJ cliffe relnt w.ayi:


~. ___ I



'In fact very [little comes, to begin with, l'rn writing a book currently - II'~ done the first draft. But I never know what's on tlhe next line, what's in the ne.x;t paragraph, \lJJhat's on th e next page. I just let it happen.'

It happens ma.inlY between six and eight in the morning. 'I like that session. It's the only origil1lQ.1 session.Tben I correct from three till fiv"e,c:ort"'€ct from S~ tin eight, go to bed at nrne o'clock..T\IVO thousand words if it's a good day.'

The writing has to fit into a political schedule, Still o1ie'red several 'Sa.f€ Pari iam entary seats a ~ar: which he fi Il"Ilfy turns down, he accepts i nnumerable speaking engagements allover the country. But at certain times ofth€l year 'nobody wants you, I went a.way on December ~ Sti1 to write until January 15th. Th ere are ten week$, a year whe n nobody wants you to speak dind that's when the Vl"fl'ting ·gets dOI1"I!l:

He values his relationship with his publisher to an extent: which must warm 'their hearts, 'I don't think authors can have natural friends in publishing he IJS~S; but there's mutual respect They're. good publishers, and ~'m proud to be wrth them.'

Md nrseditor?

"My editor is called Rjchllrd Cohen He's tough. He drives me and drivss rne. He ne\le(' writes a word - that's not his job; but he guides, guides, gu ides the whole lime - he's neVer satlsfied, He doesn't have a lot to do with plot= l believe he thlnlG that's my strength. He'll get me to build characters - build, build, build, the whde time, He knows he's right. He'll go 011 and on at me' he won't give. in, Kicking hIm has absolutely no effect - he doesn't even bruise, Nine times out of ten, I b€llieve he's right He has tremendous judgement, He's a class editor'

lrift ue n.ces~

'I like story-tellers, I'm a story-teller: I'm not good enough to be a writer. I'm Jeffi-ey Archer and II tell ~ tale, ,I hope people 'turn the pagi1lS, and I hope th€y

enJoy it. arid in the end, that's what I ask for', .•

Read th e followi n 9 noew-spaper a rtide and til en ans'\I'IJer ques'~io r"IS .2.4=30 on page 61. On your snswer sheet. Indie,ate the letter It, B, CorD ,against the number of each question, 24-30, Give only one answer to each question.

lndicate your answers on the separate answer sheet.

I ..


Still Sprinting

Dereik Palrker ta.lks to the milllilonla'i'llO,e a,uthor Je:ffrey Ar'cher.

lD" ESPITE the recent and expensive faihJ I'e.' :of

hi,S latest West En.d~ play. Jeffrey Archer IS

, . not notlceabty down and a considerable

distance from out With ~ne and Abel harving sold over three milJlion copies in England andthe

pa perb;:ldk 9f Not a P~n[l:V More, Not -0 Pe~!'1y less continuing to nip smartly outof the bookshops at the rate of Oil thousand copies a. day. fifteen years alter its first publication, he has little real reason to, be permanently dispirited,

It's common m(o'\.I'Jl edge 'that I rtern:tu re is not his first love, He only started writing in his mid-thirties, lNhen a promising political career collapsed and' he

resigned a safe seat in Parliament amid business and finand al d ifficulti es INhtc:h would have crushed most men for good. The legend that he wrote bis f rst novel with the cold-blooded intenti all of making a fortune, is. however only a legend,

;1 a Iwar~ tell peopl e: who say that end who aren't in the profession, that if it were true -t'lnd 1 r rt w@re that easy - everycned be: dorng it No. I did it much more as an exorc.ism, to keep working alter I'd left the House, because I couldn't get a job. It was vitally important to be physically worki ng - to be lieltJe in the WO rk ethic, Oh ye&, I wanted the book to be published, to be read, but it was much more to have done some1ihing, In fact.1he advance gn the first book was. £:3000. and they published 3000 copies, so you eou Idn't .say ~ wrote rt for th e money,'

Penny became an ilf"l,tema:~ional best sel'lel~ and from that da}f, as an author. he has never looked back

Both as a reader and author: Archer divides I1IQveli'S'ts into storyt.eUers and wrJters. Certai nly witih him, the important thing is the story.This doesn't come easy.

.24 What was .leffrey Arcller's reaction to the failure of his p.laIY?

A He was thoroug h ~y put au t,

B He regretted the wasted effort.

,e He was sorry ebout the amount of money he lost, o He was unaffected by it.

25; What is Jeffrey Arche rs rna i n interest in life?

A writilng B politics C business D theatre

question 25;: Alil thesle atcfi'ltifies atre meptiolil·ed but which QDe 'is m,enti.oned: severn I Jt1m:ers, ili1 difflmmt j!)l.u::l1':E in t1he t,j!lt. a "'din s~veH!Jl

d hfferen'l Ylays?

Question 271~ For tn is

q l1l'E!stil!1l n, loolt fo;r eviden.ce ~har tinlnee of the (I ptiol1,s a ~F;! atl:ually incbrre,ct.: for ~rolj:llle~

A is wrO'l]:g, title rext says that he dess filnd tt

dlimcu It 'b~ think lJ p a, S1l:0'f'\i' •

26 Why d ld he wri te h is vi rst novi;l?

. 14 To show how ,good a swry~tener he could be. I. To haVe some work to 00..

C Io make man ey.

£) To prove he was. su ccess;f u I at sornsth I ng~

27 When he's writing. Jeffr@y Archer

A has no difficul,ty thinking up a stoU)'. 18 finds tne ·acrua~ writing easy.

C map~ out an overall p'arn of the book iilrs-t ID has a fi xed roU'tine-.

li8 Apaft from writi n9 novels wh at e~se does J effr'ey Arche{ do?

A He stands for election to Parliament. B He makes a lot of speeches.

( He does other kinds of writing, .. D He takes long holidays .

. 29 What is his attitude to his pubfls hers '( A He rega rds them as fn ends"

B He respects thsi r work.

C He considers th em to' be the best in the profession, D' He feels he has to flatter them.

30 What. is his relanonshlp with his editor like?

A Th@y mntlnua~ly argue.

e: They disagree about p rior~tie5"

C: The editor gives advite about the sJtarylina.

D' The editor stresses the irnportanre of the characters.

r s s r 3, PAPER 1

Q.u estitm 3,1: JHi iilk .of 60me W0I1:1's to describe b~dI $11!1Ie'~Is.the'lII tn·edt iff ttlji'l~se WlIm:ls areln lih~ hll<t.

'QUE!s-tililllil 4i~ Tile Word 'boat" IS f10t rIi1'f:!l1tiji(rr'll~fd 1 ii1 thetl!xt. ILook for a'l1o~'Iler word for a form ofwat·er tral:lsp o~t.

Q.lH!s~ion i\lI:iI; i!.ookfa r refiuehCles l~oa period of ~iime.

QIlielStitOml ,l'fJh Tnca t·e:oot cOflt~ins maim r:lilan one r'eJerellC:.e to pifist times burt note th!1!word 'sll,vera.~'. fh.l:s· nTI aans that you OlIre IDCili;ililg fur sometJ1:Iil1g Qr'! the dist~ru p.ast

Answer questions 31-48, by referrinq to the newspapar.arude ebout spas on pages6r3:"'64.

lndkate your answers on the separ.alte answer sheet,

til e location smells un please nt

ing red! ants from th is spa are used in beauty products

in the past thls spa was popular with the weallthy

th e treatm ent consists of bathing in mud mixed with water

does not bene·fit 'from 0 n i rn mediately attractive setting'

offers unsophistlca·ted accammodaItion users should take cere not to get burnt by hot water

those tak i n gl the treatment here weer speciall dothin9 on the way to the treatm ent site

provides treatment for patients funded by the' state

31 ....



37 ....

38 ",.



For questions ::1:1-48,. answer by choosing from the list (A-DI) on the right below. Some chokes may be required more than once,

Note: When more than one answer is reqUlin'!!d, these may be given in any Ord~lf.

a boattrip is ne(:essilljl to gf€1t there "1

for th@ treatment to be ·effective, a coating

must be: left on the skin 'for a sp:edffi.ed

period 42

it h as types of water th at rna ke irt d:ifferent

from all oth er spas 413

people enter a buildingl to obtain drinking

w.ater 44

this. spa ~s in a completely undeveloped state


46 ._ .. ,

it could be an extrem ely cia n qerous place 47

this spa walS popular severall hundred y,earrs

~o ~


!Ai. V~chy

B vulcano

C Neyd harti ng D Blue lagoon

\¥'hen y.ou land ,on the to$.y shore, Y!QllI. are 'greeted by a herrible 'Stench. ThiS; is tt6m .~ iSu]jpbip[es seeping from: the volcano in biUous clouds wm,C'h smint:he er~:ggy m.oonscapE! fa:Il!,tastj;~ shades;,;of pirlli,'1 ye1J]Jow and trree:n. The 'g,ruphureolleew in an outcr(lp near the beach .. The ooncenitrated . sul:phm' };!l"Oducts rure<,!:h exceUen.t n,atm'aJ

be'8. uty tre{!tment. T]h,ere IS no ClD'€! :oont.:re or :faciUties ~ (he 'Pool ilis sj,mp]y 'ope~ 'to everyone. 1\t,e efi''€lct is like sl'ttillJil: in a l:atgle rnilttn"al J,ac:u~~i~ bu.t the e~.perience i~ not qnite as seeens as i'fu ~OOk8~ for scalding w~te1" bu1bbling ijll:~Il;!gh ,the reekearr catCh OlJlLt tbG1!lnwary .. Even tho~~whotake a ,oj p ~n the sea toeool off

ean fil)d. thell:tS,elves suddenly blasted by a bo,uin:gjet. But once you hill. ve fO'll.':i1ld. a sp.~ wbe,re the \vate'l' 'isa relax:rnng baQ t~m.pej·atUl'e. you lie backalnd con tem~l.a,te the active volcano, tow@ring a:1b'>ovethe s>C(lu',@t 'With steam ]s61!ling from the fi.$SU,~s in it~ s:ildfes.

'Vicky was/Jil,s aW~1 past eare«

S .' ·

.. prmgmg

Hot from

the Bowels of the Eart'h

It was Napohmn EmI w1:1:0 putVichy (loWe ma.p. He beli~ve;d, in the l'ElImrurkadblel"8SWr<3!tiVE! powers :of the local sp.'rings and :under his p3ij;;rolllttr~g'@'· V~chy becama famous as theQue~n of' Sp,3J1L. The

. of :inipenali glamO'ul's;1lU"v) ves among th.elPl'omen-aOt@s, oJP.era honl~H~" casino- ~nd 5;26 hec,t;aros ,of p,al'ks and g.ardens which o:~.ce lUI'etd ther.1l<chest and. ID911t f?lSh1o[l~ble ,pf 19th e~([t1,tW'Y l:1il'n'lZu~~. Ho,we:ver:, the fil~St sig:h.t 00 ~trik.Ethe visttor is a .ste,a.d;y sti!.~ENJm ,af peQ'rntill!.e 'CatU'ying lit"tle '\vi,::ker containers and hea.ding' as one, to the Hall S01lllfes, The elegant cOllS~'fVarory-lik.e

b1Jlil'dul'lflt 1:& heme ,to

w'ha t ,ded:iM tea Vichy pilgrims'd aJS the fotm,t cf l:lifu. Amid the flawa':s, pinal'S' and pmm 't:reesal'e NW.S artaps d'];sp'ensil1l:g t.h,e varlous mineral waters and 'i.t is this menu of !lifferetnt wate'"l'sft6tJ:t twe[v~tp.[ing;s wb~.d:nmakel;i ,the. spa uaique,

The arulient custo.m of taki,n,g the waters for the s.ake of health,. oeau,ty and pleasure is {lrN.J}"tshin.g a,sn~,ver before. ,;june Sampeon. surveiYs the wrxrld of spas fn:nn leeland to S'ic#y~

One of the cbiefattra.cti.ol15 of a spahQliday ::is,th.e esoa.:pen:o,m the str!3'sS'€':s, ~f lliH-e" ;3!nd o:ti'€::i's mOl'€' perfect soliturlethm VhlCorulo,t1fue :southern-most {)'fthe' A(3;olhm islsnds .otT the J].Ol'th eeast of Sicily. Vru.camls .l1a.turali re.8olm~e& baver.-emame5d:. miracaleualyuntapped by tl~Ul·.tsm. 'i,J]sUQ,is are day tripp ers wHo eema by hydrofun .fl'o.m Upa:d., 'the mlef island. of the A~(!liangrou p.

Wal~o\vin;g in <1l muddy Img ,hoU1's from anywh),1r:e :mighm- SI~€lm a '~U:do1lS W'a.y to spend ill ho:lida,y. Howeve~ this unique ~p'a is renowl1ll«"d for 'ij1e miracnlous po:w,e:rsof it{ii'leatments. The serite!; 11i,es in the MO'o~'1 a dark,. ()omg mud found emJy at Ne~n:lliartlng', ~. strmge area ,of I[[l)oor]·and set amid lakQs and .g~ntJIe gr~n bHIs. Th..e Romatns 'WteI'eawalle of its healliing properties and i.t wa~s a, fa'SMtln,a;mte~p'a centre in


medieval times ~ a fact confirmed by the recent rmeartmng of the remains of medieva'!:. woeden ba tb:s" Gradually! howevel'~ 'the baths went out of fashion. and f~I'mer:.S began to drain the Iand, iSodestr~ying large b'ad-s of'th€l lvlcior. Today it survives 'Only in one hlollited eerner of the va:Uey,nllID which it is pumped to t_he spa centre by carefully concealed pipes.

At 'th.€! spa, the emphasis is on sllllp1ici. ~y, with plain functional accommodation just a few paces away from the treatment centre, Th.e fo eal poiIlt of ,eathd.ay ~,g the Moor bath. It is a surprismgly pleasurable ,expedenloo~ A bath of W8!.oor is run at 37f>0 and mixed with a ,prescribed dosage of Mom· until it resembles a. d,m SOUP, fn which Yl}U soak luxuriously.A&l· half an hour you are eased tenderly out of the b.ath, and" stin welt and muddj, swaddled in cotton sheets and left. in a sta te of drowsy eu.r:!bcria, t:o rest :f0.1:' an hour. A film o.f :r4oOil" bas built up ,o,y,e:r 30,000 :reat'S fl~om medicinal herbs and plants. which, steeped. in the bard: water of Ull€: area, have broken. d.own to yield a potent coclttail o.f potenti,ally therapeutic substances. Cel'ta:inlythe German and! Australian mediCal establishments llav:e enough faith in Moors beating powoo:s for them to send their patients to. Neydharting at the, expense of the, public health services. Other'S corns to iIlse the' nmd for C!lHlimetic purposes. and :it bas now been: ineorparated ina l'ange of

bea uty products. A variety ot walks takM the place of th~ more sophisticated pursuits availaMe jn many spa towns

When hell boils beneath your feet

The ehunks of lava piled up outside th,e windQ'!l.'II' like broken tarmac, l'ism.gto meet, the' power station. heyond which billowed clouds of em uenee into the, greY sky. Therd 1111'

Stafarrsson, owner of the Bhre Lagoon motel in Iceland, exelaimed: (1 can feel hen boiling under our feet;' N,E!vermind under ow' me,t, we C'Qltd,d see it all around. And lit got worse. 'We were' expected to swim in thewasta pred uci vom!tedl out by a mass of pipe'S and. steel. Swathed in white robes with pointed ~oods, we wandeeed through ibte lava fields towards the la~o®. The mind gr aJPlpledt fur suitable similes,. "rhatev'el" it wa~, it ceirtainly didn't seem to belong to Planet Eat:"th.

B.y the' time we lowered eur bodi.(!!'S into the waters we had given UPI wondering wbat would bappen next, M neb to our surprise it mIt wonderful The hot s rut water, warmed by th.e earth's core gave air tendrils of steam t.hat created a surreal atmosphere. Hot water 'Uopd,ed over us, followed by 'ClOO} water - giving tlle' unusual impNs;s,ion that the w,ater was somehow t~xtnr:ed. P&oriasis sufferers claim to find renef 'Womtbeir 'painful, disllguring skin. complaint through r,egulro' imm.ersiclls in th.@ Iagcen,

If you are lucky enough not to need a long treatmen t, tbere; is Jiittle to keep you here for more than a. few days. Tl'le Blue Lagoon is, a motel !',at'hel' than the spa i.t ba~ ambitions, to become. While, some In,ay be put off by the lcack ef facilitiie~~ oth8'lS m:a,y 'find a. ra

appeel about the phu::e. On.c.e you venture Into the island's interiQl; the glorious virgta bea.uty of this remote place 'qui.cldy becomes obvious, There m evidence le'v,eJ"YW'b,erB of geological activity. Iceland is b nth beaevolent and hostile - it provides ,eentnd heating and Blue Lagoons, but. could also' swallow you up in lava 0'1' h01stile seas, Its people show bQ1thresignati,Qfl and aceeptanea, which goes seme way to elxplam how they oeuld think of creating a health :!i!pa\ r:ii:gbt beside a faclJory.


iluesti~~ lJ lYse il ~'lPQn 13,~Jll!ltand a fmJl1rilil feglT$:~ef.

l!Jse: \I'i,l,(frr,rn.s to derocdbe the pelrcenilifgfl$, ill' tine q,ue.stiiorom<lire, e.g" ;1:nre m·aJo.rlty0fstllLde iii l'S , f 'nillf tine stud:erm:j.' ,. 'arew St!!U:lE!'IIlIW;'. etc,

~em:e nil ~ Il~ 10 JlOl ~ap:n ~1i5e the! CD!l1lm,E;!IiIu;" Donrt use e<';'OiIqUym~sam~ wprds. R~m!lilll1lbe,w to wespl;lIlidi to ~he Pwlil'"s sllgglEl'StJi:@n wr a m~€!tirlig.

Wlr'it.i ngl (2 hours)

11 You have recentlly 'carried out a survey tofind out whal students thinlk of the rest-a LI rant in the coUeg e where you ere studying.

Read the r,esuits of the q u esti.annai re below, a n·cj the written cernrne nts and note sent. to you !by ~he pruncip.:l L Then, U sling -t!he ifli£CIi!'imra~m.o!lll ca Jiefu II'll. write a report fur the princi:!=!all, 's'aiy[n;gl what you diso)vered and making recQ,mm.ehdatIiQns.

Wriite apP:rDxl mat@ly 250 words, You should U5e yo u r own words a:sfar as pO$siib~e_

Stllldelirts" olP'iinio l:lI!iof the· testaLllttl IfIt (1 00 ,q,iJ:estimnn-d~re:s dlistriblJt&d. 80 re'~l!med)




70 0
5,0 10
110 70
60 10
20 60.
20 0
50 10
50 4'0 20









No proper v:e,g eta riilllt1 foo~ +en [y sa ~~"d6, i~ .11ppal ~i I1g ~ why l'iot :a. proper ci7ffee'-ma~it'it21 rnachins i:n~tMd of jU6X-. it16,tant. coffee?

The GOo.k cloe~ hts best - but he only eeeme to ~~now .:5€Io'f:'1i'!1 recipe.:s. ~r5 cheap but we'd pay' mor-erorloetter.

CoVld be open km,g:~r hDJ,!N\!, Don't firifeoh dram~ cfae;,~.'it ~rrtfl 1,30.91l1d r8.@M·rJrant clo"eieg at 2:iJO

I'll.. AA"Aj" J ... " ....... L -~~.'" .. ' .,: .. ..,_"'~"'L .. - #.1_"


U :¥Our r:Elpprt :!.s_r.e'!-dy m :E'rid~y., t willL b~ all1!! OOQa1.lii~~eJ;n9' wi tl!lf'! 'twowee:ks tlo Pi8,!:llEl'El .its CDn~tB,

TEST 3.,. rAP'EIR 2

Tip Strip

Quies~iolll z: Make SJJm your leaflet hilS: an

e:'lI'@ ·(,a'~(.Mlr.Ig ~('!03id'ing, IJ 51e ,sl.!bheadifngs ~.ugges'bed by the:

'Q 1W1esJlon. e'.g. "What we Il'eea '. 'Who il!rl! we hetllin1::?" j ,etc,

iQules.tion 3: )':CHH ~eaef needs 3-5 pariJ!gra.p~'s. '(ou 51>1ou ldl combh:le it !}ympatl'1:etJc respt:rl:lse wllh ~u~n:U.~;l1 sUig;g,e5tiO illS.

Que051:io:1iI 4: Note that t,1iIjl! pn,ram 'such tihil1gs as' rneoanSll1at you Calli irnclude otber1hlngs wl11cllii are nltt m~i'itio!'l-ed. pr'WI!Clting: 'thll!"I1ir!e re'lewllt to yOUing !leo'ple'. Reme'l1J'I her th,u YOI!I are 'Wrrrtlng til1e a'.dJUal br(lc:tiure - do Dot illdude reim~~ces • c.Qmp,laifils about offieiBJ {'(Mist literawre;.

(tuI!5tiQfl5: 'l:'ou needJ.-5 p'aragr.a:pl1s Add~ess the Ie'Ue r to WJur bocs:S" by, name. for ,e'xample" 'Oear M1r Brown', am,d Ii! lid

'':0 III rs sim:e:rely·. Make it deal' that "You wi~lmrQ lr'e:b!:n~ UI iIlJork (I,t the lil1iQ1 {If YOI!I'!' le".ar o'ft Be preci~ abollit da;tes.

Choose one of the following writing tasks, Your answer should follow exadly the instructions ,given. Write app:roximately .250 words.

2 As Student Ullion Onicer you are going to organise a sale of goods to raise for a charity. ')'Q.IJ want friends and relatives to 91ive you things which they no longierr need; Or thin9s that they have made. Write a 'eafl,etsaYilng what sort of things you want tor the sale;' which ch.arlty it is fPIF, why you have chosen that chanty and how and when the goods willi be collle'cted or deli,lle'red.

W~i'te the ~eaf~e:t.

3 A B6tush frlen d of }IOU FS h as just sta ned I~vi ng a rid wof~i ng ina 'town in you r country, but. not thee one where YOUi live. He I she has written to you saying that he I she has not been a:b~e to make any ne\!V friends and 's fee~ i n;g Icme:ly. Write to your friend, mal(ing some h@lpful sugges,tions_

Write yo ur 'etter.

4 The town where you I ~ve reoeiV'@s rna ny visits from 9 rou pS.OT young people' from other ceuntries, Th'ey complain that the official tourist lirteratUiFeabout the town does not ten th em what th ey wa.nt to know, You h iJ'I/@ been asked to write i3J brochure whlch gives inTorm3tio,n about such things as transport, food and drink and entertainment, but in a way that ts relevant and in teresti 11 9 to young people aqsd 16-25,

Write the lbil'lo·ehure.

5 You have been working for the same ,company fOJ several years ill an enjoyra1bl'e. interesting and well-palo job. Your boss has a opinion of you" However, )I0!U h!ilve decided that you would like to h,i3iVe a yecu off (WithOLJ[ pay) to travel and studly. Write a letter to your boss explaining' why you wpuld ~ike to have this year oft, what YOL! intend to do and how the company would benefit when you retulm to work.

Write your "'etter.

TEST 3, F!AIP.~R 2


liiip Strip

'QUIi!S(il(l1il1 ~~ 1rtd:ll~S a fiooerl pnra:s<'l! - prewrutiQlrI ts betllH tlh<m ..•

o.liI:es~iolil 6: Which 'word liI1:i3Ik,es <II. (lll'ltr.:lsf win. t:he cOlirlpl,e>t l!l~,c;b~llOil h~ ~yst:e,IiTIs llJroiildy m:enlioll~d:!

{tlle;5Uon :1\5:: T1'I11\5, ~El'fern to the 1P00~icemlilrnlnlg

:!ito ten g:opdls. Whi~h WQl'd, best e..'!!pl;essestihii:$, idea?

EngH:sh ln U'5~e (1 hour 30 minutes)

PAR 1 1

For q uestiens 1-11 ~5:, rElli3d the text below and then decide' w~h lch word bestfits ~,a(h S;pilCE. 'PI.Jt:~ne lett~r .you choose for each 91JesJioFi mthe correct I::)bx on your answer sheet, Theexerds@ begiirr:s with an e.xampJe (0).

Last yenr. losses fmm shops u:bmug_h shop]ifling and theft by staff ~O) .,.. to ov:er £J hil~Eon. Ther,e aremany (I,) .... for shopmpel's themselve.~ to. reduce sboplifUn:f !\flr with all type.~1 of crime, pfe'ven,tian is. ~eflt'eli' rhan (2] "... . The bp~t deterrent is me (3) .. ,. of r;[aff properly b:al ned In how to idernlufy potentia] sho,pli.f0n. There are also many se~l!]"lty (4): . .•. Vl!OW ~V2!,i] Vidoo, C:~I]],e;ra ~un,i"e]]lanoe is a popular sy.stern. even wilh qui!e: groan retailers, 1[1 clothes sb!o[ps, rI[ag~.e~lc t:a& Ill ... ddng sys.lemsth:at set olf au alarm have pl1o<ved tbJei.r (5) .... , Hawever,there,are maLlY. (6) . "':. . measures (~al ,re:taiJel'~ slienld oQ'1lIl;;]der. ~celter bgbtmg and ceiLirig,,"h][l~g can help staff to (7) ... , ali parts of the di~pray a:rea. Sirri~]arly~ ~im'ply <In''.Ji~g:iIig shelves nild displaJ t011l10W clear (8) .... of vision is Oil good den:m~nt

Anothe;r proh[em for retailers is the (9) 'n. OF ,~toltm credit cards to buy goods alld services, M~ny fletai lers avoid lhis by H~Wi:lJS [he (101) , ... o.f acard lIS~~: JOF(1orthase,. Bleetronie gys~em8 are now .avaHab]e to (ll) ..... IlIp the procedure,

Most companies keep a pe~tty :( 12) ..... box for ~mam expenses, They are a popu];a[' (13) ... , :60[ !:h]eyes.. lit is not enoughto 11u ve a box thatl.ocks. A thief can steal it and then open it alt leisure, Lock it in or drawer'as well, Telephones, lypewrir,ers. W,()!OO processors. and :computers arc elsovulnerahle because (l,1JJey are (14) ...... Propenry m<Ji[iki~1\g is a good demerr,e,tlt and helps (he police return stolen goods ~f tl1:ey 'are (15) ..... And remember '[hal i]1 maaybusinesses lllforma~i.on 1.8 valuable to compeurcra end should be protected,

0 0 amouf11jed B sccu m u lated 1(; went [) added
1 .A. o P P ortunltles 10 schemes 1(; ideas D Q ccaslons
2: A, rem-edy B !Ioss c cure D conviction
3: ,A, kn owledg:e B presence :C number I[) im~ortance
4 A. de:v.i:ces Ii methods c tricks 10 machines
5 .A. reliabrln1y B worth c veluatton III ~de.r1l'tlity
6 A better B J@aSI~T C simpler ID' bigger
"}' A notice B watch C control 01 regard
8 .A. fiieids B srsas C systamsi 1)1 angles
9 A. emplo~m@nt B appl katlon C technique 0, lise
10 A honesty B, fmgelY C validity I), valtJ~e
1 1 A sp'e!ed Eli c:hec,k C take I), key
112 fA money I bank C :5.avmg 01 cash
13 .A robbery IB: 'ti3rget C iium D' object
141 A portable 18: ~xpe[n~ive C stolen D attr act~V\e
15 .A reported II 'known C r~le.d [) traced
T E S T :3 , P A P E R 3 .. Tip Sotrip

Q,i1esti!o:n 17: You Iileed a word·tlhaJ~ is ~rt of a phmse m~arni illS; 'oot Il:xa!mlpl.e·.

ques1iOin '18:: What is anotiher p,llml5J! for 'Ci large amount'?

QuesUom 22: WilrlJ glass de'fin:itelv snap or o:nlly pmbably s.nap?

Question ~4~ 'Sreilkrrn g' is a gen:md •. so y(l'LI iI,eelii a ~reiPCI$~tion, heJr.e-. 'C!.iiJesUCIII 'i5;W'liluci'l word is a. slllbsfi~l!It'e fur '1r in the middle e'fa S~l'Iitence? qu esticm 29':: Wha't Ilext gh/elS yo:u the fe>8ls()n, W:h'l st,e~l. ]5 .1Ised.



Fe r q usstlons 1,6-30 co m plete th e follawi,ngl arti de by writ[ng each m i ssi rig word 1 n the correct box on your enswer sheet" Use ,only one wO'l'\d tor each space. The exercse begins with an example (Or).

A,cross t.he Gap

Some of the (0) ..... ' ..... impressive structures in the world are bridges, Bridges have to be built to withstand a variety of forces, These forces come

(16) ' a eembination of factors': the weight of tile bridge, the we~ght of

tile traffic, and the strains exerted by the weather, (17) , ... , ..... as wind, lain.

and snow. Bridges are costly to. build and engineers go to a great (18;) ., .

of teou hie to en sure that. tiliu~y 3J1"'e safe. yet 1!l8~ the mi nimnm amou nt of

material To be (19) ,,, .. to do this they must fully understand the

properties of the materials they are going 'to use, (20) , materials, for

example. are easy to bend, They me flexible. Flexible materials can be

useful in bridge-building (21) need 'to be combined with stiffer

meterials to support large loads. Stiff materials are difticuIt to bend but tend to be brittle .. Ol.ass" for instance. .is a st~ff material bur (22) .. , .... ", ... snap easily if you 'Ery to bend it. Stl ff material $.C:8.n be '!,f,eryhard to compres s and are

useful (23) used as. supporting pillars in bridges.

The property Hm'L is perhaps the most important in bridge-building materials is, the strength to withstand ~ar2:e fOf,ces (24) . .,,, ..... " .. breaking, Stee~ is such 'a

strong material (25) is why it is. often used. Concrete isa stiff

material and, (26) glass tends to snap' if bending forces are applied,

but it is very strong when compsessed, If concrete is used (21) .

support 8i bending force then it must be reinforced with (28) , material.

Steel is usually used. (29) , it is relatively cheapand is good. (30) "

supporting bending forces,


Liin-1Il! 3:2: lin tihlTs Ii ne, [IS 'iQ1jJI1!' a 1J,~l'b ,~l" a t1Oi!JInr

lilne 34J W!hO\lil'lS th:e

SlY bliefl of the vllrb "is'? I!:iloe 40~ !I,s this 11 ~mH![al stilt:elifumt.Qr <lbl;lllit a .sJ!'le~:~fh;:gmulp?' How a.lI'e men ooferreijJ 10 in

li'ne 411'

In mos,;!: Ilines of the foillowilng ~e.xt the~e i:s, one urmecessary wpnl It IS ei:the~

9 ra m maticalily i rTr1cmre,Ct or dbes f'lmfit in with the- sense of the text. If'or aach nu m oer'ed Iline 31,-46 f nd this word a n d then write it in the bOK an your ans.we r she~~, Sam ~I ines are correct I ndicalte thesel ilnes with a tick ( .. t) in 'the box, The exen:tse begins' wi'th two eX~hlpl,~s (O}.

(I It's So slJbje9~U1a!~ Will prdbablY be debated until' the end of time, but

001 on the evidence provenava~labl.e to date p:syohol:ogists ~end to f'eel

31 Jusll.h~ womend:lcn1DHali in IO!!'!<e as readily as: men do ..

!U: __ ,,""'" MoreoMer, VIJOm€l11 seem to falll out of they lov® mo.['€! quickfiy'andl :suffer

.33 lsss ol Io:r:ng·tenn d ~han men, do when a. relationship breaks up,

34 __ "w, V\lhythis!Shou~d be Btl'it is alsO .a'con~rsia:1 question abOut whk::!h

35 Pmtch9!ogists have rjiffer.irig opinion~, One view conlends that in

316, oult!.:.Jre-s wner:e, a w"Cf'!18In is al!ovlJed how to choose ill male, as oppoged to

37 the fam! Iy organisool j3Jrranging a marriage. ~he wOIlli3In must looK out f,ar

38 h~r own best ~ntelfeslS. She seeks the mAn who is best be abile to

39 provrde fm her and~h8ir future ch:ilarM. Some psychologists think

4.0 that thift m~ explain why it J8 not uncommon forlh!3,UItOmen to be

4! 1 atliracted to regard men with powe:F- physical, financial orsocel, Men,

42 by OQfltr~t.aife prone. to faU in I'ove~hemse'ves v,ery qlUlcikiy and be

43 much ress critica~ than W'Omen of the quaJrties of the person ~hey

44 love. AcoordnriJg to one study, men are 00 far more IU'(elythan wocnen to

45 bel~gve in "love atU1,e first slg ht'andl tllat 'true r.ove comes along

46 jUS[on,.q8 ~n llte' . ..seventy per.!OOn[. of men 3atcltlJey bel'ieved these things,

QJUestl!on 49= Is this Sifl!l:lilar or plural? Q,uesliiiilil 561: Which word from '!economy' means 'il'le~ensiv,e'?

Qpi9!S~h!m 611: Is thili! ill~ai'lilirg POi.'iifiti'llec O'f lIegati,w?'


- -

For questions 47 ... 6,1 read the two texts below, U~e the words in the box1es to form

on Ie word that fits in tlni,e same n LJ m b ered space, in ttl e text Write th e new word l n 'tlit correct box on your answershest. The exercise begins with an example, (0).





i Tud'or Ho,us,e !

I i

I !

I !


: This resrauran r was opened just [\VO \lrleeks ago after an f

~ (0,..."" ~Ild detaile(J progrdmme Of r47) __ . __ " •. 11 nd I,

u i I I I I I ~ II 1, I .1 I !

reoovanon of one nf the ofdeS[ bUildings fn [011\1'0. The exac( age of the buirdiflg was 148, .,. .. __ . __

to unda'tions were disccwered wMtch dare bdiCk to 'the

IlFteenth cemtify. Ar one poim tile !julJdjng vvork was Fi.1lI[ed 50 lhat (,49j ._ .. ,_._" courd carl)' out excavanons. Some of rile li"I{~re:sting {510~ _._. __ ._., '[hey made ,ale now on

display In the restaurll[l[.

tnere hac been a brautifu' and eFfectiVe tS 1 j __ . . or the

tradiltlOJlal bUIJdnlg and the modem rests ur<3nt 1 t has a dl.3rmfng ~nd 1521. __ .. __ .. _ atmosphere where custome s

ca n relax and enJoy [heir rneas, An additiofla' (53) ... _. _

rs the large garden which has room forf fty customers to

: enjoy 031 fresco eating In tne summer morms Ii

I :11

L _,=, __ .~ _ .. . __ , , __ , , __ . ~ ,_. . __ ..II


The oHid 01 ~54~ .. __ . __ . .. or lhe new Ai rpon E.xpre.'?stoQk ploce only yes1errday bUI it has been In ~u11155l ....... , .. Icr Ihe PO'SI three weeks, This nevv Ire i ri serv1ce tokes you from the oen tre of In e ol~ to the aifpor t VOl ry ro pj~:ny ~only i'w"enty

minulesl and (lIt a v.ery [5;6) price lonly £5

o n~"\N'Oy). The 00 mages are c:omForto ble (j nd ~57) ,.

bu~ no food and drl~~ is OIVO il:obte bocouse the jou rney ~s -so

short There ore, hO'NeYer, uniformed [5,8) . __ who will

provide pcssengers with help end cdvice. There IS on on-boo rd ~elevis,io:n servl 00 'Nuh i nfor motion .Q bout

11~9l .. " ....... and airport facilities or, on the journey Irom the elrporl, hotels end Imin services. In addrlliol"l, the !min has telephones for passengers 10 uss. Nkmy trovellers- are

a,1 ready chcos 11)9 Ihelmin Ln (60) ""''''.' 10 0 long,

(6r~I .. _ ...... and liring journey by car or Ioxi.

(47) RES10~E (4B) KNOW


(.51) IINllEGrRAlE




(!;,4) OPIEN
(,561) ECONOMY
(5,7) S PAC IE
(58) AnENID
(59) FLY
(61) PLEASIE lli,p Strip

QUii!stii!)~62: WI1iO'lt is al1rotl'il'!.!r wortll for 14 days?

Q:uestion 69; ~'f.YIl'lU an!>;] liIegifll'leif', whQiI do,n't Y<iU lfia,"Ie'?

ilUresUo-n, 70: If ~her:e i!i '1iI0 chalf1~e' the 'CDurse must be ... w~lat?


For questions 16,2~74, read the followiril9 forma I, notice and use the ~nfo,rmatiof'l to complete the numbered gaps in the informal letter, Then write the new words illl the correct space-s on yrou.r snswer sheet. Use ne more than two wlor'dlsf,or ~,ach gap. Words you need do nOil ,occur in the notice, Tlhe erxe-n::ise begins with an exalmple (O~'.

IExampb~,; I (I I ~ ,~

Staff In. .. Service Training Scheme

14-day Advel'llu re Co ~~rSe in J\lcwtJil Wales

Activities i'nclttde: mOllm.ta.inee-rin:8', timing, canoeing, t:lbseilij'iK, scuba-diving.

_. Swit;ablef(i!i'compleb,!hcgjrulels - fuU training giv,e'n.

• on dl!!'nl,o'phlg leadership skins.

• All e'qu.iJpm,ent provided bu't y,(Iun1Just bdng your OlW bOlots.

Places me v~l:y limited. Appl,y before January 31st. Application forms are available at Rc:cephu:n. Sta.ff who attended. this courseaa MOU"'ch cannot re-apply.

There is no charge fDr this course.

Att~oding this eou se willimprove the chances 'Ol[ employees who are thinking of applying Ior promotion with.1m. 'th.~. OOPlpa.I'lY. Staff 'Who reach an adequate standard 011 the course will receive a cert:i:fica.te. The campa.ny wiu receive' a fun report on the physical and ro·e'nh:ll quallriesthat staff have shown dlu:ing; the course, lncluding their abilU)' to work under pressure and motivate.ethers to achieve goals. Tlhe course must be taken as part of yoW' armual leave ,entitlement.


26 J.anurar,y·:20-P,e,ar Carolil1~,

5irlte you have l1e",n aWtl'j th i1B ltW'lek at the' '(;laleei conference, I tholi!!1I:ht I !:.>no u ~d write 1{a you <'lp·oot ,enot!1t:r COUFee the Gomp?ilt1iY 1& offering. It'!? only for pl'lOple who

a~ealri%ld'y (0) "" ",, .. 0;;. th~ Gomp8tly. It'€. ali CClUr'B6 Dr! Nc;wth Wal~~ w(]ich 1<i1E!t6 ,1il

(62) " ,,, ,," ... arn.d il1cludee; a lot of ~dvel1rti.lrQu~ actlvit.ie5. You don't ti1e~d ,eny

(6:3) " " " , " n, bec,e 1.16fl yo u ea t1 learn tnin91So fro m i3G ratch, E verytnlng you need

for tfn~ actlvftlll6 r~ provided! (164) , " " " boot~, Th ewe &I rt: Din Iy (65,) _,." " ,

pl.aG$!~ and you mu,6t apply before (66) ofthi& month. You haven't

('67) ", -, h<1lV~ you~ There wa~ o;n.~ (68) " , yea:!" ,;!iii nd g,taff who want

011 d]at can't. (69) " .... ,,, ..... , ... ;;, ,

W!ith thr Ei I,ertter I have e:t1c!o6e:d an 8 ppJ icatio 11 form for you to fi II in a f'1 d retu tin, The course i5 completely (70) "" .. "" ... " ... "., (which ,If) good, i5r1't rtf I thrl'lk It l10rmally GO£1t~ all?out £800). It seems tha.t, at;un:ding thi5 Gour!Je wm be lill1 (11) .. " ... "" ... " ... " for anyol1e nopina,. t-o be promoted. You also get a certific&l!t~ if you are

(72) , " " and thfl.comp$:lrlY lei tala (13) , " " " you did 011 the GO!.Jr~~.

Ut'lfort1ma,te1y" g oh1(l on t:h e GOUil:ie m ~n G (74) " , " ,. two we~~ of y.our

holi.d.iY. Do you tllink it i~ worth it'?

Bes.t wi6he~.



TilP Strip

'Q,ul!'s.tion 75~ The wcm;J: '@s;ttim!il:tillg' strongly sugg,ests U!aLa Irefe.~el1C'e to <I I'ILUlmber wJILmme l'U3iX.t.

Que,sUofD 71! B·~caiUse of the' w(l,rd 'sufprisf!" wlhat. comes next must ~efur to w,e:a.tl1ie r whlich r s

COI1i1IP le't!ely diffir~:rlt fr,om tropica Iri'eiI~her..

QU!!'stiOIIll 80:: The wmd "'<llinil2ililgty' sl.Iggests that Wlil~t comes n:ex.t is an eKU\eme Ud ,ast'OQ1Qs!IJ'f IIIg p'iete of infl:mmatioJn.


For q uestions 75~801, read I'he fa! low i n81 t@)d and then choose from the Ilist ,A-~I given below the best ph rose to fl'" eoch of the spates. I ndiic;arte YO'll!lr a nswer on the separate ,illn'SWelr sheet, Each comlC:1 phrase may only be used once. Some of the s'Ugges1led snswers do not fit at a I L

\Vby You Feel Under the Weather

severe than those 'We tnuliti.onaUy associa~ with inderne'rl't wcat-her, sueh as headaches a.nd muscular pain, Of course. sufferer.s; fI"Qmrheum.s.tism have ]o:ng o[llmplttined (7.8) ,., .. MOJItl dang~mo~]y !iL cold snap can bring on fatal heart attacks and strokes in the e:Jdedy. In Britain there are f3J], .mOrn deaths a week in the winter than ill tih.e summer. It is generally acoopOO~I (7;9) ... , . Asthma, allergies and SQme psychological ciQnditionsare an markedly affected by ,~.h<i.nges in' Ute w€laJilier. The .MiI: drafl1 ;llttc easel> occur QeD wann dt1' daj'$ when the sky is filled with low c.I'!luds. In tbese conditions some people go f-rom excellent health tomarked illness ill a m3Jtte:r ~f minutes. And lliuulz.1.ngly, a few people ara so acutely weathe~" sens]'ti"e, (80) .. , ..

A that they compl'ete!ly IO.5e consciousness during thunder and 'Ilghtn'ilig storms B that '[here is no evidence for these ideas

C that lcwtemoeraturss are a causative factor in milny cases Ii) that they cen not expose them selves 110 suni i 9 ht'

E that oneibird of the population could be adversely affected Ii' that they (eel worse when it rains

(i that we must protect ourselves a.giainst the harmful rays of the s,un HI that-even temperate cIIimates present Q health risk

.1 that these dis-eases are no longer da 11 9 erou s

MOST illY us casually tune in to '~he weather forecast to find out whether we should take ~nl.IDlbroUa to work, or if we: should .go tothe (o1)tball match, But perhaps we should listen more carofuny:, because the day!; weather could wrious]y affect how we feet Of COUI."Se., we U10S,tJy feel good wloon the SIll ehines and subdu.ed wh('lrJ it rwnll" Hut scientists and docton; are starting to I)eal~ that IC.Q~d weather can hring not just low :tem.per.1,h.ll'e;s but also depression anal aruri!ety. GrQvui~g numbers of people are being diagnosed as weather.sensi tive, wit.h seme Bxperts . estimating (15,) .. "... •

The h3Jzards of hotclimates are well kno'W1). W'hen W'C head .[01' lu;mdays in the tropics we know (76) .•... It comes as a surprise ta learn (77) _"., . Weather~ related symptoms can be far more



lip Striiip

'i:tllliestiolil !'~ Whe'il :d:~1 yOl!l ~MrnJi': €!!ecltrlc; 'iii'S, W,E!~ iiirst lIS!i!d?

Q.u:estie.1lI13;: What a re the l'W.Q dfffemnt <lnll ~1II.Gompa~~ble t1lillllil~ l~le('tlfic Thrs faiild:~?

Ustening (a1ppmx. 4S minutes)

!p ART" 'I .-.

You w~lll hee r someone ta I'lki ng about e~ectrkciilrs, past and present Listen to. ths recordinSJI and for questions 1-H~, comp.l,e.te. the missinlg information.

You w~I[1 hear the remr'di I1g twice.

Eilec.tri'c Ca rs

Contrary to popular ibeiief,elecltrnc cars exi;ste.rJ in the

A.t' one time, lncornparison with petrol-driven cars .. electric cars were

Des,i~ners _ off :Ied~~c ,.ars I must choose Q,etvveen

L_ ~~ __ ~


jel'1l,atzy:scars. went ViElry ;fast but not LI ~ -'--41_· I __J

A bi~ Cldva~talg e of ,e~e.c. tric r ears IS that th~y do not

L_ -L __ ~


1LA405: This ca r has two

it can be re.chaipged wh ~I e the driver is at work or

Ilmpulse; ~lll. ·li.kJe .the .. LA ... 4.0.5" I i 9 I'

Its power SI(}U roe' liS I


c~mpared. vyith petrol- II 1,0 I

driven cars, ~t p'~rf9rms

L- _. __ ~


Tip Strip

QJ.l~stilD:n 1~t, WIfIITdll pints of ltre~ddw,!l!SS j,U~ probaD'~Y lFnilM.~ng2 Dste ii ta~flJlny f;gr these~

CW~e5HO{n '17= llossib'OO: proh~l2m'Sc ~.olUtdi OOCUIr wilil1 an ohii'(l:r1 Tly a:mI(i preil'rd the J;lQsr~ibil~itii!1ls helme' 'yOJll' Hi~telfl.

Q.u)e~iofl ;i!QI~ Wha:~ t~pe nfinm'r'liIiI.atijoin wiU come aflie rr ·wtthilll ... "?


IPSA ~~}TI¥{:,.~¥ -. •

You \tVi11 hear a rnessaqe ~eft by a CUS~Qmer on till tel ephons an sweri ng rnachi ne at the office of Zen ith Cam puter 'Softwaw~ Supp~ i'es ltd" Look; at the 'f®wm below it nd in I In thelnformation 10r q uesnons 11-210-

lLiis1!:ern V€!II"Y cam'iFuUy as you wm Iillear the. r,eooirdi ng 0 NICIE (In Iy.

A D'ilssatisfied Customer

,Zenith Computer Software SUP!J11i'es Ltd An'saph one M essClg!€!


Nam€t '-- ....d-~1_1_J1 John Smith

Address; .__ ____Jb__l~;l~·i Marsh'am, Gf6r.Jcest€r5.hire'

Co ntact n u rnbsr;

ltem concerned: Stand Arons' Modem

Model number: ._1_-------_____dbJ ~1~4_11

Date of order: ~'- ---------'-1-,1-5----'1

II 161,

Customer code:

Nature af problem: Order b.l ---.J__11-1_J

IPr@'\I~aus contact: Y@5,spoketo L...1 __ --------LI-,-8_J. ~ a week ago

Name of part: IlL ~~ __ ___"_! _1_-91...J~ DC 1 Q 5 V


Ctuestio~ ,1,!6l A drn.w:biiJck is acl:is:;:u:lvaIDltiilge'. so you aJJ~ U:~~elllflil!ro.~ a JA~gatbTOI!J~ :PQ11fit. '.fJtuesfiQ~~7: 111 tilmlls Go'nte:xl 'Ipest.' ma<li[l;$. !11 job.!io you <Ire Ilis:lElfni ng ror rereren~e~ to d~rferenlt ty'IJ~G~]ob,

o.uesti~;1!l 3Q~ AfIj~lrlhe wortlls '~~raid ,e~' you liIeedi tt!wlFllt'ea 'l,i'i.lio:rr,~ tlild~ ng h-q'·illg!¥

You wj~ I hear a rao1io iP:rQgra m me in which three people disc.usst!he uses of gralPnol!qgV. Folf' q~esti6ns .21-3iO, compl:ete'1the ili1'form:ation uSing, a,n ,a:pplroprla<te word or short phrase.

You wi~1 hear the recmdirlg twlce,

'P""A'- 'fR- -"·T i: ~3 • ~ ~'~0

_. I ~. ~.". ~ ... ::

Tom Ph e.1 pss bi:lO,K is ca lied 1 ~ 21 1

Margot 5Cly,e'fs partkulsr interest is I._. -----'-_2_·2_.J·

What thrEe p:e1rsonalliiiy tlra~ts does. Tom say he can assess fmm handwriting?


What d r,awbaick .0 oes 'lorn refer to whe n co m ps n ies use 9 ra P no log.is1s?

For wh at type of post rs 9 ra P he logy uS.ed?

What tradit~()rlal~hirng does Margot crit[ej'se?

1129' 1

Tom lhl:inks' OPPOS€9. to grapho.logists becau,S€! they

a reafraid oW' .

lffiST .3, I"APIH!; 4


rw~$tiQIl1 3:f. rilj,~ a

p ~lipl'linance of G Itl~.y t"k,e pflilc;e?

Q,liIies~iori ~4: Wlbat is. the m,eal'l~nt (lJF1:Im~ expr,~~~*Jiil "the rea~

"!'! rrlJll'l

Qu,l!s~i"nlll :::I~.l The ~pe~kElr mel'litiOriS a. 1:;0 IiIbact <l1li~ filJlr~hei!' ~WdV itJ,lI~ how ;;Ire ~ey rol~li\d 'to iIi~<! ,Pt~E!?

Yo u wiU hear five short extra crs ilO wh ich dilff.erent poopl e com merit on their experiences of being prizewinners .. !'"or ques.t~olf1s. 3:11~O. choose the: correct op1tipn A, B, tn C

Yo!"! willi he~r the recordi ng hrvuce.

The Piize:wi nners

31 ~n order to win the prize,the first speaker had to A learn somethingl b:yheart

B, 9 jiVe a speech.

C act in a play.

32 The fiw5t spea ker knew he· had wo I'll

A. when the pr~nc:i pa I pho ned! hi i m. B because he was .cffered a job. (some ti me after tb'2 pe rferrna nee.

33 The second speaker snte red the cern pet~'"I:ion because .A she wanted to w~n money.

18 she thought it WiJulld lead to mere work.

C she is ksen on a rt €Ox h i bilti©ns"

34 The painting th e speaker e ntsrsd for toe com petition was A a :st! II ,[rlf,e p\alint~ ng of vegetablel5.

iB an ,extremely 10'3 rge pCiliming.

C not what she lrl?allry wanted to' paint.

3.5, WheFil she tqak pelirt in the cornpetition, the third speaker .A was much more interested in OU1 elF t h i n gs.

B £lave a ve ry po plilll:a~ perform ance.

( a]waysf,eit happy and rela,xed_

36 After winn i n 9, the thi rd :spe.aRer A d~d not cha n 9 e her pi ens,

B decided to'glo to, university.

C worked abroad.

37 As pi! rt off tif"lJe prize, the TOW rth spes ker A signed an 1 mportsnt centr ad.

S was abl e 11:0 do 81 course of s)tudy. C travelled to New York ..

3:8 As a IreSIJ It of wi n ning" til e fou rth spea ker

A WillS offereda t€!18c:h i rl 91 post

B was sbl e ito jo:i n a bs Uet (D m pany,

C rea I,ised he had IliWe prospect of su mess in h is Glr~er.

39 What ha ppsned wh en the ffftihsp sa ker vventW col I'@Q@?

A He conti:nU"ed to exoel ~nalth 1@,tiiC5"

B H.e discove red ,iii new tallent.

C He found it rather disappointi nq,

40 How does the 1Uth spe.a ker nowf,ee I abQtJ t wi n ning 7

A He has some reg rets,

e lt was the best time of his li:fe.

C He thin ks it led to wro ng decis~ons ..


Speaki ngl (11 5 min utes)

{3 minutes)

Answer til ese q uestions:

Wh!3fe are you living now and do Y'o:u fabe thie pl,ace Y'QU aln:~ Jiving in? How does it cornea re with p~a:cels th at you h aViE' I i;vedi in before?' What plans' do you have to live ina differe'l''it place in the future? What would ~e your ideal pl,ace to Ilive?

P"A R T 2 '

(3 or 4 minutes),

Turn to p~c.tures 1-4, on page 135 which snow four different rooms in ho,uses; or flats. (a 1"1 d Delate A, aerscriib@ and co m pare these rooms and say what yo u thi n k the person who lives there would be like. You havle a l1liriut€ to do this,

Candidate B, which room would you most like to llve in?

fpoliliutio,n (Destribe. compzm~ and sp,eculaH~)

Tum to pictures 1-4 on paQle 11 36 wh~(h show examples of polhstlon.

Candidate B, compare and contrast the,se sltuatlors, ·sayilng what the possible e,ffects, mig ht be. You have " m ilnute to do this,

Candidate A. Which seemsto you to be the, worst example of pollution and why?


PAR 1 3

{3: or 4- minutes)

lu rn ttl pictu res 1-5 on pa 9 8 ~:3 7' whidl shew possible covers for a new m agazi ne about astronomy snd -space):!)(,pl'oration, intended for young people aged 13-20.

Wh i c h cover do you t:h ink would be th e most Elffsrii,ve in attr acting interest an d why?

'p ART 4

(3 or 11 minutes)

Answer these questlons;

Did you reesh 0319 re~m,~nt? How do your -opinliOIr'JS differ?

W~ at, if anythu f'! g~ do, yo UI find i nterrestingabou:t this topi c:?

Wh at kind of 'tb i fI 91s would you e.xpect to read in su c h iii maqazl ne?

r e s r 3, P"APER 5


R,eadlng (1 hour 15 minutes)


PAR r '11

IFor questions 1-'1161, answer Iby choosing from the' kst tA:-F) on ths right b~low. Some choices may be requireid more than once.

Whu;h person

works for a literary agent? 1

made an offer to a ymJF1g author? 2

did not expect the epprova I of pub!li'5 hers 7 ,3

a p predates the work of teachers, on the

c:ourse? 4

criticises other universities without. naming them?

,d eel ined to revea I some writers' na rnes? explains the publishers' paint of vi,8'w? experie-rH:@d some good fortu n e ?

did not have a good op i n i on of c:rea,Uve writi n 91 courses 7'

found parts of the course rather f,ri,ght.ening? is not sure that the abil:ity to wnte novels can be tau-ght?

appreciated tile ccrnments of students on

the course? '12

h as do ne some writing but not Y'€'i1. written

a nove'!.? 13

has written more than one novel? 14

emphasises the practical nature of the course? 15

has written a novel t hat has FIOt yet been

published? '16

Answer questions 1-116 by ref1erring to the newspaper article on page 7'9'. lndicate your answers on the' siep,arate ,answer ~sheet

6 A Emma Lee-Potter
7 B Ri(nGird francis
8, c: Micna@,1 Schmidt
9 [) Anna Davis
101 E le'e Bra,xton
F Oare Wigfall

TI.H.E flT'st.~ ::ttknOW.·leagemenl 'i:nSi.d. e. E~nrna Lee- Panel: s deblU navel Hard Copy~ p~ib]j,sh.e,d this memh by Piad(us is to Richard Fl1IDCis. and Michsel Schmidt) Wiili~u~ whom, [ would b~ve l1IeV,elr sHu'ted wi:iting~" Francis-and Scbaridt "l1~e tlltO["SOn a 1.1"'D~yl:::at taugh:t MA it! aevel W,(j'Mg at the Univeni:ty oj MruJchl$~t.

Emena Lee-Porter is not me fln[ of Fraru,;is: and Scltmidt':S students (.0 sign a pulbfuhing deal. S~nce:

ID!13 pllogr~rnme started. U\!t"; yea..ts ago, tiv!;l mv~ aiIe a ~¥ found a J)ut1et for m.~ir w(lik .~ l'O'ltr' o'rn.~rs aIS<()r h~vetheirr, work Ul'l:~~ ()Oinsid:~t<ltiQJ1!. <lit ag:ents and publlSl"Efir'S, ManY' Q!Hltt~m q:fl(: s:t~rl1ng, \i1ii~tth rewQ],~'I;;tl v~t~ions 0f their MA ,thesis - :Pnl.~tical vlindk'I!io:['J.S of :l "ouT~elih:i!!twar~ gte,"et~d 'I;:v[m djsd<1lm b:V j'J1,at1y k:c:rnre:r,s, ,:viho p'ull~nCiained t~at cr~al[Jw wri'iing ,~-s OO! acCademk$Uy V::\I]id 'an§:ll j;lQU

I >CQuld n9~ - alldshotiLd nR;t - le'ach p:e1Qple to write fJicdon.

'For m::;IrI.:!I" years~' $a;ys Fr.l!m.cis} "1 wl;1~ sm;(;!~d.DUS of c-t~:a:tiyewritipg pTllgra:lnmes. I 'Spent a hu:ge i\lm:ll iJf mycat~ra.s an academie whowrote ,novel:s" hUll never r~.a]ay c~nnected thetvvo flcdviMe$V\ery tigbdy} On an exthange tothe UIl!lVer:srrty (VI MiS!sour.i [!!\\'fIS

wkco for gmntetltl1a!t as a list Fna:nds O"oul.d -

and \\'OJ(:dd.-[eaclir crea wt.i.tlng asweU .3!f

Ame'rvcan Literanlre. To his surprise, hefoi~llld it v:eI;'Y re~.1I'dj~ng.

'Wel]~ be refl!.ectl>, you .may .~ot be; able 1:0 1!each peorple to "Vl'it~ but you C'<III take pe·ople who "lire ca:pable of Wlritil1g c8nd ,proviCliem,em with the spaDe and struC;lt:Urewid:iill whrch rn~y have to W:ril;t. In eOfitr:!.lS]: to ule gtp'Wing n:.!lmbt"t (j,f ctx:~tive \vri~ng ·programmeli:fI[i:llmd .. the rcc~i.l!:nrr:rY~,. S~1i.I:aernl1 "a-t M:;111cnesre:r .~~"e ]'(;!iQlurcdEooDmpb:e an ~nln\e nov.f!]~ramerthan a serifs 0 f short s.[ori~~. It b,~:s betlrl a co:t1Sm,rllSI01!!rCQ of f:dctiOti\;vi:th ilia univeniw £Iurngrities - 60,!J'OQ' "WtJirt!s iI(f:l" very h,";\l1!g ilie::$is-~ :lfoo!' all

L~$8 COntfOVCI'slaJ bue .!.l~ less vi~a] i:.s the uca;dc'~k

, cq:nrern - ~om~miJl;g ot:lJ!ll1 P1is'srnrg from C4mil!;S 'e1.$'eW~ert1~! notes 'Schm)(;it.[ly ~Q' P.olnt ili~ Jl!ng:ell. The I~Urll(l h<'\S' fol.l~ G:o.rnpOrreOCl!~S, d1J~ 'Cr.::ntIai and most cf;uc~aJ. of wOirpl');op$,

Borurtimesa yea:r, s[udierlits produee SllOO words of their nocel for di8:C'u:s:sio[l aJl1ld eritieism, i\hl.'1.ough. intimidating) the sessions we:reinvaluaJb1.e fm Ann a Da.v:is) wbo was 1iI0"IAl:!1g the nUl intakeof students ;!lind has sjoce st:e.ur:eG' a t\'V()-book. deal with Sceptre, Her superb firsr Fl.O'\le!~ The Di~~lMr~ is to be 'l';)iblisb(:d ]]'! J~nl)l.afY,

She says: 'Writer.s ·~re ue:r:dbly. akme ]]1 their w0rk - ]l '5 very dIfficult to get people to read yQU and give you decent fee.doock;. On a Cimn;se, ~u'~ g.QI£. a capriv:eaudience to give yell proper :3!JttelltiOFl.~ l.eamrng to put berwoik on the line 3!11tciaJCtept. clfH::idsl1l.'1 p:rep:ue:d herw~El fo.rthe oifierouswl"t;1dd of {lg!ents and, ediwrs, Be~.en workshop.s~ students !S,tudy twe]v:e di'vergelJlt COUl!'Se l!eXl$, Th.eyaJso ,"~omple~e 9 praclical pro~ec:l~ Sil]ch arstr.ans!a:w1g a. llJo'v'd Qriil!a:aptin,g one.: fOff me screen, Fi:ruaU¥l there is <:I \toea'tiona! cnmponem; wh.en snidenrs learn ,alhmat the' pubtiS]-fi:n! incliusll'Y fromm.e inside, studying cmrI1'fictS~ oop;),JT:igl:n law~ pmfi.t and loss accomuing, Mltmg sM!urbs and l:Id.\!<Ji[lce :info.tI:ll1t1ri0]] sheet's for 'weir [i;ove~S.

Schmitde is Jl publisher hlntt.lelf - GW[lJer o:r'(~:,u:ca:net Pre$s and~cl:i,ror gf the PQ(;rn:ry magazine PN R:~view. Me S;;l,YS~ [Mps:t novlillsts tie up their mmiiJiscript with a PFe:~J.1' d~bQi(lj in the :(i,S"'il1;U:I.1IptiOiR tlli.e lndumy '~'.'I:gedy ~wa;i(s their \\I(]*~ whereas; of ~.ourSJ~, the 1<181; thjpg. publishers ~VIJd agc'n:t& look fOl'~,l\'[d ro is-a huge ShlSh-pi~~ sli:ahie:rifl:giJ1l'PlAdt their doer. If lUJofl:Wng dS:~~~le ceurse givd them a d~re~ of ~f;;er,r!].c:ism and re~dVscic expecmI!iQ,n:

Not ~;:.mly does, 'iJhe vm;:aciQQa:l'~k~m teach studcntf=> 1':10\1\1'(0 package their ide.a.s ;i!M Sic:m 'tbmnselves) ~t1!1so pli'epares Jna:ny for ~ career within me irrdl\s:ury flSdf. After gndllL1~timl". Amna Davis go!: ~ job .assjsti..iI1.,g me .m.allaging-d.irecmra.t ene ()f the larger ]it~rolr y agel1IJieS', DaYJjj J:J.ig;h:am.

TadalY, '(i(lhen sheJ:.~ ·no.t finf:s,hing offhe;r :second l1ovd_., she works part -time for lniother btrge- Hte:~ry agent, Curds Bl1'ollirvn. In. the celJseless bi.d tn d:isGmrecrr new t~],en:t> manytmmer sJutl.entsworkiqg lin IJle· .indiufSO-y have kept fu:I touch wItil1J. their- o]dnrt(u;s. Touring- tI"i!e universittes giv:i:~ g1l.eSit le.C,tw!elS~ tliey can meet and greet students a:nd artl~[1[:}pt w sniff Out tomorrow's p'r#r;t'llYinnren. LIST: year~ Lee Brru.tttl111 assistant to 'Faber's flc:l:ioJil ed:ilor~w::as ][1 MancJ::n:s'terco talk ~o l¥1A smdents. Fran£irs s:ugges[.ed be dr~ in Qill an.other dasg.~whete rb~r cha.H.ce he mel GlarcWigmEI.. After'I1e<1lding liWO O'fhl.'lr tlhtlnslories, he snapped up [h¢ l"\V'('\1Ilji'-on.e Y(;!l.t Qid.Bc' ha~ his eye OIil ;tr.u.Jme:r tfi~1;j~ or r01!:!t wfi~rs~ ~'\l,t r~fust-S 00 elaborare.

"Wltr~n: ~ startgd Ods MA/ ~~id Fr:rnds) q mougl'n I!iUbU~h~l'j 'lil!l' Look, dlO~li'lD. on. u'sas:ama~un) but that CQlI)ldlii'~ bC" furm~r from the tru:d.l. Cours:cs lli,kg Mql:'J:~h~.sTer~1l ar~ ~ddm.g ~:11 [m:p:On~n.t 1iL~ dim!.1tl.skm, ["0 ~rir;jsh publlshin,g':

liEST 4, PAPER 1

I!~:~ :.R T .:2

~'qr questib rlS .17"'"2Z,YOLJ:m ,ust thoos: which of. the pan:lg raph s A~G .on p'agea1f'i~ IntQ the numberedqaps 110 the followJn'Q magi31zllr'l!? artide, Tilefe IS one extra paragr~ph which does not fit in any of the g,ops.

Ina i (ail'€! your answers on 1!ihese:para-1iQ a nswef sheet

1 drcdn'~ hav,~ allY skl'ylng: power. ~ couldn'l concentrate on c][lly1h i ng if lhi n§ a \Nere bcri ngl. I WQS er pr8;;£ure tg getioe 1 1 -p~1J S 0 I1d ge~ QUit d~he reI 0 nd I guess it rn ust nO'i,ret bee n 0 bn tao much, I V>/CIS veiy g,ooo 01 Ef1g~ish but when Ihey cal~ected the IErlfllrcSh exam, 1 hod iumed over two pa;ge§ by mistClJj:.~, so ~here were I'iNtl pdges 1 hadn't done. The head master j tJsl said I mOf'9' or

In I I l~ss ,'lhQiI's ii', ('Jnd 1 was devmtoted.

'. . .. .... 1~1: I

Tile stammer y.ICIs" ~o[etp( bod- I W05 !"Jlf1JQlble to go b--,__.'!.- _

an buses end PQY lhe correctjere r beoouse ~he correct fCHe\!VCJs si:xpe nee, whkH II GQyid 11 '1 ;_oy - tr~lea:$t flol befor~ l got to my destinotr on _ And cs ! could scrl)! e!gh~penr:eJ thot WClS easier, I'd poy

e i9 hlpel'lce.

1 had a terri blesiern mer from about nine to 1 8 when 1 w~nt 10 t:J speech ~he'rdPist whQ c U red me. Sa ~here are €I few h-ell~ sh years i n lh€:fe.. Because' ~~el'e om Geftal ra words, 'Iou slum ble OYlElr, VOlJ do (myl~ing rGther thOlrl nil agair:Jsl those words righ~ Clwcry, so you would i nvanl way.:; of a'Sb'l1 9 rD~

~f.d f'lgs, yQ!.! fol,J nd Ilit~l.e phrD5eS y\,,11 ich h$1 pad,

Anyway, I wei'll into t~is shop ClInd 1 WldS. stan.ding 011 tne counter for ages end 'agE's, and II finally

said" 'LJ.d·cIo you hOI/Ie any c;·c-c.dllm .sJ-.s'1':shJds?

An d the rnon in Ihe fum i turs shop i wh len wOS nexl door to Ihe ho,bero:ashery shop - li'd 9 011 e- i ntQ rna w(On~1 shop ~ he sOid _ '1 am reol~y sorry, but we hoven't gol o~y lefl, bu~ if you pop next door Ihey rnigh~ have one' or hNo_'

1,119 [

Bu t of course the more ydulhi nk ODOUr it 1'he WQIs,e it gets, 00 by ~he tIme I aC::ludl~y arrivedot the shop,

I was a complete j'i bbering wr€iiGk. .

When I Welt! i,n fU nior school there WCi5 ~h (S p~s.s.ure 10, pcss Ihe ll'pb e~Qmii'1a'tion .. My brotHer had poss.ed if.


So ~ passed l'he ,El'Xam, but I sl'ili ~Cidthe slammer, tmd ~ Ihen we nl ~o S€€I (I ;speech' 1hero!pi:S!.

If I meet sam ebody w~Q sto rn rners, I. slmt to do U uncon$CjoW1$I~, and If I talk abouit stOomm911ng ~ H'S! blJi Id i Frg VP, 1!1 me !lOW ~. I' n ~tqrt st!o m mer; rig i t1 a mirlut,e.

A I'l1o/ brother was very dever, people alWOIYS wonted me to be more like my brOlher a nd do we II 01 school, biJt I WCl~ 0 n u iscnee, chc tIer! rigl end muck! ngl about alld not be i ng serious a bOLlI subtects, and I just used to love drawing alilihe. lime,

B She got es 0'111 to Ire down on 'the floor and le~ OUr toes relax, end then consecotvely everything else, and my mother used to do il wilh me in Ihe e\l\enir1g15,: holif on hour of lying onrhe noor [ust

Fe laxing - a nd it seemed to work.

C like going into 0. shop for orClPig!es,~ if I wanted 10 buy on orong,e, I'd say, 'Uh" by Ihe way, doyolJ hopperr 10 have any oranges:?J ~ couldn't rust .soy, 'Call I hove an orange please?' And of course jf you go into CI shop which is fulll of oranges ond SOY,' '. 'Uhf by Ih~ way, do you have anyo,ronges?', of course they '\Ie gal OrcJ'~ges. I menn I its completely IFrdicuhn, and so I ~pell't a lot of my childhood in Ihis crczvotmosphere.

D But I was tne only boy to get the 1 l-plus out o:f thai entire school. And when i wen~ to grammar school, Ihere werelods in my close arid girls too, from schools w~e ra <;'5% of everyone who look the 1 I-plus clU'tomorticoliy passed,

E' You either passed ~he' 1 l-ples and go! aul of rhat school or you became one ot these big lumps who used 'to hOllg oroend, And if you were fdt, or if you had got a stammef, you were boulld to be bu II ~ed _ Kids ore C ruel r oren' I they?

IF I remember once my porems lold me to go 10 the haberdashery shop to ge~ a collar slud fOIr my dad's s.hi rt. I t '!NOS probe bly ~ust Q mission toO get me out of tI-, e house, lcokl riB bock on it nOW_

IS H~ wcs very; very nice obcul if. III my poole oboot hovi ng to say • coller stod I on my way fhere, I'd been ~ in ki 1'19: now when I go i nto ~he shop I've go~ to be coreiul nor to say collar stud ~ff'Oighl~wCly.


I .. '


The Slno-Canarflan learn excav.atlng several Gobi sites has !Jrl€aJrthed eggs belo.:ng,rng to numerous dinosaur species. 'Someappear to have produced the strangest of eggs in the strangest of ways. AnkylOOSl! r eggs. tor example were neither roun d nor oval, but long and II1~n - around 180 centimetres long :and 60. centimetres. ill diameter. Ankylosam females seem to have la]d tJem Willi '9 rsat efficiency, 1,'1;';10 at a Mme. One e.xtraQrdinalry nest, co:n~aJning thirty pf

th €se e;.ggs, has yielded some clues abOul I ayi ng techniques. ltni9- eg'gs wer9" arranged in the nest in iii murti-Iayer spiral, resembling a pyramid. It seems thai the f,emaie dug the nest with her hlnc!legs, tl1en laid pairs of eggs as she proceeded around It.

The team has also u l1€l8Jrthe,d the skull and vertebras or what seems to be the Old World's largest d i nosaia From the rsmal ns unearthed, palaeontol:ogists have been able to calcu lat:& thal the creatu re was 31 metres from head t.O tai I - ten P Cllr ee nl longer than allY mner Old World dinosaur found so far. Re'lated to a dif1OS8l.!r caned mamenttn,isaur\Js - but as yet unnamed in its own rigt'1t - it IIv,eo arouno 1140 mill'iOlli years ago, was vegetarian, weigl1ed up to 'forty tonnea and wOllld proibably have walked at less than sl.xteel1 kilometres per hou r,

China's dll]OSiLur elscovertss cover the entire epoch of d illosaur prevalenc e Or! Earth - from around .225 million to 6ij milltol1 ye·ars O(l@o.. In the el"ld th ey we re wi p ed aurl by a n alural o,isas.ter. possi bly Gi3iused by meteorite impact. Detail ed stll.dy from fo-ssi~ material found in China. end in North Am~rica. is hel ping to prove that many of the later dinosaurs had comparatively large brains, rnammal-styr~ binocular vision ruld mom complex behaviour than prreviolls,l}' thouglht They were- not, it seems, always ~he du m b gianlS th®y <lIre norma lIy portraved as j;)\9,ing.

Read the f,olloWing newspaper ertrde and then answer questlons 23~.Z8 on page8,~. On your answer sheet, indicate the' letter A. B. Ie or D against the number of each question, 23~2i8_ Give Q,nliy one answer to each question.

lndicate your answers on the separate answe,r sheet

Ch i rrsss and Canad ian sole ntists. wo rk!ing ~fl the GIO b i Desert have; stumbled across a series of aO-miliionyear-old dtnooaur ooionies - ihcllJding ons with it! d'o~en 150·oentimetre-long babies. and another with ~ve tiny embryos. These perfecily preserved, uncrushed ske~etons are ,now help1 FIg €xpe;{ts study Iile range of fac.ial and other physncal d iff'ereflce5 dfs'Played oy dinosaurs willhin a spades, 8'8:cause a~,11he bal;Jies ,are of~lh.e same COlony, they ,am gerlain to be of the same speoiesend must

til eretore have a com rnon gene pool. D!31.ailed examination is rev~ltng ma.rk·ed driffemrtc!9s between individual colony members, with some of them having broader OJ larger faceslhan others.

The. new dalaemerging irom this and related research have serious implications l'Or dinosaur studies 1n g~anellal. In till e past, di fferences. In head size and sh8.;pe havQonen led: palaeorrlologist.'S to concnme ~hat they had discovered new species .. But nowtl-!at it ls knownlhat grea'l Pf1Ys ica! variations can occur within a ~ ingls djno~aur colony. experts fear that lIrJ!allY of the .500 listed dilnosaur speetes on the fossll record may not be separaIe. species alter all.

The Gobi D~sert colony discovered this year is of a species Qf vegetarian armoured dinosaull' known as an ankylosaur, Fin d S 80 fa:r ~r'1olude a ~ar,g e 11 urnoer of eggs. the baLb las, some' adu Its and a group of embryos - each 01111:; 36 eeirli~lmetr,es lang. Excavations nave provldsdsnapshots of danly me in an ankylosaur C{)lonv, including what appears to have been an attack by a carnivorous.rnncsaur on the ankylosaur nest full of ,eggs. The Iossilise~ predetorls preserved lying on top ot tile egg·filleclnest, and seems to have perished asa resu It or a sand storm which buried both the hunter and Rts prey,

Desert Discoveries and Monster Myths

DAVID KBYS, 'OI.D De:w insights, into the day of th.&di:nosiII.ur.

r e sr 4" PAPIU't 1

2.3 The dinosaur finds mentioned in paragraph one are yielding new information because A they contain blaby dinosaurs.

B the, skeletons are: undamaged.

c they ere 80 million yean; old.

D the dinosaurs ere exceptionally' large.

25, Wh kh of the followirng is true of t he an k.yl osa u r? /II. It ate @glgs. as a basic pa rt of its diet.

iii .It produted eggs, of an u mJ[suall sha pe.

c: Males and ~emales incubated the eg:9S" o ~t defem:!ed its eggs ,a9a i n S1 attack,

24 Aa:o~dingto p:8'ragtapn two, wh at a re the lrnpl iC(lltrons for d ~nosalLJ r

A Fo r th e firsttime hea d si2\e '21ndsh.ape c.a n be stu died. IB A new species has been identified_

C The estimated number of dinosaur spi?cie.s w,ill be modified. D The ideal of how dlnosaors looked is being changed.

,26, What did the ankylosaur do when producing its young?

A It imprO\l~d on a nest oiliready made by other dinosaur species,

B It Iwl sed its. ba c'k legs to prod UCE! a hoi E! iin the ground,

C: It posiitibnted its e919S.carefully w.ith the use of its, front le9's. DI It I aid eech e:.glg on top of another;

,2.7 'the scientists have diiscovered a lalrge dinosaur which ~s A abcut to bE! given a new name.

B the biggest ever found outside Ameri:ca. (complete except for the heard and tail. D related to another Chinese dinos~ur.

;2,,8, What do the recent Chinese discoveries of dinosaurs show? .A They Hved for 1011l,gE;'r than had previously been thoug'ht.

IB Thsl r eyes.ight was different fro m what had been bel rreved_ ( The i r la rg,e bra ins a lIowed the m to move quickly_

D They dedined graduailly over a period of several centuries ..


Answer q uestlons 29-46 by tefe rri 1'119 to the newsp,aper artid s about. hoUdary1 on p-age.s,B~:6,"

Indicate yo,ur answers onthe separalt,e aFliswer :sheet.

For questions 29-46 cheese ~lour anS\.I'I.fer5 from the llist gf people (A-,F) on the rig lrt below.

Same d~o~c:es may be: :requiretj mor~ than once.

Note: When more than one answer IS liequired, Ui@se may be 'g:~vl~n illl any olfde:r,


df,:dik@,S, the ldea of relaxing!'? .29

h@lp,ed a frie:nd in difficLJ lily? 30

a:ppreci:ated the Simple life? 31

re(e~ved understa nd ing from

fa m ily members.? 32

were torced to f,epe~lt the s a me exper~ence in followin.91 yea,rs?


Z~~4 ... ro

fa iled to ta ke til e n ecessa ry preca ution s 7


A Bill IBJY50n

B, Nairn AttaHah ,e lines de I a


D Qruentin (risp E Maureen Lipman

II' MaICQ~m McLaren

pretlt?nded to be en]oying things? 36 enjoyed geUing somssxerdsa? 31 wasi rJ .a pla C@' wlit hfadlitlles

t hat were not app redated? 38

lOU nd activities we ra d epen dent

on the weather? 39

went on hoi ida.y at a ~ime' that

was notthe bt:st7 40

wa~ ob I ~ge,d todo sorneth i rlr91

d(lingerous? 41

were forced into the hoHday?

4.2 s •... ·43


had a. pa r@Frt whose fee'l ings

a bout the p~.a te were sirriilar? "5

was a v,ictimou U nfniendly

animals? 46


Best of




f .1

o Times

BUll B,ryson, Travel writer

Thehappiesthollday I 'ever had W.lS on Lundy Island with my wife and three chlldren, It is rUl~ hy rhe Land mark: Trust, nnd unspoilt. There are no towns or shop.\S and !lothing 1)0 do OUl go fc)]" invigoraring walks and look for puffins. The island generates ~,[S own @k~cltridty which

is turned off ~,t 10 b'dock at Jlight.. Having tucked the chtldren up i 11 bed I wewmild bu ild a roadrrg fire in our lilt[le cOJUJ:ge and read by [he fife]jghl. ltwas perfect.

N,aim ,Attailiah Publisher

I hardly ever ta ke holida ys bur fourteen years ago [ was, pressurl ... ed i nto gO]Tiig to the Costa Smemld~'1 wirh my wife and SOIn, [ enjoyed. the first day: I hired a boat, sat ill the sun for about twenty mirunes and had tea on. the veranda, By the second the novelry of doing nothing had worn of[ I love the bustle of towns and my e:xdt-ement comes, from WQrlfci:flig, 1 can't stand people who, ~lppear lazy. AU 1 could see were people siuing and frying ill the .sun. I got very agi[:;'it€(l the holiday was

~urning into a nightmare and we went horne lmm diat 'Iy, My wife and son were not upset because they know my nature.

Inas de la IFresarnglB Model

When I WoIS seven I was sent to boarding school in England to learn English during the summer holic~~tys. The school was SJI.lIppo,'le,d to be' a paradise for children. There was a tennis court,:iI. swh:mning (:)'001 and horses, but [ hated ~enniS thourg,hl it was too cold to swim.and was afraid of horses. 'rhc school. was. filled

with forre:ign.erl) learning English, but [ was very Shjf and didn't lik-e lj'De ather children. I cl'ied 1iI11 the lime and wrote lor:lig letters to my g;ro.ndnlOther saying I was lonc]y,. ~s] was quite tiny, my faluHy decided tha.lIny nanny shouW s1:3. y .in tI nearby hotel for the month I was at school I was allowed to See. her on Sundays when she took me to her hotel wh lch VIlaS full of old people who danced at teatime.

I remembe ct-yi[lg and crying on Sunday evenings when I had to C3 rch the bus back. rt was fit nightmare for iii. chHd ,bil::lt ] was sent back severo. I y~ars. running because my family MlS obsessed with rny learn iug Eogi ish,

'Quent:in Crisp Writer

Ail my childhood holidays were nightmares.

My family had a cottag~ near Hastings on tile south coast where Wt! went year after yenr, and it was absolute hell. 1 went for the whole summer with my mother and brothers and sisters .. My. father cam - down for two weeks: hE: hated evervthlng, It was DO hol]cia y for my mother. She had to. ut sandwiches for us all and carry them to the beach, Theeewere wasps everyWhefe a nd sand .i n e'li'letyth:ing. I can: t understand why we didn't eat at home and then go and sir on the beach. I pretended [ loved I!.he seaside because I wanted to be like



otherpeople, but L never succeeded, I got OIl'] with my brothe(~ and 5i:5~ers. in a liaif:hearited wa y, but they teased me urnnerc]fuJly. \\'i'~ went on fQ~ly ollting{\ wh:e'flI i:t wasn't miLling, I'm no good .. at sport and I Cl3:1'l1t ride: a iJike, \Vh~11 I was eleven the qm:tage was sold and we stopped going. which was a gnat reli~J~o me

Maureen Liipman Actress

this year my husband Jack and I went skiing

.W. Sw](zerKand wirh the actress 1u]i.l MCKemie anti her husband ICeny. MIb:Ot[g,hllThe: hoHc!ay was a. ]au~, the skl.irm pad was a .l'Iigh[ma~ It pil'obahb' was.n'l the best time to learn: Wt! dock up about: twO hundred years between IJS:.· n Wfl~ also April .md there W~SJJ/t m:UG~ :snow~ jus~ lots of n~~l'dphckBd lee, lad;;:., w.ho ha!'l got his hip and his: head screwed, on, refasedjo gt') near the slope3"j Gel'ry cou Id .<;!d a b~t and went.. into tbe h]g bQ:Ys'" ll:uFa and I smrttl:o p.1! the m.Jrne['Y !'l]ope,,>J' 1 could snow plough, but Julia kept skiing iato a fence, ] had to pick her up, whidi is noteasy wherr yo\:l're 'QVC:f fon,Y and have, big wooden things OJ] your feet After [he had Jal1e~tl, several tin:tCs" luU;[ g'aVie u]q nod headed for the resta liUil.:l1it, ] was, more fQoIII~II:dy, and wem 'up the t:n~unt:;(]n Witll d:le

rest of the class. Ourin:S(,IuClGr~okl us ['0 skl down. IUter a OO!l!ple O'E zig-urgs my heart W1i~ pounding. ] took off my sk'is and ~a:id. "I'm wRlking.," It took me an hour ~md, a half I~ogeit d~lwn. I t~ameq a lam, and was attacked i;.y tllree dogs" ijy the I1rne someoae carne to c~JI tile all o[fr I was terrified and weeping" When I reThthtd Ihe bOl"D~m .l multi batcUy sPJ~9k,

Nla leol m McLaren Record Prcducer

WhUe ] was an .att studenr I decided to travel 1:0 :libya and 'h,alfu'<i!:v there I realised 1\::1

~. ..'

[()iIgC}lten it) have the jabs, rw~s eourting

Vivi.enne \l7esWi'oCld er the tune and she ]oined me in .. We ~lept 11::1 a ~el1[ on the kle'dchl and one flWQ"ming we woke upto cll.s.~or"rer we were fl.o~",~illg in themiddle of the oeean, \Ve Found a synlpal hetir b'l.keJ; whtl let l!JI$ dry Out by his ovens t b U we lost ,.everyltlllin;g - it had all floq~G!d away., We h'ld no ItI.Dney, and I [hleved fruit and ~<IJdin~ 1J:-pm the local market so we ceuld eat. There Was ~ bullring nil Marsemr:::sancl ,]f you stayed~n the I~ng with the bun fo~ a ce:rraln le~ID of time you got FlF~y francs, ] di.dLt because we were desperate, bu[ I was terrified.


Wri:ting (2 hours)

.p ART 1 .

1 You have organised a one-dey tennis tournament between the languagiEl school where you a re studying and another school. You have rece,ived a letter a n d te~ephone mes·sage Which have ca used you to mak@ (ina nge~ art short notice, You have conta cted people by phone at n d have mad e n'ew arr a nqeme nts.

Read the original timetable for the one-day tournament, the telephone meSSBg'e and the Let.ter. Then. uiSing the ~Iilif(,nlmatmoncar,e:fully, write ~m lirmfoli"l1I1ail:,iolfli

I eafl~e:t. fhat wi U attract members of the pu b lie tcr the to u rn arnerrt and which glives full informalti:on about the n@\lV arrsnqernents.

Write approximately 250. words. Ybu should I.J~ your own words as, far as, possible.


Saturday 7"th July lO.3.@ Al1.i:vw. Cofle<e.

1 UJO' Play commences. Under 16 m 1.00· Lunch"

2.001 Open matches (all ages}.

6.00 Presentation or prizes hy 8h:, PhiHp Delaunay (Wimbledon ebampinn Jl9j5~J··52).

7,00 Dinner followed by dancing •.

10.,00 Eud of '~OUFnament.


_ and 'Of course I shall be delighte(l to present, the prizes for YO'Jr club. _ a.lw.ay$ look Ecrward to Irreel:iIlg jl'OllllQl tennis players and encouraging them in this wonder Eul _spo:r t, r !'egl:'~ t. t.ha c, O'II;'ing co prior engagement;. I wi 11 not be abliO! to arr'ive until shortly befor~ 6- p.m. bat I hope to stay until the end of the to"~e!1t,

'leurs s in.cer-ely ,

Sir Philip ~launay

Secr-etary of EXOJ1k'lJIY Intflrnational Student!5,' Club phO~·Ted. 9Qme·rrobl~m:;;1 It'!;l!Fli ~~'t arrive utitll12 noon tlt1Id mU5t Iwml7y 6.30 p.m. - pro"'l~m$o iMth ro<lldwork5 on motorw8y,. journey willi ta<~ I0i10er th~n u$u~l. Al~o, no under 16·p"layu~ thi~til1'i6. C<ln you rearranl3e thil1~~1 rlt:a~e contact,

TEST 4,. PAP'ER ,2

...... ---

----~ -- --- ----

PA"RT t··

o 0 - 0

Choose one off theiollowing, writl n 9 tasks. Your answer .S hould 'fol~low exact Iy the

instmctiuns 'gliVlen. \M'i1!e app:ro:ximately 250 WmQ~L .

2: You have been asb3.d to write an article 'for a series in an E'h La ngluage noewspap er, Anum b er of people have been asked to wiite the seme ki!'TO 'Qf alrtide. You have to DS5cri oe some or all of the ftoillowing: ttl e hap!, i:e~t moment of your I~fte, your gr~ati3:S~ fear, your grieates:t fegwet, your f.avourU.te journey and which si[r1g!e thing would most improve the q~81I~ty of your IIHe. 'Write a liveliy and

i ntere:;Ung art! de fill(;l[ readers of the n e"W"Spa per wi n 'enjoy .rea ding.

ViJrite 'you rartide,

3 A fri ena of yours who ,,{'OU m~ wh IIle :studying ilO B riitai I'll has now retu rned to h ~s / her Q\Nn coulr'lltry. He I she has wiI'ine n to you. expressing fears a bout the future. He I sh~ ls maiinly conte:me:d (iboul war; pO.llutrOl1, and unemp~oyrn~nt Wlrite a IleUer tlQ your friend wn kh wi Iii resssu re h~ m I her: You s hou Id tak€' an ,l)ptimtstic viiew of the future·.

Wlrit~ you r ~e"ell'-

4 YOu have' entered a compethion and the prize is either afrst-dass mum:J-tf'l,e·worl~ air ticfQet, v,aliid for one 'Y~ar plus alllaccommotja.t:i9r'l exp€'r1ses: paid for you. ora one~year staiy in.another CQUIntry of your chojce, w~th all accommodatJon 'expenS12"Sl:1 paid for )IOU plus a free Ilanguage cou rse ~n the la ng u age of thiClt m,u ntry. Ai. part. of the tompetition ~(ju haiw to write a I,etter to th13' competition orglall"!lisers saying which pr~z€! you would pre-nel"; an d why.

Wnite your ilaUer.

5 You have been as ked bry the rnanager off a pa rvy iln Brita i n for wn ic hi you W'Qrk',. to, stay ~ n a hlti~el for two days: and the"" write .~ Fepc rt on the, hotel, mention ing positive and n eg.atliv@ aspects" (ommel'llt on '~he I,Qcation, t~ e room, the fadlit:l!3.s avail,able' and thet.ervi(e, Say whether the hO'le,1 is a suitable placs for business people to .stay,

Writ'€' your report:.

I ...

TEST 4., PAPlHt ,2.


English in Use "1 hour 30 minutes)


- - ---- - --

For quest~.on.s1~15". read the text below and then decide wh~ch word best fits each space. Put the letter yo u choose fe r l@fKh q uesti on in the correct b·CK::':: on your an SWEl r sheet The exercis~ oegiins w~tFn all e;o:;~mpJe (01).

YOlO Mus,t Remember 'This

SmnetimlEls yOiU. migh~ t6"e~ that if you had a pm'fQcft m@:mozyj~U you problems .. wah .1,~a!Iliin,~t 'w,mIld be. (I), .... You would be able to U) , .• < thmn,gh ex~ms w].t;nQU.t, much ~:e'v1s;ion. YO'u. w'Ou.1d ncv"Cragain (,2) ..•. the embarrassm.ent of forgetting someene's name, But ~m!3ig[ne, fm:, a mlJlmentj not fQrg~ttinI:' anytll:ing - no,te'Vl'lll last y,eaes. snopping ~ro ... , 'ltm.llwou1d be (-0 .... with ilrlfmrnaUan.

With hard work you' can recaU ~he P<.'l,:rts of a v~(irb 9I' the layout of a tOl>Vll as you n.eed them, so. that you can learns foreign ].al1g1lag~ or (:5' .... a tam dri ver's Ueenoe - But~he mBmGrY ~8} ..• , called for by soma profess;i.orls are o.uty one of the .roles ITleR1J.ory phl.y'$ in OUl' Uh~J~s, Me.mory ICOvel"S a (7) .• _. range of $l:ctionsand lI:e~d.s. What we (S) .... about the brmn is far from complete) S'O p,hnn:s.QPJh~rg and

s~1m.ti!'l,t:s find .it (H.fficul t. to b e (9~ ". '. i1lJbQUL the nature of m.emol'y. Remem.hering and f'ij:rg'Gttillg can be uaderstood in many ·d:iffeJ:ent (10)1 .. ,. but broadly, three -dia.tmct classes of memory have been esta bLisbed: perSOll,alj _~Qgrudve andh.abit n.em:ory:.

Psrsonal reemeries are: those acts of l'e:m~mheri:ng: wh.ieh (11) .... sped[lCaHy to 'each penon's life hj~to:ry. ]f you. say, "I remembe!f th€: first time 1. t~ave]1ed by :!;rmn',. ylHl, ""iU probably havean image ill. yOill' miPt1 of ehe (l':2) ..... and be able to. describe thin,gs iIIl :U., Cogni tiw me~.Ol:yhe.lfl!5 us learn" J"o-r exam.pIe, sroriesl a speecllior a (13) .... of music. lIab:i t. memo:ry (14) .... those a.'OiHties needled. to perform actions sueb as typing or driving. .11\.Hthese a:ct]ons must be learned but--@]l,oe ·th@iY have been, .YQ'U wUJ rru~€"]y remember ~:n.ytmt}!g ('11 5) ... , as yon lllirform them.

0 A an'swe:red (§) soilv~d 'C impmv,e(:i I) removed
1 A $aii~ B walk: C mn D! f!dat:
2: ,A encounter B face C realise D' accept
3; .A recenpts B notes C lists D bills
4 A Q'!,I\~IV!.Ie:i g ht B stuff'ed C burdened ID CNerlqaded
5: A win B :gain C :e.flirn ID' award
6, A concepts B choices c feats ID methods;
7' A 'v\iide B lar!JI€ e 10119 D big
8; A study B ilearr:J 'C D know
'9' Po precise B ~x!planatory 'L correct n aware
10 A ways B concepts ,e forms D types
11 .A 'connect B appear c have ([) r·efer
12 A occasien B ha ppe n i:ng C process 0 thought
13 A pi~ce .B fL.UlI€!' c sound 0 ~ nstru m ent
14 A means IE wvers c enables 0 directs
15 .A t.m:aUy IE in,ardly c knowing,ly [) consciously
11" E s T 4- P A :P E R .3 I!D
, .• , For question s 116-:3 rn mmp Ilete the foHawi n'g a r'iic:ie by writing sac b missi n;9 word, in 'the correct box crn your answer ,s-ne:et W:;e' only one wo.rd for @lrt!l;h space,. The eXe rciS:e :begins with ,a n exa m pie ,~ot

The IDevelopment of the M:otor Car

The earliest: motor vehicle (0) built in .17169 by Nicolas-joseph

CugnQt, ~ Was, powered by steam and (116) ttl top Speed of about fa,u r

kph. Many 'similar vehicles were then built, ma!Jllnly (117) .. ,,""" use on farms, These steam w,agons had a sturdy frame and h~vy \oVOQderl wheels .. This made them capable (I '8) ... ,,, .... carrying heavy loads; By 1885 in response

to §mwi ng publ ic fears that steam ~ h ides were travelling too fast,

(~. 9) " speed ~imlt was ihtl'ocllli:.ed. (10) ."' WM decided that three

kph uln towns and six kp h in country areas was fast (111) """_",._., As an

add itional s.:lfety precaution, a person wavi ng a red flag had to walk in front

of the vehide,.YcrLl (21) " ·think that (2,3) , speed limit w.a;s very ~ow,

but you must remember that the roads wer-e very poor an G th at many steam veh kles fpund (2,4) '" "'" .. d ifficu It to stop qui ckl y.

In I 885. Caril Be nz buitt the M otorwago n, the fiirst car to have a petro I

engine. ~t was (2:5) ." ~ ighter tha~ the steam engjne and (26) " travel

alfifi:e€ri kph, (2.1) .. , trIPe .of \!Iehfcle was t:on:side:red le~'S dangerbl,l$

then the large, heavy swam wagon,S. ~n 1696, the" sp€€tllimit for petrol-driven cars was rased to 22 kph and ~n I 903 it reached 32 kph,

ln Detroit ~r( II 903 the Ford Motor Campa,My was: founded, By I 908 Ford was mass-produdng (28) " ........ famou~ Model T cars on an assembly line, This rnearrtthat the time and cost of 'ci3:r-mak~n.g, \<\!'as dramatically red uoed

and more people could afford to buy (2,') own car, There are now

23 minion cars in the United Kingciom and the average person makes tl'lirte:en journeys a V>,{~eK mast of (10) .. , ....... by road.

~ A R' T ,'3'. ..

------- -- -

In most lin1es, of the fa Ilowi ngr 1tExt,there is eiither ,aT sp€!'Uifilg ClJr a ;p u nduation error, For each n u m berea Illne 31~6 write the correctly sp'~lled word or show t~'J e correct punctuation, Some lines ~ir:~ correct. Indicate these llnes wirth a tick (.I). fhe e:>ie:rclsle begins with three examples (0).

Why do people sometimes fail to help when they sbould?

'0 There is Hittle dum that people existwhn :si.lnply donal feel

'00 the emotioIDS~ that ere felt by ordinary people. Because of a

000 b:r~]n defect or some olber .kind of ,abnormality. th,ey lack

311 e.lnp~thy. -J;heYCal.'JillQlt t~l an!Oil~e1l" human beings pai n,

32ei:tller emotlonal or physical, Fonunatly, [ile,y are amri,ty.

3,3 Merecommon am decent, normal. people: WOOl at one time

3'4 oranether faU to help somebody who, in retrospect, obYiously

35 needed help, mn onei nfamous case in New York in ] 964,

36 thirty e]ght people had iii chance to tnterrupt amurder 111

37 progress but did not Why such things happen has perplexed

38"",., ,.. .l1hilosophers[or eeataries and today pz.;ycho~.og;i siS ~:mve joined

3'9 (be searchfor answers? One general rl!ll,e i1; U~~t the better we

4li(1' know someone orthe more hie Dr she lis '~i ke us, the more lil::ely

42 we I (I've. Boweyer we often thin II: tw:iq:: about helping strangers,

4-3 especially if tlte:y are, diferent from ourselves, Oddl,Y,. a vietim's

44 chauces ofbe.ingpmrKlpf[y helped seem to decrease as U1e number

45 of people oh~ervlllg the Emerg'ell£yincrease;s .. mys~a!lders tend 46 . - .... " . - m think that somebody else has already made ,a deei sicn about Wb~it to' do and that further help is on itswflJY orunnecessaey.





For questions; ,47-6,1 read the two texts below. Use the words In the boxes to the Tight of the texts to form one word that fits in the same numbered spac,e in the text. Write the new word in the correct box on your answer sheet, The exercise oeg,ins, with an exa m pi e (0),.


Terrified Customers

A 'fWO~METRE-LONG ~eeJl] and" yellow snake is ,COl) " ....... - ~inl· police custody ~ner terrified custemees filed in panic w"'e~ they saw it crawlingalong the fresh- fm;it counter of a too-a! supermarket, Police Officers who we[e

called to the scene. found a very (47) and agitated

snake and managed '10 capture ~t with some (48 ... __ ..... Ponce Constable John Brown said, "It was very

,( 49) .. and q nile hea:'lfY and it took three of us to put

it ina, large bag. We Hu]]]k it may belong to a snake

(50) ".. and could have escaped from a parked car.

We "J like the Owner to contact us and he~p us with our

(51) ,," The snake w,a.~.--exi!llllined by a vel who said

that ]'[ was well-fed, perfectly healthy but rather

(512) c ••••••• He confirmed that it was not {53) ". "


Pel'sonal Presentarti,on

When you have ilccepled our offer of r.5,4) ._ ..... you wllr

be is.sued. lree of Charge. With a untfoml wich you are obJlged co VJeilf wtljfe on duty OUf unIform has. been

designed after detailed (55J ... _. .. wltl1 member.; of staFf

.aM reneCl;; me quaflty and style of our business. It helps to form the customers' first r56) _._ .... _._ of us Pled~e note mer maJe scaff are no t permitted to wear (57) . .. of any kind alld femare staff must nor wear rif1gs Of earrings whrch a're

r5S) .. ,. __ .. __ JlIfge Or eQUid be regarded .;;15 (59j ,' I fl

shape 0'1 design wtist'VVGltches are perrnlrred IJ.IJ[ must be

[,60) in see and appearance. If In dOUbt talk to your

Iloe managef_ For both men and women. tlair should nor exceed shou~der !6J) ._._._ ... __


(o) SAFE
(47) NE.RVE
(4:g~ SUP
(.52) FRIEND
(.5,3) POISON (54) EMPLOV
(56) ~MPRESS
(5,7) J!EWIEL
(160) ACCEPT
(161) LONG For QLN2'S;:t:i.o!'1!s. 62~74, ooad theio!HOVIIRflig newspaper .story and use the infonnation in it W com plete· the num,Dered gaps in th e ilnlfforma!1 letter. Then writ,l2' the new words in tbe correct space on ycm r answer sheet. IlJISie 111(1 m,ore than two, words for 'each gap" The words yo u need do "'Om OICC:l!I:r in the newspaper story: The exerose be'g ~ns

with an ~xa m pl~ (O)" .

Sup,erdog: Shot: :iln Moultill ~ IBJlt SlIll"viives! Thugs' licKed by p,luclky AJlsatieul

The nl8ti(,;~Si£e of the quaint old v;tn~e of Petersham, in leazy s.urrey. w here the poshiio]'ks hv:e~W'as sha.ttered yesterday. Two armed l'aid~ri3r lluandis~: a sbo'~gl.JU'llMd rev>ol'll€I:' blu'st h1lto: iIille ws,t.otl1h::e~run wy Mr WaUer WaH, 52. and[ dam anded h.e ~v,e ti1em. c.f!ish. Qus.tO'mers q.uaked wiU'ilc feaw; ldllc!k,yguaf'd dug ~l".~~Q das~U;'doot foom unae;r th~, oO'unter •. b!'l1'a:d '!bis fungs ~nd sal$ tJ:a:em. int,o the leg of o:~.::, of the ~'a~clel's, whQ sCll€<am~d w;i tn .PJ~in" His cO'wardly

OQmpanjJonthen blasted hero~do;g 2:01"1'0 :[It po~nt-, blank':e - BUT THE BULLETS BOUNCE.D OllifF ZORRO"S, ROCK~HARD GNASEERS.! No:n.plussed. tile rm!de:rs, .fled emp:~y· hand0~lL Poliee .caught. them. .afte;;r:a b;]gh~aJleeld car chase. A pall .of (-ear n;ownangg he~vy tJv,er !he'~[[)j vmage thtlitwa:sc onoe .FleterSWBJm.

Wa:n'tlel'",dog' ZtlI'ro w~s wh~s.kBd 0;[[ fOl'smergencytreBitInen:t .8.. wp vet said, ~He·s. goitl!g to be a:l1 right:'



You'ill t1,wer bcH~w: whflt. hae h,srpperN!~t:t here. I'm Bnolo~rf1g ,;It pres.elI c'urttil1.g for you. It'i1 th-e ~or:t of th~t1g you exp.~ct to nappel1 ln the 1t1f1er cit.y rat.her t.han

here in the (0) " , " . Mayl1e :theytl'lOtJahtthalIt ~ec~.IJ~e the people w!1o

liy;e her~ ~re quite (e.2) >"." ther~ wou'l~ l?e p'lenty of trlont:ly to~'(:,e~1.

I W~B in tine f'be.~ Offic::e wh~ltl two men 'l1.Ieih~d in!. (63) " " .. , .. , .. ,. tihem :oa

gllJi1. w,hicn he ((4) , " , Mr W~H. (€i5) , .•... ,.,., b~gal1 to

(66 ), the mOI1 ey, a eo they h"d Wi d him. Some: of the GLi@tomero

wer:e '60 f1tig~Tt;,e:l'1edthey wert:. (6:7) , , . At: that. moment Mr Walll'e dog,

wr-ro. who had Ib~cn !'lu~ct:ly lyiln13 Or! th'" (680)' ......... <" ... +,,,. "jump_6ci !Ji:~ :oand.

(69) " " .. cm~ of t~@ robr·ere;,C:;8u~ln:g him ln a,gon,y. The oth':::ir

robber 6not Zorro at clo$e I1iIng~ .. Amazinely" t~e b1l1l!~ts bounced off Zot-ro'i1

(70') .. " .. "' j Th~ rQbober~ !W~r:t: ~xtr~m ely ('71) .•. ' ,,''',.. ~ u r~ arld ra n

,d:ut ~thQut (72) , , ,Zarro w~!.? (13)~" ,H<"" taken 'to a vd for

tre:attl1Bi11t. App~r~ntJly. hC'J (14) ,.,".""",<"",, •• @OQI:1. whlc;h r6 good newe.", ien't it'?

Be:5t. wi 6h~~\



For questions 7'5~80, rat)d the folk:~Vi1ng lex) ond 1hep choose fmm lh® lisl A~'I given below the best phrase le fl~1 ecch of ~h e SP_OO€'S, fndic!lte ¥'OU ran sw:e ron 'fhe slep!aJli'alte anSWer sheet. Em:~ conocl ph ~as,e may on Iy be, U5~ OPl€~. Someo1f 1Itli"ie sug,ge'stecl aonswers de not fi1l:: at ·a~t

Aspects of Love

For D~ Robe rt Sternhe rg, a p;S,YChClJOg lst at Vats Uni\l\ersity, leW€! has no mystery,. He has dedicated almoo1 a qeoade.otresearch to dissecUng love, exarrf~liljnQ in a sClentfJfio way why people,. fall ~n and cutct love, He has reached conclusions whkh enabl:El him to pr€diic~ !the ~ong-term success ,'Of rqma!'1tid ~n~ang'l,ement:s. 'In~a~cl he! nas fowml.!is.tM,.Stembe:r,g's Triangular Theory of Lave (7$) ..... The flrst ls lntimacy {'76) , ,._ . The S,(3!cand is pa,ssiOr1, wh ichi n eludes, exclternent and arousal. Thirdly. there is dads ion and commitment, (77)", .. ; th,s decision to I,ove someone and the "Iedgle~o nurse that liov'€ UUOl.Jlglh go od and bad Urnes, Th 9:. way you comb~ne these three

com pcnents cHctates the type of love yoOu e:x:peri,en ee, Intimacy alon e resu Its i n an unspsctscuer liking, whUe passion alone. generates an infatua~ed crush'. Overdo the decislon-end commitment and you end up with'what Dr S~Bmberg call S 'empty lavIs' (78) .. ,' . tomp~ete' th,s 't!ria:n.g I,e by p!edging everlasting d'evouron and you ellljc(y consummate love (79,) ..... Fortunately, dHferenoes in the three dliffe rElnt-styl.e'S of love are, treatable, Stern beflg says the anSV!.I'Bf is qu~te s i mp]e, If you r partner era ves rno rei ntimacy, paeslon or commitment,

the n yo u must identity (;(J:I)) "" andJo your best to provide more of Lt - it you

A wh iIh is typrcaJi Qf true :st.a'ges ,of 2Ui, affa i r .B which component is ntissing

c wh i en is the best of all accordi FI 9 to ID r S temberg:S theory

I) wh icc h is a common sympto rn of an exn,augted or dying .l.o\J\E! affair

E wh ten he, defti ti;es, as a: sharj ['1Ig of thOl.JQ hts and feeli r'1i;;J's

F wh lch h.3'S ttl uee component'S

61 whfch is u p of t"IAI'iD pans H wh kh Stern berg is hop! n 9' to

which is what your p~rtnter wants

TEST 4, f',APER:3


Us,t,ening (approx, 45 minutes)

You will hear someone describing a traffic d~cid~:mt that he saw.. For quest1iol"l511-UlI, conip~ete the notes b€'lrnN~ usl ng on e or t\!yo words,

"rou will hear the recording twice.

rrrrrrrrrrft!· ~"11111111

An Acclident At The, Roundabout

Position of witness: LI _._I_, ..dl hotel room 011 20th floor

Vehicles involived in accident:

type L-1 _.1_2_.1 .colour LI __ ----.... ----'-_3:_J

typ,e ..... ! ~__.J.I-_.4_1 colour '-1 ~ ----L_5;-'

On the roundabout one car was hit LI ___..L_6 _JI on the sirdi@.

Other vehicle's mentioned: '-- -'--7_·.· _JII lorry

:8 I tar


Number of vehicles that stopped after the aoddent: I 9

Witness thought one driver might have been I 110 I



P A "R T 2

Yo,u will he.aranaslmnomer tal k;ing, about th~J)Janet Man;. For questions 11~20. c.omprete' the tab~e with the mij:ssing infGlrmation. For each answer you wi II haw:! to \N,rite down a nu m ber or a word.

IListen v~ry carefu lIy as y:ou willll hea r the record illillg 0 NICIEo·n Iy ..

The Red P~a:net:

Di,ameter of Man.~ ._1 ~~~1~ll~1 k~!ometlre:;

Per(:!elltag,e oJl Earth's gravity: '-~ ~l_1_2_J1

Perten~aQle of !Earth's $lIIillli.gnt.I .._1_1_3:_,1

length of MaJt~,m year: ._1 --"~_1_,4___'. ~ Earth days


minutes 115; I

N'umber of moons: b.1 ---"-_1_,G...,j, I

Ccmpa red with Earth'S rnoon, they are:

II n 1

Atmosphere conststs ma~n~y 01 I-1 --------I,.-,_8""""'.

Percentage of oxygen: ~.L... .L", 1

'-- ~"'_~ _2_O-,1 metres

Highest Via Ileana:

'f~'51 4, IPAPER 4

21 Wh,en Am anda first left schcol, 'she



You w~11 hear a woman Qlliled Amanda AHen who works as an orqamser of ~arg@ inter= national sports elJJ€1f1t$, being intflrviewed about her career; For questiorts 21~21" choose the correct answer (A, IB, C or D).

A. hoped to foillow a ca raer in the USA

IB had no real~ ii d~a 'of her own 'i'blHities.

,e was kee n to experi ence diffe rent types of work.

D dld temporary work in the absence of other pllans.

22 Why did Amanda give up her course lin business studies?

A Sh e reg retted he r cho:ice of subject

B 'She found that. partiCIJI'ar course boring.

,e Sfr;),e realised she wasn't very good at lt,

o S h~ fo LJ nd it hard to settle down at college.

23 Am~lf1da chose to '90 to Australia bees use

A she saw thechan ce to start her own b usiness,

IB She knew thatshe couldsupport herse If the re.

C She had heard that wonk Wil'S easy to 'find there.

D She wantedto spend some time traveilling around.

24 Looki n 91 ba ck, Am ends reg ards her accident as

A a rather frustr ating episode.

B a kind of lucky escape.

e al missed opportunity

It> an i mporta nt tu rning point.

A Her teacher persuaded her to do SQ,

B She felt lit was :ti me to retu m to Lon don,

( She was Ii nfiu enced by her p hys~cl'tthe r a pr st.

ID' Her 'injury meant that she had to find a new career.

26 What does Arna nda say ab DU,.t the cou rse sh e took?

A She made i m portent contacts there,

B She appreciated its ~Ie)(nble organisation.

Ie She was distracted by financial problems.

D Sh e trave II ed abroad as pa rt of her stu dies,

A. unsure of her abi nty to cepe with it,

E! surprised to be given surh a key role.

C reHe'!,/led that her expelrieli'lCB had been recognised.

D a mazed that' she had been offe red any l/IlOr'k at all.


- - -

You wlll hear five short extracts frn which different people talk about danger and risk in their I jives.

Dangler And !Risk


FOJ q u@stiorIlS' 2,8-22, match tine extr acts as yo,u hea r them wlifh the p.eople. I ist,eo ~HI.,

A police officer 8, f~refighte r

C mou nta in reseu er

IE hel kopter pi I Cit

G, pa rae h utist

H caver


For q uestlons 33-31, match the extracts as you hear them with the reaso nsghl'@ by eaich speaksrfor tekl ngl part i nda nqerous actJvitie,5, listed .I\-H. .

A working in a 't!Mim

B sense of duty C va.r:iety


E ssvi r'l'9 lives

Fr self -ccntrol

H m.oney

Eh~!membe~ that y'OliI m uS,t co,m pllebel D()th tasks as y,o,u Ilis.tl1l1n. V:o'l)wiiH itu!lalr the t'eGorniing twii{e.


p ,A .. ·R,:T' h ~1 ~".'., ....

(3 m i mrt~;s.)

Answer these ques,t~on'Sc;

What klnd of holidays do you like to haV1e? WheJ1t was.your best h:o~iday 8v,er?

I.s there-a kkld cd holiday that you would Ilike to try but hav'€in't yet? DO' you prefer to relax on holiday or to take palrt in a lot of adivirties?


lfiu rn to pictures 1-5 on p.a'g,e138 win khshow differenrt au dliences.

i( an didate A. d es:c~ibe' peiDplle in tiwee (Jf~he pict~;res and say how they an~ reacting to tine ~how. ;YO'UI hav,e a rIiinutepo dO'this.

Cand~date ~, can you tell us w~~eh three pictures candidate A describ·ed?

Turn to. pi£tUlres 1-5 on page 139 wh kh show rui ned places.

CandidatE' B, d~s(ribe three mt!1e.s€ places, sQlyirl"gi why people I~ke to \IIi sit them, You have a min ute to -do th is.

Cand idate A, can you ·ielil us; wh i:c:h two ru ins eel ndidlate B d.i,d not desoi be?

{3 or 4 m in utes)

l $,01l!1.venirs {D iSCIOISS, elii'aluB'te .iii l'IIa s;ell~~_t)

Tum to pi(:tlUres 1-7 on ~~91~ 1140 Which show tlhlngs yvhkn are sold to tourists ~11i London .as souveni rs.

What lm~ge of London do d"eycorlivey? Whiien do you think is the best and the wOJrst7

po A~' R Y'" .4,' •..... "'~~

~ '. ~ . . . ..

AnsweJ these guestibns):

Diid you re.a:ch agreement? How do your opinions d~fler?

Whid-q S!CI_Uiw!'nir would y:o~ ChOO.S8 ,and why?

Whalt kiine! of th~ng~ are gC)()JJ or badr'soulJ@n~rs of your awn town or cO.Lmtry?

1I1~Sir 4, P'APER 5

P'.APER 11

Re,ading (1 heur' 15 rn inutes)

Answer question s.1-17 by ref,erring 'to the newspaper a rtide about a II'g ume ntand debateon page 1 (I 1.

~ ndicate yOll! ranSVif€!r$Oin the' S;&palfa,t~ alilSW~lr she,et.

for Questi;orJiS 1-17', answer 'b:y choosing from the sett~ans.of the articl~ (A-G). "rau may ChOO::iB any of the sections more than dnCl@ ..

Note: When mOire then one answer is requi:r,ecl, these may be gwen in amy' o,rdE~.

Whkh s'Il:!>e.tiolrl [r,HtHS to!"tlil:e folillowin,gl?

ways. in which pu blic opi ruon warS formed in the past '1 a book from whkh we can learn .tne skiUs of arguingZ

a n;ferernce to old: i,o,eas about educati on 3

a sugges,tlion that ancient Qrators were superior to modern ones 4 " _

the best sta rti iii gl IP oi nt for d !Z"velo;pi n 9 arc'g.u ments 5

a very good way to inflW~lnQe an audience with y,ou:r arguments 6

sugg,@~ts 'two dirfjhI!<ren;tTrlethodis lor p resenting 't~:N!! poi nts of

an arg u ment ..,

mentions important factors apart from the argumerr;ts. th' 8 9 ._.1

emphasiseso tn e importance of th~ n k~ng fo r ¥ou:r:self someone 'who wa s.famiiHa r with id~i:ls f(coi'n "~nci ern times ij popula'r misoorlc€!pti an that th@ Wiill3tr d isaglf€'@s with pO.Siitilv@ and peaceful aspects of alFglU~n,g

the idea that 'good a1rgumerllts sre always. or'ganl:5€!d acoordinlg ito the same patte rn

a criticism of :spBa~ ingl without prep'ClIr.1:'Itidn

the' reason why speakl! n g well was a '!tal uable skill in the sndsnt world

a sliig Mlysicepti>ca I VI ew of on e '9 rou p off pu DUe s:pe:a,ikers

·1[0· .... 1111



14 15

116 117


T'he IP10wier Of The Spoken Word

A'i'gl1.,1ntf1tb: and debrt~ can tJeexhilamting expwiencES. &tl ~h(}:se. ((fisbing to be 11101'll P'l!fSUllSivd JmJ~:l first ~.~,~atw sur:e theyfn:;sp,ar,e.

ft}lOU say "I am having an ;trgUITHilI'JJt"J' ~]llo,st.peJtlP;l~wm assume that you <Ire pif:kirng ~ figln. But tft1n., need nuX n~eS511,r]]y be ,'001. The 1l,bi[hy 'YD;u:'gue in a (oorroU!:ld \"''<ly u's 11 fUnd~unema1. skm,. h 'is; used by l<liwyers, pol!it~(:i:an~~, ,anl.paigne:fs anci. nlm'lY a[hcrs ever}' day 0'[ thu week. Altguing wen isp<II,t"t ()Ir th.e process: of snaws;lifu~. n~got1'I,t:ion. I:~ is fai' more likeLy to get you OUl of u"OuMe than into it. Some people instincl:i\re1Y find lh<l;[~hey are strong arg'tJers, bh),w~yer. the an lOt: <II~g'L]i,ng canbe l<),;ught, and.fn mal1i¥ .schodls it is pan u;l' oilier s1l1bjects, Umill-he.begill[1in:g of~his temm·y. malfl¥pe'Qpie t:oirnsiidered arguiI!:g W be 'Ol'U! of' ~h.e essential el em en ts !in ~. 'p,ropel- education,

l'h(~G[lied:t~ ~nd Ra:maU,5, whos.c~dea$ about law. .lieiencl:', [he arts and sodei:y have bad such an ,el:tonnorui:n:ll'paICL uti our O\.vn 'Culture. <l1so influe need tbev.'<YY we ru"g'IL'I:e. Ari'swti,e (384--3~'2 BC). the Greek phllmophc:r, w']':ote a workeaUed Rhelrmcllwhicbljjd down rules to foUqw in crderto argue sucoessfuJly, In these a:ndetn societies, wri.ting vm 't1~d I~s~ \",'d~ly than in ours and so public gpe'~ing Was ye'I-Y imp orram, The'l:ew~re no PE\"'I'iJwp~['s :~nd OQ ~,ele\'islo1J to helppeople deejele wl1<lL~'he~1 thQUJl£ih~ about ]$Ii,1[leSl_PnlJc:!i.;ed spe~d(;e,~. known as O[:<IitOil'£, who spoke on ro~mal occasions 1,tnd. '3:1 publi!c n:leedng~,. ~ve:re critical in h¢1ping 10 form oplniolO;lS. a.lOl.tol;5 ~l~ed all the tricks of fl:H.~uric t~ gcttthei.r pOl~~~ ~1:Cn)\SS. ln Sn:)JRespc,ar1!:'s p]afJuliMS CaMar, Mark Antony. is so ~nbtrr abou~l the assassit:uu]cu.'l of C'-.aesiIr, h is friend" til ar he makes a powerful spe~cb to the Raman p.eopJe", Shakespe<ln:"wh:o. li:new. i[rnm . h:h reading <lbout the Roman art 01 puWic.speaJ;.1ng, gives his character pQ\"!~erful l.h':le~ ''';hich\ ... ·i~!~e peupLe ave. to his side. tol)eakin,g like, <IL U'ue Roman QHllOr, Antony '''Jdclre.s8e.~ h~s ~uldic~"I.c~ wi 1:11 the lin,e'll, "FrieJRls. ROffl<l!ns, countrymen, liClUd me your ears .. ,.~

WA.n thouy l'r,H:lIU transpoeted in time and space W the Hon~es of P:ru']iamentm Bri.tHin today,. he \1{OU~!1l .dmQst tcnain[y recognise whaI lIvaS gOln_g on. He wO'lldd. re',,!1 ise 1il11lt. when po~ itid<lrls ~tlr,bal~" bm~ 'or modons, they are f(J]k.l~'ing On fiDlll~ the lines th<!t

liv.ere hIii! no",,,n in the {tUCit!lU \.vmid> Whether- he would be imJl:rresse(i bywhl:1i!~he heard is, of ccurse, <lnOli.her matter,

~'Q' win 01111 "rgl1men t, you need to convince. semeene dli;ii!; 1<Q~"l:);efighl. To do mat )'\onha'\"e W make a goo<J ta.. .. t: '\"'hkhr~qu:i!1e.sarg:;mis:.ltiml" M~liny people have Ml£:gelil:ed wa~ [0 clorhi~. The ~ameba~ic underlie UlQSl sy"SbClllS. J'ilStiy. 1'0[1 ~,hQuld dt!clcha what you think It ]S $lJrpri'>ing how m~iiJLypeoplle start soundi ng olf about scm,l]ethin!1r wiLho~ure",U}' dcd.d:ing what Iher ahou t it.Pu.., opinion which. hw. been f'onneid\\!ithom any [<ea] t or in heri ted Hum others ~. frieJflcls or parenrs, f'Or e~<lmple - is rC<lUy nO more thana p'r~judke. Before you are able to arg'ILu~ o.n ~m:y s.ubject, you need m 1.I:nden,tound\.;ohat }'Iou Moe

tal ki I1lg' about. .

Ne:>:ll' you should se]ec[ rour :u"gl.unel1Ji~s. The whale pt"OOESS of taiking about your opinlen and showing why it is righ t is: kn own as" a n a:rgunlclu, The i nd lvklnal parts of [he process are also called ,argome~ts. SelectiDg~~l)iUr .arguments me~nscoming up with to e reason~which best g!ll?I.::I{J'·( your opinion, U often Jtelps to IJ;~ii1l1 '0]' .'ll)edrk examples to help i!lwlU',ue them, \bu rnig!ht\,,''-':Il.t In ;11-gu..e that J1ude.w power s~;'lould be banned, One of }'911r a rgllll~e!'l1li rn~gh l be tll:a:t it is dangcwu&. YOu might \'>".l.n1it ~o illustmte d]~~ by e:x.ampl.e!i of acc:iden IS that h:IJ:\lCr.H~tHflIly happened.

Thu should a Iso <In tlelpate your opponents arguments because, as we]! as eomlug up ~,v:ilh reasons in support of }'lour epinicn, }IOU needto think <:!Ibmu the erltlcisms that might be m<ldt'- of ll_ 'You ~.1!eed;Ul.8wers for these cr]1iici~tus- ,[hi~ if; Oil1l..e af th~ m(li!l~ pQ'\'..:ed'hl\,'!!".lLys qf ~~1nning over your audience.

The order of y()m~ <J;rgum,el1i~s is also ¥el"y important. You might want to deal with the powerful and comri]]cing ,arguments, firs(,. On the othe F h(!ll~,d,you might: ]ike ttl suwt with the l:es.~h']JjPQn<l'llt ones' and buUd ul), a more ;~l1d [IJ'lore ~ol1\f]]](.ingca~e, Of course; there is more to \,~'ilming an a:rgurnen~ than j lIS,~ ha\fing -a ,g.ood C!l~£l,. You :!d~o need w'"u't it propcdy. That m eans 11l0~ j'Lwr Lh in king ahour what you S<3lY, DU:l also ubotwt huw yo [I S<1JY it, Ocee the ,eMS, peQ ple have thought up a lfIJ!llmDCr ·of~etllnique!; to makewba[ they sary pcr:5:n~'je. These ~ndude asking rhetorical questionS" (w fikh are not meant to be answel"ed) , appealing [0 the audience's emotions <Ina Illaking ,effect:ii~'e aualogies,


For qussttons if 8-:23,. you must ChOOSiEl wn~(h tlf the paragraphs A~G on pane U)13 fit ~nEo the n u m bersd gaps in the. following magezi ne a rtide, There is, on e '@xt:ra

par agra ph wh ic~ does not fit In any of the gaps.

~ndicate yo u riilnsl,,'!/er'.S 011'1 the s;epall".a:te 'i!nswe r sheet,

._1_'_9_' -,,-Ii ---""'1 10 lime. sbe \voulr;J lihe 10 move into senior mon019€'ment perhops in marketing or event organisClIHon_ Slooying for Ihe D iplomCi hos ~e,~€d h er oppeli~e~or more murrses a nd she pia ns 10 I fiI\li8sligate a quo Ii fjaa ti on in markel~J1;g:, Wuh h-er s~hts~®t 011 an MBA in a few yeO rs lime, Orpe'!J is nol once to sif or·{)UJnd. ~Why step nOVV'? You've g01 to haNe {l;spirntiuns ~o 90 fl,mher, haven'! YOU?N

Simply the Ibest

I ••••• ~ _ ••••••.••••••• ~ ••••• ' •• ~

"YOU'ye got 10 go for it, y:o.u cnn'l Il,Jsl e:<pEld things 10 drop inlQ your lop. ~ Moli,e Olp~n's phirlosophy coo!d he,lp" to expkJin how ~ne has becpnrie Ih® UK TOp S®creta ry olf the lell1der oge"of '23, beo~1 ng 500 C!lh6l~ ~0F1dido1e',s nC:lIiomvlde .. The nile of Top Secrelary is awarded onnually by the London Chcrnbsr of Commerce and IndU-WY'$ Exomjr1loliollS &,ard I.LCCIEBI 10 Ihe COI'lO idote who both ~6h levss Ihe hig hest merks

i fI its Privale ClInd Exoculive 5ecretary'!5. 0 i piorno IPESD! and CGl1convlrlce o porte! of judges ~h'CIllhey are ~enior PA molerio!. Orpen's fLve disiil1lct~O\ns in the P,ESD lost yeo r guo mnleed her a plac;e on Ih~shortl i:l of fiYe hrgrh achrev~(S ii'llviToo 10 London in November br lh~ ijnte~vievv, whe~€ the $:G0relmJes had todelnonstrate ih~ir sH~15 across' <WID.'> i ndu:d i ns eom mere iall Q¥/i;:U6ness~ ~nd dl plorno cy.

Orpen wor ks as a personol secrel:o ry to. 0 senior 1YIt;lIlOiger In IhE: IT ·$erViCBS division of the Post Office. II is he r: fi rst job and s he got it ~trqighl after liSClv) rig Farnborough CoUeg:e of Technology wjlh Ina PESD Ias1 svmmel, She- is ccmviflcOO she 'WOuld nal have ~n IClikerl 00 to-such a high·level posi~Ofl wrlho'IJl tho~e I~nljlni on her Cv. He,r boss, K;oren Fos1e:r, recognised Ihe Diploma and realised she'd be cafXlble of mom lhorn just ~plng, ev:en 1110ug" sne locked e-xperienc:e. So, 011 her Clni\!a~. c major projec1 \NOS W{l~tirlig on her desk.

II was ~he deep end, w~lhoul C! doub1, so Orpsn waded in, ~ I i IT! n'of 1he sorr of pe rwh who 11 kes 10 be ~s.ed in~o lIT] ng~ anyway," she says _ J1 'W9s a

elm Ilengi11lg fi rst proj,e!cf but she Gllacked It Jogically Qnd errlhlJlsiasm:;oll,y, Oln,d wo'S soon trciVell~l'ig ercend the ffitJfl Iry, m iXill1g with s,taff CI t all levek

After six mOrllths o~ brief1 ngs, she returned to th e offioo 10 findlhe doy-1o-doy o.specl5 somevvhot negJ~ted. Sile tme things' opert cmd began aga1r'1, putting in plo;ce ~d[d org9 ni'Salilo[ld sjI~dor·~s tho t would run qi"rloothly. Orpen i~ proud of Ihe foci thot 11 funcliqJU efficiently and 81el; an noyed ~hat ine secr,e!oria I role ~s ohen u nd6~voiued.

Tha rde dO~5n'l alwoy~ re;:;elve the rlilcogniHorl it ceserves, c$he argues, de:~q~lIe 1:he klct tho~ mcmy senior secretaries and Ph are rrrmnClger~ in 1heir OWl'! right. It \IV(IS ~h~ mono~emen1 ~id~ ,;J the PESD ,in fOCi, Ihal porli(,yk;i fly i rrlel'eSted ~er - she is 0 firm beriever thol todQiy'.~ S9aelartes naed 19 be ormed wrth lhe Do sics, art ISQsL AI her rilfst f?osJ OfJl~ me61i1ll@l Ihe d iSC!J3Sian cenred ·0 [o~,Jnd Toto I Quo!j~ MOlfl.cgernellt., ond s he remembers her ~el ieF at kOQ\!\jllng wna1 ner new

oolteog ues vvenHo Ik iog 0 OOU L

Orpen feali ses fth~ Cl'ipbmQ prepared her for work ina way cccdem Ie siudy oOI.:l!d· not. She left universfly wl~b on i m I/e 2: 1 deg r~ in j, lstory Clnd who I she flOW reoogni$!iJ'S oso n ~quol~ im p;re'ssive ig nota nc:~ of the real wo~d,


A "The d~ paflment \lV(JS i rncd udng a titENV IT ; n itictive across !he compoIlY," Orpen recoils. "My firsl task was 10 co-ordincte, organise and attend sion briefing,s in d! !he' len regions. ~t wos terrifying_~

IB "The competilion wcs totlgh, N Orpen admit~. "I didn't Ihin~ I stood (1 chanoe 0 nd whe'r1 Ihe leljer 91rrived, I Ihoughllhey'd ~nl Ihe wwng one." She was officjally aW'O rded her ntle eculier In is month 01 a oeltlmony ut Ihe LCCIEB neodquor~ers, where she WOIS else presented wilh (] gold medol end £200 wor~h of travel vouchers,

c "I' couk.l wrlleesooys ill ntll 1~€ 'Cows cnrne horne, bul I knew holning: about business. U The PESD ndS opened doors for her, hO'~\!e'r. end s;he now retes it a~on9s ide her degree- C]IS o n mli~l on wh ieh 10 bu ild.

It) ~I love the job, ~ 8he says. "It's so busy and you rnoke so many oonlOC:ls. beoo use 'tOY a fa lilil touch wi th staFf throughout lhe compo ny. ~

IE "l'rn 0 gfoduOite "dnd people offen osk why I'm wOJking cs 0 s.ecrelmy, ~ she says. NI deFend the rdeto Ihe

hHt/ explcining ~h.ot secretaries are ihe li~blOQd of a company. I~ slmply wouf.dn'tfuncr,ion wrihoul them."

f "1 coulon'l believe it when I gol CI leiter inviling me 10 an lrJterv~~w. I didn't lhin~ l stood Q chcnce at gemng such 0 prli:lsligious job s~Faight orier leavung college ood wilhoul having gained some experlence llrst, 1 hod ah-nosl no! oppliOO in Ihe 'first pJOC€,"

G "rou need 10 have a grasp of rncncqement structures Olnd Ihe-ories, so you con appreciate your boss's role ondgat the brooder piclure/ s:he says. ~1'1 he~ps vou inlerlPrel the I;vorking envi.ronrnentond how you fit ln."



R.ead the roillowing artide and then a.n:swel' quesnons 241-29 on page H~S. On your answer sheet, indicate the letter A, B .• Cor [) against the number of each Question, 24-~9. Give only one answer to. each question.

In dhcate your enswerso n the sepIa ra1ea'1il5Wf,U sheet.

, was wo·~lciilil.g so hard 1hat ~ went oomplleteiy era~ so now W 1ryto do an evening Citass just so' W am - dloiing .

something Which iSn't work.'" .

~ll!m,mY ofheli' f!l!eop~e wbo ha,Ye go~to wtitere II want to· be blJll: ·&oor p~s:onam i't\I>es att! a nighbm~re."

.A s,W'V~! S~es,tfi that people ,r;ue wm'ktJ"g erJ.W' lunde,. ,unrl·«m.g.e'll. Ign1f i/.fim,e .u,,€ learned. w clock off!'

Time: is nu:miing out Or SCI pe(iple fe~J< .Acoording to the ]aiOOst research, fQny:-fo1tt ~r cent of British WOl"k~m. oOme home exhausted. Mm:a than half sooer Ih:Im s~. ~y almost evel'Y measure, pe.opie af\e maN pressured, m.ore bothered. about time - ora lack of it - than they have been f:ClI~ m:any years. Time, they fee], has been f:lqIU_~d.

All over the world, tlilJ! .old wa._.vs of managing mne 3lJe 4i5ap~Je'nrlng~ Fixed joihs, shared l'h:ythntB of ~OppLllg, traeeland leisl!l!re, and common pattems ofl.eal'lIing, marriage, '1 ... l;tt'k and. ntirementnro on the way oat. .J:nst¢M, . the world is having tp rome eo terms 'with just-ill-time pr'lIld1lllction and .muiIti-h,udcing c9rnputeJ;~, .2-4-.hour shopping and video-on-demand, time--sba:re holidays and hlDn~ banking. AU of these are symptoms of a revolutiee, .. ntransi.ti.on from an. indl1st!'iall; cultuHl' M.sed around fuiedtimetli1.bles and a clear d!i:v:ision of ~ab()!Ili" betwee'Jl men whO' woot to work and women who looked aRm' the home, toWID'dls a new culture based around flexibility, and rapid flows of infurma:tion.

Tllis new po~mdu.stri1lil culture offers, j!Jerl:utps for the &sf!; titue in history,fue p;i,'(I1Il!i~of ];IGOp]e;. ~g ww for th,ei:r Own needs, But. farr from ushming in a leisured utopia, its most immedia.te effuct has boon a gt'owing divide between those with. too much work a:QOili06E!' without. my. Intopjebs, long hlJ1W'S have become a mark of sJtatl.lS and $U~, One m. eight BritiElh. managers. wod~;s IDOI1(!l:ilian sixty h.o1..IT'S a week and more th:an half .t.ah! home work durhlg the week.

Pmi. of the n'lOSOD is the insecnrit)· ·that has sw,ept through 00 many whi:oc..o.rnJJiar jobs, encouzagedjbe phenome,n(ffl of ''pl'eS~n:OOeism'' mthet< than. absenteeism - .5~yIng m.·the offi'oo eyeD. when tfueril is:n1t any 'WOrk to' 00 But 'tecltnQ~ogy has also p~a.yecll Oil· part. Ubiqwwus oomputens mean. that Ow' l,VlIj'rk\",l\ll always be ",fith us and ow' competitors will ruways· be. working tno.

Tbese. pressures aren't confined to ~ecutives tmdl pl'OressiQn.ah;. 'Whl.I.e one in six bouseholds has no jobs at all, pressure to pay the bills M~ fear of redllliid!31nty moon tha:ta quarlo;r of~ll Bn_ti!ih male employees ",'fQrk. mcee th311 fu~-ejght heursa week. and n~arly a fifth of uns.killed fmd manual work.ern lnwkmoro than fifty hmn'S;.

Right aeross the world the long decline in wQrkiug hours has swpped, The use of~ci$1l1-e is changing roo. IntensiVie SpOlt.s like aemb:ics a:r~ bem,g !!i'1ibstitlItM. Mr S~IJIW0r' ones like goLE FaJ'itUlies are driving routrd zoos rather fha:n I,lo,ruking .around] them. And teenagers !mu1titaSk~ their Ieisuee, watChing SL-'Vm:a] teleVisi..on channels at OD.OO whfle abo fiddlin:g\ OJ. personal mm'p1Il!t:er.

Some of the eosts ()f thiis~ll!sitio.n ro Eli. post-.:induslJia] '0'11dex' are all a:rowd us, Not only u.n.emptoyment and oven'QI:'k, hJgh stress and hlgbanxnl3~ but alsc less ob'l'icius ones ]The fatigue. But little has been done to sddtess .It head 9D, 01.'" to .adiapt rnstit1llltions 00 a post ... industria] w~Y' of life. Most ut'iltu:uon.s remain stuck jn the m_d.usbiru era:. Wi.thln the famiTy, !!Ivan though moot women new haw jobs, they stil] do the bulk of demestle wlork - and U)hsequrently have fifteen boutS [GSS !roo time each week than men. 'Iaken as a whole, time l'WUOIlius off the ag1mda; t.reawd as far less importallt than mone;}, ifl':pmducl;ian., No ]Xili1L:ica.l ~arly seems tohav'e aclm:owl~edhowmueh the.landseapa of tin'te has ,ch;;mgoo. No one is respo:ndingto the m.ood that we need to linda. better balance bet'w'eell work and. life. And no one has quite cometo terms withlhe' fad that the old lnd)ustrial model is being' rapid], l~ft b~Wind.

For those se~king a bf!too.r balance between work aad life,. t1tsnl!s w1"eady III mm-vellous instimtionwaiting t.o be used. SaNla.t-icaits ofFer tbnlll off to recharge thel batteries, WI learn !iii ne10lI skill 01" totrave1 the world. At the m,a-m,ent, th,es.e m:e a rare treat rOT acedemica With thiartght fuooling .ID'r,an.~m,efit.'ii» it is not hl .. ooncalvaLble that we' could. in thefu.~, see ev·ery ~venth 19m-taken o:lf as a m~:tter of cmn-Se.

A pre'Vi.ous generation. of 'NFiwns thought tile goal WfiS t(). eaeape from wo·rk But this misses the point, Many people e:n,joy wm:~... Tb.ey fl:ncll it fu.lf:iUing oot omy h~cause it is OJ. wa;y to meet people but also because .it sells goals and s.tretche$ ~iP<l.citie..~ Tills Is surely why '18 per tent of 25-3:4 year-olds say that tlley wl)Uld work even if th,ere WD no fimmciru need ..

']['he ·chrul;eIlige of a post;..m.dustrlaill. age is :~t to e.~ape n'O:.m WOtik but ratber to achlev'e m.OI'l! <lIIutonomy and! more warys for people to wntrol the terms on wl1ich they work, its paoe~g texture.


2:4 What IS UH~ writEr's w~rdi(l on iPost-indu:stfiaI, culturle?

A Peqp Ie h a~ mor"€! c:hoi.c:e l n theii r Iliv@s ..

B The of Leisun~l ·time nas iiF'i'm~ase(:L

,e U: leads te bigger social divisi DOs:.

o E\I~ryone is o:b:rigedto worik harder.

25 ,o.,.ccoroii ng to th e write r; very Ion gl work-iog hews A affe!Ct. E!ive ryane who has a job.

Bare. a prob~em intop jobs ..

,e a f"@ found at all! Iei've Is ,of 50dety ..

[) are mai n try a re.s,utrt of tech nolo 9 i c-,a II change.

2:6 Wh~'t 'does the writer s.ay about polirticaJ lilItbtudes to chan'ges lin 'l.tVQrk?

A Tilere is a fa ~II.II re to add ress the problem.

IB ~he ba!ance of ~r[K snd le~sulre is an iinJd~yidu,Qj1 chok::e.

C The 0 ldi nclusilria I moclel sn 1111JIdco:i1I1~ n wie to appil~.

ID' ~.Dl anges are tao expe nS'iv'e to i m plsrnent,

27 The wruter rega res SCI bbatic8 ISc as:

A s.eJ(~ind ulgent

18 €s'SIential inClGaidemk work.

C One way of ~mp n.'ilving emciency.

ID ~om·~tlhing that all workers pauld h13iVe.

28 Which statement best surms, lJI p. th e wr~ter'S',aU ltude to work?

A Today'S workforce demands: a ba~am:e ,ot work and Ileisuf,e .. IB Financiai benefits make nt wot1hw~~le.

c It allo\i\i"S p@opie to Id~'Ilel:QP ·tihe,i r potentia I!. ID If leadis.1.o an improvedsoci:al: life.

129 ~n the future, the writer beiievesthat

A there wil'l be no es~iHlefrom work.

B wor~ers will require greater independence.

C po I irticia ns wi II try to controJ worki nl!il practices. :D there wnll be' less need to ma,Re mon ey.

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