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Brihadaranyka Upanishad—First Chapter, Second

part (Second Brahmin) in English with original


texts and meaning----mysteries of Ashvamedha
Yajna (Horse Sacrifice), Expanding and collapsing
Universe. Creation and Time.

(The first part of the first chapter of


Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (bRihadaaraaNyaka
upanishad) has already been published. It is
available in the following links
<http://brihadaaranyakafirstpart.blogspot.com/201
8/03/brihadaranyaka-upanishad-first-
chapter.html>,
<https://www.slideshare.net/debkumar_lahiri/briha
daranyaka-upanishad-in-bengalifirst-chapter-
first-brahmin-2nd-edition>)

Sanskrit words written in italics are the i-trans


version of the Sanskrit words in English
alphabets and are available in the Sanskrit
English Lexicon by Sir. Monier Williams in the
Internet at <https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-
koeln.de/monier/.

Summary
In this part (Brahmin)of bRihadaaraNyaka
upanishad the sage yaaj~navalkya has narrated how
the god of death, who has kept the eternal
Consciousness or eternity hidden, has created the
universe. The Universal Consciousness from whom
everything is created, and the ‘god of death
(mRityu) are the same. In Consciousness,
everything is a personality. Consciousness as
Death deity is covering HIS /HER own eternity.
The sage (RiShi)has described in step by step how
the unbound, eternal Consciousness has become the
physicality; how in this process the
Consciousness is expanding (creating duality) and
at the same time contracting (bringing the
duality into Oneness).

The eternal universal Consciousness (termed as


mukhya praaNa) in Upanishad has two specialties
or fundamental characteristics:
1. Though infinite and remains infinite, still
creates Himself as finite with boundaries,
freezes Himself into forms, creates the static
mortal earth or physicality.

2. Converts the bound, formed entities into


infinite, unbound by merging them in Him /Her in
absolute Oneness.

The Universal Consciousness, who is the supreme


soul or Oneness, the supreme ONE, whose activity
is the life or praaNa, whom Upanishads have
worshipped as ‘mukhya praaNa’, is expanding or
growing by fragmenting Himself/ Herself by
Himself/ Herself as entities and thus creating
dualities. This is called ‘ashva’. Horse is also
called ashva. The word ashvat derived from the
word ashva means ‘to inflate’ or ’to grow’. That
HE/SHE is expanding is ‘ashva’ or ‘ashvat’ and
that HE/SHE is bringing back everything in
HIM/HER in absolute Oneness of Universal
Consciousness is called ‘medhya’.

As much as ‘medhya’ has happened to you, you own


that much ‘merit’ or ‘medhaa’. Thus, medhaa is
one of the names of the goddess of word called
vaak who is also known as sarasvatI for HER
articulating or revealing aspect.

This is the foundation of ‘ashvamedha yaj~na’.


The word ‘shva’ in ‘ashva’ also means ‘time’,
‘ruling of time’, ‘respiration (shvaasa)’ and
‘praaNa’. praaNa is the consciousness flowing as
life in us and ‘time’ in the external. Thus
‘ashva’ or horse means the ‘Universal
Consciousness moving and growing’. Further in the
texts the word ‘ashva’ has been used to represent
‘sensory organs and other organs related to
senses’; these are the seats of ‘praaNa’ or the
‘Active Consciousness’. Theses organs or sensing
actions or the horses are pulling us along the
course of time.

Words are first made in the heaven and so also is


the word ashva. Words are the forms of vaak who
the consort or the power of Consciousness. Each
word is an aspect of Consciousness, and each word
has the representation or existence in infinite
way and that’s the divinity of a word. Thus,
physicality is the physical form of the
Consciousness or vaak. This is why Upanishads
have said that ‘the earth is the body of vaak.’

Brihadaranyka Upanishad—First Chapter, Second


part (Second Brahmin)

1.2.1
(Original text). First verse.
naiveha kiMchanaagra aasIn
mRityunaivedamaavRitamaasIdashanaayayaa.
ashanaayaa hi mRityustanmano akurutaa aatmanvI
syaamiti.

so archannacharat.

tasyaarchata aapo ajaayantaarchate vai me


kamabhUditi.

tadevaarkyasyaarkatvam.

kaM ha vaa asmai bhavati ya


evametadarkasyaarkatvaM veda.

(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

na (no) eva iha (in this location) kiMchana


(anything) agra (in the beginning) aasIT
(existed)

(In this location nothing existed in the


beginning.)

mRityunaa (by the death) aeva (indeed) idam (all


these) aavRitam aasIt ashanaayayaa (the desire to
eat)

(All these were indeed shrouded by the Death—


{the Death is} the desire to eat.)

ashanaayaa (desire to eat) hi (indeed) mRityu


(the Death)

(The Death indeed is the desire to eat.)


tat (that—the Death) manaH (mind) akuruta (made)
—aatmanvI (embodied) syaam (let me be) iti. {The
word ‘iti’ denotes the end of the statement.})

(The Death made up His mind (The death created


the mind) —-‘let me embody myself’. {Creation of
mind is followed by embodiment or creation of
forms or body.})

sah (He) archan (illuminated Himself) acharat


(and spread)

(He illuminated Himself and spread.)

tasya (from His) archata (illumination) aapah


(the water/the feeling of all acquired /
achieved) ajaayanta (was generated).

(From His illumination the water (or the sense of


all achievement) was generated.)

archate (illuminating) vai me (in me indeed) kam


(the pleasure or pleasure of touch) abhUt (was
created) iti

(‘From illuminated Me the pleasure was created’.)

tad (that) eva (is indeed) arkyasya arkatvam


(essence of arka)

(That is indeed the essence of arka.)

kam (pleasure) ha vA (indeed) asmai (in him / in


her) bhavati (comes) ya (who) evam (in this
manner) etad (this) arkasya arkatvaM (essence of
arka) veda (knows)

(Pleasure indeed comes in him (in her) who knows


the essence of arka in this manner.)

Consolidated meaning.

In this location nothing existed in the


beginning.
All these were indeed shrouded by the Death— (the
Death is) the desire to eat.
The Death indeed is the desire to eat.
The Death made up His mind (The Death created the
mind) —-‘let me embody myself’. (Creation of mind
is followed by embodiment or creation of forms or
body.)
He illuminated Himself and spread.

From His illumination, the water (or the sense of


having everything achieved) was generated.

‘From illuminated Me the pleasure was created’.

That is indeed the essence of ‘arka’.

Pleasure indeed comes in him (in her) who knows


the essence of arka in this manner.

Etymological meaning and explanations


All manifestation happens from the One who is
imperceptible, un-manifested. This un-manifested
aspect of the Universal Consciousness has been
referred in this text as mRityu or Death or the
God of Death. This is why before the origin,
everything was shrouded by death.

ashanaayaa——the desire to eat. The word


ashanaayaa is from the root word ‘ash’ meaning
‘to eat’. Eating means to ‘assimilate’, to
integrate in the ‘self’, to integrate in the soul
or oneness.
This is the act of converting something into
‘medhya’ or to make it fit to assimilate.

The creator while creating, while separating from


Oneness, also ensures that every entity or
duality thus created is brought back to HIM (to
Creator), to absolute Oneness of the Universal
Consciousness’. One day every unit, every entity
thus created, identifies it with the Creator.
Thus, to incite everyone with the vedana
(feeling) or to invoke the consciousness of
‘absolute one’ in everyone the Creator is
devouring every bit of the universe. This is the
act of time and this is the desire to eat. ‘aham
brahmasmi’ (I am brahman’, ‘I am absolute’ is the
ultimate identity of everyone.

tat (that—the Death) manaH (mind) akuruta (made)


—aatmanvI (embodied) syaam (let me be) ——-The
aspect of the ‘Consciousness’ called ‘mind’ is
the origin from where all the defined senses i.e.
senses with dimensions, definitions are created.

tat (that—the Death) manaH (mind) akuruta (made)—


—this also means ‘He created the mind’.
sah (He) archan (illuminated Himself) acharat
(and moved around)

The word archana is from the root word ‘arch’.


The word ‘arch’ is the expansion of the root
‘Rich’. When the alphabet Ri expands, it becomes
‘ar’. Ri means ‘to see’; like the word Rishi
means who sees the truth or who sees all the
three dimensions of time. Here in this passage,
the occurrence of ‘first vision’, creation of the
first light and the motion have been narrated!

The creator is ‘svayam prakasha’ i.e. the


Universal Consciousness reveals ‘Himself/Herself’
by ‘Himself/Herself’.

As He illuminates or opens His eye (archan), He


spreads or moves (acharat). This movement is the
creation of ruling or creation of time acting on
everything.

Thus, is created the light or visibility and the


time.

tasya (from His) archata (illumination) aapah


(the water/the feeling of all acquired /
achieved) ajaayanta (was generated)

In this revelation or light there is the


satisfaction of having everything in HIM/HER;
acquirement (aqua/water) of everything.
This is the divine water, water that gives the
satisfaction of having everything within. ap
(also apa, aap) represents ‘divine water’ or
water that is the ‘sense of satisfaction,
acquirement, achievement in all of us. This is
Universal Consciousness as ‘ap’ and by whom we
have achieved our physical existence.

archate (illuminating) vai me (in me indeed) kam


(the pleasure or pleasure of touch) abhUt (was
created)

The first consonant among Sanskrit alphabets is


‘ka’ and the last consonant is ‘ma’. The
alphabets or the consonants ‘ka’, ‘ma’ and all
the others between ‘ka’ and ‘ma’ are called
‘sparsha varNa’ or the alphabets (varNa) of touch
(sparsha); in other words, ‘touching alphabets’.
In Chandogya Upanishad, the sage has cited that
all sparsha varna are the soul of the Death
(sarve sparsha mRitosya aatmanah) i.e. all the
alphabets of touch are parts of the ‘Death’. The
sense of Death, the sense of losing the existence
originates from the ignorance of ‘immutable soul’
or ‘svayam’--- the assertion-less, ever-present
soul behind the ‘assertive self’ (aham or ‘I
am’). In the soul, everything is One. It is the
‘One’ in everyone’. It is the cause and
constituent of everyone. The touch is created
when the Soul or the Universal Consciousness
creates ‘duality’. Touch cannot happen without
‘duality’. As along as we remain obsessed with
‘duality’, knowing the world as different from
‘self’ or ‘soul’, we are bound the experience the
death as loosing the existence. Thus, the ‘death’
is related to duality and touch. The absolute
ONE, the Universal Consciousness (who is also One
and many) created duality out of Oneness and is
feeling the ‘duality’ or touching the ‘One’
created as different from ‘ONE’. This is ‘kam’
the ‘pleasure’

From this word ‘kam’ the word ‘kamalaa’ (whose


touch arouses pleasure) and ‘kamala’ (lotus)have
originated. kamala or lotus means the ‘sphere or
domain of ‘kam’ (kamala = ka + mandala=sphere—the
universal sphere or domain of ‘touch’; also, it
means ‘the sphere of the consonants{ka}or sphere
of alphabets of touch.) kamalaa’ is also a name
of the consort of viShnu.

In the divine water or ‘ap’ lies the ‘eternal


praaNa’ called ‘viShNu’ and his consort ‘kamalaa’
or ‘shrI (the beauty and elegance of the
universe)’. By the influence of kamalaa, called
viShNu maaya’ (the spell of vishNu), everyone is
bound to follow the ‘motion / foot of viShNu’—-
the motion (acharat) as mentioned above. This
universe is created from ‘ap’ or the ocean where
viShNu lies.

tad (that) eva (is indeed) arkyasya arkatvam


(essence of arka)

‘arka’ is the source of the English word ‘arc’


and is derived from the expansion of the word
‘Rik’. The vedana or the feelings of the
Universal Consciousness or the Universal Soul,
the feelings (praaNa) or the act of the
Consciousness from which everyone is created with
a definition (naama), in a defined form (rUpa) is
called ‘Rik veda’. The Universal Consciousness
illuminates Himself/Herself, creates the light
(vision) to provide the form or dimensions to
everyone. This act of self- illumination is
called arka or arcing. This happens with creation
of light and its bending (processing through
time). (This is why divinity has been described
as ‘bent stem’ or bent stem of genealogy /
tirashchIna vansha’ in Chandogya Upanishad.) This
creates the curvature in the Universe. Thus, is
created the divinity, the divine plane of
revelation or expression/creation. This is the
essence of ‘arka’.

kam (pleasure) ha vaa (indeed) asmai (in him / in


her) bhavati (comes) ya (who) evam (in this
manner) etad (this) arkasya arkatvaM (essence of
arka) veda (knows)

One who knows the essence of ‘arka’, this eternal


pleasure or satisfaction comes in Him/Her. In
consciousness ‘to know’ means ‘to become’.

1.2 .2
(Original text). Second verse.

aapo vaa arka tadyadapaaM shara aasIt.


tatsamahanyata saa pRithivyabhavat.
tasyaamashraamyat tasya shraantasya taptasya tejo
raso niravartataagniH.

(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

aapaH (ap/water) vai (indeed is) arka. tat yat


apaaM (in that ap) shara (upper layer) aasIt
(was) tad (that) sam(perfectly) ahanyata (was
killed /crusted) saa (It) pRithivI (earth)
abhavat (became)
(ap (water) is indeed arka. In that ap the upper
layer was perfectly killed (crusted). It (the
crusted layer) became the earth.)

tasyaam (from this) ashraamyat (laboured)

(From this work (while creating the earth), (the


Death / Creator) laboured.)

tasya (from that) shraantasya (exhausted)


taptasya (irradiated) tejo (radiation) raso(sap)
niravartata (whirled out) agniH (which is agni —
the god of fire)

(From that exhausted and irradiated


(Death/Creator), the radiation and the sap
whirled out and this is agni—the god of fire.)
Consolidated meaning.

ap (water) is indeed arka. In that ‘ap’ the upper


layer was perfectly killed (crusted). It (the
crusted layer) became the earth.)

From this work (while creating the earth), (the


Death / Creator) laboured.

From that tired and irradiated (Death /Creator),


radiation and sap whirled out, which is agni (the
god of fire).

Etymological meaning and explanations

aapaH (ap/water) vai (indeed is) arka


ap (aapa) or water is the satisfaction of
acquirement or satisfaction of having everything
in the self or soul in infinite ways. The
pleasure out of this was kindled as arka.

tat yat apaaM (in that ap) shara (upper layer)


aasIt (was) tad (that) sam(perfectly) ahanyata
(was killed / crusted) saa (It/She) pRithivI
(earth) abhavat (became)

What is body in us is the earth in external. In


Upanishad this has been clearly stated. The word
in Sanskrit for body is ‘sharIra’. This word is
related to the word ‘shara’ mentioned in this
passage. shara means the condensed upper layer of
a liquid. This Universal Consciousness has become
the body, earth and physicality. As the cream is
formed on the surface of milk, as the ice floats
on the water so the body is covering the
Consciousness or body is the physicality of
Consciousness.

In the expression ‘sam(perfectly) ahanyata (was


killed / crusted)’, the word “ahanyata’ means
‘was killed’. ‘Killing’ means ‘freezing into
finiteness’ or ‘binding the unbound by creating
the sense of limits. This makes an entity ‘still’
or ‘dead’ or ‘physical’.

Thus, in Vedic terms, dead also means ‘framed in


a fixed form’. This fixed form is called ‘mUrti’
or ‘an appearance or a form’. The word ‘mUrti’ is
related to the word ‘marta’ which means ‘mortal’
and thus ‘physical’.
tasya (from that) shraantasya (exhausted)
taptasya (irradiated) tejo (radiation) raso (sap)
niravartata (whirled out) agniH (which is agni —
the god of fire)

The word shraanta means ‘exhausted’. The


etymological meaning is as below:
shraanta ——- shra (shelter) +anta (end)—the end
of shra/aashraya—shelter. One gets exhausted by
an action which drives the one away from one’s
equilibrium. shrama means the act by which one is
positioned at the last point(ma) of the root or
core that is holding (shra) the one. Thus, by
labour (shrama) the Creator or Death, created the
end of the Consciousness or the state of
physicality or all that is inert. This is why,
generally, all-natural processes are
irreversible, and we end in death. So, by doing
shrama, He became tired or shraanta.

There is another meaning of shraanta—-one in whom


shrama or labour ends (anta)——-all physicality,
all inertness end here in Consciousness.
Inertness is a state of the Consciousness called
‘inert’. The work, the labour, the activities of
life that ends up in nothingness can also end up
in ‘all acquirement’. Thus ‘anta’ or ‘end’ in
Sanskrit is also called ‘samaapti’ or ‘samyaka
(perfect) aapti (acquirement or fulfillment). We
see darkness in our sleep, but the one who has
known the anta or end, sees the light of
Consciousness in the sleep. Such sleep is called
yoga nidraa.
tapta means ‘hot’, ‘irradiated’. Universal
Consciousness radiates Herself/Himself by
Herself/Himself. As the Consciousness worked to
create, the heat (teja) and the associated
sap(rasa) whirled out from the Consciousness.
teja means ‘tat (that) ejati (is vibrating)’—
vibrating or agitated Consciousness. The word
ejana (related to the word ejati) means ‘e
(associated) +jana(generation)’—-the creation
associated with ‘heat and radiation’ (teja) and
the underlying ‘sap’ or the ‘elixir’(rasa). This
heat and the sap have kept us warm and vibrant
with the vigor of the life. This heat and sap
that whirled out, have created the orbital and
diurnal motion of all. This has made the earth to
rotate around itself and to move around the sun,
creating days and nights, and the cycles of life.

agni—-here agni means the gaarhapatya agni. This


is agni or the activity of the Consciousness who
is ruling over gRiha or the house. graha means
planet or the place or state which is
characterized by the act of receiving (grahaNa).
Like, the earth is a planet that receives life
from the sun. We receive everything from the
nature or from all those which have been created
by the creator to sustain us. Air, water, fire,
earth etc. i.e. the life supporting nature is
created before and we are receiving our living
from it. Divinity is different, it is the plane
where things are created; it is the plane where
one can create from oneself by oneself. It is
self radiating.
So, gaarhapatya agni is the praaNa or the
Consciousness ruling on our revealed or created
status. gaarhapatya agni has four bodies or
domains which are pRithivI (earth), agni (fire),
anna (food or the centers from which the
Consciousness feeds or keeps us animated; derived
from the word ana meaning praaNa), aaditya (the
sun). It is with this agni or fire, we perform
our daily chores.

1 .2. 3
(Original text). Third verse.

sa tredhaa aatmaanaM vyakurutaadityaM tRitIyaM


vaayuM tRitIyaM.
sa eSha praaNastredhA vihitaH.
tasya praachI dik ShiraH.
asau cha asau chermau.
athaasya pratIchI dik puchChamasau chaasau cha
sakthyau; dakShiNaachodIchI cha paarshve; dyauH
pRiShThamantarikShamudaramiyamuraH.
sa eSho apsu pratiShThito yatra kva chaiti tadeva
pratitiShThatyevaM vidvaan.

(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

saH (He) tredhA (in three parts) aatmaanaM


(Himself) vi (by dividing) akuruta (did;
created). aadityaM (aaditya) tRitIyaM (third—one
third) vaayuM (vaayu) tRitIyaM (one third). |
sa(that) eSha (in this way) praaNaH (praaNa)
tredhaa (in three forms) vihitaH (is designated
or established); tasya (His) praachI (eastern)
dik (direction/side) shiraH (the head or the
face) asau (that) cha(and) asau(that) cha(and)
Irmau (two arms)
atha (and then) asya (His) pratIchI (western) dik
(direction/side) puchCham (tail); asau (that) cha
(and) asau (that) cha(and) sakthyau (two thighs);
dakShiNA (the south side) cha (and) udIchI (north
side) cha(and) paarshve (two flanks); dyauH (the
divinity / heaven) pRiShTham (the rear);
antarikSham (the inner sky) udaram (the belly);
iyam(this—this earth) uraH (the heart); sa (He)
eSho (in this) apsu (water) pratiShThito (resides
/ is established). yatra kva cha (wherever) eti
(goes) tad eva (there) prati (accordingly)
tiShThati (is established) evaM (like this)
vidvaan (learned).

Consolidated meaning.

He (agni / Death or Creator as agni) created


three parts out of Himself (out of the Soul) by
dividing. aaditya is one third’ vaayu (the god of
air) is one third.
That praaNa in this way, is designated or
established in three forms (agni, vaayu,
aaditaya)

His eastern side (direction) is the head or the


face (what is His head or face is the direction
called ‘east’); that (south east direction) and
that (north east direction) are the two arms (His
two arms are the directions called south east and
north east).
And the His western direction/side is the tail
(what is His tail is the direction called
‘west’); that (south west direction) and that
(north west direction) are the two thighs; the
south side and north side are his two flanks
(what are His two flanks are the directions
called south and north); the divinity / heaven is
the posterior; the inner sky is the belly; this
earth is the heart; He resides (He is
established) in this water. The one who has
learnt (or got this knowledge) like this,
wherever the one goes there he establishes
himself.

Etymological meaning and explanations

saH (He) tredhaa (in three parts) aatmaanaM


(Himself) vi (by dividing) akuruta (did;
created); aadityaM (aaditya) tRitIyaM (third—one
third) vaayuM (vaayu) tRitIyaM (one third) —-

The RiShi (the seer) has addressed the ‘Death’


who is also the ‘Creator’, as ‘agni’. This agni
is the one who is hailed as ‘gRihapati agni’ or
‘gaarhapatya agni’ in Upanishads. This is the
personality of the Universal Consciousness who is
governing the planets or graha. We have been
accommodated in this earth as per the destiny and
gaarhapatya agni ensures that our living is done
as per what is destined. We are framed and cast
and held accordingly. He is the lord of the house
(gRiha). This earth, or anywhere in the universe,
where the existence happens in isolated way, with
defined shapes and territories, each separated
from the other, such a place is called pRithivI
(earth)which is characterized by isolation or
separation (pRithaka). Planet, called graha is
the place, where the inhabitants are
characterized by grahaNa or ‘receiving’. We
receive everything from what is created. We are
receiving light and time from the sun, breathing
and touch from the air, fulfillment from the
water, physicality from the earth, reflections of
mind from the moon and so on. In the Universal
Consciousness, this whole physicality is held in
an elemental word of the Consciousness called
‘bhU’.

The air is the inner-space. Here in vaayu


(personality of Universal consciousness called
‘Air’) there is no defined form associated with
an existence, like the physical existence on the
earth. Whatever is there in the earth with a body
and physicality, exists in air without a body. As
in the earth, every physical entity is separated
from each other (by space) it is not so in this
inner plane belonging to vaayu. Here in this
inner plane or antarIkSha, one gets everything in
one’s self or in the one. Here everyone is
connected to each other naturally and this is the
specialty of antarIkSha.
vaayu or antarIkSha is held in the Universal
Consciousness in an elemental word or expression
of the Consciousness called ‘bhuva’.
agni in antarIkSha is called ‘dakSiNaagni’ or
agni who exists in the south or who acts in the
‘southern direction’. This agni decides our
destiny. gRihapati or garhapatya agni is the
executor and dakShiNaagni fixes the schedule or
fixes the events which are to happen in an
entity.

aaditya is the core of the divinity or divine


plane. aaditya, who represents ‘aditi’ {‘a
‘(without) + diti (duality)} or Oneness,
assimilates or eats (ad; adana) everyone or
merges everyone in HIM or in Oneness of the Soul.
HE is without duality.
aaditya the sun is looking at all of us with the
sight of ‘oneness’, looking ‘equally’ at all. The
divine plane is called ‘sva’. The divinity is
held in the elemental word of the Universal
Consciousness called ‘sva’. The words ‘sva’ and
‘svayam’ represent the Soul or the ONE in
everyone. The fire, agni or the active
Consciousness in divinity or in ‘sva’ is called
‘aahavanIya agni’. It is that agni who is calling
(aahvaana)everyone to merge with HIM, with
Universal Consciousness. The word ‘havana’ means
‘sacrifice’; it also means ‘act of offering an
oblation to fire or agni and offering anything to
agni’. Everything is already done, already
achieved or already accomplished in ‘aahavanIya
agni’. No effort is required here to fulfill a
desire. Thus, the English word ‘do’ and its
auxiliary forms ‘have /has’ are from the Vedic
words ‘dyu’ (heaven, divinity) and ‘havana’.
Also, the word ‘heaven’ is related to ‘havana’.

These are the three agni, three illuminations of


the Universal Consciousness. In kaThopanishad
(kaTha upanishad) it is said that naachiketa
remained awake in the house of the Death and the
lord of Death (yama) delivered him preaching on
the Eternal Soul and on three agni. naachiketa
surpassed the subjugation to the compulsory
cycles of death and re-birth. (naachiketa = na
(never) + a (without) + chi(consciousness) + keta
(marked or flagged——who is marked by the
characteristic of never losing the
consciousness.)

eSha (in this way) praaNaH (praaNa) tredhaa (in


three forms) vihitaH (is designated or
established) —-
Thus, in this way the Universal Consciousness or
praaNa (also called praaNaagni—praaNa+agni) has
revealed in three forms—-aaditya (aahavanIya
agni—divinity), vaayu (dakShiNaagni——inner /
connecting plane), agni (garhapatya agni——-
physicality).

tasya (His) praachI (eastern) dik


(direction/side) ShiraH (the head or the face)
asau (that) cha(and) asau(that) cha(and) Irmau
(two arms)
praachI—pra (first) + ach (arcing/bending) +I
(energy, motion).
Thus, praachI (east) is the first inclination or
bending of the Universal Consciousness. This is
His/Her head or ‘shira’. ‘shira’ is related to
the word ‘shara’ meaning ‘arrow’. The direction
of the arrow, the direction in which a word or an
expression of Consciousness is made is decided by
the head ‘shira’. So, the orientation of the head
or the face of the Consciousness, creates the
direction or inclination. As per the inclination,
the physical shape and dimensions are created.
The sage has said ‘praNava’ or the ‘om’ is the
bow, the arrow is the ‘self’, ‘brahma’ (the
absolute One/the One who is growing as the
universe) is the target. The one who is focused
can pierce the target. Be focused like an arrow.
(Mundaka/ muNDaka Upanishad—2.2.4).

To whatever Consciousness focuses Consciousness


becomes that. So, this is how the upper layer of
the divine water solidified to become the hard
earth or the physicality. This is how
Consciousness gets frozen into a ‘definition’ or
into a defined form.
shara= sha (shakti/energy) + ra (rava or
sound/word) —-the scattering of the Consciousness
as sound or the words. Consciousness is the
energy or power of Consciousness. Consciousness
scatters Consciousness by Consciousness; there is
no duality. This is why shara (arrow) has been
termed as self or soul (‘aatmaa—aatman’)in
Upanishad.

asau (that) cha(and) asau(that) cha(and) Irmau


(two arms) —- the two sides (north east and south
east) toward the front are the two arms.

Irma = Ir + ma. Ir is the radiation or spreading


of ‘I’ or shakti. Two arms are the two bipolar
spread of Consciousness. Consciousness works by
the two hand and multiplies in many. We also work
by the two hands and we are also multiplied in
our manifold expressions as we work or get
activated. So, arms are called ‘baahu’ in
Sanskrit and is related to the root word ‘bahu’
meaning 'many'.

atha (and then) asya (His) pratIchI (western) dik


(direction/side) puchCham (tail); asau (that) cha
(and) asau (that) cha(and) sakthyau (two thighs);

pratIchI means 'west'. pratIchI = prati (in


return) +i+chi(to collect/to gather) +i
Thus, whatever way we are expressed or cast in
the east(praachI), at the same time we go back to
our source who remains in the background or in
the west (pratIchI). This return to the source or
to our soul in every feeling or sense is the
action of the direction 'west' and so the
Universal soul as the soul of every individual is
called 'pratyak aatman'. The word prati also
means 'pointer'.
So, the the tail is the 'trail' i.e. the images
of our return to the source in sequence. As we
express ourselves, as we work, we live, we feel
every moment, every bit of it returns to source.
The god beloning to westen direction or pratIchI
is varuNa who veils or covers everything else to
bring the 'present moment' to your sense.
Occurence of every event is a dawn in us,
and the sun or the god mitra is the corresponding
deity. mitra and varuNa are the paired Vedic
deities, always present together. varuNa is also
the lord of the oceans.
The southwest and northwest directions are the
two thighs. The word for the thigh is sakthi and
probably it implies the foundation or the ability
to prop (support)the'forward motion' or the fact
that the what is in the front or east is backed
by what is shrouded in the west. It may be noted
that in this text the seer has mentioned that
from the water (liquidity),the physicality has
formed. The oceans belong to varuNa.

(For horse’s legs refer


<https://equimed.com/health-
centers/lameness/articles/horse-leg-anatomy-form-
and-function>, <https://equimed.com/health-
centers/lameness/articles/horse-leg-anatomy-form-
and-function>)

dakShiNA (the south side) cha (and) udIchI (north


side) cha(and) paarshve (two flanks);

The inclination of praaNa, the propensity that


drives us to a paticular activity or desire is
called the ‘southern direction’ or ‘south’. By
the activities in this direction, the Universal
Consciousness builds us. Our character, our
builds are determined by this southernly
activities. So, our destinies, the birth and life
cycles, etc. are all determined by the activities
in southern directions.

North (udIchI/uttara) —-It is the direction in


which we surpass or circumvent and move to a
higher plane. To move up is ‘ut’. Where we reach
by this action of northern directives is called
‘Urdhva’ or ‘up’.
paarshva (side / flank) —-paara (bank) + shva
(time / kaala) —- the flanks or sides determined
by the time. The two sides, south and north are
perceived as our flanks by us.
What we desire, or the direction toward which we
move, is our east. As we desire, so we get
activated in it, we feel it, we get involved.
This is south by whose action the predestined
desires, events occur in us and activate us. When
we do this, i.e. when something rises in us,
everything else gets shrouded so that we get
perfectly into the things desired or in the
evolving events or in the associated senses
rising in is us. This direction where the other
things remain shrouded is west. As we pass our
time with what we have got in the east, so we
feel joy and happiness. This gives us a build or
changes us by producing the ‘pre-destined
effects. The south decides our destiny. This
changed ‘we’, after the activities are over,
remain stored in the ‘north’. As per our changes,
our future gets determined; how we will be
reborn, what will be type of life etc. are
determined. These stored parts in the ‘north’,
are our parts in the ‘divinity’.
Thus, between the south and north, the time is
acting, like the magnetic lines of force between
the south and north poles.

dyauH (the divinity / heaven) pRiShTham (the


rear); The divinity is the posterior of the horse
(ashva). The physicality, what is in our east, is
the earth or mortality. We are always looking
forward and not inward toward the origin. This
origin is the divinity, and so it is the
‘posterior’. We are running away from the origin
by the ‘force of creation or the desire to become
dual’. Thus, divinity remains in the back.
It is stated in Chandogya Upanishad that the
aaditya is the ‘honey’ of the gods (deva madhu)
and the divinity (dyu) is the ‘bent stem of
genealogy’ (tIrachIna vansha). vansha means
‘lineage or genealogy and also the spine). From
aaditya, from the center of ‘oneness’, the entire
divinity has stemmed out in a ‘curvature’ and in
us it is represented as our back with the spine.

antarikSham (the inner sky) udaram (the belly);

antarIkSha——where every ‘IkShNa’, every vision or


feeling is felt inside; where there is nothing
‘external’, every this is ‘known’, ‘felt and
‘achieved’ inside.

udara—-ut + ara (rays emanating from the origin


or center) —-This is the illumination of
‘antarIkSha’. Whatever we sense or eat, whatever
is getting assimilated in us, it is happening in
the center called ‘belly’ or ‘udara’. Here in
udara whatever to be merged with us is getting
digested and the rest is excreted. The digested
parts nourish our body and us. The subtle parts
of the foods merge in our fundamental forms which
are ‘mind’(manasa), ‘praaNa’ and ‘vaak’. This is
merging (medhya). In the same way the Creator is
digesting us and thus each of us is evolving and
getting nearer to our origin to be merged
eventually with the Creator. Thus, from the
beasts we have become human beings, from human
beings we will become entities of higher planes,
the deities and Rishi and others. Thus, it has
been said that ‘death’ is ‘ashanaa’ or the
‘desire to eat’.
iyam (this—this earth) uraH (the heart);

In the language of Sanskrit, ‘iyam’ means ‘it’ as


well as ‘earth’ or the ‘body’. This is because
the ‘earth’ or the ‘body’ is the thing that is
now dominating on our existence.

The word ‘uraH’ is derived from the word ‘uras’.


‘uras’ means the ‘heart’ or ‘hRidaya’. The
alphabet ‘u’ implies ‘joining or connection’.
Like the word ‘upanIta’ means ‘something or
someone led near’. Another word ‘upavaasa’ means
‘to stay or live near someone or something’. (The
word ‘upavaasa’ also means ‘fasting’ because when
we are led to the divinity or to our immutable
soul, we do not feel the ‘hunger and thirst’.)
The joining with or clinging to something is the
property of the ‘heart’ or ‘hRidaya’. The plane
which is flooded with the ‘sap of love, affection
etc.’ It is the plane of feelings and is called
‘heart’ or ‘hRidaya’. So, ’uras’ means ‘heart’ or
‘hRidaya’ where all the feelings, all the saps of
love, desires and affections exist. This is also
the root of the word ‘aurasa’ meaning ‘a sound
produced from heart’ or rather ‘one created from
the heart’.
This earth is the ‘heart’ or ‘hRidaya’ and we are
held to the earth by gravitation which is the
attraction of the ‘heart’ or ‘hRidaya’ of the
Universal Consciousness’
sa (He) eSho (in this) apsu (water) pratiShThito
(resides / is established). yatra kva cha
(wherever) eti (goes) tad eva (there) prati
(accordingly) tiShThati (is established) evaM
(like this) vidvAn (learned).

The formed, materialized universe is created from


the ‘divine water’ and ‘dissolves in the divine
water’. This is ‘ap’. The Creator (or the Death)
resides in this ‘ap’.

In this ‘ap’ though no ‘physicality’ exists,


still everything exists as the acquirement of the
Consciousness. Consciousness has everything in
Consciousness and thus satisfied. It is the
status of the Universal Consciousness of having
satisfaction of all acquirements, all achieved,
all accomplished, having everything in the
Universal Self or Universal Soul.Thus, one who
knows this ‘ap’ or how the Creator is established
in ‘ap’, such a knower gets established wherever
he/she goes.

1 .2. 4
(Original text). Fourth verse.

so akamayata dvitIyo ma aatmaa jaayeteti.


sa manasaa vaachaM mithunam
samabhavadashanaayaa mRityustadyadreta aasIt
sa saMvatsaro abhavan; na ha puraa tataH
saMvatsara aasa.
tametaavantaM
kaalamabibharyaavaansaMvatsarastametaavataH
kaalasya parastaadasRijata.
taM jaatamabhivyaadadaat sa bhaaNakarot saiva
vaagabhavat.
Disjointed words and word by word meaning

saH (He) akaamayata (desired) dvitIyo (a


different) ma (from me) aatmaa (soul) jaayeteti
(let be generated); sa (He) manasaa (by the mind)
vaachaM (by vaak) mithunaM (copulation)
samabhavat (duly performed) ashanaayaa (desirous
to eat) mRityu (Death). tat yat (in that) retaH
(rata/ of conception/copulation/union—-seed)
aasIt (existed) sa (that) saMvatsaraH (a complete
period) abhavat (became). na ha (not indeed)
puraa (before) tataH (that) saMvatsara (the
period / the time) aasa (existed). tam (that
seed) etaavantaM (till this) kaalam (time)
abibhaH (held). yaavaan (the period what is)
saMvatsaraH (saMvatsara) tam (the held seed)
etaavataH (this) kaalasya (time / period)
parastaat (after) asRijata (was created).

taM (it/ the entity held in the sperm) jaatam


(when was generated/ was born) abhi (toward it)
vyaadadaat (He/Death/Creator gaped); sa (the
new born) bhaaNM akarot (made a sound like
‘bhaaNa’). saa (She /the sound) eva(like this)
vaak (vaak) abhavat (became).

He (the Death or the Creator) desired— “Let a


different one (soul) be generated from me”.
(So) He, who is the Death and desirous to eat
(everything) duly performed the copulation by the
mind and the vaak.
In that (copulation) whatever was the reta /
‘seed’ was created that became saMvatsara (a
complete period). Indeed, before this, the
period or the time did not exist. That seed was
held till this duration (saMvatsara). The
duration what is samvatsara, the seed was held
till that time and after that time the entity was
created.
When the seed was generated as an entity, the
Creator / Death gaped at it. The new born / the
entity made a sound like ‘bhaaNa’. She (bhaNa) as
a sound like this became vaak.

(Note: It is a common practice in Bengal to


describe the sudden crying of a child due to a
fear as ‘vaan kore kaandaa——crying with a ‘vaan’
sound.)

Etymological meaning and explanations

saH (He) akaamayata (desired) dvitIyo (a


different) ma (from me) aatmaa (soul) jaayeteti
(let be generated).
The Universal Consciousness who is the Supreme
Soul(paramaatman), who is the One in everyone,
that Supreme Soul creates the ‘duality or
different entities by becoming different. From
His (Supreme Soul's/Universal Soul's) desire to
become dual or different, ‘duality’ was created.
Whatever was created from the Soul, that was
'Soul’as duality created from Oneness. Whatever
is created from the Consciousness, it is created
by Consciousness and the creation is
Consciousness; though One and remains One, still
the Universal Consciousness becomes different.
This is the creation of another soul from the
creator.

sa (He) manasaa (by the mind) vaachaM (by vaak)


mithunaM (copulation) samabhavat (duly performed)
ashanaayA (desirous to eat) mRityu (Death):

Mind—-In the consciousness or in ourselves, where


we make and break our ‘determinations’ (to do or
not to do), that region is the mind. We feel the
physical world, the defined world with names and
shapes in the mind.
The Consciousness or soul as a ‘determining
personality’ is called the ‘mind’.
vaak is the power or the consort of the Universal
Consciousness or Universal Soul. (Power of
Consciousness is Consciousness; there is no
duality.) The manifestation of the Consciousness
is word. We can conceive objects like a tree or a
flower in our mind and can see them within the
mind. The creator, the Universal Consciousness
has conceived and created the universe by the
mind (or determining aspect). The thoughts of the
Universal Consciousness have manifested as the
physical world. Our thought remains within our
mind, withinr our own space. The creator’s
thought has got expressed as the external world.
This entire universe is within the mind of the
Creator. This is what has been mentioned as the
copulation of manas (mind) with vaak. Here the
word “mind” implies the personality of the
Consciousness/ aatman who is determined to
create.
It may be noted that in Chandogya Upanishad and
in some other part of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
the copulation of praaNa with vaak has been cited
as the cause of the creation of the universe.
When the Universal Consciousness or Universal
Soul becomes active, the Consciousness has been
named as praaNa. Mind or manas has been cited as
the offspring of praaNa and vaak. praaNa has been
mentioned as the bull, vaak as the cow and mind
as the calf. It is the same union that has been
mentioned as the union of ‘mind and vaak’ or by
the union of ‘praaNa and vaak’.

tat yat (in that) retaH (rata/ typicality of


conception/copulation/union—-seed) aasIt(existed)
sa (that) saMvatsaraH (a complete period) abhavat
(became).

reta is from the words rati and rata; it implies


the spirit of the copulation which is the way the
‘seed’ or the ‘embryo’ is held. The entire time,
from the beginning to the end, i.e. from the
first instant of the creation of an entity up to
the end, i.e. the return of the entity to the
Supreme soul or absolute oneness is held in a
duration called saMvatsara. In the
Consciousness, time is held without sequence and
with sequence simultaneously. Where we see, or
where we live in the sequence of time is our
status after the birth.

na ha (not indeed) puraa (before) tataH (that)


saMvatsara (the period / the time) aasa
(existed).

tam (that seed) etaavantaM (till this) kaalam


(time) abibhaH (held). yaavaan (the period what
is) saMvatsaraH (saMvatsara) tam (the held seed)
etaavataH (this) kaalasya (time / period)
parastaat (after) asRijata (was created).

saMvatsara did not exist or the time did not


exist before the copulation. We have two states;
one is the state where we are the same as the
Universal Immutable Soul called akShara aatman.
Here there is no sequence. Here everything is
held without the sequence of birth, life and
termination. Where we are going through the
sequence, we or the Soul is called kShara aatman.
kShara means the one who is decaying. akShara
means who is immutable.

taM (it/ the entity held in the sperm) jaatam


(when was generated/ was born) abhi (toward it)
vyaadadaat (He/Death/Creator gaped); sa (the new
born) bhaaNM akarot (made a sound like ‘bhaaNa’).
saa (She) eva (like this) vaak (vaak) abhavat
(became).

When the entity (the different soul) was created,


the creator gaped at it.
The word ‘vyaadadaat’ is from the root word ‘ad’
which means ‘to eat’. To eat means to digest or
assimilate the food or to merge the food in the
self or soul. Creator or the Universal
Consciousness is eating everything created out of
Consciousness and by Consciousness to take every
grain of creation back to the Consciousness, into
the absolute Oneness.
In the external sky or space, where we are
located, which is our solar system, there, the
centre of this ‘eating or assimilation’ is the
sun. Thus, the word ‘aaditya’ has two meaning—-
(i) one who is from aditi or from the goddess
without duality; (ii) who is characterized by
eating (ad) or assimilating everyone into
‘Oneness’.

Thus, from the sun, time is flowing in us, we are


evolving. Through the numerous cycles of birth
and death, we are going back to the centre who is
the soul of everyone. This is how, we are
automatically becoming conscious of ‘self’ and
the ‘origin of the self’. The ‘time’ which is
being created is ‘different’ for everyone. Thus,
each of us is living in the moments which are
unique and different from others. Thus, destinies
are different, the patterns and intensities of
joys and sorrow are felt differently. This
differentiation, phasing happens by the
intervention of the moon or the lunar center.
It is for this reason, even today, many Hindus
are selective about foods based on the phase of
moon in a day.

The eternal, immutable soul has been termed as


adya and kalya in Upanishad. adaya means (i)what
is edible, (ii) today or now; kalya means
tomorrow or what is going to be created by the
action of kaala or time.
Thus, what we are eating (adya), what is ’now’ or
‘present’ for me, that is transforming me and
becoming ‘my tomorrow’ or kalya.
Immediately after creating the duality, the
Creator gaped to eat the creation. Immediately
after the creation, the Universal Consciousness
wanted to take back the created entity in the
Oneness of the Universal Consciousness. Because
of this our every moment is becoming ‘past’.
Because of this we spontaneously tend to know the
‘past’.
As long as we don’t know this we run away from
the Creator!

Like a new born baby cries immediately after the


birth, so the one or the duality thus created
cried uttering the sound ‘bhaaNa’. ‘bhaaNa’ is
from the root word ‘bhaN’. It means the cry out
of fear or ‘bhaya’ or due to feel of the void or
being separated (duality).
The meaning of bhaN as given in the Sanskrit
English Lexicon by Mr. Monier Williams is ‘to
talk’
Also, the word bhaaNa is connected to the root
word bhaaN which means ‘to imitate the noise of
breathing or hissing’.
That wide-open mouth of the Creator is the sky,
void or space (aakaasha), which is considered as
the base or the source plane of any sound. This
is called shabda tattva——where all the sounds or
the words are in ‘neutrality’. This is the plane
behind this ‘physical universe’.
This expressive power or consort of the
Consciousness that has made the foundation of
duality and thus physicality is also called
‘vaak’ or the mother of all expressions and the
physicality. Thus, it is cited that the sound
bhaaNa so cried became vaak.
The physical space or the external sky has been
described as bhIma meaning ‘formidable’ and
‘intensely strong or vehement’. It is immensely
‘void’, awe awakening. Its nature is to utter the
sounds of ‘fear’ called bhairava (bhai—frightful
+ rava—sound). However, the seers (RiShi) have
also mentioned about the ‘inner sky or inner
space’ (antaraakaasha—-antara + aakaasha) which
is animated and blissful.
This physicality is made of the words of the
Consciousness frozen to the physical forms or
existence.

1 .2. 5
(Original text). Fifth verse.

sa aikShata yadi vaa imamabhimaMsye kanIyaH annaM


kariShya iti.
sa taya vacha tena aatmanedaM sarvamasRijata
yadidaM kiMcharcho yajuMShi saamaani ChandaaMsi
yaj~naan prajaaH pashUn.
sa yad yadevaasRijata tattadattumadhriyata;
sarvaM vaa attIti tadaditeradititvaM.
sarvasyaitasyaattaa bhavati sarvamasyaannaM
bhavati ya evametadaditeradititvaM veda.
(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

sa (He) aikShata (desired/looked upon/pondered)


yadi vaa (if) imam (about it) abhimaMsye (I
further mind/ act) kanIyaH (in bits) annaM
(anna/food) kariShya (I will make) iti.
saH (He) tayaa vaachaa (by that vaak created)
tena aatmanaa (by that duality or the second soul
idam(these) sarvam(all)asRijata(created) yad idaM
kim cha (whatever all these) RichaH (Rik)
yajUmShi(yajus) saamaani (saamaa) ChandaaMsi
(Chanda/rhythms) yaj~nAn (the sacrifices) prajAH
(the subjects) pashUn (the animals)

sah (he) yad yad eva (whatever entity)


asRijata(created) tad tad (each and every such
entity)attum(to eat)adhriyata(vowed/determined);
sarvaM vaa (everything indeed) atti(eats) iti tad
(this) aditer (adititi’s) adititvaM (non-
duality/oneness) sarvasya etasya (of all these)
attaa (eater) bhavati(becomes) sarvam(all these)
asya(his/her/knower’s) annam(food)
bhavati(becomes)yaH(who)evam(like this)etad
aditeH(this aditi’s) adititvaM(non-
duality/oneness)veda(knows)

Consolidated meaning.

He (the Death or the Creator) looked


upon(pondered)— “If I further determine (make my
mind) about it (the duality or the second soul
created) then I will generate anna (food) in bits
or fragments.

He, by that vaak (and) by that (second) soul(or


duality)created all these, which are these Rik,
yaju, saama,chanda(rhythms), yaj~na(the act or
the performance to know who is ‘j~na’ the
‘knower’ or ‘Consciousness’ in us or who is
knowing in our knowing), prajaa(the subjects or
who acknowledges from whom they are created) and
the animals. Whatever He created, He determined
to eat it. As he eats everyone/everything, so
this is the non-duality or oneness of aditi (who
is not dual) —-this is the essence of aditi. One
who thus knows the essence of aditi (why or how
aditi is ‘oneness’), the one owns all these
(everything), everything becomes one’s anna or
victuals.

Etymological meaning and explanations

sa (He) aikShata (desired/looked upon/pondered)


yadi vaa (if) imam (about it) abhimaMsye (I
further mind/ act) kanIyaH (in bits) annaM
(anna/food) kariShya (I will make) iti:

aikShata—-is from the root word IkSh which means


‘to look’ and ‘also to activate time’. kSha means
‘decay’ or ‘action of time’ and kShaNa means
‘moment’, ‘time’ and also ‘twinkling of any eye’.

(In many of our publications we have clarified


that sun in the external sky and the eye in us
are the centers of ‘vision as well as motion or
time’. We have also mentioned that viShNU is this
aspect of the Universal Consciousness and this is
why in Vedic hymns, the ‘eye and the foot or
motion’ of viShNu have been mentioned. This is
the reason that in all sacred rituals, Hindus
will begin with the hymns to viShNu.)

So, Creator further determined-- "as I am going


to act on this ‘duality’, I will do it in
fragments or bits—-I will split the duality into
fragments."
saH (He) tayaa vaachaa (by that vaak created)
tena aatmanaa (by that duality or the soul thus
created) idam(these)sarvam(all)asRijata(created)
yad idaM kim cha (whatever all these):

The Universal Soul/ the Universal Oneness / the


Universal Consciousness manifests Himself/Herself
by Himself/Herself. Thus HE/SHE multiplies or
becomes many out of Himself/Herself automatically
and spontaneously. This power or ability of the
Consciousness to create duality or many is vaak.
So, it is stated that everything is created by
the copulation of the ‘second soul’ or ‘duality’
or the ‘Oneness about to split into many’ with
vaak.

In Upanishads, the fundamental copulation that


creates the universe is mentioned sometimes as
the union of aatmaan (Universal One) with vaak,
sometimes as the union of praaNa and vaak and
sometimes as the union of manas(mind) with vaak.

It has been also mentioned that praaNa is the


‘bull’, vaak is the ‘cow’ and manas or the mind
is the ‘calf’.

The entire physical world is conceived in the


mind of the Universal Consciousness. All the
expressions, radiations of the Consciousness
inside us is crystallizing as definite words,
determinations, ideas in our mind. This is
elusive vaak becoming revealed and measurable as
‘words’ in the mind. The entire physicality is
held in the ‘mind’.
Thus, everything is created from the union of the
second soul(duality)and vaak.

RichaH (Rik) yajUmShi(yajus) saamaani (saamaa)


ChandaaMsi (Chanda/rythms) yaj~nAn (the
sacrifices) prajAH (the subjects) pashUn (the
animals)
Thus, everything is created from the union of
vaak with this Creator as the lord of Death, the
Creator who is eternal and in whom we are
eternal.

RichaH is derived from the word Rik.


Rik —-Rik is that veda, which represents the
aspect of the Consciousness becoming perceptible,
tangible, visible. Ri means ‘to go’ as well as
‘to see’. In Consciousness, seeing something
means to reach there, or going somewhere means to
view the same. Thus, the expansion of Ri is ‘ara’
which means ‘the spokes of a wheel’; i.e.
Consciousness emanating from the center,
revealing. The word RiSh means ‘to flow or glide’
and the word Rishi means ‘who sees the truth’.
Whatever is visible, tangible, they are all being
held in the ‘vision of the Universal
Consciousness’. Everything is held In the
Universal Consciousness as ‘luminous words’ or
Rik.Each word as Rik is a revealing eternal
personality of the Universal Consciousness,
expressing all the aspects of that word in any
dimesnion of time and space. Everything of an
entity, of a specie or of anything is held in
this Rik. Thus, in Upanishad, RiShi has said in
Upanishad that the red streaks of the eye
represent Rik veda. Red means, ‘ready’, ‘ready to
flare, ready to reveal or revealing’.

yajUmShi is derived from the word yajus and it


means yajur veda. yajur veda is that aspect of
the Universal Consciousness by which everyone or
everything is‘joined’(yuj = to join; yuja =
couple or pair, yukta = joined). This is inner
plane or antarIkSha where everything is connected
to each other in the inner space. RiShi has said
in Upanishad that white part of the eye
represents the yajus or yajur veda.

saamaani is derived from the word saama. It means


saama veda. saama implies sama or ‘same, equal’.
This is that aspect of the Universal
Consciousness by which the Consciousness is
always ‘knowing us as same with Consciousness’.
The Universal Consciousness is embracing the
entire Universe’ in ‘sameness’ or same as
HIMSELF/ HERSELF. This center of ‘sameness’ is
called ‘aaditya’ as mentioned above. As we see a
flower, we in our inside ‘become the flower’; we
cannot sense, know or feel a flower without
becoming the flower in our Consciousness; thus,
whatever you sense or know or feel, you get
merged with it.
You express your joy or sorrow or your feelings
accordingly. This is singing the saama, saama
gaana. The Creator is merging in us, we are
merging in the Creator, ‘in absolute Oneness’,
this is saama. This is most attractive and is the
black (eye ball). The word for ‘black or dark
blue’ is kRIShNa meaning ‘attractive’. (Root word
is karShNa meaning ‘attraction’).
From Rik Consciousness is flowing is us, getting
joined with us which as yajus. The conduits or
the channels are called sensory organs like eyes,
ears etc. in ‘physical language’. Consciousness
is merging in us, we are merging in Consciousness
with so many feelings of joys and sorrows. This
is saama. Thus, we are always vibrating with
three Vedas.

ChandaaMsi is derived from the word Chanda


meaning ‘rhythms, meters’ also means ‘shape or
appearance’. Anything that appears static is made
of ‘repetitions’ of the ‘actions of
Consciousness’ or ‘veda’ or ‘vedana’. Everything
appearing as static is actually the result of
frequency, repetition or rhythms. Rhythm means a
particular event which is repeating periodically.
Thus, the word Chanda means both rhythm and
appearance.
Everything is made of Rik, yajus and saama. And
the ‘meter or measure’ or rhythms of veda or
Consciousness creates difference, makes one
different from the other.
The word Chanda is derived from the two words,
Chad (form, cast or appearance) and aananda
(joy).
aananda = aanana (face or mouth) + da (donating
or giving) ——thus, aananda or joy is the act of
vaak by which ana or praaNa is given a shape.
This is how every word is coming out of the
‘mouth’. Thus, the seers have said that
everything has originated from ananda or joy.
Behind every creation there is a ‘joy’. Thus,
Chanda also means ananda(joy) created when the
‘One’ is revealing by dissecting (cheda) the
‘Oneness’ to become ‘a different entity’. In
every word that we speak, we come out of Oneness
as a ‘different entity’.

yaj~naan (the sacrifices) ——yaj~naan is derived


from the word yaj~na.
The word ‘j~na’ which sounds similar to ‘know’
means the ‘one who is knowing or the one who
knows’. Consciousness means the ‘one who is
knowing’. Any activity, any work, physical,
mental or whatever is ‘the act of knowing’. So,
the action of the three Vedas Rik, yajus, saama
and action of ‘Chanda’ are all from the ‘knowing’
of the Universal consciousness. In all our
senses, this ‘knower’ is there, who is ‘knowing.
Thus, we are ‘knowing’ and so we are ‘conscious’
all the time. Thus, this entire universal
activity is yaj~na or the action of 'knowing'.
This action is the action of Rik, yajus, saama
and Chanda’ in innumerable forms and everywhere
and is called yaj~na. Also, correspondingly the
acts or rituals performed to see the ‘universal
knower’ or ‘j~na’ is called yaj~na. Thus, in
Vedic rituals, theere will be a number of priests
to perform a yaj~na, each priest belonging to a
particular veda, there will be specific Chanda
for the sacred hymns used in a yaj~na.

prajaaH (the subjects) ——The word prajaaH is from


the word prajaa. prajaa means pra (perfectly) +
jaa (generated or created). Though every entity
is a prajaa, however, here prajaa means those
creatures who have become conscious of their
origin and thus their lives, deeds, societies are
oriented or getting oriented to the Universal
Consciousness or to the ‘origin’. prajaa also
means who are generated from praaNa or by the
action of j~na or ‘knowing’.

pashUn (the animals) ——The word pashUn is from


the word pashu. pashu are those who are inferior
to prajaa. pashu, unlike prajaa, are mainly
driven by instincts and not by the serious
considerations of karmma, considerations those
include ‘vice and virtue’, ‘cause and effect’,
‘termination and eternity’ etc.
The word pashu is connected to the root word
paash which means ‘a leash or a tether’ and also
to the root word ‘pash’ meaning ‘to see’. Thus,
as long as the creatures are ‘restrained or
controlled’ by the ‘surveillance’ of the
‘divinity’, they are called pashu and the
relationship is governed by duality.
(It may be noted in this context that it is not
the physical shape or form, but it is the ‘inner
or mental structure’ that differentiates between
pashu and prajaa. Some parts of us may be still
pashu and rest is qualified as prajaa’.)

sah (he) yad yad eva(whatever entity)


asRijata(created) tad tad (each and every such
entity)attum(to eat)adhriyata(vowed/determined);
sarvaM vaa (everything indeed) atti(eats) iti tad
(this) aditer (adititi’s)adititvaM(non-
duality/oneness); sarvasya etasya (of all these)
attaa (eater) bhavati(becomes)sarvam(all these)
asya(his/her/knower’s)annam(food)
bhavati(becomes)yaH(who)evam(like this)etad
aditeH(this aditi’s)adititvaM(non-
duality/oneness)veda(knows).

The word adana, aditi, aaditya are from the root


word ad meaning ‘to eat’. Eating means to digest
in ‘oneness’. This is aditi shakti which removes
‘dominance of duality’ and which enables the
vision of ‘absolute oneness and oneness in all
dualities’.
The nature of the Consciousness is ‘to know’, ‘to
feel’——no one else can ‘know’, no one else can
‘feel’; and ‘to know’ means ‘to become’. Whatever
we are knowing or sensing, we simultaneously
becoming the same. We are so overwhelmed by the
physicality (or by the act of knowing or
vibration of the Consciousness called
‘physical’), this spontaneous and continuous
happening of ‘sensing something by becoming that
thing’ is not at all in our perception.
In our inside, we are becoming whatever we are
‘knowing’ or ‘sensing’; this is how our life is
flowing or our time is running. This is how,
i.e. ‘by the act of knowing or sensing’, the
Universal Consciousness is controlling everyone.
By this action we are getting transformed,
evolving through the cycles of life and death and
we are returning to our Origin to merge with the
One who is ‘everyone’ and ‘beyond’. This action
is adana or ‘act of eating’ by the Universal
consciousness. So, as goddess of all deities, as
the goddess of the divinity, Universal
Consciousness is called ‘aditi’. The centre of
this ‘eating’, the centre from where the
attraction to ‘Oneness’ is originating is called
‘aaditya’ (sun)---the son of the mother goddess
aditi.

It is for this reason, when the Creator created


the duality or the ‘second soul’, the Creator at
that moment also determined ‘to eat’ every entity
thus created.

As ‘to know’ means ‘to become’, so the one who


knows this ‘mystery’, the one eats everything,
and everything is the one’s food. Thus, such a
knower knows why ‘aditi’ is ‘aditi’ (without
duality).

1. 2. 6
(Original text). Sixth verse.

so akaamayata bhUyasaa yaj~nena bhUyo yajeyeti.


so ashraamyat sa tapo atapyata.
tasya shraantasya taptasya yasho
vIryamudakraamat;
praaNaa vai yasho vIryam.
tat praaNeShUtkraanteShu sharIraM
shvayitumadhriyata;
tasya sharIra eva mana aasIt.

(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

saH (He) akaamayata (desired) bhUyasaa (by many


performances of) yaj~nena (sacrifices /oblations)
bhUyo (many more) yajeyeti (I perform).

saH (He) ashraamyat (toiled);


saH (He)tapo(heat/radiation) atapyata (radiated).

tasya (From that) shraantasya (tired)


taptasya(radiant) yashaH (ability/capability)
vIryam (virility/ ut akraamat (gushed upward).

praaNaaH (praana are) vai (indeed) yasho


(capability) vIryam (virility).

tat (From that) praaNeShu (praaNa) utkraanteShu


(from upward motion) sharIraM (the body)
shvayitum (inflated) adhriyata (and continued in
that state).

tasya (In His) sharIra (body) eva (only) mana


(mind) aasIt (remained).

Consolidated meaning.
He desired: “by many performances of yaj~na
(sacrifices /oblations) many more yaj~na I
perform”.
He toiled.
He radiated heat/radiation.
From that exhausted and radiant (Creator)
ability/capability and virility gushed upward.
praaNa (streams of Consciousness or Consciousness
flowing and animating) are indeed capabilities
and virility.
From that upward motion of praaNa the body
inflated and continued in that state.
In His body only, mind remained.

Etymological meaning and explanations


saH (He) akaamayata (desired)—- That ‘He
desired’does not only mean that at the beginning
of the creation the Creator desired. It also
means, that He, the Creator, is always desiring;
He is desiring everywhere, in every unit to
multiply! Since, here, everything ‘has already
happened and thus held in the “past”, so the past
tense has been applied’.

bhUyasaa (by many performances of)) yaj~na


(sacrifices /oblations) bhUyo (many more)
yajeyeti (I perform) —-One of the meanings of
yaj~na is the action or control (ya) of the
‘knower’ (j~na). That ‘knower is knowing’ means
‘senses are originating from the Consciousness’,
streams of Consciousness or praaNa are flowing.
By the action of ‘knowing’ or by the action of
Universal Consciousness, everything is active and
controlled. This is called ‘Ishitva’.
(The name of the mother goddess Isis is related
to Ishitva. By this action and control, by
Ishitva, the Universal Consciousness is pulling
us back to our origin or to Himself/Herself. This
is called ‘ashanaa’ or eating and assimilation.
By this action we are going through the cycles of
births and deaths and evolving. This is the
multiplication of yaj~na by yaj~na.

saH (He) ashraamyat (toiled)—The word ashraamyat


is the past tense of the verb shram meaning ‘to
toil’ or ‘to labour’. The word shra is related to
the word aashraya meaning ‘shelter or a place of
resting, a place or personality who provides
refuge’.
When we toil, or we get exhausted, we sleep, or
we die. This is shraanta= (shra) shrama (toil) +
anta (end).
Labour, toil or work leads us to exhaustion and
to sleep, eventually to ‘death’. If the activity
or work is seen as the activity of Consciousness
it leads us to core of Consciousness where all
activities and work are at rest. Here, in the
core, everything is effortless. We don’t have to
work, everything is achieved. This is called
‘naiShkarmya’ in the texts.
So, these are the two ends or anta.
That the Death or the Creator became shraanta
means, (i) the ‘shelter’ for everyone is made and
(ii)‘the preparation for creating the end of
everything or the physicality has been set’.

There is a term called varNaashrama in the text.


varNa means colour or inner colour or caste.
aashrama means where one can get the shelter or
the abode. So, in a regulated society, the work
was divided by the seers, for everyone to move
fast or evolve fast toward the higher state of
existence and by knowing that the ‘Universal
consciousness’ is the ‘core’ and the ‘refuge’ of
everyone and every activity. Therefore, the
society is termed as samaaja = sama (same/
synchronized) + aja (who is behind ja or birth or
creation)—so, samaaja means the ‘order’ that
allows you or helps you to be in synchronized
with the ‘universal Consciousness’ or ‘with the
entire universe’.

This end, this terminal point of the creation,


this stark and utter physicality, this ‘inane’
world and the ‘vast darkness’ are also the
‘expression of the Consciousness’. This is what
was created when the ‘Creator became exhausted’.
saH (He)tapo(heat/radiation) atapyata (radiated)—
-The word ‘tapo’ is derived from the word ‘tapa’
which means the ‘warmth or heat’ coming out of
‘meditation or while concentrating about a
thing’. It is the energy created to ‘form’ an
entity in the ‘mind’. It has been mentioned
before, that definite or final formation happens
in the mind. In the animal kingdom, this aspect
of the Universal Consciousness is seen in the
hatching of eggs. It is for this reason, the word
‘tapasya’ means act of meditation. The place or
‘seat’ of mind in our body is the centre of the
forehead or the region where the two brows meet.
Mind is known as the ‘third eye’. This centre as
part of the divinity or as universal centre is
called tapa loka. So, we are created from the
‘meditation’ of the ‘Creator’. It is for this
reason, the location of ‘jana loka’ or the center
from where the entities are generated or revealed
is the ‘neck’ from where ‘the words are
articulated in the air’.
So, jana loka is located below tapa loka.

tasya (From that) shraantasya (tired)


taptasya(radiant) yashaH (abilities/capabilities)
vIryam (virility/ ut akraamat (gushed upward) —-

The word yasha is from the words ‘ya’ and ‘shak’.


The word ‘ya’ implies ‘conjugation’ or
‘joining’(yaukta). The word ‘shak’ means
‘capable’.
So, yasha means the aspect of Consciousness by
which everything can be done or achieved.
The word vIrya is related to the word vIra
meaning ‘brave’. Etymologically, vIra means one
who can multiply or who can split one into many.

vIra= vi(duality) + Ira (act of driving or


implementing.) Thus, the word vIra is related to
‘virility’ and ‘vigour’. This is why vIrya which
means ‘the quality of one who is vIra’. Also,
vIrya means ‘sperm’.
Thus, vIrya means the capability by which ‘one
can split oneself into many and one can change
the others. This is the capability of vaak.

praaNaaH (praaNa are) vai (indeed) yasho


(capabilities) vIryam (virility)——The word
praaNaaH is the plural form of praaNa. praaNa who
is the active, flowing, streaming Consciousness,
who is the life and animation in everyone, is
indeed all the capabilities and the virility,
performing every action in everyone, in every
entity.

The plural form of praaNa has been used


considering innumerable streams of the Universal
Consciousness. These streams are the directions
(dik or dish) from which the space and dimensions
are formed.
The word ‘ut akraamat’ (gushed upward) is the
past tense of the verb ‘utkramaNa’.

The significance of the word utkramaNa can be


understood by the way we die. When we die, we
leave the body along with praaNa and the body is
left behind. utkramaNa = ut (up)+kramaNa
(transgression / motion). Wherever praaNa moves,
we along with our senses, faculties, memories,
instincts move with praaNa. praaNa is the one
along with Him everyone stays and along with Him
everyone leaves. praaNa moves like a horse
uprooting the post to which it is tied.

The Sanskrit word kramaNa is related to the Latin


word Chronus and Greek word Chronos. kramaNa is
the action or motion of Universal Consciousness
from which time and space are being generated.
The related word krama means ‘sequence, course’.
viShNu, the personalized or deity form of praaNa
is called trivikrama= tri (three)+ vi (different)
+ krama (course/sequence). From viShNu the three
courses of time are being generated.

tat (From that) praaNeShu (of praaNa)


utkraanteShu (upward motion) sharIraM (the body)
shvayitum (inflated) adhriyata (and continued in
that state); tasya (In His) sharIra (body) eva
(only) mana (mind) aasIt (remained).

As the Consciousness gushed upward as yasha and


vIrya, the body or the physicality started
inflating. Mind remained in the body.
We have already told that where the physicality
is created in the Consciousness, there
Consciousness is called mind. Here in the defined
or physical plane, things are segregated, defined
(naama), shaped(rUpa).
The word ‘shvayitum (inflated)’ is from the root
word shvi which means to grow or swell. It is
like an embryo growing into a full-fledged form
or it is like the universe swelling or expanding.
Physicality imposes measures and definitions
which lead to confinement. At one end we are
confined, physicalized; at the other end we are
praaNa, streaming unbound Consciousness with
endless capabilities (yasha) and virility
(vIrya).

1. 2. 7
(Original text).Seventh verse.

so akAmayata medhyaM ma idam syaadaatmanvyanena


syaamiti. tato ashvaH samabhavadyadashvat
tanmedhyamabhUditi.
tadevaashvamedhasyaashvamedhatvam.
eSha ha vA ashvamedhaM veda ya enamevaM veda.
tamanavarudhyaivaamanyata.
taM saMvatsarasya parastaadaatmana aalabhata.
pashUndevataabhyaH
pratyauhat.
tasmaatsarvadevatyaM prokShitaM
praajaapatyamaalabhanta.

eSha ha vaa ashvamedho ya eSha tapati; tasya


saMvatsara aatmaayamagnirarkastasyeme lokaa
aatmaanastaavetaavarkaashvamedhau. so punarekaiva
devatA bhavati mRityurevaapa
punarmRityuM jayati nainaM mRityuraapnoti
mRityurasyaatmaa bhavatyetaasaaM devataanaameko
bhavati.

(Disjointed words and word by word meaning)

saH (He)akaamayata(desired)medhyaM (fit for


merging) mae(mine)idaM(this)syaat(become).
(He desired—-“Let it become fit for merging, this
belonging to me”. / Let all these belonging to me
(created from myself) be fit for merging in me.)

aatmanvI (me be expanded) anena (by ana)


syaam(be)iti.
(Let me be expanded by ana/praaNa).

tataH (Then) ashvaH (ashva/horse)


sam (duly) abhavat (created) yat (that)ashvat
({He swelled});

(Then the horse/ashva was duly created as He


swelled.)

tat (that) medhyam (also for for merging) abhUt


(became) iti.

(That what swelled or expanded{asvat} that also


became fit for collapsing/merging {medhyam}).

tat eva (that indeed is) ashvamedhasya


ashvamedhatvaM—-(ashvamedha of ashvamedha ——
essence of ashvamedha).

(That {This expanding/ swelling and


collapsing/merging} is the essence of
ashvamedha.)

eShaH ha vaa (This is the one who) ashvamedhaM


(ashvamedha) veda (knows)—- ya (the one who) enam
evaM (like this only) veda(knows);

(This is the one who knows ashvamedha—the one who


knows only like this.)
tam (that/horse/ashva) anavarudhya (not to be
tethered) eva(thus) amanyata(reflected/thought)

(He / the Creator reflected not to tether that


(horse/ashva--not to restric that swelling).
taM (that/ that horse) saMvatsarasya (one
year/one complete cycle of time)
parastaat(later/after) aatmana (in the self / in
the soul) aalabhata (got back)

(After a year / after a period of complete time


cycle of rearing, He {the creator} got /gets it
{horse/ashva} back in His soul)

pashUn (the animals) devataabhyaH prati (to the


deities) auhat (offered)

(The animals are offered to the deities.)

tasmaat (That’s why) sarva devatyaM (to all


deities) prokShitaM (being sacrificed)
praajaapatyam (the state of subjects of
prajaapati) aalabhante (they achieve).

(That’s why being sacrificed to all the deities


they {the animals} achieve the sate of being
prajaapati’s subjects {they become the subjects
of prajaapati}).

eShaH ha vaa (It/He is indeed) ashvamedho


(ashvamedha) ya (who) eShaH (like this) tapati
(warming/radiating life).
(It / He is certainly ashvamedha, who is
radiating warmth (life) like this.)

tasya (his) saMvatsara (rearing every entity to


eternity) aatmaa (habit).
(Rearing every entity to eternity or to the
absolute Oneness is the habit of ashvamedha.)
ayam (this) agniH (agni fire is) arkaH
(arka/expanding Rik/arcing & arching
Consciousness)

(This agni /fire is arka {a+Rik}/ expanding Rik).

tasya (His/ ashva’s) ime lokaa (all these


locations/ worlds) aatmanaH (his spread/ his
limbs)

(All these worlds are His spreads).

tou aetou (these two) arka ashvamedhau (arka and


ashamedha) saa u (and they) punaH (again)eka iva
(only one) devataa (deity) bhavati (become);
mRityuH (Death) eva (indeed).

(These two—-arka and ashvamedha again {merge} to


become the single deity; and indeed, this deity
is the Death {who was in the beginning}).

apa (by water/ap) punaH (repetition of)


mRityuM(deaths) jayati (conquer/overcome)

na enaM (not him/her) mRityuH (the death) aapnoti


(can seize) mRityuH (The Death) asya (his/hers)
aatmaa(soul) bhavati(becomes); etaasaaM ({among}
all these) devataanaam(deities) eko (one {he /
she}) bhavati (becomes).

(The Death cannot seize him or her {who is so


learned}; The Death becomes his/her soul {He/she
knows the Death as the personality of the soul};
he /she becomes same with all these deities.)

Consolidated meaning.

He desired—-“Let it become fit for merging, this


belonging to me”. / Let all these belonging to me
(created from myself) be fit for merging in me.

Let myself be expanded by ana/praaNa.

Then the horse/ashva was duly created as He


swelled.

That what swelled or expanded{asvat} that also


became fit for collapsing/merging {medhyam}).
That (This expanding/ swelling and
collapsing/merging) is the essence of ashvamedha.

This is the one who knows ashvamedha—the one who


knows only like this.

He / the Creator reflected not to tether that


(horse/ashva/swelling).

After a year / after a period of complete time


cycle of rearing, He {the creator} got it
{horse/ashva} back in His soul)

The animals are offered to the deities.


That’s why being sacrificed to all the deities
they {the animals} achieve the sate of being
prajaapati’s subjects {they become the subjects
of prajaapati}).

It / He is certainly ashvamedha, who is radiating


warmth (life) like this.
Rearing every entity to eternity or to the
absolute Oneness is the habit of ashvamedha.

This agni /fire is arka{a+Rik}/ expanding Rik).

All these worlds are His spreads.

These two—-arka and ashvamedha again {merge} to


become the single deity; and indeed, this deity
is the Death {who was in the beginning}).

The Death cannot seize him or her {who is so


learned}; The Death becomes his/her soul {He/she
knows the Death as the personality of the soul};
he /she becomes same with all these deities.

Etymological meaning and explanations

saH (He)akaamayata(desired) medhyaM (fit for


merging) mae(mine) idaM(this) syaat(become)—-
whatever is ‘idam’ or ‘it’ (i.e. everything
created) let those become fit for merging
(medhya) with me.

aatmanvI (let me be expanded) anena (by ana)


syaam(be) iti.
Let me embody myself (expand myself) by ana /
praaNa (by my animation or by my activities as
‘time’).

tataH (Then) ashvaH (ashva/horse)


sam (duly) abhavat (created)—- yat (that /when)
ashvat ({he} swelled}); tat (that) medhyam (also
for for merging) abhUt (became) iti--
Then He (Creator)expanded or inflated (as the
universe), He(ensured)that the universe / all
entities created also are fit for merging with
Him.

The expansion in all directions is swelling and


this is denoted by the words ashvat and ashva.
Whatever different entities Universal
Consciousness becomes by creating duality or by
becoming entities created from the sense of
‘duality’, Consciousness or the Universal Soul
also brings them back in Him, in the Oneness. To
do this the Universal Cpnsciousness makes
everything medhya or fit for merging. This is the
nature of the eternal Consciousness, mukhya
praaNa or goddess called durgaa.

(durgaa means who creates ‘distance’ durgaa


=dura(distance} + ga (movement/going)+a ——(i)who
is characterized by moving to distance; (ii) from
whom death moves away to distance. Both the
meanings refer to what has been described above
as ashvamedha.)

tat eva (that indeed is) ashvamedhasya


ashvamedhatvaM—-(ashvamedha of ashvamedha ——
essence of ashvamedha) ——This splitting or
creating duality out of absolute Oneness and then
again bringing back each such entity created out
of duality into Oneness is the essence of ashva
medha.

tam (that/horse/ashva/swelling) anavarudhya (not


to be tethered/restrticed) eva(thus)
amanyata(reflected/thought)

He / the Creator reflected not to tether that


(horse/ashva; whatever is created from the
Consciousness or praaNa, each is a stream of
Consciousness or praaNa, running along the course
of time—-each is a ashva / horse. Since the
Creator decided not to tether the horse so, every
entity in the universe find itself as
‘independent’ and considers itself as the sole
‘doer’. As long as we do not become aware of the
divine control, the Control of Consciousness
exerted on us at every moment, it is like
untethered horse running.
taM (that/ that horse) saMvatsarasya (one
year/one complete cycle of time)
parastaat(later/after) aatmana (in the self / in
the soul) aalabhata (got back) ——after a year /
after a period of complete time cycle of rearing,
He {the creator} got it {horse/ashva/swelled
universe} back in His soul. When this merging
happens, the ‘horse sacrifice / ashvamedha
yaj~na’ is successfully completed.

tasmaat (That’s why) sarva devatyaM (to all


deities) prokShitaM (being sacrificed)
praajaapatyam (the state of subjects of
prajaapati) aalabhante (they achieve) —-That’s
why being sacrificed pashUn (the animals)
devataabhyaH prati (to the deities) auhat
(offered) —-The animals are offered to the
deities. Though we are created untethered and
thus we all have ‘independency’ or ‘independent
self’, still we are in control of divinity or in
control of the Universal Consciousness and so we
return to the Universal Consciousness after
samvatsara or a period of complete cycle. The
deities are the aspects or the personalities of
the Universal consciousness, by whom we are
regulated. Till we do not know or perceive this
Control of Universal Consciousness, we remain as
‘pashu’ or cattle / animals of the deities. This
has also been stated elsewhere in Upanishads.
Thus, we remain ‘offered to the deities’
to all the deities they {the animals} achieve the
sate of prajaapati’s subjects {they become the
subjects of prajaapati}).

prajaapati = prajaa (creature) + pati


(lord/dominator)
The word praajaapatyam is derived from the word
prajaapati and means ‘those who are under the
regulations of prajaapati’. This means we remain
in the ‘cycles of births, living, deaths, re-
births….’ In this manner we are reared and
nourished and remains under the domain of
prajaapati.

eShaH ha vaa (It/He is indeed) ashvamedho


(ashvamedha) ya (who) eShaH (like this) tapati
(warming/radiating life) ——It / He is certainly
ashvamedha, who is radiating warmth (life) like
this. Indeed, prajaapati is ashvamedha who is
warming us by life (consciousness). This warmth
is called uShmaa, the warmth that we get from the
life, from the Consciousness, the warmth which is
burning in us as our senses; the warmth that
brings life in the inert.

tasya (his) saMvatsara (rearing every entity to


eternity) aatmaa (habit)—-rearing every entity to
eternity or to the absolute Oneness is the habit
of ashvamedha. saMvatsara is the time or year
(vatsara) during which the creature or the
offspring (vatsa) of the Universal Consciousness
becomes sama or perfect. Rearing up the child and
bringing it back to the Oneness is the habit
(aatman) of the Universal Consciousness.

ayam (this) agniH (agni fire) arkaH


(arka/expanding Rik/arcing & arching
Consciousness) —-This agni /fire is arka{a+Rik}/
expanding Rik).

This agni or fire is the Consciousness by whom


everyone, every entity has an existence and is
active; this fire is inside the earth, inside
everything that is physical. This fire as life,
as senses, is illuminated in us. It is that fire,
that revealing Universal Consciousness, who as
‘living words’ or Rik, has become anything and
everything that has a shape, a name, a definition
(naama and rUpa). The expansion of the
Consciousness as the universe has created arc or
arka, bends(vakra)—-which we perceive as the
curvature of the space (and time), as the
gravity, as the refraction. Thus, in Chandogya
Upanishad the divinity or heaven has been
described as the ‘bent stem of genealogy’ ——
doureva (divinity is) tIrashchIn (bent) vaMsha
(genealogy / bamboo stem / spine). These bends
describe the chronology; the bend or vakra means
the va (vad) + kra (krama)= vadati cha kramati
cha—who is speaking as well as creating sequence
and trails. Consciousness speaks to create
events.

tasya(His/ ashva’s)ime lokaa (all these


locations/ worlds) aatmanaH (his spread/ his
limbs——all these worlds are His spreads.This is
why the word tanu meaning ‘body is from the root
word tan meaning ‘spread’ and tanaya/tanayaa
means son/daughter.Thus the entire universe is
the embodiment of the Universal Consciousness and
every entity is the child of the Universal
Consciousness. The ‘aatmanaH’ means ‘out of the
Soul or from the Soul’.

tou aetou (these two) arka ashvamedhau (arka and


ashamedha) saa u (and they) punaH (again) eka
iva (only one) devataa (deity) bhavati (become);
mRityuH (Death) Eva (indeed)—-these two—-arka and
ashvamedha again {merge} to become the single
deity; and indeed this deity is the Death {who
was in the beginning}).The Universal
Consciousness expanding and becoming the creation
is arka, and running and expanding aspect is
called ashva (horse); but the Consciousness again
brings back every entity to the Oneness, to merge
and this ‘ashvamedha’. This is the single deity
or the same personality who is ‘Death’ or in whom
everyone surrenders the ‘limited self’ to become
‘eternal.

apa (by water/ap) punaH (repetition of)


mRityuM(deaths) jayati (conquer/overcome)——-He /
She overcomes the repeats of the death by ap/ by
the ‘water’; this goddess water, this divine
water where all forms and physicality remain
dissolved and from where all physical formation
take place, lets us know how we can live sans
physicality.
na enaM (not him/her) mRityuH (the death)aapnoti
(can seize)mRityuH (The Death)asya (his/hers)
aatmaa(soul)bhavati(becomes); etaasaaM (among all
these) devataanaam(deities) eko(one {he / she} )
bhavati (becomes)——the Death cannot seize him or
her {who is so learned}; the Death becomes
his/her soul---he/she knows the Death as the
personality of the soul; he /she becomes same
with all these deities (by merging in Oneness).

Death becomes the soul of such a learned person


i.e. such a knower finds death as the revelation
of the soul; to such a knower, the Death becomes
a deity or a personality of the Universal
Consciousness or the Soul, who shrouds everything
by Oneness. Thus, such a knower becomes the ‘One’
among all the deities or among all the revealing
personalities of the Universal Consciousness.

Such a knower during the death knows that he/she


is withdrawing his / her spread, his/her
dualities or separate existence in the oneness of
the soul.
The alphabet ma in Sanskrit is the last member of
the matrix of consonants having five rows and
five columns. It is the highest degree of
pa~nchama(five)or ‘punching’. As one clenches
one’s five (pancha)fingers(senses)to make a
‘punch’ to blow a thrust, so is this ‘pancha’or
the fifth placed ‘ma’. ma means both maa (mother)
and mRityu (death). maa or mother is the one who
shapes ‘ma’ or negativity—-maa= ma (what is
negative) + aa (aa=aakaara=form or appearance).
We get our shapes or forms in the ‘mother’; she
brings postivity and gives us a defined shape or
existence.

maa also means the one who ‘manifests or creates


or shapes the ma or negativity’. maa= ma
(negativity or mRityu) +aa (aakaara / form).

Thus, mother makes us postive, derive us from


negativity and also takes postive or existing one
into negativity. Negativity in its true sense'
means 'Oneness'.

We are formed into identity by five senses, by


fundamental elements (kShiti, ap, teja, marut,
voyam). When we leave the mortality, our senses
remain in those five elements. The five fingers
are indicating these five senses or elements as
below:

1.Thumb (a~NguShTha) —-voyam (firmament)—-


corresponding sense is ‘sound’(shavda). This is
why there is a ‘void’ between the thumb and the
rest of the fingers.
2.Forefinger (tarjanI)—-marut (air)—-
corresponding sense is ‘touch’(sparsha).
Air is the Consciousness or praaNa who connects
everyone and touches everyone. When
Consciousness flows, it is praaNa and from this
flow, time and directions are created. Thus
forefinger is instinctively used 'to point'and
is a pointer finger.

3.Middle finger (madhyamaa)—teja (shine)—


corresponding sense is ‘vision’ (rUpa). Since
among the senses in us, ‘vision’ is the leading
sense, so the middle finger is the longest.

4. Ring finger (anaamikaa)—-ap (water/taste) —-


corresponding sense is ‘taste’(rasa).

5.Little finger (kaniShTha)——-kShiti


(earth/smell) —-corresponding sense is
‘odour’(gandha).
Since the taste is associated with smell, these
two fingers are adjacent to each other.

The Universal Mother (Consciousness) creates us


and also takes us back with Her five fingers.

As long as the we do not know that all dualities


are from ONE, we are bound to experience ‘death’.
There is ONE and only ONE. This ONE knows
'ONESELF' as 'many' and thus has become 'all of
us' by ‘knowing'. In this creation, the
intermediate revealing personalities of the
Universal Consciousness are the deities.
Notes.
In the sacred text called chaNDI it was stated
that there were two demons (asura) called madhu
and kaiTabha who fought a long battle with lord
viShNu. At the end they desired their death in
the hands of viShNu because they were so pleased
with the battle fought with viShNu. However, when
they realized that water is there everywhere in
the world, they decided to lose and made a
request to viShNu to slaughter them in a place
which is not flooded with water(ap).

madhu means ‘sweet or honey’. kaiTabha is from


the root word kITa. kITa means an insect and
kaiTabha means who is ‘small or confined or
limited, like an insect’. Thus, these pair of the
demons, madhu and kaiTabha, are ‘our attachment
and obsession to the things which we like and
remain confined by them or remain obsessed with
them. We remain attached to whatever we like but
we little care for the cause or the origin and
effect or the destiny. The demons are also the
personalities of the Universal Consciousness by
whom we are confined and limited.
These demons are slaughtered by vishNu who is the
praaNa or the Consciousness entered (vish) into
every entity and who is backing the aspect
‘parjaapti’ as mentioned above. viShnU is the
aspect of the Universal Consciousness who is
representing the ‘collective personalities of all
the deities’ and thus is our ‘dominator’.
When we come to know that any sweetness is the
sweetness of the Consciousness, it is the
Consciousness who is sweet, and in the
Consciousness the sweetness is unbound and
everlasting, the demons are killed by viShNu. As
long as this does not happen, we are dominated by
the attachments to mortal things and remain
limited, moving in the cycles of death and
births. This, our formation into limited entity
and then giving up the body at death and again
reformation or re-birth, are happening in this
‘divine water’. Thus, viShNu lies in karaNa
(cause) vaari (water) ——water in which all causes
are contained.
So, the demons requested viShNu to kill them at a
place which cannot be flooded by water, i.e. they
wanted to transcrend the state of compulsory
deaths and rebirths.

Here is the hymn of chaNDI

“(vanchtabhaaymiti tadaa sarvamaapomayaM jagat


vilokya taabhyaam gadito bhagavaan kamalekShaNH)

Seeing the whole world being flooded by water,


they felt deprived and thus spoke to the lotus
eyed lord (viShNu)——

(pRitoU svastava yudhena,


shlaaghyastanmRityuraavoyoH)

“we are pleased by having this battle with you


Our death in your hands is laudable!

(aavaM jahi n yattrorVI salilela na pariplutaaH)

Slaughter us there where the earth is not flooded


by water”.
(chanDI, first character/chapter).
———————————————————————————————————————————————-
The above is written by following the teachings
of the great sage BijoyKrishna Chattopadhyaya
(1875-1945) and his principal disciple Tridibnath
Bandyopadhyaa (1923-1994.