CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND

COMPANION DOCUMENTS
6th Grade - Ecosystems
Contains:
- Science Companion Document for 6th Grade Ecosystems unit
- General Inquiry Questions Assessment questions
- 6th Grade Ecosystems Assessment questions
- 6th Grade Science Expectations
- 6th Grade ELA Expectations
- 6th Grade Mathematics Expectations
- 6th Grade Social Studies Expectations
- Grade 6-8 Technology Expectations
I nt r oduct i on t o t he K- 7 Compani on Document
An I nst r uct i onal Fr amew or k

Over vi ew

The Michigan K- 7 Grade Level Cont ent Expect at ions for Science est ablish
what every st udent is expect ed t o know and be able t o do by t he end of
Grade Seven as mandat ed by t he legislat ion in t he St at e of Michigan. The
Science Cont ent Expect at ions Document s have raised t he bar for our
st udent s, t eachers and educat ional syst ems.

I n an effort t o support t hese st andards and help our element ary and middle
school t eachers develop rigorous and relevant curricula t o assist st udent s in
mast ery, t he Michigan Science Leadership Academy, in collaborat ion wit h t he
Michigan Mat hemat ics and Science Cent er Net work and t he Michigan Science
Teachers Associat ion, worked in part nership wit h Michigan Depart ment of
Educat ion t o develop t hese companion document s. Our goal is for each
st udent t o mast er t he science cont ent expect at ions as out lined in each grade
level of t he K- 7 Grade Level Cont ent Expect at ions.

This inst ruct ional framework is an effort t o clarify possible unit s wit hin t he K-
7 Science Grade Level Cont ent Expect at ions. The I nst ruct ional Framework
provides descript ions of inst ruct ional act ivit ies t hat ar e appropriat e for
inquiry science in t he classroom and meet t he inst ruct ional goals. I ncluded
are brief descript ions of mult iple act ivit ies t hat provide t he learner wit h
opport unit ies for explorat ion and observat ion, planning and conduct ing
invest igat ions, present ing findings and expanding t hinking beyond t he
classroom.

These companion document s are an effort t o clarify and support t he K- 7
Science Cont ent Expect at ions. Each grade level has been organized int o four
t eachable unit s- organized around t he big ideas and concept ual t hemes in
eart h, life and physical science. The document is similar in format t o t he
Science Assessment and I t em Specificat ions for t he 2009 Nat ional
Assessment for Educat ion Progress ( NAEP) . The companion document s are
int ended t o provide boundaries t o t he cont ent expect at ions. These
boundaries are present ed as “ not es t o t eachers” , not comprehensive
descript ions of t he full range of science cont ent ; t hey do not st and alone, but
rat her, work in conj unct ion wit h t he cont ent expect at ions. The boundaries
use seven cat egories of paramet ers:

a. Cl ar i f i cat i ons refer t o t he rest at ement of t he “ key idea” or specific
int ent or elaborat ion of t he cont ent st at ement s. They are not int ended
t o denot e a sense of cont ent priorit y. The clarificat ions guide
assessment .
b. Vocabul ar y refers t o t he vocabulary for use and applicat ion of t he
science t opics and principles t hat appear in t he cont ent st at ement s
and expect at ions. The t erms in t his sect ion along wit h t hose present ed
I
wit hin t he st andard, cont ent st at ement and cont ent expect at ion
comprise t he assessable vocabulary.
c. I nst r ument s, Measur ement s and Repr esent at i ons refer t o t he
inst rument s st udent s are expect ed t o use and t he level of precision
expect ed t o measure, classify and int erpret phenomena or
measurement . This sect ion cont ains assessable informat ion.
d. I nqui r y I nst r uct i onal Ex ampl es present ed t o assist t he st udent in
becoming engaged in t he st udy of science t hrough t heir nat ural
curiosit y in t he subj ect mat t er t hat is of high int erest . St udent s explore
and begin t o form ideas and t ry t o make sense of t he world around
t hem. St udent s are guided in t he process of scient ific inquiry t hrough
purposeful observat ions, invest igat ions and demonst rat ing
underst anding t hrough a variet y of experiences. St udent s observe,
classify, predict , measure and ident ify and cont rol variables while
doing “ hands- on” act ivit ies.
e. Assessment Ex ampl es are present ed t o help clarify how t he t eacher
can conduct format ive assessment s in t he classroom t o assess st udent
progress and underst anding
f . Enr i chment and I nt er v ent i on is inst ruct ional examples t hat st ret ch
t he t hinking beyond t he inst ruct ional examples and provides ideas for
reinforcement of challenging concept s.
g. Ex ampl es, Obser v at i ons, Phenomena are included as exemplars of
different modes of inst ruct ion appropriat e t o t he unit in which t hey are
list ed. These examples include reflect ion, a link t o real world
applicat ion, and elaborat ion beyond t he classroom. These examples
are int ended for inst ruct ional guidance only and are not assessable.
h. Cur r i cul ar Connect i ons and I nt egr at i ons are offered t o assist t he
t eacher and curriculum administ rat or in aligning t he science curriculum
wit h ot her areas of t he school curriculum. I deas are present ed t hat will
assist t he classroom inst ruct or in making appropriat e connect ions of
science wit h ot her aspect s of t he t ot al curriculum.

This I nst ruct ional Framework is NOT a st ep- by- st ep inst ruct ional manual but
a guide developed t o help t eachers and curriculum developers design t heir
own lesson plans, select useful port ions of t ext , and creat e assessment s t hat
are aligned wit h t he grade level science curriculum for t he St at e of Michigan.
I t is not int ended t o be a curriculum, but ideas and suggest ions for
generat ing and implement ing high qualit y K- 7 inst ruct ion and inquiry
act ivit ies t o assist t he classroom t eacher in implement ing t hese science
cont ent expect at ions in t he classroom.



II
HSSCE Companion Document






Si x t h Gr ade GLCE
Compani on Document

Uni t 2:
Ecosy st ems



SCI ENCE
• Bi g I deas • I nst r uct i onal Fr amew or k
• Cl ar i f i cat i ons • Enr i chment
• I nqui r y • I nt er v ent i on
• Vocabul ar y • Real Wor l d Cont ex t
• I nst r ument s • Li t er acy I nt egr at i on
• Measur ement s • Mat hemat i cs I nt egr at i on
v. 1. 09
Si x t h Gr ade Compani on Document

6- Uni t 2: Ecosy st ems

Tabl e of Cont ent s Page 1

Curriculum Cross Reference Guide Page 2

Unit 2: Ecosyst ems Page 4

Big I deas ( Key Concept s) Page 4

Clarificat ion of Cont ent Expect at ions Page 4

I nquiry Process, I nquiry Analysis and Communicat ion,
Reflect ion and Social I mplicat ions Page 12

Vocabulary Page 13

I nst rument s, Measurement s, and Represent at ions Page 13

I nst r uct i onal Fr amew or k Page 14

Enrichment Page 18

I nt ervent ion Page 18

Examples, Observat ions and Phenomena
( Real World Cont ext ) Page 18

Lit eracy I nt egrat ion Page 19

Mat hemat ics I nt egrat ion Page 20



1
6t h Gr ade Uni t 2:
Ecosy st ems

Cont ent St at ement s and Ex pect at i ons

Code St at ement s & Ex pect at i ons Page
L. OL. M. 5 Pr oducer s, Consumer s, and Decomposer s - Pr oducer s
ar e mai nl y gr een pl ant s t hat obt ai n ener gy f r om t he
sun by t he pr ocess of phot osy nt hesi s. Al l ani mal s,
i ncl udi ng humans, ar e consumer s t hat meet t hei r
ener gy by eat i ng ot her or gani sms or t hei r pr oduct s.
Consumer s br eak dow n t he st r uct ur es of t he
or gani sms t hey eat t o mak e t he mat er i al s t hey need
t o gr ow and f unct i on. Decomposer s, i ncl udi ng
bact er i a and f ungi , use dead or gani sms or t hei r
pr oduct s t o meet t hei r ener gy needs.
4
L. OL. 06. 51 Classify producers, consumers, and decomposers based on
t heir source of food ( t he source of energy and building
mat erials) .

4

L. OL. 06. 52 Dist inguish bet ween t he ways in which consumers and
decomposers obt ain energy.
5
L.EC. M. 1 I nt er act i ons of Or gani sms - Or gani sms of one speci es
f or m a popul at i on. Popul at i ons of di f f er ent or gani sms
i nt er act and f or m communi t i es. Li v i ng communi t i es
and nonl i v i ng f act or s t hat i nt er act w i t h t hem f or m
ecosy st ems.
6
L.EC. 06.11 I dent ify and describe examples of populat ions,
communit ies, and ecosyst ems including t he Great Lakes
region.
6
L. EC. M. 2 Rel at i onshi ps of Or gani sms – Tw o t y pes of or gani sms
may i nt er act w i t h one anot her i n sev er al w ay s: They
may be i n a pr oducer / consumer , pr edat or / pr ey , or
par asi t e/ host r el at i onshi p. Some or gani sms may
scav enge or decompose anot her . Rel at i onshi ps may
be compet i t i v e or mut ual l y benef i ci al . Some speci es
hav e become so adapt ed t o each ot her t hat nei t her
coul d sur v i v e w i t hout t he ot her .
7
L.EC. 06.21 Describe common pat t erns of relat ionships bet ween and
among populat ions ( compet it ion, parasit ism, symbiosis,
predat or/ prey) .
7
L.EC. 06.22 Explain how t wo populat ions of organisms can be mut ually
beneficial and how t hat can lead t o int erdependency.
8
L.EC. 06.23 Predict and describe how changes in one populat ion might
affect ot her populat ions based upon t heir relat ionships in
t he food web.
8
2
Code St at ement s & Ex pect at i ons Page
L. EC. M. 3 Bi ot i c and Abi ot i c Fact or s – The number of or gani sms
and popul at i ons an ecosy st em can suppor t depends
on t he bi ot i c ( l i v i ng) r esour ces av ai l abl e and abi ot i c
( nonl i v i ng) f act or s, such as qual i t y of l i ght and w at er ,
r ange of t emper at ur es, and soi l composi t i on.
9
L.EC. 06.31 I dent ify t he living ( biot ic) and nonliving ( abiot ic)
component s of an ecosyst em.
9
L.EC. 06.32 I dent ify t he fact ors in an ecosyst em t hat influence changes
in populat ion size.
9
L.EC. M. 4 Env i r onment al I mpact of Or gani sms – Al l or gani sms
( i ncl udi ng humans) cause change i n t he env i r onment
w her e t hey l i v e. Some of t he changes ar e har mf ul t o
t he or gani sm or ot her or gani sms, w her eas ot her s ar e
hel pf ul .
10
L.EC. 06.41 Describe how human beings are part of t he ecosyst em of
t he Eart h and t hat human act ivit y can purposefully, or
accident ally, alt er t he balance in ecosyst ems.
10
L.EC. 06.42 Predict and describe possible consequences of
overpopulat ion of organisms, including humans, ( for
example: species ext inct ion, resource deplet ion, climat e
change, pollut ion) .
10



3
6 - Uni t 2: Ecosy st ems




Bi g I deas ( Key Concept s)


• All life forms, including humans, are part of a global food chain in which
food is supplied by plant s, which need light t o produce food.
• Ecosyst ems cont inually change wit h t ime as environment al fact ors and
populat ions of organisms change.




Cl ar i f i cat i on of Cont ent Ex pect at i ons

St andar d: Or gani zat i on of Li vi ng Thi ngs

Cont ent St at ement – L.OL.M.5

Pr oducer s, Consumer s, and Decomposer s - Pr oducer s ar e
mai nl y gr een pl ant s t hat obt ai n ener gy f r om t he sun by t he
pr ocess of phot osy nt hesi s. Al l ani mal s, i ncl udi ng humans, ar e
consumer s t hat meet t hei r ener gy needs by eat i ng ot her
or gani sms or t hei r pr oduct s. Consumer s br eak dow n t he
st r uct ur es of t he or gani sms t hey eat t o mak e t he mat er i al s
t hey need t o gr ow and f unct i on. Decomposer s, i ncl udi ng
bact er i a and f ungi , use dead or gani sms or t hei r pr oduct s t o
meet t hei r ener gy needs.

Cont ent Ex pect at i ons

L. OL. 06. 51 Classify producers, consumers, and decomposers based on t heir
source of food ( t he source of energy and building mat erials) .

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Classify is t o arrange or order producers, consumers, and decomposers by
t he source of food for growt h and development .
2. Producers obt ain food by t rapping light energy t o make food and supply
t heir energy needs ( plant s are examples of producers) .
3. Consumers obt ain t heir food direct ly from anot her organism by eat ing it
or being a parasit e on or in it ( animals, including humans are examples of
consumers) .
4. Decomposers use plant s and animals as well as animal wast e product s as
t heir food source ( examples include bact eria and fungi) .
4
5. Decomposers release chemicals int o t he soil and wat er t o break down
t hese mat erials. This allows t he decomposers t o t ake in small part icles
and release minerals back t o t he environment t o be recycled int o plant s.
6. A common misconcept ion is t hat food accumulat es in an ecosyst em so
t hat a t op consumer ( predat or) has all t he food from t he organisms below
it .
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i on
1. Classify plant s, animals ( including humans) , bact eria and fungi based on
t heir source of energy int o t he cat egories: producer, consumer, and
decomposer.
2. Producers obt ain food by t rapping light energy t o make food and supply
t heir energy needs ( plant s are examples of producers) .
3. Consumers obt ain t heir food direct ly from anot her organism by eat ing it
or being a parasit e on or in it ( animals, including humans are examples of
consumers) .
4. Decomposers use plant s and animals as well as animal wast e product s as
t heir food source ( examples include bact eria and fungi) .
5. Decomposers release chemicals int o t he soil and wat er t o break down
t hese mat erials. This allows t he decomposers t o t ake in small part icles
and release minerals back t o t he environment t o be recycled int o plant s.

L.OL.06.52 Dist inguish bet ween t he ways in which consumers and
decomposers obt ain energy.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Dist inguish means t o recognize or know t he difference bet ween t he ways
in which consumers and decomposers obt ain energy.
2. Consumers obt ain t heir energy direct ly from anot her organism by eat ing
it or being a parasit e on or in it . Examples: rabbit eat ing a plant ,
mosquit o eat ing blood.
3. Decomposers include a variet y of organisms. Bact eria and fungi obt ain
t heir energy as t hey play a more fundament al role in t he process of
decomposit ion and nut rient recycling. Ot her decomposers help
decomposit ion by breaking down larger part icles of organic mat t er.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Consumers obt ain t heir energy direct ly from anot her organism by eat ing
it or being a parasit e on or in it , such as a rabbit eat ing a plant or a
mosquit o eat ing blood.
2. Bact eria and fungi obt ain t heir energy as t hey play a more fundament al
role in t he process of decomposit ion and nut rient recycling. Ot her
decomposers help decomposit ion by breaking down larger part icles of
organic mat t er.
5

St andar d: Ecosy st ems

Cont ent St at ement : LEC.M.1

I nt er act i ons of Or gani sms - Or gani sms of one speci es f or m a
popul at i on. Popul at i ons of di f f er ent or gani sms i nt er act and
f or m communi t i es. Li v i ng communi t i es and nonl i vi ng f act or s
t hat i nt er act w i t h t hem f or m ecosy st ems.

Cont ent Ex pect at i ons

L.EC. 06.11 I dent ify and describe examples of populat ions, communit ies, and
ecosyst ems, including t hose wit hin t he Great Lakes region.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. I dent ify and describe means t o recognize and t o t ell or depict in spoken or
writ t en words examples of populat ions, communit ies, and ecosyst ems
including t hose wit hin t he Great Lakes region.
2. A populat ion is a group of organisms of t he same species living in a
part icular area at a part icular t ime and can include plant or animal
examples.
3. A communit y consist s of populat ions of organisms living in a general area.
Communit ies could include urban examples such as squirrels, bird
populat ions, t rees and ot her plant s.
4. An ecosyst em is an area whose communit ies are det ermined by t he
environment al condit ions ( abiot ic fact ors) of t he area. Example: Forest s
of Michigan t hrive wit h cert ain soil condit ions and amount s of rainfall per
year. Michigan ecosyst ems include forest s, wet lands, ponds, lakes and
ot hers.
5. The Eart h support s diverse populat ions, communit ies and ecosyst ems.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. A populat ion is a group of organisms of t he same species living in a
part icular area at a part icular t ime and can include plant or animal
examples.
2. A communit y consist s of populat ions of organisms living in a general area.
Communit ies could include urban examples such as squirrels, bird
populat ions, t rees and ot her plant s.
3. An ecosyst em is an area whose communit ies are det ermined by t he
environment al condit ions ( abiot ic fact ors) of t he area. Example: Forest s
of Michigan t hrive wit h cert ain soil condit ions and amount s of rainfall per
year. Michigan ecosyst ems could include forest s, wet lands, ponds, lakes,
dunes, prairies, and ot hers.
4. Different iat e bet ween t he concept s of populat ions, communit ies and
ecosyst ems.
6
5. Name or describe populat ions, communit ies or ecosyst ems wit hin a local
or regional area. Examples of populat ions and communit ies should be
limit ed t o maj or ecosyst ems of Michigan - - - forest s, wet lands and lakes.
6. The Eart h support s diverse populat ions.

Cont ent St at ement – L.EC.M.2

Rel at i onshi ps of Or gani sms – Tw o t y pes of or gani sms may
i nt er act w i t h one anot her i n sev er al w ay s: They may be i n a
pr oduce/ consumer , pr edat or / pr ey , or par asi t e/ host
r el at i onshi p. Some or gani sms may scav enge or decompose
anot her . Rel at i onshi ps may be compet i t i ve or mut ual l y
benef i ci al . Some speci es hav e become so adapt ed t o each
ot her t hat nei t her coul d sur vi ve w i t hout t he ot her .

Cont ent Ex pect at i ons

L.EC. 06.21 Describe common pat t erns of relat ionships bet ween and among
populat ions ( compet it ion, parasit ism, symbiosis, predat or/ prey) .

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Describe is t o t ell or depict in spoken or writ t en words pat t erns of
compet it ion and predat or/ prey int eract ions bet ween populat ions.
2. Organisms int eract wit h one anot her in a variet y of ways.
3. Populat ions of similar organisms have similar needs and compet e more
direct ly t han dissimilar organisms. Example: Populat ions of t wo species
of squirrels compet e more direct ly t han a populat ion of squirrels and a
populat ion of rabbit s.
4. Symbiosis describes t ypes of relat ionships or int eract ions bet ween
different species. One symbiot ic relat ionship can be explained as
organisms living t oget her mut ually benefit ing ( as wit h t he lichen, an alga
phot osynt hesizes and produces food t o it self and a fungus in whose body
it lives and is prot ect ed from drying out ) .
5. Parasit ism is a t ype of relat ionship where one organism benefit s ( t he
parasit e) from living on or wit hin it s host wit h t he host being harmed, but
not necessarily killing it . Examples: a lamprey at t aches t o a living fish; a
brown- headed cowbird lays it s eggs in anot her bird’s nest .
6. Predat or populat ions may be limit ed by t he size of prey populat ions t hey
depend upon. Prey populat ions may be prevent ed from overpopulat ing an
area by predat ion limit ing t heir populat ion growt h. Examples may
include, among ot hers, robin- worm, human- deer, coyot e- mice, spider- fly,
frog- insect , bat - mot h.
7. The t erms “ beneficial” and “ harmful” may be applied t o describe
relat ionship pat t erns bet ween populat ions. For example:
a. Compet it ion may be negat ive for bot h populat ions in t he
compet it ive relat ionship. Examples of compet it ion include gray
7
squirrels and fox squirrels compet ing for acorns and forest t rees
compet ing for light .
b. Parasit ism is beneficial t o t he parasit e and has a harmful effect on
t he host .
c. Predat or populat ions benefit and prey populat ions are harmed.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Give an example of a predat ory prey relat ionship found in a Michigan
ecosyst em. Examples may include, among ot hers, robin- worm, human-
deer, coyot e- mice, spider- fly, frog- insect , bat - mot h.
2. Give an example of a symbiot ic relat ionship such as lichens.
3. Give an example of compet it ion such as gray squirrels and fox squirrels,
and forest t rees compet ing for light .
4. Give an example of a parasit ism. Examples: a lamprey at t aches t o a
living fish; a brown- headed cowbird lays it s eggs in anot her bird’s nest .

L.EC. 06.22 Explain how t wo populat ions of organisms can be mut ually
beneficial and how t hat can lead t o int erdependency.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Explain is t o clearly describe by means of illust rat ions ( drawing) ,
demonst rat ions, and/ or verbally ways in which populat ions of organisms
may benefit from each ot her and become int erdependent .
2. Two populat ions may develop a mut ually beneficial relat ionship and come
t o depend upon one anot her. For example, t he flowers of a part icular
plant populat ion may come t o depend on t he services of a part icular
pollinat or such as bees, j ust as t he bee populat ion comes t o depend on
t he flower populat ion.
3. Lichens are examples of mut ually beneficial organisms wit h algae and
fungi.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Two populat ions may develop a mut ually beneficial relat ionship and come
t o depend upon one anot her. For example, t he flowers of a part icular
plant populat ion may come t o depend on t he services of a part icular
pollinat or such as bees, j ust as t he bee populat ion comes t o depend on
t he flower populat ion.
2. Explain how a flower populat ion and bee populat ion have a mut ually
beneficial relat ion and are int erdependent upon one anot her.

L.EC. 06.23 Predict and describe how changes in one populat ion might affect
ot her populat ions based upon t heir relat ionships in t he food web.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Predict and describe means t o foret ell and depict in spoken or writ t en
words how populat ions are dynamic and change over t ime.
2. An increase in t he populat ion of a predat or could decrease t he populat ion
of it s prey. For example, as a fox populat ion increases, t he mouse and
grasshopper populat ions may decrease.
8
3. An increase in t he populat ion of a prey species could increase t he
populat ion of species preying upon it . For example, as t he fly populat ion
increases, t he populat ion of spiders and frogs may increase.
4. An increase in t he populat ion of plant eat ers could decrease t he
populat ions of several plant s species.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Describe what will happen t o t he populat ions of prey in an area where t he
populat ion of predat ors increases such as an increasing fox populat ion
causing t he mouse and grasshopper populat ions t o decrease.
2. Describe what will happen t o t he populat ion of plant s in an area where
t he populat ion of plant eat ers decreases.

Cont ent St at ement – L.EC.M.3

Bi ot i c and Abi ot i c Fact or s – The number of or gani sms and
popul at i ons an ecosy st em can suppor t depends on t he bi ot i c
( l i vi ng) r esour ces av ai l abl e and abi ot i c ( nonl i v i ng) f act or s,
such as qual i t y of l i ght and w at er , r ange of t emper at ur es, and
soi l composi t i on.

Cont ent Ex pect at i ons
L.EC. 06.31 I dent ify t he living ( biot ic) and nonliving ( abiot ic) component s of
an ecosyst em.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. I dent ify means t o recognize t hat biot ic ( living) component s of an
ecosyst em include all forms of life including plant s, animals, and
microorganisms such as bact eria.
2. Abiot ic component examples include sunlight , air, wat er, heat , soil and
ot her non- living fact ors t hat may affect living t hings.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i on
1. Given a descript ion of an ecosyst em, ident ify it s biot ic and abiot ic
component s. Ecosyst em examples may include forest s, wet lands and
lakes.

L.EC. 06.32 I dent ify t he fact ors in an ecosyst em t hat influence changes in
populat ion size.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. I dent ify means t o recognize different fact ors or condit ions t hat may lead
t o t he change in populat ion size wit hin an ecosyst em.
2. Changes in t he amount of rainfall or average t emperat ure may direct ly
influence some populat ions such as plant s and indirect ly influence ot hers
such as t he animal populat ions t hat depend on t hese plant s for food.
3. Fact ors t hat influence t he populat ion size in an ecosyst em include food
supply, t emperat ure, rainfall, disease, pollut ion, invasive species, and
human development .
9
4. Changes in populat ions may be influenced by t he int roduct ion of new
species t o t he ecosyst em. I nvasive species such as zebra mussels and
purple loosest rife cause change in t he populat ions of nat ive species.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. I dent ify biot ic fact ors in an ecosyst em t hat may influence changes in
populat ions. For example invasive species such as zebra mussels and
purple loosest rife.
2. I dent ify abiot ic fact ors in an ecosyst em t hat may influence changes in
populat ions such as t emperat ure and rainfall.
3. Fact ors t hat influence t he populat ion size in an ecosyst em include food
supply, t emperat ure, rainfall, disease, pollut ion, invasive species, and
human development .

Cont ent St at ement – L.EC.M.4

Envi r onment al I mpact of Or gani sms – Al l or gani sms ( i ncl udi ng
humans) cause change i n t he env i r onment w her e t hey l i v e.
Some of t he changes ar e har mf ul t o t he or gani sm or ot her
or gani sms, w her eas ot her s ar e hel pf ul .

Cont ent Ex pect at i ons

L.EC. 06.41 Describe how human beings are part of t he ecosyst em of t he
Eart h and t hat human act ivit y can purposefully, or accident ally, alt er t he
balance in ecosyst ems.

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Describe is t o t ell or depict in spoken or writ t en words one or more ways
in which humans alt er ecosyst ems.
2. Human populat ions have t he same basic biological needs ( food, wat er,
shelt er) as ot her animal populat ions in ecosyst ems.
3. Human act ivit y may int ent ionally dest roy ecosyst ems as cit ies are built ,
for example, filling in wet lands and removing forest s.
4. Human act ivit y may accident ally alt er ecosyst ems, for example, raising
average global t emperat ures.
5. Human act ivit y may posit ively alt er t he balance of an ecosyst em t hrough
environment al programs and preservat ion of ecosyst ems.
6. A common misconcept ion is t hat humans only have a negat ive effect on
ecosyst ems.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Humans are part of ecosyst ems.
2. Humans may int ent ionally dest roy ecosyst ems as cit ies or roads are built ,
by deforest at ions or filling wet lands.
3. Humans may accident ally dest roy ecosyst ems by int roducing invasive
species or raising average global t emperat ures.

10
L.EC. 06.42 Predict and describe possible consequences of overpopulat ion of
organisms, including humans, ( for example: species ext inct ion, resource
deplet ion, climat e change, pollut ion) .

I nst r uct i onal Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Predict and describe means t o foret ell and depict , in spoken or writ t en
words, t he effect of human overpopulat ion on
a. habit at dest ruct ion
b. species ext inct ion
c. resource deplet ion
d. climat e change
e. pollut ion
2. As human populat ion of t he world has increased, habit at dest ruct ion has
led t o species ext inct ion.
3. Hist orical dat a is used t o:
a. Compare increases in human populat ions and deforest at ion.
b. Compare use of fossil fuels and changes in world t emperat ure.
4. Overpopulat ion of invasive species oft en displaces nat ive species, possibly
leading t o localized ext inct ion of t hem.
Assessment Cl ar i f i cat i ons
1. Describe t he consequences of overpopulat ion of organisms in an
ecosyst em.
2. Predict and describe t he effect of human overpopulat ion on
a. species ext inct ion
b. resource deplet ion
c. climat e change
d. pollut ion
3. Overpopulat ion of invasive species oft en displaces nat ive species, possibly
leading t o localized ext inct ion.

11




I nq ui r y Pr ocess, I nq ui r y An al y si s and Com mun i cat i on,
Ref l ect i on and Soci al I mp l i cat i ons

I nqui r y Pr ocess
S.I P.06.11 Generat e scient ific quest ions about populat ions, communit ies and
ecosyst ems, based on observat ions, invest igat ions, and research.
S.I P.06.12 Design and conduct scient ific invest igat ions t o st udy t he
communit ies wit hin ecosyst ems ( such as collect ing wat er and organisms from
different bodies of wat er and comparing t hem) .
S.I P.06.13 Use t ools and equipment ( hand lens, microscopes, t hermomet er)
appropriat e t o t he scient ific invest igat ion.
S.I P.06.15 Const ruct chart s and graphs from dat a and observat ions ( such as
number of organisms, growt h of organisms, t emperat ure) .
S.I P.06.16 I dent ify pat t erns in dat a collect ed from t he various ecosyst ems.
I nqui r y Anal ysi s and Communi cat i on
S.I A.06.11 Analyze informat ion from dat a t ables and graphs t o answer
scient ific quest ions on t he pat t erns of relat ionships bet ween t he communit ies
wit hin ecosyst ems.
S.I A.06.12 Evaluat e dat a, claims, and personal knowledge of ecosyst ems
t hrough collaborat ive science discourse.
S.I A.06.14 Draw conclusions from set s of dat a from mult iple t rials ( all of t he
st udent s’ model ecosyst ems) of t he scient ific invest igat ion.
S.I A.06.15 Use mult iple sources of informat ion t o evaluat e st rengt h and
weaknesses of claims and dat a of t he populat ions and communit ies wit hin t he
Great Lakes region.
Ref l ect i on and Soci al I mpl i cat i on
S.RS. 06. 22 Describe limit at ions in personal and scient ific knowledge regarding
t he relat ionships of populat ions wit hin an ecosyst em.
S.RS. 06. 25 Demonst rat e t he relat ionships bet ween populat ions t hrough
various illust rat ions.
S.RS. 06. 27 Describe t he effect humans and ot her organisms have on t he
nat ural balance of ecosyst ems.
S.RS. 06. 29 Describe how t he st udy of ecosyst ems has advanced because of
t he cont ribut ions of many people ( such as Rachel Carson, Ed Ricket t s, Simon
Levin, Drew Lanham) t hroughout hist ory and across cult ures.

12



Vocabul ar y


Crit ically I mport ant –St at e Assessable I nst ruct ionally Useful
ecosyst em
biot ic component s
abiot ic component s
populat ion
communit y
producers
consumers
decomposers
bact eria
fungus
parasit e
predat or
prey
symbiosis
compet it ion
pollut ion
resource deplet ion
species ext inct ion
ecological role or niche
climat e change
environment al impact
balance in ecosyst ems
source of energy
habit at
food web
forest s
wet lands
ponds
lakes
t ropical rainforest
t undra
desert
coral reef
dunes
prairies







I nst r ument s, Measur ement s, Repr esent at i ons


met er t ape use t o measure for area of a
“ habit at ”
represent at ions creat e & ut ilize populat ion dat a t ables
represent at ions

labeled ecological collages and
brochures
model symbolic represent at ion of a select
ecosyst em



13



I nst r u ct i onal Fr amew or k


I nst r uct i onal Ex ampl es

Pr oducer s, Consumer s, Decomposer s: L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52
I nt er act i ons of Or gani sms: L. EC. 06. 31, L. EC. 06. 11, L. EC. 06. 21,
L. EC. 06. 22, L. EC. 06. 23, L. EC. 06. 32, L. EC. 06. 41, L. EC. 06. 42

Obj ect i ves
• St udent s ident ify t he biot ic and abiot ic fact ors in ecosyst ems.
• St udent s define and ident ify producers, consumers and decomposers in
ecosyst ems t hat could be found in Michigan.
• St udent s describe t he charact erist ics of populat ions and communit ies
wit hin Michigan ecosyst ems.
• St udent s ident ify charact erist ics of parasit ic relat ionships.
• St udent s underst and how human act ivit ies change environment al
condit ions and posit ively and negat ively impact ecosyst ems.
Engage and Ex pl or e

• While sit t ing comfort ably on t he ground in t he schoolyard, st udent s
sket ch all t hat t hey see in t he surrounding area in a map format ( t o
scale) . Aft er making t he map drawing of t he schoolyard, st udent s creat e
t wo separat e list s, one list ing t he living t hings t hey saw or drew and
anot her list ing t he nonliving t hings t hey observed such as t he sun, wind,
clouds, t emperat ure, soil. ( L. EC. 06. 31, L. OL. 06. 51, S. I P. 06. 11)
• I nt roduce t he t erms biot ic and abiot ic. From t he list of living t hings,
st udent s discuss wit h each ot her t he ways in which t he living t hings
obt ain energy t o sust ain life. I nt roduce t he t erms producers, consumers,
and decomposers and t he ways in which t hese groups obt ain energy t o
sust ain life. ( L. EC. 06. 31, L. OL. 06. 51, S. I P. 06. 11)
• Take st udent s on a walk around t he school building t o look for biot ic and
abiot ic component s and ident ify examples of producers, consumers, and
decomposers. Have st udent s explain why t hey cat egorized organisms
int o t hese part icular cat egories. ( L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, L. EC. 06. 41,
S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 16, S. RS. 06. 27)
• I nt roduce t he t erms populat ions and communit ies. Have st udent s use
t hese t erms in relat ion t o t he living t hings t hey observed in t he
schoolyard and list ed. For example, st udent s could make not e of a
populat ion of ant s ( consumers) and hypot hesize about t he ways in which
it obt ains energy for survival. St udent s observe t he schoolyard and
surrounding area t o t alk about how t he original land was alt ered in order
t o build t he school. ( L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, L. EC. 06. 41, S. I P. 06. 11,
S. I P. 06. 16, S. RS. 06. 27)
14


Ex pl ai n and Def i ne

• St udent s work in groups t o select , from a suggest ed list , a Michigan
ecosyst em on which t hey focus. Each group researches a different
ecosyst em. St udent s brainst orm on all t he t ypes of populat ions and
communit ies of organisms t hey might see in t heir ecosyst em and t hen
confirm t his informat ion by finding act ual pict ures of animals, plant s and
abiot ic fact ors ( from magazines or I nt ernet ) which are found wit hin t heir
select ed ecosyst em. ( L. EC. 06. 31, L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, L. EC. 06. 11,
S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 15)
• Using t hese pict ures, st udent s make an ecosyst em collage t hat is placed
on t he classroom walls. I n a classroom discussion, st udent s ident ify t he
at t ribut es and value of each ecosyst em ( such as t he int erdependence of
biot ic and abiot ic fact ors) and well as discuss t heir benefit s t o t he world
and how humans alt er t hese nat ural ecosyst ems. ( L. EC. 06. 31,
L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, L. EC. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 15)
• Ask st udent s why t hey eat ( t o obt ain energy and building mat erials t o
sust ain life) . Then have st udent s list what t hey have eat en for one or t wo
days. For each food it em, have st udent s ident ify from what t heir food
it em was derived and how t he it em obt ained it s energy t o sust ain life.
For example, if st udent s gain energy from eat ing a hamburger, t he meat
would be t raced back t o a st eer, which gained it s energy from eat ing
grass and t he grass made it s own food by convert ing energy it gained
from t he sun. ( L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, S. I P. 06. 11)
• Have st udent s t race back where t he food energy came from select it ems
and make a represent at ion of t his in a form of a diagram. Have st udent s
find out from where t he non- food it ems are from ( such as plast ic ut ensils,
paper plat es) . St udent s ident ify t he sources of energy as having come
from producers or consumers. ( L. OL. 06. 51, L. OL. 06. 52, S. I P. 06. 11)
• Pairs of st udent s work t oget her wit h one st udent researching informat ion
about symbiot ic and parasit ic relat ionships. St udent s t hink- pair- share
wit h each ot her about what t hey found int erest ing about t hese
relat ionships. St udent s get t oget her wit h ot hers t o compare t he
similarit ies bet ween t he organisms t hey st udied. St udent s uncover t he
charact erist ics of t hese t ypes of relat ionships. ( L. EC. 06. 21, S. I P. 06. 11,
S. I P. 06. 16)
• Build a classroom habit at wit h a variet y of organisms t hat are indigenous
t o Michigan, ( pill bugs, snail, slug, eart hworms, grass, fern, millipede,
et c. ) . Conduct long- t erm observat ions of t he role of t he organisms in t he
model ecosyst em.

El abor at e and Appl y

• Ask st udent s t o brainst orm how t he number of individuals in a group
( populat ion) may affect ot her organisms of it s own kind and of ot her
populat ions. St udent s do an act ivit y t o see how much space each person
15
has in t he classroom. St udent s work in pairs t o measure t he lengt h and
widt h of t he classroom t o find t he area of t he room in square met ers.
St udent s divide t he number of square met ers in t he classroom by t he
number of individuals t o find out how much space each person has. Have
st udent s calculat e t he populat ion densit y of t he class by dividing t he
number of individuals by t he area t o get individuals per unit area.
( L. EC. 06. 23, L. EC. 06. 32, S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 14, S. RS. 06. 27)
• Have st udent s role play changes in populat ion and loss of space by
physically moving closer or furt her apart as t hey calculat e new numbers
as t he populat ion of t he class doubles or if t he size of t he room ( loss of
habit at space) is reduced. Have st udent s not e how t hey feel as t heir
amount of space is reduced. Class discussion focuses on fact ors t hat
influence changes in populat ions wit hin ecosyst ems st udent s have
st udied. Adapt ed from:
ht t p: / / sft rc. cas. psu. edu/ LessonPlans/ Wildlife/ Organisms. ht ml
( L. EC. 06. 23, L. EC. 06. 32, S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 14, S. RS. 06. 27)
• St udent s research dat a for t he moose/ wolf populat ion on I sle Royale in
Lake Superior and focus upon how t hey are int erdependent and how t he
populat ions have changed over t ime and what has happened as eit her
populat ion changed in numbers. ( L. EC. 06. 21, L. EC. 06. 22, L. EC. 06. 23,
L. EC. 06. 32, L. EC. 06. 41, S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 15, S. I P. 06. 16, S. I A. 06. 11,
S. I A. 06. 14)
• St udent s research t he deer populat ion in Michigan and underst and
hunt ing assist s in managing t he deer populat ion due t o deer no longer
having a nat ural predat or ( t he wolf) . St udent s uncover case st udies for
managing deer populat ions in local count y or st at e parks where hunt ing is
not permit t ed. ( L. EC. 06. 21, L. EC. 06. 22, L. EC. 06. 23, L. EC. 06. 32,
L. EC. 06. 41, S. RS. 06. 22, S. RS. 06. 27, S. I A. 06. 11)
• St udent s use an indigenous veget at ion map of t he Unit ed St at es t o
observe t he defined eco- regions such as deciduous forest s, prairies,
desert s, and ot hers. Relat e t he abiot ic fact ors ( such as climat e and soil
t ypes) t o t he various zones of indigenous veget at ion. St udent s compare
current and hist orical maps t o ident ify changes in human relat ed changes
in ecosyst ems. Through guided observat ions and quest ioning have
st udent s t hink about how t hese areas could be or could have been
managed or developed in a way so t hat t here is less of a loss of habit at
for nat ive plant s and animals. Have st udent s discuss in groups of 3- 4
how t hese changes by people affect ot her organisms and how humans
could reduce negat ive impact s. ( L. EC. 06. 41, L. EC. 06. 42, S. RS. 06. 27,
S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 16, S. I A. 06. 11, S. I A. 06. 14, S. RS. 06. 27)
• Groups of st udent s research one of t hree t opics affect ing wat ersheds:
wast e wat er t reat ment , invasive “ wat er” species ( purple loosest rife, Zebra
or Quagga mussels) and impervious surfaces ( pavement and buildings) .
Each group becomes “ expert ” on t he hist ory of it s select ed t opic as well
as underst anding differing views or issues relat ed t o it s t opic.
( L. EC. 06. 41, L. EC. 06. 42, S. I A. 06. 13, S. I A. 06. 15, S. RS. 06. 21, S. I P. 06. 13,
S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 12, S. I P. 06. 16, S. I A. 06. 12, S. I A. 06. 14, S. RS. 06. 22,
S. RS. 06. 27, S. RS. 06. 25)
16
• Groups design t heir own scient ific st udy, t hen generat e quest ions t o st udy
such as how an invasive species spread or arrived, t he amount of
impervious surfaces in t heir school yard or local area, how wast e wat er
t reat ment works and how it could be improved. Each group conduct s
act ivit ies appropriat e t o it s select ed t opic. Wat er filt rat ion columns are
used t o remove wat er cont aminant s and demonst rat e infilt rat ion t hrough
pervious surfaces. St udent s t hen present findings ( including dat a t ables if
applicable) , discuss t he t opic, and develop a reasonable solut ion t o t he
problem where appropriat e. ( L. EC. 06. 41, L. EC. 06. 42, S. I A. 06. 13,
S. I A. 06. 15, S. RS. 06. 21, S. I P. 06. 13, S. I P. 06. 11, S. I P. 06. 12, S. I P. 06. 16,
S. I A. 06. 12, S. I A. 06. 14, S. RS. 06. 22, S. RS. 06. 27, S. RS. 06. 25)

Eval uat e St udent Under st andi ng

Format ive Assessment Examples
• Select an ecosyst em found in Michigan ( forest s, wet lands or lakes) and
creat e a t ri- fold brochure t o “ sell it s value” . A rubric of requirement s such
as naming some animals ( from several group classificat ions) , plant s, and
defining populat ions and communit ies wit hin t his ecosyst em, human uses
of t his ecosyst em ( posit ive and negat ive uses) , and ways in which t hese
can be managed for sust ainabilit y is developed and t hen provided t o
st udent s. St udent s design a promot ional campaign convincing classmat es
why t hey should visit t heir select ed ecosyst em during t heir summer
vacat ion. ( L. EC. 06. 11, L. EC. 06. 41)
Summat ive Assessment Examples
• Divide t he class int o groups t o research an assigned ecosyst em in t he
Great Lakes region and prepare a report . St udent s find out about t he
unique feat ures of t heir ecosyst em including plant and animal populat ions
and communit ies. St udent s design an ecosyst em post er displaying t he
ecosyst em for a class present at ion. St udent s label or list t he producer,
consumer, decomposer and abiot ic component s in t he ecosyst em.
( L. OL. 06. 51, L. EC. 06. 31)
• Make diagrams or illust rat ions of relat ionships and connect ions found
wit hin ecosyst ems. ( L. OL. 06. 51, L. EC. 06. 31, L. EC. 06. 32)
• Creat e a concept map wit h linking words represent ing relat ionships and
connect ions wit hin ecosyst ems. ( L. EC. 06. 11, L. EC. 06. 21, L. EC. 06. 22,
L. EC. 06. 23, L. EC. 06. 31, L. EC. 06. 32, L. EC. 06. 41, L. EC. 06. 42)
17


Enr i chment


• Museums or science cent ers wit h appropriat e displays
• Nat uralist guided t ours of various ecosyst ems at local parks
• Assembly wit h educat ional programming relat ed t o ecosyst ems
• St udent s part icipat e in act ivit ies from Proj ect Wild ( for example: Oh Deer!
for demonst rat ing changes in populat ions) .




I nt er vent i on

• St udent s view a short video relevant t o t he above cont ent expect at ions,
from Unit ed St reaming, Annenberg or ot her sources.
• Provide alt ernat ive print mat erial ( wit h diagrams, phot ographs,
illust rat ions or appropriat e t o t he st udent s’ lit eracy level) .
• Creat e a concept map wit h linking words t o use t hroughout t eaching cycle





Ex ampl es, Obser v at i ons, and Phenomena ( Real Wor l d Cont ex t )

St udent s are a part of t heir surrounding ecosyst em. They int eract wit h t heir
nat ural environment everyday. St udent s who have t aken vacat ions “ up
nort h” or t o Michigan’s many lakes have observed t hat Michigan has a variet y
of dist inct ecosyst ems. St udent s observe seasonal populat ions of animals
such as t he American Robin during t he spring and summer mont hs.
St udent s are able t o observe man’s impact on t he environment on a regular
basis such as by seeing what used t o be a farmer’s field being developed int o
a new subdivision. St udent s t hink about t he choices t hey make in t heir own
lives in order t o lessen t heir negat ive impact s on t he environment such as by
recycling or riding bikes rat her t han in aut omobiles.
18




Li t er acy I nt egr at i on

St udent s w i l l …

Readi ng

R.NT.06.04 analyze how aut hors use lit erary devices including dialogue,
imagery, mood, and underst at ement t o develop t he plot , charact ers, point of
view, and t heme.
R.CM. 06. 01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and underst anding of
t he world t o t hemes and perspect ives in t ext t hrough oral and writ t en
responses.

Books:
Sand Count y Almanac, Aldo Leopold
Silent Spring, Rachel Carson
The Woods Scient ist , St ephen R. Swinburne, 2002

• St udent s read Sand Count y Almanac by Aldo Leopold or Silent Spring by
Rachel Carson t o learn about t he beginning of modern environment al
et hics and conservat ion. ( S. RS. 06. 29)

Wr i t i ng

W.PR.06. 01 set a purpose, consider audience, and replicat e aut hors’ st yles
and pat t erns when writ ing a narrat ive or informat ional piece.

W.PS.06. 01 exhibit personal st yle and voice t o enhance t he writ t en
message in bot h narrat ive ( e. g. , personificat ion, humor, and element of
surprise) and informat ional writ ing ( e. g. , emot ional appeal, st rong opinion,
and credible support ) .

• St udent s writ e a nat ural hist ory st ory of a select organism describing it s
int eract ions and life cycle wit hin t he select ed ecosyst em or t ell it s st ory
along wit h t he component s of t he ecosyst em from t he organism’s point -
of- view.

Speak i ng and Li st eni ng

S.CN.06.01 adj ust t heir use of language t o communicat e effect ively wit h a
variet y of audiences and for different purposes by asking and responding t o
quest ions and remarks t o engage t he audience when present ing.

19
S.DS.06.03 discuss writ t en narrat ives t hat include a variet y of lit erary and
plot devices ( e. g. , est ablished cont ext plot , point of view, sensory det ails,
dialogue, and suspense) .

L.CN. 06.01 respond t o, evaluat e, and analyze t he speaker’s effect iveness
and cont ent when list ening t o or viewing a variet y of speeches and
present at ions.

• St udent s prepare and present in first person informat ion about t he life
and cont ribut ion of influent ial people in t he field of environment al
educat ion and nat ural hist ory, such a Rachel Carson. St udent s list en t o
ot hers doing t he same and engage in discourse for peer review of
present at ions. ( S. RS. 06. 29)





Mat hemat i cs I nt egr at i on


N.FL.06.10 Add, subt ract , mult iply and divide posit ive rat ional numbers
fluent ly.

• St udent s chart populat ion fluct uat ions as a result of st udying deer
populat ions in Michigan. ( S. I P. 06. 15, S. I A. 06. 11)
• St udent s chart populat ion fluct uat ions of t he moose and wolf on I sle
Royal. ( S. I P. 06. 15, S. I A. 06. 11)


20
Science Grade 6: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version
Go on to the next page »
DataDirector Exam ID: 436 Page 1 of 4 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding
space on the answer document.
1. Of the following statements, which best supports
the continental drift theory?
A. All oceans are salty.
B. Igneous rocks are found on all continents.
C. Fossils of the same species of extinct land
plants have been found in both South
America and Africa.
D. Early humans migrated to North America
over a land bridge from eastern Asia.
ItemID kmorgan.2024
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.11 ( 6 ), SCI.6.S.RS.06.14 ( 6 )
 
2. Which of the following is the best evidence that
Earth's continents were once in vastly different
positions than they are today?
A. Penguins are found only in the Southern
Hemisphere.
B. Fossils of tropical plants are found in
Antarctica.
C. Volcanoes encircle the Pacific Ocean.
D. Major rivers form deltas from continental
erosion.
ItemID kmorgan.2025
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.11 ( 6 ), SCI.6.S.RS.06.14 ( 6 )
 
3. Which of the following provides evidence for plate
tectonics?
A. sea-floor topography
B. ocean currents
C. Coriolis effect
D. atmospheric temperatures
ItemID kmorgan.2026
Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.11 ( 6 ), SCI.6.S.RS.06.14 ( 6 )
 
4. Engineers have recently developed alternative
fuels such as ethanol to power vehicles.
Ethanol is a fuel that is made from corn or other
crops including wheat, barley, and potatoes. E85 is
a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.
What would be the greatest environmental
advantage to using E85?
A. It has gasoline mixed in it.
B. It is used to power vehicles.
C. It is made mostly of renewable resources.
D. It is made from crops that require powerful
fertilizers.
ItemID kmorgan.2027
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.16 ( 6 ), SCI.6.S.RS.06.17 ( 6 )
 
5. Kim wanted to determine if certain seeds require
sunlight to germinate. She placed one seed in
a moist paper towel in the sunlight and another
seed in an equally moistened paper towel in a dark
closet. The seed in the sunlight germinated but the
one in the closet did not. Kim reported to the class
that this type of seed needs sunlight in order to
germinate.
Given this information, which of the following
would best describe an improvement in Kim's
experiment that would strengthen her claim?
A. Use many seeds to conduct the experiment.
B. Start the samples on different days.
C. Use different amounts of water.
D. Place the seeds in new locations.
ItemID kmorgan.2028
Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IP.06.12 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 436 Page 2 of 4 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
6. Which of the following provides the best
explanation for how the use of oil as major
energy sources can cause problems for future
generations?
A. Oil is a non-renewable resource.
B. Oil is composed of carbon atoms.
C. Oil is used for production of electricity.
D. Oil is a product of decomposed plants.
ItemID kmorgan.2029
Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.16 ( 6 ), SCI.6.S.RS.06.17 ( 6 )
 
7. During a scientific investigation, when should
measurements be recorded?
A. when forming a hypothesis
B. when designing an experiment
C. when communicating results
D. when gathering data
ItemID kmorgan.2030
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IP.06.15 ( 6 )
 
8. Joe determined the mass of four rock samples.
Then, he put each rock sample in a cup of vinegar
for three days. The table below represents the
data he collected during his investigation.
Which of the following can be concluded from the
table above?
A. Rocks 1 and 2 are the same type of rock.
B. Rock 4 is a sedimentary rock.
C. Rocks 3 and 4 are chemically changed.
D. Rocks 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the same type.
ItemID kmorgan.2031
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IA.06.11 ( 6 )
 
9. As a hiker moves around in a cave, her compass
needle points in various directions. Which of the
following reasons best describes what is affecting
the accuracy of her compass?
A. depth of the cave
B. lack of light in the cave
C. iron ore in the cave walls
D. cooler temperatures in the cave
ItemID kmorgan.2033
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.14 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 436 Page 3 of 4 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
10. Field mice have a varied diet that includes nuts,
berries, seeds, and grain. A scientist studying
mice places four male field mice in separate
but identical cages. Each mouse is offered
five different types of food: sunflower seeds,
strawberries, rice, walnuts, and blackberries. The
scientist then observes and records the feeding
behavior of each mouse. The data are recorded
in the table below. The number 1 indicates which
food each mouse ate first, 2 indicates the second
type of food, etc.
Based on the experimental design, what question
is the scientist most likely trying to answer?
A. What type of food do field mice prefer?
B. Do walnuts affect the behavior of field
mice?
C. How much food do field mice consume
annually?
D. How do seeds affect the reproductive
success of field mice?
ItemID kmorgan.2034
Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IP.06.11 ( 6 )
 
11.
A factory near the Big River operates every
day of the week. Residents to the east of the
river frequently complain of eye irritation
while residents to the west of the river rarely
have problems. What conclusion best fits this
information?
A. It rains less often on the east side of the
river than it does on the west side.
B. It rains more often on the east side of the
river than it does on the west side.
C. Smoke from the factory is being carried by
winds coming from the southeast.
D. Smoke from the factory is being carried by
winds coming from the northwest.
ItemID kmorgan.2036
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IA.06.14 ( 6 )
 
12. Scientists have used genetic engineering to
produce new types of grains and vegetables.
These grains and vegetables can live in hot
temperatures. Why is this research beneficial to
humans?
A. It could eliminate the need to fertilize
crops.
B. It makes crops more resistant to pollutants.
C. It shows these crops are less likely to be
infested by insects and other pests.
D. It indicates that these crops may grow in
hot, dry areas.
ItemID kmorgan.2037
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.RS.06.16 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 436 Page 4 of 4 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
13. In a forest in Hawaii, the ginger population
remained fairly constant until heavy rains caused
it to increase from 1944 to 1947. In 1947, a
disease that killed many of the ginger plants was
brought into the forest. Which of the following
population charts best represents this scenario?
A.
B.
C.
D.
ItemID kmorgan.2038
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.S.IA.06.11 ( 6 )
 
Stop! You have finished this exam.
Science Grade 6, Unit 2: Ecosystems » Teacher Version
Go on to the next page »
DataDirector Exam ID: 433 Page 1 of 5 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding
space on the answer document.
1.
According to the food chain, which of the following
would be the most likely result of the reduction in
the lake trout population?
A. Sculpin and mosquito larvae populations
would both increase.
B. Sculpin and mosquito larvae populations
would both decrease.
C. The plankton population would decrease.
D. The sculpin population would increase.
ItemID kmorgan.1986
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.23 ( 6 )
 
2. The Venus flytrap is a plant that both produces
its own food through photosynthesis and obtains
nutrients by consuming insects. Which of the
following best describes the relationship between
the Venus flytrap and the fly?
A. competitive
B. parasitic
C. predator-prey
D. invertebrate-vertebrate
ItemID kmorgan.1987
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.OL.06.51 ( 6 ), SCI.6.L.EC.06.21 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6, Unit 2: Ecosystems » Teacher Version
Go on to the next page »
DataDirector Exam ID: 433 Page 2 of 5 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
3. The Rafflesia is a large flowering plant that grows
only in the jungles of Indonesia. They have no
roots, leaves, or stems and cannot produce their
own food. Rafflesia feed off the roots and vines
of a host plant called Tetrastigma. Only the buds,
flowers, and berries of the Rafflesia protrude from
the body of the host plant. The Rafflesia depends
on the Tetrastigma for survival. The Rafflesia emits
an odor that smells like rotting meat. This odor
attracts insects such as flies and beetles to the
flower to pollinate it. The full-grown flower grows
up to a meter across and lasts only about a week
before it dies.
Based on its feeding habits, what would be the
best classification for Rafflesia?
A. parasite
B. predator
C. pioneer species
D. non-native species
ItemID kmorgan.1988
Correct A
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.OL.06.51 ( 6 ), SCI.6.L.EC.06.21 ( 6 )
 
4. Some insects consume nectar from flowering
plants and help the plant by spreading pollen.
Which type of relationship between insects and
plants does this demonstrate?
A. parasitic
B. competitive
C. predator-prey
D. mutually beneficial
ItemID kmorgan.1989
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.22 ( 6 )
 
5. Zebra mussels arrived in Lake St. Clair, near
Detroit, by accident. Mussels are in the same
family as oysters, and they form hard, protective
outer shells. Scientists believe zebra mussels were
transported by large ships from Europe and spread
rapidly throughout the Great Lakes. They consume
large quantities of tiny plants and animals and
have a high reproductive rate.
Within the Great Lakes ecosystem, scientists refer
to the zebra mussel as what?
A. a parasite
B. a producer
C. a non-native species
D. a single-celled organism
ItemID kmorgan.1990
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.11 ( 6 )
 
6. Zebra mussels reproduce and spread quickly,
reducing food resources and crowding native
species.
What does this result in?
A. An increase in native producer populations
B. A decrease in native consumer populations
C. Higher reproductive rates for native species
D. Mutually beneficial relationships with native
species
ItemID kmorgan.1991
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.21 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6, Unit 2: Ecosystems » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 433 Page 3 of 5 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
7. Which of the following is true of any food web?
A. Producers acquire energy directly from the
consumers.
B. Consumers acquire energy indirectly from
the Sun.
C. Decomposers acquire energy directly from
the Sun.
D. Producers acquire energy indirectly from the
decomposers.
ItemID kmorgan.1992
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.OL.06.52 ( 6 )
 
8. A fungus is an example of an environmental
recycler. Which term best describes a fungus?
A. producer
B. carnivore
C. herbivore
D. decomposer
ItemID kmorgan.1993
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.OL.06.51 ( 6 )
 
9. Use this food web to answer the question.
How will the food web most likely change if the
number of cougars rapidly increases?
A. The number of snakes and rats will increase.
B. The number of raccoons and frogs will
increase.
C. The number of raccoons and snakes will
decrease.
D. The number of frogs and rats will decrease.
ItemID kmorgan.1994
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.42 ( 6 )
 
10. Which biotic factor in an ecosystem helps to
control White Cedar population size?
A. soil nutrients
B. amount of sunlight
C. deer population
D. availability of space
ItemID kmorgan.1995
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.31 ( 6 )
 
11. Which of the following characterizes a sustainable
ecosystem?
A. when there are more predators than prey
B. when the needs of all populations are being
met
C. when there are more plants than animals
D. when all organisms are able to reproduce
ItemID kmorgan.1996
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.32 ( 6 )
 
12. A population of polar bears living near an oil
drilling site in the Arctic began to decline.
Just prior to this decline, the drilling site had
expanded into the polar bears' habitat. Which of
the following is most likely the limiting factor on
the population size of the polar bears?
A. food
B. clean water
C. space
D. predators
ItemID kmorgan.1997
Correct C
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.41 ( 6 )
 
Science Grade 6, Unit 2: Ecosystems » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 433 Page 4 of 5 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
13.
The picture above shows a Michigan food web.
If all the fish disappear from this food web, what
will the immediate effect be?
A. A decrease in both the algae and turtle
populations.
B. An increase in algae and a decrease in
turtle and Blue Heron populations.
C. An increase in the frog population and a
decrease in the algae population.
D. A decrease in the Blue Heron population
and an increase in the turtle population.
ItemID kmorgan.1998
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.23 ( 6 )
 
14. Use the information in the passage and the
graph to answer questions 14 and 15.
Northwest of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, in
Lake Superior, is Isle Royale National Park. The
island is 45 miles long and 5 to 8 miles wide.
In the early 1900s, moose arrived on the island
(apparently swimming over from Canada). With
no predators on the island, and plenty of water
plants, twigs, and leaves for the moose to feed
on, the moose population increased greatly. By
the 1930s, the food was depleted, and hundreds
of moose starved. Following a fire, the food
supply--and the moose--recovered. About 10
years later the food dwindled again, and the
moose starved once more.
During 1948-1949, as a result of an extremely
cold winter, Lake Superior froze over. A pack of
eastern timber wolves migrated across the ice
from Canada and established themselves on
the island. The wolf population now numbers
between 25 and 40. The wolves kill the very
young, very old, sick or weak moose. The moose
population, at a ratio of about 30 moose per wolf,
is now stable and healthy. The balance is aided
by a population of beaver, which builds dams
for ponds and beaver meadows, supplying the
moose with additional plant growth.
How do the moose benefit from the beaver
population?
A. The beaver increase the water supply by
building dams.
B. The beaver create an environment
favorable to plant growth.
C. The beaver have no effect on the survival
of the moose.
D. The beaver are an alternative food source
for the moose.
ItemID kmorgan.1984
Correct B
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.11 ( 6 ), SCI.6.L.EC.06.22 ( 6 )
Science Grade 6, Unit 2: Ecosystems » Teacher Version
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DataDirector Exam ID: 433 Page 5 of 5 © 2009 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.
 
15. Why did the moose on Isle Royale starve?
A. The fire killed the vegetation.
B. The beaver population consumed all of the
food.
C. There were too many wolves competing for
food.
D. There were too many moose, and the food
supply dwindled.
ItemID kmorgan.1985
Correct D
Standard(s) SCI.6.L.EC.06.23 ( 6 )
 
Stop! You have finished this exam.
SCIENCE PROCESSES
PHYSICAL SCIENCE
LIFE SCIENCE
EARTH SCIENCE
Ofce of School Improvement
www.michigan.gov/mde




S
C
I
E
N
C
E
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
S I X T H G R A D E S C I E N C E
v.1.09
6
Welcome to Michigan’s K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of
creating Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the Federal No
Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of
comprehensive state grade level assessments in mathematics and English
language arts that are designed based on rigorous grade level content. In
addition, assessments for science in elementary, middle, and high school
were required. To provide greater clarity for what students are expected to
know and be able to do by the end of each grade, expectations for each grade
level have been developed for science.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess
personal, social, occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of
the knowledge and essential skills defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content
Expectations will increase students’ ability to be successful academically, and
contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the communities in
which they choose to live.
Reflecting best practices and current research, the Grade Level Content
Expectations provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students,
and provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should
know and be able to do as they progress through school.
Development
In developing these expectations, the K-7 Scholar Work Group depended heavily
on the Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational
Progress (National Assessment Governing Board, 2006) which has been the
gold standard for the high school content expectations. Additionally, the
National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), the
Michigan Curriculum Framework in Science (2000 version), and the Atlas for
Science Literacy, Volumes One (AAAS, 2001) and Two (AAAS, 2007), were
all continually consulted for developmental guidance. As a further resource
for research on learning progressions and curricular designs, Taking Science
to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (National Research
Council, 2007) was extensively utilized. The following statement from this
resource was a guiding principle:
“The next generation of science standards and curricula at the national and
state levels should be centered on a few core ideas and should expand on
them each year, at increasing levels of complexity, across grades K-8. Today’s
standards are still too broad, resulting in superficial coverage of science that
fails to link concepts or develop them over successive grades.”
Michigan’s K-7 Scholar Work Group executed the intent of this statement
in the development of “the core ideas of science...the big picture” in this
document.
6 0 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools
and districts can generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current
policies and practices to consider ways to improve and enhance student achievement.
Together, stakeholders can use these expectations to guide curricular and instructional
decisions, identify professional development needs, and assess student achievement.
Assessment
The Science Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a curricular
guide with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students.
Science will continue to be assessed in grades five and eight for the Michigan
Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access.
Preparing Students for Academic Success
In the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into
exciting and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As educators use these
expectations, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge alone is not
sufficient for academic success. Students must also generate questions, conduct
investigations, and develop solutions to problems through reasoning and observation.
They need to analyze and present their findings which lead to future questions,
research, and investigations. Students apply knowledge in new situations, to solve
problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what they learn
in class to the world around them.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional
learning communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest
standards, and thereby open doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.
Understanding the Organizational Structure
The science expectations in this document are organized into disciplines, standards,
content statements, and specific content expectations. The content statements in
each science standard are broader, more conceptual groupings. The skills and content
addressed in these expectations will, in practice, be woven together into a coherent,
science curriculum.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a
discipline, standard, grade-level, and content statement/expectation number.
For example, P.FM.02.34 indicates:
P - Physical Science Discipline
FM-Force and Motion Standard
02-Second Grade
34-Fourth Expectation in the Third Content Statement
Content statements are written and coded for Elementary and Middle School Grade
Spans. Not all content expectations for the content statement will be found in each
grade.
Why Create a 1.09 Version of the Expectations?
The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This committment served as the impetus for revision of the 12.07
edition. This new version, v.1.09, refines and clarifies the original expectations, while
preserving their essence and original intent and reflects the feedback from educators
across the state during the past year.
6 1 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
Middle School (5-7) Science Organizational Structure
Discipline 1
Science Processes
Discipline 2
Physical Science
Discipline 3
Life Science
Discipline 4
Earth Science
Standards and Statements (and number of Content Expectations in each Statement)
Inquiry Process (IP)
Inquiry Analysis
and Communication
(IA)
Refection and Social
Implications (RS)
Force and Motion (FM)
Force Interactions (2)
Force (4)
Speed (3)
Energy (EN)
Kinetic and Potential
Energy (2)
Waves and Energy (3)
Energy Transfer (3)
Solar Energy Effects
(2)
Properties of Matter
(PM)
Chemical Properties
(1)
Elements and
Compounds (4)
Changes in Matter
(CM)
Changes in State (2)
Chemical Changes (3)
Organization of
Living Things (OL)
Cell Functions (4)
Growth and
Development (2)
Animal Systems (2)
Producers,
Consumers, and
Decomposers (2)
Photosynthesis (3)
Heredity (HE)
Inherited and
Acquired Traits (2)
Reproduction (2)
Evolution (EV)
Species Adaptation
and Survival (4)
Relationships Among
Organisms (1)
Ecosystems (EC)
Interactions of
Organisms (1)
Relationships of
Organisms (3)
Biotic and Abiotic
Factors (2)
Environmental
Impact of Organisms
(2)
Earth Systems (ES)
Solar Energy (3)
Human
Consequences (2)
Seasons (2)
Weather and Climate
(4)
Water Cycle (2)
Solid Earth (SE)
Soil (4)
Rock Formation (1)
Plate Tectonics (3)
Magnetic Field of
Earth (2)
Fluid Earth (FE)
Atmosphere (2)
Earth in Space and
Time (ST)
Solar System (1)
Solar System Motion
(5)
Fossils (1)
Geologic Time (2)
Science Processes: Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication,
Refection, and Social Implications
Sixth grade students have had multiple experiences in science inquiry, practice in investigating
a question, and the selection of a variety of resources for information gathering and problem
solving. Through the grade level science processes, students gain a greater understanding of the
nature and structure of scientific knowledge and the process of its development. Throughout the
middle school years, students should be provided with the opportunity to engage in full inquiry
experiences that include raising a question based on observations, data sets, and/or research,
designing an investigation, gathering information through observation and data collection,
analyzing and evaluating information, engaging in science discourse, and formally presenting their
findings. Sixth grade students need guidance and practice in the identification of variables and
controlling more than one variable in an investigation. They need clarification in recognizing the
difference between a scientific explanation and evidence.
With appropriate guidance and experiences, sixth grade students can recognize science as a
means of gathering information and confirming or challenging their current beliefs about the
natural world, the effect humans and other organisms have on the natural world, and begin to
design solutions through science and technology to world challenges.
Physical Science: Energy and Changes in Matter
Students enter the sixth grade with the knowledge of different forms of energy
(sound, light, heat, electrical, and magnetic). They have had the opportunity to explore
properties of sound and light, observe heat transfer, construct a simple circuit, observe
the interaction between magnetic and non-magnetic material, and finally make an
electro-magnetic motor. Sixth grade students deepen their understanding of energy
through investigations into kinetic and potential energy and the demonstration of
the transformation of kinetic energy. Through the investigation of energy transfer
by radiation, conduction, or convection, students are introduced to the concept that
energy can be transferred while no energy is lost or gained. Students begin to see
the connections among light, heat, sound, electricity, and magnetism. They gain an
understanding that energy is an important property of substances and that most
changes observed involve an energy transfer. Students will understand energy by
observing multiple forms of energy transfer and begin to dispel the misconception that
energy is linked to fuel or something that is stored, ready to use, and gets consumed.
Sixth grade students also build on their understanding of changes in matter by
exploring states in terms of the arrangement and motion of atoms and molecules. They
are given the opportunity to design investigations that provide evidence that mass is
conserved as it changes from state to state.
Life Science: Organization of Living Things and Ecosystems
The study of life science in the elementary curriculum has introduced students to roles
organisms play in a food web, their needs to survive, and the physical and behavioral
characteristics that help them survive. The elementary student has a beginning
understanding of the dependency of organisms on one another and balance in an
ecosystem’s food web. Sixth grade students build on their prior knowledge by exploring
classifications of organisms based on their source of energy (producers, consumers,
and decomposers) and distinguish between ways in which organisms obtain energy.
The study of ecosystems at this level includes interactions of organisms within
populations, communities, and ecosystems including examples in the Great Lakes
region. Students recognize patterns in ecosystems and broaden their understanding
from the way one species lives in an environment to how populations and communities
interact. They explore how populations can be mutually beneficial and how that
relationship can lead to interdependency.
The final course of study in ecosystems for the sixth grader includes biotic and
abiotic factors in an ecosystem that influence change. Included is the consequence of
overpopulation of a species, including humans. Students explore how humans affect
change, purposefully and accidentally, and recognize possible consequences for activity
and development.
Earth Science: Solid Earth, Earth in Space and Time
Sixth grade students develop a deeper understanding of the Earth through the
exploration of the rock cycle, phenomena that shape the Earth, and Earth’s history.
In the elementary curriculum, students observed a variety of Earth materials and
identified different properties that help sustain life. Sixth grade students explore
the formation and weathering of rocks and how different soil types are formed.
Their knowledge continues through study of movement of lithospheric plates, major
geological events, and layers of the Earth. Students are introduced to the concept of
the Earth as a magnet.
6 2 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
6 3 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
6 2 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
The Earth science curriculum includes a deeper exploration into rocks, rock layers,
and fossils. They provide evidence of the history of the Earth and are used to measure
geologic time. Fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have
changed over long periods of time.
The concept of energy in the sixth grade curriculum is integral throughout the study
in physical, life, and Earth science. Students gain a deeper understanding of the
concept when encouraged to apply what they know about energy transfer to energy in
ecosystems and the rapid and gradual changes on Earth.
6 3 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
Sixth Grade Science Standards, Statements, and Expectations
Note: The number in parentheses represents the number of expectations..
Discipline 1: Science Processes (S)
Standard: Inquiry Process (IP)
1 Statement (6)
Standard: Inquiry Analysis and Communication (IA)
1 Statement (5)
Standard: Refection and Social Implications (RS)
1 Statement (9)
Discipline 2: Physical Science (P)
Standard: Energy (EN)
Kinetic and Potential Energy (2)
Energy Transfer (2)
Standard: Changes in Matter (CM)
Changes in State (2)
Discipline 3: Life Science (L)
Standard: Organization of Living Things (OL)
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers (2)
Standard: Ecosystems (EC)
Interactions of Organisms (1)
Relationships of Organisms (3)
Biotic and Abiotic Factors (2)
Environmental Impact of Organisms (2)
Discipline 4: Earth Science (E)
Standard: Solid Earth (SE)
Soil (4)
Rock Formation (1)
Plate Tectonics (3)
Magnetic Field of Earth (2)
Standard: Earth in Space and Time (ST)
Fossils (1)
Geologic Time (2)
6 5 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON 6 4 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
SCIENCE PROCESSES Inquiry Process
K-7 Standard S.IP: Develop an understanding that scientifc inquiry and
reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and
developing solutions to problems.
S.IP.M.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting
investigations, and developing solutions to problems through
reasoning and observation.
S.IP.06.11 Generate scientific questions based on observations,
investigations, and research.
S.IP.06.12 Design and conduct scientific investigations.
S.IP.06.13 Use tools and equipment (spring scales, stop watches, meter
sticks and tapes, models, hand lens, thermometer, models,
sieves, microscopes) appropriate to scientific investigations.
S.IP.06.14 Use metric measurement devices in an investigation.
S.IP.06.15 Construct charts and graphs from data and observations.
S.IP.06.16 Identify patterns in data.
Inquiry Analysis and Communication
K-7 Standard S.IA: Develop an understanding that scientifc inquiry and
investigations require analysis and communication of fndings, using
appropriate technology.

S.IA.M.1 Inquiry includes an analysis and presentation of fndings
that lead to future questions, research, and investigations.
S.IA.06.11 Analyze information from data tables and graphs to answer
scientific questions.
S.IA.06.12 Evaluate data, claims, and personal knowledge through
collaborative science discourse.
S.IA.06.13 Communicate and defend findings of observations and
investigations using evidence.
S.IA.06.14 Draw conclusions from sets of data from multiple trials of a
scientific investigation.
S.IA.06.15 Use multiple sources of information to evaluate strengths and
weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data.
Refection and Social Implications
K-7 Standard S.RS: Develop an understanding that claims and evidence for
their scientifc merit should be analyzed. Understand how scientists decide
what constitutes scientifc knowledge. Develop an understanding of
the importance of refection on scientifc knowledge and its application to new
situations to better understand the role of science in society and technology.

S.RS.M.1 Refecting on knowledge is the application of scientifc
knowledge to new and different situations. Refecting on knowledge
requires careful analysis of evidence that guides decision-making
and the application of science throughout history and within society.

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S.RS.06.11 Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims,
arguments, and data.
S.RS.06.12 Describe limitations in personal and scientific
knowledge.
S.RS.06.13 Identify the need for evidence in making scientific
decisions.
S.RS.06.14 Evaluate scientific explanations based on current
evidence and scientific principles.
S.RS.06.15 Demonstrate scientific concepts through various
illustrations, performances, models, exhibits, and
activities.
S.RS.06.16 Design solutions to problems using technology.
S.RS.06.17 Describe the effect humans and other organisms have
on the balance of the natural world.
S.RS.06.18 Describe what science and technology can and cannot
reasonably contribute to society.
S.RS.06.19 Describe how science and technology have advanced
because of the contributions of many people
throughout history and across cultures.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Energy
K-7 Standard P.EN: Develop an understanding that there
are many forms of energy (such as heat, light, sound, and
electrical) and that energy is transferable by convection,
conduction, or radiation. Understand energy can be in motion,
called kinetic; or it can be stored, called potential. Develop
an understanding that as temperature increases, more energy is
added to a system. Understand nuclear reactions in the
sun produce light and heat for the Earth.
P.EN.M.1 Kinetic and Potential Energy- Objects and
substances in motion have kinetic energy. Objects and
substances may have potential energy due to their relative
positions in a system. Gravitational, elastic, and chemical
energy are all forms of potential energy.

P.EN.06.11 Identify kinetic or potential energy in everyday
situations (for example: stretched rubber band,
objects in motion, ball on a hill, food energy).
P.EN.06.12 Demonstrate the transformation between potential
and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (for
example: roller coasters, pendulums).




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6 7 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
P.EN.M.4 Energy Transfer- Energy is transferred from a
source to a receiver by radiation, conduction, and
convection. When energy is transferred from one
system to another, the quantity of energy before the
transfer is equal to the quantity of energy after the
transfer. *
P.EN.06.41 Explain how different forms of energy can be
transferred from one place to another by radiation,
conduction, or convection.
P.EN.06.42 Illustrate how energy can be transferred while no
energy is lost or gained in the transfer.

Changes in Matter
K-7 Standard P.CM: Develop an understanding of changes in the
state of matter in terms of heating and cooling, and in terms of
arrangement and relative motion of atoms and molecules.
Understand the differences between physical and chemical
changes. Develop an understanding of the conservation of mass.
Develop an understanding of products and reactants in a chemical
change.

P.CM.M.1 Changes in State- Matter changing from state to
state can be explained by using models which show that
matter is composed of tiny particles in motion. When
changes of state occur, the atoms and/or molecules are not
changed in structure. When the changes in state occur,
mass is conserved because matter is not created or
destroyed.
P.CM.06.11 Describe and illustrate changes in state, in terms of
the arrangement and relative motion of the atoms or
molecules.
P.CM.06.12 Explain how mass is conserved as a substance
changes from state to state in a closed system. *
LIFE SCIENCE Organization of Living Things
K-7 Standard L.OL: Develop an understanding that plants and
animals (including humans) have basic requirements for
maintaining life which include the need for air, water, and a source
of energy. Understand that all life forms can be classifed as
producers, consumers, or decomposers as they are all part of a
global food chain where food/energy is supplied by plants which
need light to produce food/energy. Develop an understanding that
plants and animals can be classifed by observable traits and
physical characteristics. Understand that all living organisms are
composed of cells and they exhibit cell growth and division.
Understand that all plants and animals have a defnite life cycle,
body parts, and systems to perform specifc life functions.
* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.



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L.OL.M.5 Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers –
Producers are mainly green plants that obtain energy from
the sun by the process of photosynthesis. All animals,
including humans, are consumers that meet their energy
needs by eating other organisms or their products.
Consumers break down the structures of the organisms
they eat to make the materials they need to grow and
function. Decomposers, including bacteria and fungi, use
dead organisms or their products to meet their energy
needs. *
L.OL.06.51 Classify producers, consumers, and decomposers
based on their source of food (the source of energy
and building materials). *
L.OL.06.52 Distinguish between the ways in which consumers and
decomposers obtain energy.

Ecosystems
K-7 Standard L.EC: Develop an understanding of the
interdependence of the variety of populations, communities
and ecosystems, including those in the Great Lakes region.
Develop an understanding of different types of interdependence
and that biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors affect the
balance of an ecosystem. Understand that all organisms cause
changes, some detrimental and others benefcial, in the
environment where they live.
L.EC.M.1 Interactions of Organisms- Organisms of
one species form a population. Populations of
different organisms interact and form communities. Living
communities and nonliving factors that interact with them
form ecosystems.
L.EC.06.11 Identify and describe examples of populations,
communities, and ecosystems including the Great
Lakes region. *
L.EC.M.2 Relationships of Organisms- Two types of
organisms may interact with one another in several ways:
they may be in a producer/consumer, predator/
prey, or parasite/host relationship. Some organisms
may scavenge or decompose another. Relationships may be
competitive or mutually benefcial. Some species have
become so adapted to each other that neither could survive
without the other.

L.EC.06.21 Describe common patterns of relationships between
and among populations (competition, parasitism,
symbiosis, predator/prey).
L.EC.06.22 Explain how two populations of organisms can be
mutually beneficial and how that can lead to
interdependency.
L.EC.06.23 Predict how changes in one population might affect
other populations based upon their relationships in the
food web.
* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.
6 8 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON
L.EC.M.3 Biotic and Abiotic Factors- The number
of organisms and populations an ecosystem can support
depends on the biotic (living) resources available and
abiotic (nonliving) factors, such as quality of light
and water, range of temperatures, and soil composition.
L.EC.06.31 Identify the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic)
components of an ecosystem.
L.EC.06.32 Identify the factors in an ecosystem that influence
changes in population size.

L.EC.M.4 Environmental Impact of Organisms- All
organisms (including humans) cause change in the
environment where they live. Some of the changes
are harmful to the organism or other organisms, whereas
others are helpful.
L.EC.06.41 Describe how human beings are part of the
ecosystem of the Earth and that human activity can
purposefully, or accidentally, alter the balance
in ecosystems.
L.EC.06.42 Predict possible consequences of overpopulation of
organisms, including humans, (for example: species
extinction, resource depletion, climate change,
pollution).
EARTH SCIENCE Solid Earth
K-7 Standard E.SE: Develop an understanding of the properties
of Earth materials and how those properties make materials
useful. Understand gradual and rapid changes in Earth materials
and features of the surface of Earth. Understand magnetic
properties of Earth.

E.SE.M.1 Soil- Soils consist of weathered rocks and
decomposed organic materials from dead plants, animals,
and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers with each
having a different chemical composition and texture.
E.SE.06.11 Explain how physical and chemical weathering lead to
erosion and the formation of soils and sediments.
E.SE.06.12 Explain how waves, wind, water, and glacier
movement, shape and reshape the land surface
of the Earth by eroding rock in some areas and
depositing sediments in other areas.
E.SE.06.13 Describe how soil is a mixture made up of weather
eroded rock and decomposed organic material.
E.SE.06.14 Compare different soil samples based on particle size
and texture.

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E.SE.M.4 Rock Formation- Rocks and rock formations bear
evidence of the minerals, materials, temperature/pressure
conditions, and forces that created them.
E.SE.06.41 Compare and contrast the formation of rock types
(igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) and
demonstrate the similarities and differences using
the rock cycle model.
E.SE.M.5 Plate Tectonics- The lithospheric plates of the Earth
constantly move, resulting in major geological events, such as
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building.
E.SE.06.51 Explain plate tectonic movement and how the
lithospheric plates move centimeters each year.
E.SE.06.52 Demonstrate how major geological events
(earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mountain building)
result from these plate motions.
E.SE.06.53 Describe layers of the Earth as a lithosphere (crust and
upper mantle), convecting mantle, and dense metallic
core.
E.SE.M.6 Magnetic Field of Earth- Earth as a whole has
a magnetic feld that is detectable at the surface with a
compass.
E.SE.06.61 Describe the Earth as a magnet and compare the
magnetic properties of the Earth to that of a natural or
manufactured magnet. *
E.SE.06.62 Explain how a compass works using the magnetic field of
the Earth, and how a compass is used for navigation on
land and sea.
Earth in Space and Time

K-7 Standard E.ST: Develop an understanding that the sun is the
central and largest body in the solar system and that Earth and other
objects in the sky move in a regular and predictable motion around
the sun. Understand that those motions explain the day, year, moon
phases, eclipses and the appearance of motion of objects across the
sky. Understand that gravity is the force that keeps the planets in
orbit around the sun and governs motion in the solar system. Develop
an understanding that fossils and layers of Earth provide evidence of
the history of Earth’s life forms, changes over long periods of time,
and theories regarding Earth’s history and continental drift.
E.ST.M.3 Fossils- Fossils provide important evidence of how
life and environmental conditions have changed in a given
location.
E.ST.06.31 Explain how rocks and fossils are used to understand the
age and geological history of the Earth (timelines and
relative dating, rock layers).
* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.
7 0 S I X T H GR ADE S CI E NCE v. 1 . 0 9 MI CHI GAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATI ON




E.ST.M.4 Geologic Time- Earth processes seen today (erosion,
mountain building, and glacier movement) make possible
the measurement of geologic time through methods such as
observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the
sequences at various locations.

E.ST.06.41 Explain how Earth processes (erosion, mountain building,
and glacier movement) are used for the measurement of
geologic time through observing rock layers.
E.ST.06.42 Describe how fossils provide important evidence of how
life and environmental conditions have changed.










6
R E A D I N G
W R I T I N G
S P E A K I N G
L I S T E N I N G
V I E W I N G
E
L
A
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
S I X T H G R A D E E N G L I S H L A N G U A G E A R T S
Office of School Improvement
www.michigan.gov/mde
v.12.05
Welcome to Michigan’s K-8 Grade Level Content Expectations
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of creating
Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the federal No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of comprehensive state grade level
assessments that are designed based on rigorous grade level content.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess personal, social,
occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of the knowledge and essential skills
defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content Expectations will increase students’ ability to
be successful academically, contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the
communities in which they choose to live.
The Grade Level Content Expectations build from the Michigan Curriculum Framework
and its Teaching and Assessment Standards. Reflecting best practices and current
research, they provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students and
provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should know
and be able to do as they progress through school.
Why Create a 12.05 Version of the Expectations?
The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This commitment served as the impetus for the revision of the 6.04 edition
that was previously released in June of 2004. This new version, v.12.05, refines and
clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent.
As education continues to evolve, it is important to remember that each curriculum
document should be considered as a work in progress, and will continue to be refined
to improve the quality.
The revision process greatly improved the continuity from one grade to the next, and
better ensured coherence both in content and pedagogy. To obtain more specific details
about the revisions, please refer to the addendum included in this document. The forward
of the Across the Grades v.12.05 companion document also clarifies the types of changes
made. Educators can access the Across the Grades companion document by visiting
the Michigan Department of Education Grade Level Content Expectations web page at
www.michigan.gov/glce.
Assessment
The Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a state assessment
tool with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students. The
Office of Assessment and Accountability was involved in the development of version 12.05
and has incorporated the changes in the construction of test and item specifications for
the K-8 Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access. This updated
version will assist us in the creation of companion documents, content examples, and
to guide program planners in focusing resources and energy.
2 S I XT H GR ADE E NGL I S H L A NGUAGE A RT S ■ v . 1 2 . 0 5 ■ MI CHI GAN DE P AR T ME NT OF E DUCAT I ON
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools and districts
can generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current policies and practices
to consider ways to improve and enhance student achievement. Together, stakeholders can
use these expectations to guide curricular and instructional decisions, identify professional
development needs, and assess student achievement.
Understanding the Organizational Structure
The expectations in this document are divided into strands with multiple domains within each, as
shown below. The skills and content addressed in these expectations will in practice be woven
together into a coherent, English language arts curriculum. Beyond the English language arts
curriculum, students will use the skills and processes to support learning in all content areas.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a strand,
domain, grade-level, and expectation number. For example, R.NT.00.01 indicates:
R- Reading Strand
NT- Narrative Text Domain
00- Kindergarten Expectation
01- First Expectation in the Grade-Level Narrative Text Domain
Strand 1
Reading
Strand 2
Writing
Strand 3
Speaking
Strand 4
Listening & Viewing
Domains
Word Recognition and
Word Study (WS)
• Phonemic Awareness
• Phonics
• Word Recognition
• Vocabulary
Fluency (FL)
Narrative Text (NT)
Informational Text (IT)
Comprehension (CM)
Metacognition (MT)
Critical Standards (CS)
Reading Attitude (AT)
Genre (GN)
Process (PR)
Personal Style (PS)
Grammar & Usage (GR)
Spelling (SP)
Handwriting (HW)
Writing Attitude (AT)
Conventions (CN)
Discourse (DS)
Conventions (CN)
Response (RP)

Preparing Students for Academic Success
Within the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into exciting
and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As we use these expectations to develop units of
instruction and plan instructional delivery, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge
alone is not sufficient for academic success. Students must be able to apply knowledge in new
situations, to solve problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what
they learn in class to the world around them. The art of teaching is what makes the content of
learning become a reality.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional learning
communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest standards, and thereby
open doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.
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R E A D I N G Word Recognition and Word Study
Word Recognition
Students will…
R.WS.06.01 explain and use word structure, sentence structure, and prediction to aid
in decoding and understanding the meanings of words encountered in context.
R.WS.06.02 use structural, syntactic, and semantic analysis to recognize unfamiliar words
in context including origins and meanings of foreign words, words with multiple meanings,
and knowledge of major word chunks/rimes, and syllabication.
R.WS.06.03 automatically recognize frequently encountered words in print with the
number of words that can be read fluently increasing steadily across the school year.
R.WS.06.04 know the meanings of words encountered frequently in grade-level reading
and oral language contexts.
R.WS.06.05 acquire and apply strategies to identify unknown words and construct meaning.
Fluency
Students will…
R.WS.06.06 fluently read beginning grade-level text and increasingly demanding texts
as the year proceeds.
Vocabulary
Students will…
R.WS.06.07 in context, determine the meaning of words and phrases including regional
idioms, literary and technical terms, and content vocabulary using strategies including
connotation, denotation, and authentic content-related resources.
Narrative Text
Students will…
R.NT.06.01 describe how characters form opinions about one another in ways that can
be fair and unfair in classic, multicultural, and contemporary literature recognized for quality
and literary merit.
R.NT.06.02 analyze the structure, elements, style, and purpose of narrative genre including
folktales, fantasy, adventure, and action stories.
R.NT.06.03 analyze how dialogue enhances the plot, characters, and themes; differentiates
major and minor characters; and builds climax.
R.NT.06.04 analyze how authors use literary devices including dialogue, imagery, mood,
and understatement to develop the plot, characters, point of view, and theme.
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Informational Text
Students will…
R.IT.06.01 analyze the structure, elements, features, style, and purpose of informational
genre, including research reports, “how-to” articles, and essays.
R.IT.06.02 analyze organizational text patterns including descriptive, chronological
sequence, and problem/solution.
R.IT.06.03 explain how authors use text features including footnotes, bibliographies,
introductions, summaries, conclusions, and appendices to enhance the understanding
of central, key, and supporting ideas.
Comprehension
Students will…
R.CM.06.01 connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of the world
to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written responses.
R.CM.06.02 retell through concise summarization grade-level narrative and informational text.
R.CM.06.03 analyze global themes, universal truths and principles within and across
texts to create a deeper understanding by drawing conclusions, making inferences, and
synthesizing.
R.CM.06.04 apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social studies, and
mathematics texts.
Metacognition
Students will…
R.MT.06.01 self-monitor comprehension when reading or listening to text by automatically
applying and discussing the strategies used by mature readers to increase comprehension
including: predicting, constructing mental images, visually representing ideas in text,
questioning, rereading or listening again if uncertain about meaning, inferring, summarizing,
and engaging in interpretive discussions.
R.MT.06.02 plan, monitor, regulate, and evaluate skills, strategies, and processes for their
own reading comprehension by applying appropriate metacognitive skills such as SQP3R
and pattern guides.
Critical Standards
Students will…
R.CS.06.01 compare the appropriateness of shared, individual and expert standards based on
purpose, context, and audience in order to assess their own writing and the writing of others.
Reading Attitude
Students will…
R.AT.06.01 be enthusiastic about reading and do substantial reading and writing on
their own.


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W R I T I N G Writing Genre
Students will…
W.GN.06.01 write a cohesive narrative piece such as a personal narrative, adventure,
tall tale, folktale, fantasy, or poetry that includes appropriate conventions to the genre,
employing elements of characterization for major and minor characters; internal and/or
external conflict; and issues of plot, theme, and imagery.
W.GN.06.02 write a personal, persuasive, or comparative essay that includes
organizational patterns supporting key ideas.
W.GN.06.03 formulate research questions using multiple resources and perspectives that
allow them to organize, analyze, and explore problems and pose solutions that culminate in
a final presented project using the writing process.
Writing Process
Students will…
W.PR.06.01 set a purpose, consider audience, and replicate authors’ styles and patterns
when writing a narrative or informational piece.
W.PR.06.02 apply a variety of pre-writing strategies for both narrative (e.g., graphic
organizers designed to develop a plot that includes major and minor characters, builds
climax, and uses dialogue to enhance a theme) and informational writing (e.g., problem/
solution or sequence).
W.PR.06.03 revise drafts for clarity, coherence, and consistency in content, voice, and
genre characteristics with audience and purpose in mind.
W.PR.06.04 draft focused ideas for a specific purpose using multiple paragraphs, sentence
variety, and voice to meet the needs of an audience (e.g., word choice, level of formality, and
use of example) when writing compositions.
W.PR.06.05 proofread and edit writing using grade-level checklists and other appropriate
resources both individually and in groups.
Personal Style
Students will…
W.PS.06.01 exhibit personal style and voice to enhance the written message in both
narrative (e.g., personification, humor, element of surprise) and informational writing
(e.g., emotional appeal, strong opinion, credible support).
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Grammar and Usage
Students will…
W.GR.06.01 in the context of writing, correctly use style conventions (e.g., Modern
Language Association Handbook) and a variety of grammatical structures in writing
including indefinite and predicate pronouns; transitive and intransitive verbs; adjective and
adverbial phrases; adjective and adverbial subordinate clauses; comparative adverbs and
adjectives; superlatives, conjunctions; compound sentences; appositives; independent and
dependent clauses; introductory phrases; periods; commas; quotation marks; and use of
underlining and italics for specific purposes.
Spelling
Students will…
W.SP.06.01 in the context of writing, correctly spell frequently encountered and
frequently misspelled words.
Handwriting
Students will…
W.HW.06.01 write neat and legible compositions.
Writing Attitude
Students will…
W.AT.06.01 be enthusiastic about writing and learning to write.

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S P E A K I N G Conventions
Students will…
S.CN.06.01 adjust their use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of
audiences and for different purposes by asking and responding to questions and remarks to
engage the audience when presenting.
S.CN.06.02 speak effectively using rhyme, rhythm, cadence, and word play for effect in
narrative and informational presentations.
S.CN.06.03 present in standard American English if it is their first language. (Students
whose first language is not English will present in their developing version of standard
American English.)
Discourse
Students will…
S.DS.06.01 engage in interactive, extended discourse to socially construct meaning in
book clubs, literature circles, partnerships, or other conversation protocols.
S.DS.06.02 respond to multiple text types in order to compare/contrast ideas, form, and
style; to evaluate quality; take a stand and support an issue; and to identify personally with
a universal theme.
S.DS.06.03 discuss written narratives that include a variety of literary and plot devices
(e.g., established context plot, point of view, sensory details, dialogue, and suspense).
S.DS.06.04 plan a focused and coherent informational presentation using an informational
organizational pattern (e.g., problem/solution, sequence); select a focus question to address
and organize the message to ensure that it matches the intent and the audience to which it
will be delivered.
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L I S T E N I N G Conventions
& V I E W I N G Students will…
L.CN.06.01 respond to, evaluate, and analyze the speaker’s effectiveness and content
when listening to or viewing a variety of speeches and presentations.
L.CN.06.02 listen to or view critically while demonstrating appropriate social skills of
audience behaviors (e.g., eye contact, attentive, supportive); critically examine the verbal
and non-verbal strategies during speeches and presentations.
Response
Students will…
L.RP.06.01 listen to or view knowledgeably a variety of genre to summarize, take notes on
key points, and ask clarifying questions.
L.RP.06.02 select, listen to or view knowledgeably, and respond thoughtfully to both classic
and contemporary texts recognized for quality and literary merit.
L.RP.06.03 identify a speaker’s affective communication expressed through tone, mood,
and emotional cues.
L.RP.06.04 relate a speaker’s verbal communications (e.g., tone of voice) to the non-verbal
message communicated (e.g., eye contact, posture, and gestures).
L.RP.06.05 respond to multiple text types when listened to or viewed knowledgeably, by
discussing, illustrating, and/or writing in order to compare/contrast similarities and differences
in idea, form, and style to evaluate quality and to identify personal and universal themes.
L.RP.06.06 respond to, evaluate, and analyze the credibility of a speaker who uses
persuasion to affirm his/her point of view in a speech or presentation.
L.RP.06.07 identify persuasive and propaganda techniques used in television, and identify
false and misleading information.
6M
A
T
H
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
M A T H E M A T I C S
Office of School Improvement
www.michigan.gov/mde
v. 1 2 . 0 5
G E O M E T R Y
A L G E B R A
M E A S U R E M E N T
DATA & PROBABILITY
NUMBER & OPERATIONS
S I X T H G R A D E
Welcome to Michigan’s K-8 Grade Level Content Expectations
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Depar tment of Education embraced the challenge of creating
Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the federal No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of comprehensive state grade level
assessments that are designed based on rigorous grade level content.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess personal, social,
occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of the knowledge and essential
skills defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content Expectations will increase students’
ability to be successful academically, contribute to the future businesses that employ
them and the communities in which they choose to live.
The Grade Level Content Expectations build from the Michigan Curriculum Framework
and its Teaching and Assessment Standards. Reflecting best practices and current
research, they provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students and
provide teachers wi th clearly def ined statements of what students should know
and be able to do as they progress through school.
Why Create a 12.05 Version of the Expectations?
The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This commitment served as the impetus for the revision of the 6.04
edition that was previously released in June of 2004. This new version, v.12.05, refines
and clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent.
As education continues to evolve, it is important to remember that each curriculum
document should be considered as a work in progress, and will continue to be refined
to improve the quality.
The revision process greatly improved the continuity from one grade to the next, and
better ensured coherence both in content and pedagogy. To obtain more specific details
about the revisions, please refer to the addendum included in this document. The forward
of the Across the Grades v.12.05 companion document also clarifies the types of changes
made. Educators can access the Across the Grades companion document by visiting
the Michigan Department of Education Grade Level Content Expectations web page
at www.michigan.gov/glce.
Assessment
The Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a state assessment
tool with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students. The
Office of Assessment and Accountability was involved in the development of version
12.05 and has incorporated the changes in the construction of test and item specifications
for the K-8 Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access. This updated
version will assist us in the creation of companion documents, content examples, and to
guide program planners in focusing resources and energy.
2 SI XTH GRADE M A T H E M A T I C S ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N
Curriculum
Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools and districts can
generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current policies and practices to consider
ways to improve and enhance student achievement. Together, stakeholders can use these
expectations to guide curricular and instructional decisions, identify professional development
needs, and assess student achievement.
Understanding the Organizational Structure
The expectations in this document are divided into strands with multiple domains within each, as
shown below. The skills and content addressed in these expectations will in practice be woven
together into a coherent, Mathematics curriculum. The domains in each mathematics strand are
broader, more conceptual groupings. In several of the strands, the “domains” are similar to the
“standards” in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics from the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics.
To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a strand,
domain, grade-level, and expectation number. For example, M.UN.00.01 indicates:
M- Measurement strand
UN- Units & systems of measurement domain of the Measurement strand
00- Kindergarten Expectation
01- First Expectation in the Grade-Level view of the Measurement strand
Strand 1
Number &
Operations
Strand 2 Algebra
Strand 3
Measurement
Strand 4
Geometry
Strand 5
Data and
Probability
Domains
Meaning, notation,
place value, and
comparisons (ME)
Number
relationships
and meaning of
operations (MR)
Fluency with
operations and
estimation (FL)
Patterns, relations,
functions, and
change (PA)
Representation (RP)
Formulas,
expressions,
equations, and
inequalities (RP)
Units and systems of
measurement (UN)
Techniques and
formulas for
measurement (TE)
Problem
solving involving
measurement (PS)
Geometric shape,
properties, and
mathematical
arguments (GS)
Location and spatial
relationships (LO)
Spatial reasoning
and geometric
modeling (SR)
Transformation and
symmetry (TR)
Data representation
(RE)
Data interpretation
and analysis (AN)
Probability (PR)

Preparing Students for Academic Success
Within the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into exciting
and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As we use these expectations to develop units of
instruction and plan instructional delivery, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge
alone is not sufficient for academic success. Students must be able to apply knowledge in new
situations, to solve problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what
they learn in class to the world around them. The art of teaching is what makes the content of
learning become a reality.
Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional learning
communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest standards, and thereby open
doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.
M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M A T H E M A T I C S SI XTH GRADE 3
NUMBER AND Multiply and divide fractions
OPERATIONS N.MR.06.01 Understand division of fractions as the inverse of multiplication,
e.g., if ¹- ÷ ´- = ■, then ´- • ■ = ¹- , so ■ = ¹- • °- = .
N.FL.06.02 Given an applied situation involving dividing fractions, write a mathematical
statement to represent the situation.
N.MR.06.03 Solve for the unknown in equations such as ¹, ÷ ■ = 1, °, ÷ ■ = ¹, , and
¹- = 1 • ■ .
N.FL.06.04 Multiply and divide any two fractions, including mixed numbers, fluently.
Represent rational numbers as fractions or decimals
N.ME.06.05 Order rational numbers and place them on the number line.
N.ME.06.06 Represent rational numbers as fractions or terminating decimals when possible,
and translate between these representations.
N.ME.06.07 Understand that a fraction or a negative fraction is a quotient of two integers,
e.g., - °- is -8 divided by 3.
Add and subtract integers and rational numbers
N.MR.06.08 Understand integer subtraction as the inverse of integer addition. Understand integer
division as the inverse of integer multiplication.*
N.FL.06.09 Add and multiply integers between -10 and 10; subtract and divide integers using the
related facts. Use the number line and chip models for addition and subtraction.*
N.FL.06.10 Add, subtract, multiply and divide positive rational numbers fluently.
Find equivalent ratios
N.ME.06.11 Find equivalent ratios by scaling up or scaling down.
Solve decimal, percentage and rational number problems
N.FL.06.12 Calculate part of a number given the percentage and the number.
N.MR.06.13 Solve contextual problems involving percentages such as sales taxes and tips.*
N.FL.06.14 For applied situations, estimate the answers to calculations involving operations
with rational numbers.
N.FL.06.15 Solve applied problems that use the four operations with appropriate
decimal numbers.
Use exponents
N.ME.06.16 Understand and use integer exponents, excluding powers of negative bases; express
numbers in scientific notation.*
Understand rational numbers and their location on the number line
N.ME.06.17 Locate negative rational numbers (including integers) on the number line;
know that numbers and their negatives add to 0, and are on opposite sides and at equal
distance from 0 on a number line.
N.ME.06.18 Understand that rational numbers are quotients of integers (non zero
denominators), e.g., a rational number is either a fraction or a negative fraction.
N.ME.06.19 Understand that 0 is an integer that is neither negative nor positive.
N.ME.06.20 Know that the absolute value of a number is the value of the number ignoring
the sign; or is the distance of the number from 0.
* revised expectations in italics
12
10
4 SI XTH GRADE M A T H E M A T I C S ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N
ALGEBRA Calculate rates
A.PA.06.01 Solve applied problems involving rates, including speed, e.g., if a car is going 50
mph, how far will it go in 3¹- hours?
Understand the coordinate plane
A.RP.06.02 Plot ordered pairs of integers and use ordered pairs of integers to identify points
in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
Use variables, write expressions and equations,
and combine like terms
A.FO.06.03 Use letters, with units, to represent quantities in a variety of contexts,
e.g., y lbs., k minutes, x cookies.
A.FO.06.04 Distinguish between an algebraic expression and an equation.
A.FO.06.05 Use standard conventions for writing algebraic expressions, e.g., 2x + 1 means
“two times x, plus 1” and 2(x + 1) means “two times the quantity (x + 1).”
A.FO.06.06 Represent information given in words using algebraic expressions and equations.
A.FO.06.07 Simplify expressions of the first degree by combining like terms, and evaluate
using specific values.
Represent linear functions using tables, equations, and graphs
A.RP.06.08 Understand that relationships between quantities can be suggested by graphs
and tables.
A.PA.06.09 Solve problems involving linear functions whose input values are integers; write the
equation; graph the resulting ordered pairs of integers, e.g., given c chairs, the “leg function” is 4c;
if you have 5 chairs, how many legs?; if you have 12 legs, how many chairs?*
A.RP.06.10 Represent simple relationships between quantities using verbal descriptions,
formulas or equations, tables, and graphs, e.g., perimeter-side relationship for a square,
distance-time graphs, and conversions such as feet to inches.
Solve equations
A.FO.06.11 Relate simple linear equations with integer coefficients, e.g., 3x = 8 or
x + 5 = 10, to particular contexts and solve.*
A.FO.06.12 Understand that adding or subtracting the same number to both sides of an
equation creates a new equation that has the same solution.
A.FO.06.13 Understand that multiplying or dividing both sides of an equation by the same
non-zero number creates a new equation that has the same solutions.
A.FO.06.14 Solve equations of the form ax + b = c, e.g., 3x + 8 = 15 by hand for positive
integer coefficients less than 20, use calculators otherwise, and interpret the results.
MEASUREMENT Convert within measurement systems
M.UN.06.01 Convert between basic units of measurement within a single measurement
system, e.g., square inches to square feet.
Find volume and surface area
M.PS.06.02 Draw patterns (of faces) for a cube and rectangular prism that, when
cut, will cover the solid exactly (nets).
M.TE.06.03 Compute the volume and surface area of cubes and rectangular prisms
given the lengths of their sides, using formulas.
* revised expectations in italics
M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ v. 1 2 . 0 5 ■ M A T H E M A T I C S SI XTH GRADE 5
GEOMETRY Understand and apply basic properties
G.GS.06.01 Understand and apply basic properties of lines, angles, and triangles, including:
• triangle inequality
• relationships of vertical angles, complementary angles, supplementary angles
• congruence of corresponding and alternate interior angles when parallel lines
— are cut by a transversal, and that such congruencies imply parallel lines
• locate interior and exterior angles of any triangle, and use the property that an exterior
— angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the remote (opposite) interior angles
• know that the sum of the exterior angles of a convex polygon is 360º.
Understand the concept of congruence and basic transformations
G.GS.06.02 Understand that for polygons, congruence means corresponding sides and angles
have equal measures.
G.TR.06.03 Understand the basic rigid motions in the plane (reflections, rotations, translations),
relate these to congruence, and apply them to solve problems.
G.TR.06.04 Understand and use simple compositions of basic rigid transformations, e.g., a
translation followed by a reflection.
Construct geometric shapes
G.SR.06.05 Use paper folding to perform basic geometric constructions of perpendicular lines,
midpoints of line segments and angle bisectors; justify informally.
DATA AND Understand the concept of probability and solve problems
PROBABILITY D.PR.06.01 Express probabilities as fractions, decimals, or percentages between 0 and 1; know
that 0 probability means an event will not occur and that probability 1 means an event will occur.
D.PR.06.02 Compute probabilities of events from simple experiments with equally likely
outcomes, e.g., tossing dice, flipping coins, spinning spinners, by listing all possibilities and finding
the fraction that meets given conditions.
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Organization of Western and Eastern Hemisphere Studies
in Grades Six and Seven
The study of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres during ancient and modern times, is the content of grades six and seven.
Instruction over these two years includes geography, economics, government, inquiry, public discourse and decision making,
citizen involvement, and World History and Geography - Eras 1, 2, and 3. These components may be arranged over the two
years with the understanding that all grade level content expectations for 6 and 7 must be included in the plan for instruction.
An approach which integrates the study of the ancient world and a present day context for geography, economics, and government
of both hemispheres requires careful planning. As of the writing of this document, grade level testing is not currently planned for
social studies, therefore,districts are afforded fexibility on the organizational delivery models for the content in grades 6 and 7.
The charts below illustrate organizational options for how those studies might be scheduled for delivery to students.
The frst chart illustrates options for an integrated course of study, called Western and Eastern Hemisphere Studies, in the sixth
and seventh grades. This model infuses ancient world history into a regional Western and Eastern Hemisphere organization. The
difference between the options shown in this chart is the number of weeks devoted to specifc topics. Notice that the shaded
columns show the number of weeks used in the frst year to supplement the teaching of Eastern Hemisphere Studies. The
three options shown are only examples. A local school district may adopt another, such as spending 27 weeks on Western
Hemisphere Studies. It should also be noted that a district may wish to offer the Eastern Hemisphere Studies in sixth grade and
Western Hemisphere Studies in seventh grade.
Number
of Weeks
of Study
The World
in Temporal
Terms
Overview and
History of
Ancient
Civilizations
of Western
Hemisphere
The World in
Spatial Terms
Overview and
Geography
of Western
Hemisphere
Contemporary
Civics and
Economics of
the Western
Hemisphere
Global
Issues Past
and Present
1 year =
36 weeks

24 weeks

28 weeks

7 weeks

7 weeks

7 weeks

19 weeks

11 weeks

14 weeks

5 weeks

2 weeks

3 weeks

5 weeks

4 weeks

4 weeks

Eastern Hemisphere Studies
Number
of Weeks
Remaining to
Begin Teaching
the Eastern
Hemisphere
Number
of Weeks
of Study
The World in
Spatial Terms
Overview and
Geography
of Eastern
Hemisphere

Contemporary
Civics and
Economics of
the Eastern
Hemisphere
0 weeks

12 weeks

8 weeks

1 year =
36 weeks
48 weeks
( 36 weeks
+12 weeks
from Grade 6)
44 weeks
( 36 weeks +
8 weeks
from Grade 6)
12 weeks

17 weeks

15 weeks

16 weeks

22 weeks

20 weeks

3 weeks

3 weeks

3 weeks

5 weeks

6 weeks

6 weeks

Western Hemisphere Studies
The World
in Temporal
Terms
Overview and
History of
Ancient
Civilizations
of Eastern
Hemisphere
Global
Issues Past
and Present
Number
of Weeks
of Study
The World
in Temporal
Terms
Ancient
History
of Eastern
Hemisphere
36 weeks

2 weeks

15 weeks

9 weeks

4 weeks

World Geography Studies
Number
of Weeks
of Study
6 weeks

36 weeks

2 weeks

19 weeks

9 weeks

6 weeks

Ancient World Studies
The World in
Spatial Terms
Global
Issues Past
and Present
Ancient
History
of Western
Hemisphere
Geography of
the Eastern
Hemisphere
Geography of
the Western
Hemisphere
Global
Issues Past
and Present
Contemporary
Civics/
Government
and Economics
This next chart shows an example of how a local district might decide to divide the content by discipline with one year of ancient
world history and one year of world geography. Again, all 6th and 7th Grade Level Content Expectations must be included in this
discipline-based organizational delivery model.
Example of Organization for Grades Six and Seven by Content Discipline
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Five
Examples of Organization for Grades Six and Seven by Hemisphere
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
An Overview of Western and Eastern Hemisphere Studies
The World in Temporal Terms – Historical Habits of Mind
(Included in Grade 6 as a foundation for Grade 7)
Students will identify the conceptual devices to organize their study of the world. They will compare cultural and
historical interpretation. They will use the process of reasoning based on evidence from the past and interpret a
variety of historical documents recognizing fact from opinion and seeking multiple historical perspectives and will
evaluate evidence, compare and contrast information, interpret the historical record, and develop sound historical
arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions in contemporary life can be based.
WHG Era 1 – The Beginnings of Human Society: Beginnings to 4000 B.C.E./B.C.
Students will explain the basic features and differences between hunter-gatherer societies and pastoral nomads.
Analyze and explain the geographic, environmental, biological, and cultural processes that infuenced the rise of
the earliest human communities, the migration and spread of people throughout the world, and the causes and
consequences of the growth of agriculture.
WHG Era 2 – Early Civilizations and Cultures and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples,
4000 to 1000 B.C.E./B.C.
Students will describe and differentiate defning characteristics of early civilizations.
WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C.
to 300 C.E./A.D.
(Grades six and seven includes World History to 300 C.E./A.D.)
Students will analyze the innovations and social, political, and economic changes that occurred through emergence
of classical civilizations in the major regions of the world, including the establishment of fve major world religions.
The World in Spatial Terms – Geographical Habits of Mind
(Included in Grade 6 as a foundation for Grade 7)
Students will study the relationships between people, places, and environments by using information that is in a
geographic (spatial) context. They will engage in mapping and analyzing the information to explain the patterns
and relationships they reveal both between and among people, their cultures, and the natural environment. They
will identify and access information, evaluate it using criteria based on concepts and themes, and use geography in
problem solving and decision making. Students will explain and use key conceptual devices (places and regions,
spatial patterns and processes) that geographers use to organize information and inform their study of the world.
Places and Regions
Students will describe the cultural groups and diversities among people that are rooted in particular places and in
human constructs called regions. They will analyze the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
Physical Systems
Students will describe the physical processes that shape the Earth’s surface which, along with plants and animals, are
the basis for both sustaining and modifying ecosystems. They will identify and analyze the patterns and characteristics
of the major ecosystems on Earth.
Human Systems
Students will explain that human activities help shape Earth’s surface, human settlements and structures are part
of Earth’s surface, and humans compete for control of Earth’s surface. They will study human populations, cultural
mosaics, economic interdependence, human settlement, and cooperation.
Environment and Society
Students will explain that the physical environment is modifed by human activities, which are infuenced by the ways
in which human societies value and use Earth’s natural resources, and by Earth’s physical features and processes. They
will explain how human action modifes the physical environment and how physical systems affect human systems.
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
An Overview of Western and Eastern Hemisphere Studies – continued
Global Issues Past and Present (Capstone Projects, G6)
The challenges of the 21st century require students to be globally literate regarding major global issues and the
processes necessary to inquire about issues, gather information, and make decisions that arise during their lifetimes.
They will need to practice responsible citizenship and make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good in a
pluralistic, democratic society and an interdependent world.
Throughout the school year, the students will be introduced to topics that address global issues that integrate time
and place. The topics are important for understanding contemporary global issues that affect countries and regions.
Regular experiences with those topics and issues are necessary during each grade in order to build the background
students will require to complete in-depth capstone projects.
A capstone project entails the investigation of historical and contemporary global issues that have signifcance for the
student and are clearly linked to the world outside the classroom. Students use technology and traditional sources
to collect data that they develop into a product or performance that clearly demonstrates their profciency in apply-
ing content from the core disciplines. They use public discourse, decision making, and citizen involvement in complet-
ing and presenting the capstone. The students demonstrate inquiry methods and compose persuasive civic essays
using reasoned arguments. The capstone project proposes a plan for the future based on the evidence researched. At
least three global issues should be used in capstone projects at each grade level.
Purposes of Government
Students will analyze how people identify, organize, and accomplish the purposes of government.
Structure and Functions of Government
Students will describe the major activities of government including making and enforcing laws, providing services and
benefts to individuals and groups, assigning individual and collective responsibilities, generating revenue, and providing
national security.
Relationship of United States to Other Nations and World Affairs
Students will explain that the world is organized politically into nation-states, and how nation-states interact with
one another.
The Market Economy
Students will describe the market economy in terms of relevance of limited resources, how individuals and
institutions make and evaluate decisions, the role of incentives, how buyers and sellers interact to create markets,
how markets allocate resources, and the economic role of government in a market economy.
The National Economy
Students will use economic concepts, terminology, and data to identify and describe how a national economy
functions. They will study the role of government as a provider of goods and services within a national economy.
The International Economy
Students will analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses
trade across international borders, and the comparisons of the benefts and costs of specialization and the resulting
trade for consumers, producers, and governments.
Public Discourse, Decision Making, Citizen Involvement
Students will identify and analyze public policy issues, express and justify decisions, and develop an action plan to
inform others.
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
HISTORy
H1 The World in Temporal Terms: Historical Habits of Mind (Foundational for Grade 7)
1.1 Temporal Thinking
1.2 Historical Inquiry and Analysis
1.4 Historical Understanding
W1 WHG Era 1 – The Beginnings of Human Society
1.1 Peopling of the Earth
1.2 Agricultural Revolution
W2 WHG Era 2 – Early Civilizations and Cultures and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples
2.1 Early Civilizations and Early Pastoral Societies
W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires
3.1 Classical Traditions and Major Empires in the Western Hemisphere
GEOGRAPHy
G1 The World in Spatial Terms: Geographical Habits of Mind (Foundational for Grade 7)
1.1 Spatial Thinking
1.2 Geographical Inquiry and Analysis
1.3 Geographical Understanding
G2 Places and Regions
2.1 Physical Characteristics of Place
2.2 Human Characteristics of Place
G3 Physical Systems
3.1 Physical Processes
3.2 Ecosystems
G4 Human Systems
4.1 Cultural Mosaic
4.2 Technology Patterns and Networks
4.3 Patterns of Human Settlement
4.4 Forces of Cooperation and Confict
G5 Environment and Society
5.1 Humans and the Environment
5.2 Physical and Human Systems
G6 Global Issues Past and Present
6.1 Global Topic Investigation and Issue Analysis
CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT
C1 Purposes of Government
1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government
C3 Structure and Functions of Government
3.6 Characteristics of Nation-States
C4 Relationship of United States to Other Nations and World Affairs
4.3 Confict and Cooperation Between and Among Nations
ECONOMICS
E1 The Market Economy
1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices
E2 The National Economy
2.3 Role of Government
E3 International Economy
3.1 Economic Systems
3.3 Economic Interdependence
PUBLIC DISCOURSE, DECISION MAKING, AND CITIzEN INVOLVEMENT



Western Hemisphere Studies Grade Six
Sixth grade students will explore the tools and mental constructs used by historians and geographers. They
will develop an understanding of Ancient World History, Eras 1 – 3, of the Western Hemisphere and will study
contemporary geography of the Western Hemisphere. Contemporary civics/government and economics content is
integrated throughout the year. As a capstone, the students will conduct investigations about past and present global
issues. Using signifcant content knowledge, research, and inquiry, they will analyze an issue and propose a plan for the
future. As part of the inquiry, they compose civic, persuasive essays using reasoned argument.
7 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
HISTORy
H1 The World in Temporal Terms: Historical Habits of Mind (Foundational for Grade 7)
1.1 Temporal Thinking
1.2 Historical Inquiry and Analysis
1.4 Historical Understanding
W1 WHG Era 1 – The Beginnings of Human Society
1.1 Peopling of the Earth
1.2 Agricultural Revolution
W2 WHG Era 2 – Early Civilizations and Cultures and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples
2.1 Early Civilizations and Early Pastoral Societies
W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires
3.1 Classical Traditions and Major Empires in the Western Hemisphere
GEOGRAPHy
G1 The World in Spatial Terms: Geographical Habits of Mind (Foundational for Grade 7)
1.1 Spatial Thinking
1.2 Geographical Inquiry and Analysis
1.3 Geographical Understanding
G2 Places and Regions
2.1 Physical Characteristics of Place
2.2 Human Characteristics of Place
G3 Physical Systems
3.1 Physical Processes
3.2 Ecosystems
G4 Human Systems
4.1 Cultural Mosaic
4.2 Technology Patterns and Networks
4.3 Patterns of Human Settlement
4.4 Forces of Cooperation and Confict
G5 Environment and Society
5.1 Humans and the Environment
5.2 Physical and Human Systems
G6 Global Issues Past and Present
6.1 Global Topic Investigation and Issue Analysis
CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT
C1 Purposes of Government
1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government
C3 Structure and Functions of Government
3.6 Characteristics of Nation-States
C4 Relationship of United States to Other Nations and World Affairs
4.3 Confict and Cooperation Between and Among Nations
ECONOMICS
E1 The Market Economy
1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices
E2 The National Economy
2.3 Role of Government
E3 International Economy
3.1 Economic Systems
3.3 Economic Interdependence
PUBLIC DISCOURSE, DECISION MAKING, AND CITIzEN INVOLVEMENT


6TH GRADE WESTERN HEMISPHERE STUDIES
Sixth Grade includes North America, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Europe and Russia are listed
in the document in grade 7, but may be included with either Western or Eastern Hemisphere Studies. World History
Eras 1, 2, and 3 are included in Grades 6 and 7 as a foundation for High School World History and Geography.
Note: The World in Temporal Terms and The World in Spatial Terms become foundational expectations for the 7th Grade study
of the Eastern Hemisphere.
HISTORy
H1 THE WORLD IN TEMPORAL TERMS: HISTORICAL HABITS OF MIND
(WAyS OF THINKING)
Evaluate evidence, compare and contrast information, interpret the historical record, and develop sound historical
arguments and perspectives on which informed decisions in contemporary life can be based.
H1.1 Temporal Thinking
Use historical conceptual devices to organize and study the past.
Historians use conceptual devices (eras, periods, calendars, time lines) to organize their study of the world.
Chronology is based on time and refects cultural and historical interpretations, including major starting points,
and calendars based on different criteria (religious, seasonal, Earth-sun-and-moon relationships). Historians use
eras and periods to organize the study of broad developments that have involved large segments of world’s
population and have lasting signifcance for future generations and to explain change and continuity.
6 – H1.1.1 Explain why and how historians use eras and periods as constructs to organize and explain
human activities over time.
6 – H1.1.2 Compare and contrast several different calendar systems used in the past and present and
their cultural signifcance (e.g., Olmec and Mayan calendar systems, Aztec Calendar Stone, Sun
Dial, Gregorian calendar – B.C./A.D.; contemporary secular – B.C.E./C.E. Note: in 7th grade
Eastern Hemisphere the Chinese, Hebrew, and Islamic/Hijri calendars are included).
H1.2 Historical Inquiry and Analysis
Use historical inquiry and analysis to study the past.
History is a process of reasoning based on evidence from the past. Historians use and interpret a variety of
historical documents (including narratives), recognize the difference between fact and opinion, appreciate multiple
historical perspectives while avoiding present mindedness (judging the past solely in term of norms and values of
today), and explain that historical events often are the result of multiple causation. Students will conduct their own
inquiry and analysis in their studies about the ancient history of the Western Hemisphere.
6 – H1.2.1 Explain how historians use a variety of sources to explore the past (e.g., artifacts, primary
and secondary sources including narratives, technology, historical maps, visual/mathematical
quantitative data, radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis).
6 – H1.2.2 Read and comprehend a historical passage to identify basic factual knowledge and the literal
meaning by indicating who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to
the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed.
6 – H1.2.3 Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing
primary and secondary sources.
6 – H1.2.4 Compare and evaluate competing historical perspectives about the past based on proof.
6 – H1.2.5 Identify the role of the individual in history and the signifcance of one person’s ideas.
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
8 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
H1.4 Historical Understanding
Use historical concepts, patterns, and themes to study the past.
Historians apply temporal perspective, historical inquiry, and analysis to spheres of human society to construct
knowledge as historical understandings. These understandings are drawn from the record of human history and
include human aspirations, strivings, accomplishments, and failures in spheres of human activity.
6 – H1.4.1 Describe and use cultural institutions to study an era and a region (political, economic, religion/
belief, science/technology, written language, education, family).
6 – H1.4.2 Describe and use themes of history to study patterns of change and continuity.
6 – H1.4.3 Use historical perspective to analyze global issues faced by humans long ago and today.
W1 WHG ERA 1 – THE BEGINNINGS OF HUMAN SOCIETy:
BEGINNINGS TO 4000 B.C.E./B.C.
Explain the basic features and differences between hunter-gatherer societies and pastoral nomads. Analyze and
explain the geographic, environmental, biological, and cultural processes that infuenced the rise of the earliest human
communities, the migration and spread of people throughout the world, and the causes and consequences of the growth
of agriculture.
W1.1 Peopling of the Earth
Describe the spread of people in the Western Hemisphere in Era 1.
In the frst era of human history, people spread throughout the world. As communities of hunters, foragers,
or fshers, they adapted creatively and continually to a variety of contrasting, changing environments in the
Americas.
6 – W1.1.1 Describe the early migrations of people among Earth’s continents (including the Berringa Land
Bridge).
6 – W1.1.2 Examine the lives of hunting and gathering people during the earliest eras of human society
(tools and weapons, language, fre).
W1.2 Agricultural Revolution
Describe the Agricultural Revolution and explain why it is a turning point in history.
The Agricultural Revolution was a major turning point in history that resulted in people and civilizations
viewing and using the land in a systematic manner to grow food crops, raise animals, produce food surpluses,
and the development of sedentary settlement.
6 – W1.2.1 Describe the transition from hunter gatherers to sedentary agriculture (domestication of plants
and animals).
6 – W1.2.2 Describe the importance of the natural environment in the development of agricultural
settlements in different locations (e.g., available water for irrigation, adequate precipitation, and
suitable growing season).
6 – W1.2.3 Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution (stable food supply, surplus, population growth,
trade, division of labor, development of settlements).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
9 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
W2 WHG ERA 2 – EARLy CIVILIZATIONS AND CULTURES AND THE
EMERGENCE OF PASTORAL PEOPLES, 4000 TO 1000 B.C.E./B.C.
Describe and differentiate defning characteristics of early civilization and pastoral societies, where they emerged, and
how they spread.
W2.1 Early Civilizations and Early Pastoral Societies
Describe the characteristics of early Western Hemisphere civilizations and pastoral societies.
During this era early agrarian civilizations and pastoral societies emerged. Many of the world’s most fundamental
institutions, discoveries, inventions, and techniques appeared. Pastoral societies developed cultures that refected the
geography and resources that enabled them to inhabit the more challenging physical environments such as the tundra
and semi-arid regions of North and South America.
6 – W2.1.1 Explain how the environment favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural
ways of life in different parts of the Western Hemisphere.
6 – W2.1.2 Describe how the invention of agriculture led to the emergence of agrarian civilizations
(seasonal harvests, specialized crops, cultivation, and development of villages and towns).
6 – W2.1.3 Use multiple sources of evidence to describe how the culture of early peoples of North America
refected the geography and natural resources available (e.g., Inuit of the Arctic, Kwakiutl of the
Northwest Coast; Anasazi and Apache of the Southwest).
6 – W2.1.4 Use evidence to identify defning characteristics of early civilizations and early pastoral nomads
(government, language, religion, social structure, technology, and division of labor).
W3 WHG ERA 3 – CLASSICAL TRADITIONS AND MAjOR EMPIRES,
1000 B.C.E./B.C. TO 300 C.E./A.D.
(Note: Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies had their beginnings in Era 3 but became more prominent as civilizations in Era 4.)
Analyze the civilizations and empires that emerged during this era, noting their political, economic, and social systems,
and their changing interactions with the environment.
Analyze the innovations and social, political, and economic changes that occurred through the emergence of agrarian
societies of Mesoamerica and Andean South America and the subsequent urbanization and trading economies that
occurred in the region. (Grade 6)
W3.1 Classical Traditions and Major Empires in the Western Hemisphere
Describe empires and agrarian civilizations in Mesoamerica and South America.
Civilizations and empires that emerged during this era were noted for their political, economic and social
systems and their changing interactions with the environment and the agrarian civilizations that emerged in
Mesoamerica and South America.
6 – W3.1.1 Analyze the role of environment in the development of early empires, referencing both useful
environmental features and those that presented obstacles.
6 – W3.1.2 Explain the role of economics in shaping the development of early civilizations (trade routes and
their signifcance – Inca Road, supply and demand for products).
6 – W3.1.3 Describe similarities and difference among Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, including economy,
religion, and role and class structure.
6 – W3.1.4 Describe the regional struggles and changes in governmental systems among the Mayan, Aztec,
and Incan Empires.
6 – W3.1.5 Construct a timeline of main events on the origin and development of early and classic ancient
civilizations of the Western Hemisphere (Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Incan).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
0 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
GEOGRAPHy
G1 THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS: GEOGRAPHICAL HABITS OF MIND
Describe the relationships between people, places, and environments by using information that is in a geographic
(spatial) context. Engage in mapping and analyzing the information to explain the patterns and relationships they reveal
both between and among people, their cultures, and the natural environment. Identify and access information, evaluate
it using criteria based on concepts and themes, and use geography in problem solving and decision making. Explain
and use key conceptual devices (places and regions, spatial patterns and processes) that geographers use to organize
information and inform their study of the world.
G1.1 Spatial Thinking
Use maps and other geographic tools to acquire and process information from a spatial perspective.
Geographers use published maps, sketch (mental) maps, and other geographic representations, tools, and
technologies to acquire, organize, process, and report information from a spatial perspective. World maps
made for specifc purposes (population distribution, climate patterns, vegetation patterns) are used to
explain the importance of maps in presenting information that can be compared, contrasted, and examined
to answer the questions “Where is something located?” and “Why is it located there?” Students will begin
with global scale and then refocus the scale to study the region of the Western Hemisphere, and,
fnally, focus on a specifc place.
6 – G1.1.1 Describe how geographers use mapping to represent places and natural and human phenomena
in the world.
6 – G1.1.2 Draw a sketch map from memory of the Western Hemisphere showing the major regions
(Canada, United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, and Caribbean).
G1.2 Geographical Inquiry and Analysis
Use geographic inquiry and analysis to answer important questions about relationships between people, cultures, their
environment, and relations within the larger world context.
Geographers use information and skills to reach conclusions about signifcant questions regarding the relationships
between people, their cultures, the environments in which they live, and the relationships within the larger
world context. Students will reach their own conclusions using this information and make a reasoned
judgment about the most justifable conclusion based on the authenticity of the information, their skill at
critically analyzing the information, and presenting the results of the inquiry.
6 – G1.2.1 Locate the major landforms, rivers (Amazon, Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado), and climate regions
of the Western Hemisphere.
6 – G1.2.2 Explain why maps of the same place may vary, including cultural perspectives of the Earth and
new knowledge based on science and modern technology.
6 – G1.2.3 Use data to create thematic maps and graphs showing patterns of population, physical terrain,
rainfall, and vegetation, analyze the patterns and then propose two generalizations about the
location and density of the population.
6 – G1.2.4 Use observations from air photos, photographs (print and CD), flms (VCR and DVD) as the
basis for answering geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places
and regions.
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
1 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
6 – G1.2.5 Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS),
Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information and
process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns of the Western Hemisphere to answer
geographic questions.
6 – G1.2.6 Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic
information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering
geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the Western
Hemisphere.
G1.3 Geographical Understanding
Use geographic themes, knowledge about processes and concepts to study the Earth.
The nature and uses of geography as a discipline and the spatial perspective require that students observe,
interpret, assess, and apply geographic information and skills. The uses of the subject and content of geography
are essential in the development of geographical understanding. A spatial perspective enables student to observe,
describe, and analyze the organizations of people, places, and environments at different scales and is central to
geographic literacy.
6 – G1.3.1 Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction,
movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.
6 – G1.3.2 Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using
knowledge of spatial patterns.
6 – G1.3.3 Explain the different ways in which places are connected and how those connections
demonstrate interdependence and accessibility.
G2 PLACES AND REGIONS
Describe the cultural groups and diversities among people that are rooted in particular places and in human constructs
called regions. Analyze the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
G2.1 Physical Characteristics of Place
Describe the physical characteristics of places.
6 – G2.1.1 Describe the landform features and the climate of the region (within the Western or Eastern
Hemispheres) under study.
6 – G2.1.2 Account for topographic and human spatial patterns (where people live) associated with
tectonic plates such as volcanoes, earthquakes, settlements (Ring of Fire, recent volcanic and
seismic events, settlements in proximity to natural hazards in the Western Hemisphere) by using
information from GIS, remote sensing, and the World Wide Web.
G2.2 Human Characteristics of Place
Describe the human characteristics of places.
6 – G2.2.1 Describe the human characteristics of the region under study (including languages, religion,
economic system, governmental system, cultural traditions).
6 – G2.2.2 Explain that communities are affected positively or negatively by changes in technology
(e.g., Canada with regard to mining, forestry, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture,
snowmobiles, cell phones, air travel).
6 – G2.2.3 Analyze how culture and experience infuence people’s perception of places and regions
(e.g., the Caribbean Region that presently displays enduring impacts of different immigrant
groups – Africans, South Asians, Europeans – and the differing contemporary points of view
about the region displayed by islanders and tourists).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
G3 PHySICAL SySTEMS
Describe the physical processes that shape the Earth’s surface which, along with plants and animals, are the basis for
both sustaining and modifying ecosystems. Identify and analyze the patterns and characteristics of the major ecosystems
on Earth.
G3.1 Physical Processes
Describe the physical processes that shape the patterns of the Earth’s surface.
6 – G3.1.1 Construct and analyze climate graphs for two locations at different latitudes and elevations
in the region to answer geographic questions and make predictions based on patterns. (e.g.,
compare and contrast Buenos Aires and La Paz; Mexico City and Guatemala City; Edmonton and
Toronto).
G3.2 Ecosystems
Describe the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on the Earth’s surface.
6 – G3.2.1 Explain how and why ecosystems differ as a consequence of differences in latitude, elevation,
and human activities (e.g., South America’s location relative to the equator, effects of elevations on
temperature and growing season, proximity to bodies of water and the effects on temperature
and rainfall, effects of annual fooding on vegetation along river food plains such as the Amazon).
6 – G3.2.2 Identify ecosystems and explain why some are more attractive for humans to use than are
others (e.g., mid-latitude forest in North America, high latitude of Peru, tropical forests in
Honduras, fsh or marine vegetation in coastal zones).
G4 HUMAN SySTEMS
Explain that human activities may be seen on Earth’s surface.
Human systems include the way people divide the land, decide where to live, develop communities that are part of
the larger cultural mosaic, and engage in the cultural diffusion of ideas and products within and among groups.
G4.1 Cultural Mosaic
Describe the characteristics, distribution and complexity of Earth’s cultural mosaic.
6 – G4.1.1 Identify and explain examples of cultural diffusion within the Americas (e.g., baseball, soccer,
music, architecture, television, languages, health care, Internet, consumer brands, currency,
restaurants, international migration).
G4.2 Technology Patterns and Networks
Describe how technology creates patterns and networks that connect people, products, and ideas.
6 – G4.2.1 List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies used to move
people, products, and ideas throughout the world (e.g., call centers in the Eastern Hemisphere
that service the Western Hemisphere; the United States and Canada as hubs for the Internet;
transport of people and perishable products; and the spread of individuals’ ideas as voice and
image messages on electronic networks such as the Internet).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
G4.3 Patterns of Human Settlement
Describe patterns, processes, and functions of human settlement.
6 – G4.3.1 Identify places in the Western Hemisphere that have been modifed to be suitable for settlement
by describing the modifcations that were necessary (e.g., Vancouver in Canada; irrigated
agriculture; or clearing of forests for farmland).
6 – G4.3.2 Describe patterns of settlement by using historical and modern maps (e.g., coastal and river
cities and towns in the past and present, locations of megacities – modern cities over 5 million,
such as Mexico City, and patterns of agricultural settlements in South and North America).
G4.4 Forces of Cooperation and Confict
Explain how forces of confict and cooperation among people infuence the division of the Earth’s surface and its
resources.
6 – G4.4.1 Identify factors that contribute to confict and cooperation between and among cultural groups
(control/use of natural resources, power, wealth, and cultural diversity).
6 – G4.4.2 Describe the cultural clash of First Peoples, French and English in Canada long ago, and the
establishment of Nunavut in 1999.
G5 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETy
Explain that the physical environment is modifed by human activities, which are infuenced by the ways in which human
societies value and use Earth’s natural resources, and by Earth’s physical features and processes. Explain how human
action modifes the physical environment and how physical systems affect human systems.
G5.1 Humans and the Environment
Describe how human actions modify the environment.
6 – G5.1.1 Describe the environmental effects of human action on the atmosphere (air), biosphere (people,
animals, and plants), lithosphere (soil), and hydrosphere (water) (e.g., changes in the tropical
forest environments in Brazil, Peru, and Costa Rica).
6 – G5.1.2 Describe how variations in technology affect human modifcations of the landscape
(e.g., clearing forests for agricultural land in South America, fshing in the Grand Banks of the
Atlantic, expansion of cities in South America, hydroelectric developments in Canada, Brazil and
Chile, and mining the Kentucky and West Virginia).
6 – G5.1.3 Identify the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can
cause changes in other places (e.g., cutting forests in one region may result in river basin fooding
elsewhere; building a dam foods land upstream and may permit irrigation in another region).
G5.2 Physical and Human Systems
Describe how physical and human systems shape patterns on the Earth’s surface.
6– G5.2.1 Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment could have on human activities and
the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change (e.g., drought in northern Mexico,
disappearance of forest vegetation in the Amazon, natural hazards and disasters from volcanic
eruptions in Central America and the Caribbean and earthquakes in Mexico City and Colombia).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
G6 GLOBAL ISSUES PAST AND PRESENT (H1.4.3, G1.2.6)
Throughout the school year the students are introduced to topics that address global issues that integrate time and
place. Included are capstone projects that entail the investigation of historical and contemporary global issues that have
signifcance for the student and are clearly linked to the world outside the classroom. The topics and issues are developed
as capstone projects within units and at the end of the course. Regular experiences with those topics and issues are
necessary during each grade in order to build the background students will require to complete in-depth capstone
projects.
G6.1 Global Topic Investigation and Issue Analysis (P2)
Capstone projects require the student to use geography, history, economics, and government to inquire about
major contemporary and historical issues and events linked to the world outside the classroom. The core
disciplines are used to interpret the past and plan for the future. During the school year the students will
complete at least three capstone projects. (National Geography Standards 17 and 18, p. 179 and 181)
6 – G6.1.1 Contemporary Investigations – Conduct research on contemporary global topics and issues,
compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action. (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4)
Contemporary Investigation Topics
Global Climate Change – Investigate the impact of global climate change and describe the signifcance for
human/environment relationships.
Globalization – Investigate the signifcance of globalization and describe its impact on international economic
and political relationships.
Migration – Investigate issues arising from international movement of people and the economic, political, and
cultural consequences.
Human-Environmental Interactions – Investigate how policies from the past and their implemantation
have had positive or negative consequences for the environment in the future.
Natural Disasters – Investigate the signifcance of natural disasters and describe the effects on human and
physical systems, and the economy, and the responsibilities of government.
6 – G6.1.2 Investigations Designed for Ancient World History Eras – Conduct research on global
topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action.
(H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4)
Note: Additional global investigation topics have been identifed for connections to World
History Eras 1, 2, and 3 studies. Students investigate contemporary topics and issues that they
have studied in an ancient world history context. The investigations may be addressed at the
conclusion of each Era or may be included at the conclusion of the course.
Contemporary Investigation Topics – Related to Content in World History
and Contemporary Geography
WHG Era 1
Population Growth and Resources – Investigate how population growth affects resource availability.
Migration – Investigate the signifcance of migrations of peoples and the resulting benefts and challenges.
WHG Era 2
Sustainable Agriculture – Investigate the signifcance of sustainable agriculture and its role in helping societies
produce enough food for people.
WHG Era 3
Development – Investigate economic effects on development in a region and its ecosystems and societies.
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT
C1 PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT
Analyze how people identify, organize, and accomplish the purposes of government.
C1.1 Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government
Describe Civic Life, Politics, and Government and explain their relationships.
6 – C1.1.1 Analyze competing ideas about the purposes government should serve in a democracy and in a
dictatorship (e.g., protecting individual rights, promoting the common good, providing economic
security, molding the character of citizens, or promoting a particular religion).
C3 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
Describe the major activities of government, including making and enforcing laws, providing services and benefts to
individuals and groups, assigning individual and collective responsibilities, generating revenue, and providing national
security.
C3.6 Characteristics of Nation-States
Describe the characteristics of nation-states and how they may interact.
6 – C3.6.1 Defne the characteristics of a nation-state (a specifc territory, clearly defned boundaries,
citizens, and jurisdiction over people who reside there, laws, and government), and how
Western Hemisphere nations interact.
6 – C3.6.2 Compare and contrast a military dictatorship such as Cuba, a presidential system
of representative democracy such as the United States, and a parliamentary system of
representative democracy such as Canada.
C4 RELATIONSHIP OF UNITED STATES TO OTHER NATIONS
AND WORLD AFFAIRS
Explain that nations interact with one another through trade, diplomacy, treaties and agreements, humanitarian aid,
economic sanctions and incentives, and military force, and threat of force.
C4.3 Confict and Cooperation Between and Among Nations
Explain the various ways that nations interact both positively and negatively.
6 – C4.3.1 Explain the geopolitical relationships between countries (e.g., petroleum and arms purchases in
Venezuela and Ecuador; foreign aid for health care in Nicaragua).
6 – C4.3.2 Explain the challenges to governments and the cooperation needed to address international
issues in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., migration and human rights).
6 – C4.3.3 Give examples of how countries work together for mutual benefts through international
organizations (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of American
States (OAS), United Nations (UN)).
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
ECONOMICS
E1 THE MARKET ECONOMy
Describe the market economy in terms of the relevance of limited resources, how individuals and institutions make
and evaluate decisions, the role of incentives, how buyers and sellers interact to create markets, how markets allocate
resources, and the economic role of government in a market economy.
E1.1 Individual, Business, and Government Choices
Describe how individuals, businesses and government make economic decisions when confronting scarcity in the
market economy .
6 – E1.1.1 Explain how incentives vary in different economic systems (e.g. acquiring money, proft, goods,
wanting to avoid loss in position in society, job placement).
E2 THE NATIONAL ECONOMy
Use economic concepts, terminology, and data to identify and describe how a national economy functions and to study
the role of government as a provider of goods and services within a national economy.
E2.3 Role of Government
Describe how national governments make decisions that affect the national economy
6 – E2.3.1 Describe the impact of governmental policy (sanctions, tariffs, treaties) on that country and on
other countries that use its resources.
E3 INTERNATIONAL ECONOMy
Analyze reasons for individuals and businesses to specialize and trade, why individuals and businesses trade across
international borders, and the comparisons of the benefts and costs of specialization and the resulting trade for
consumers, producers, and governments.
E3.1 Economic Interdependence
Describe patterns and networks of economic interdependence, including trade.
6 – E3.1.1 Use charts and graphs to compare imports and exports of different countries in the Western
Hemisphere and propose generalizations about patterns of economic interdependence.
6 – E3.1.2 Diagram or map the movement of a consumer product from where it is manufactured to where
it is sold to demonstrate the fow of materials, labor, and capital (e.g., global supply chain for
computers, athletic shoes, and clothing).
6 – E3.1.3 Explain how communications innovations have affected economic interactions and where and
how people work (e.g., internet-based home offces, international work teams, international
companies).
E3.3 Economic Systems
Describe how societies organize to allocate resources to produce and distribute goods and services.
6 – E3.3.1 Explain and compare how economic systems (traditional, command, and market) answer four basic
questions: What should be produced? How will it be produced? How will it be distributed? Who will
receive the benefts of production? (e.g., compare United States and Cuba, or Venezuela and Jamaica.)
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
7 GRADES K-8 SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT EXPECTATIONS V. 12/07 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
PUBLIC DISCOURSE, DECISION MAKING, AND CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT (P3, P4)
P3.1 Identifying and Analyzing Issues, Decision Making, Persuasive Communication
About a Public Issue, and Citizen Involvement
6 – P3.1.1 Clearly state an issue as a question or public policy, trace the origins of an issue, analyze various
perspectives, and generate and evaluate alternative resolutions. Deeply examine policy issues
in group discussions and debates to make reasoned and informed decisions. Write persuasive/
argumentative essays expressing and justifying decisions on public policy issues. Plan and conduct
activities intended to advance views on matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate
effectiveness.
• Identify public policy issues related to global topics and issues studied.
• Clearly state the issue as a question of public policy orally or in written form.
• Use inquiry methods to acquire content knowledge and appropriate data about the issue.
• Identify the causes and consequences and analyze the impact, both positive and negative.
• Share and discuss fndings of research and issue analysis in group discussions and debates.
• Compose a persuasive essay justifying the position with a reasoned argument.
• Develop an action plan to address or inform others about the issue at the local to global
scales.
P4.2 Citizen Involvement
Act constructively to further the public good.
6 – P4.2.1 Demonstrate knowledge of how, when, and where individuals would plan and conduct
activities intended to advance views in matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate
effectiveness.
6 – P4.2.2 Engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem studied.
6 – P4.2.3 Participate in projects to help or inform others (e.g., service learning projects).

Social Studies Content Expectations Grade Six
A goal of No Child Left Behind is t hat schools will “ assist every
st udent in crossing t he digit al divide by ensuring t hat every st udent is
t echnologically lit erat e by t he t ime t he st udent finishes t he eight h grade,
regardless of t he st udent ’s race, et hnicit y, gender, family income,
geographic locat ion, or disabilit y.”
The Michigan Educat ional Technology St andards for St udent s ( METS- S)
are aligned wit h t he I nt ernat ional Societ y for Technology in Educat ion’s
( I STE) Nat ional Educat ional Technology St andards for St udent s ( NETS- S)
and t he Framework for 21st Cent ury Learning. The Michigan st andards ar e
int ended t o provide educat ors wit h a specific set of learning expect at ions
t hat can be used t o drive educat ional t echnology lit eracy assessment s.
These st andards are best delivered by aut hent ic inst ruct ion and assess-
ment wit h direct curricular t ies and it is int ended t hat t hese St andards will
be int egrat ed int o all cont ent areas. The preparat ion of our st udent s t o
t he successful in t he 21st Cent ury is t he responsibilit y of all educat ors.
Technology Literacy
Technology lit eracy is t he abilit y t o responsibly use appropriat e t echnology t o communicat e, solve problems, and
access, manage, int egrat e, evaluat e, and creat e informat ion t o improve learning in all subj ect areas and t o acquire
lifelong knowledge and skills in t he 21st cent ury.
2009 Michigan Educational Technology Standards for Students
Approved by the State Board of Education - October 2009

Grades 6-8
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
CAST ( t he Cent er for Applied Special Technology) offers t hree principles t o guide UDL: provide mult iple means of
represent at ion; provide mult iple means of expression; and provide mult iple means of engagement . CAST assert s
t hat “ These UDL Guidelines will assist curriculum developers ( t hese may include t eachers, publishers, and ot hers) in
designing flexible curricula t hat reduce barriers t o learning and provide robust learning support s t o meet t he needs of
all learners. ” Educat ional t echnologies can be valuable resources for educat ors in addressing t he UDL guidelines. For
addit ional informat ion on UDL, visit t he CAST websit e: www. cast .org.
State Board of Education
Kat hleen N. St raus, President
John C. Aust in, Vice President
Carolyn L. Curt in, Secret ary
Marianne Yar ed McGuire, Tr easur er
Nancy Danhof, NASBE Delegat e
Elizabet h W. Bauer
Reginald M. Turner
Casandra E. Ulbr ich
Jennifer M. Granholm Governor
Michael P. Flanagan, Super int endent
Page 1 of 2
Approved by the Michigan State Board of Education—October 2009 Page 2 of 3
6-8.CC.1. use digit al resources ( e. g. , discussion groups, blogs, podcast s, videoconferences, Moodle, Blackboard) t o
collaborat e wit h peers, expert s, and ot her audiences
6-8.CC.2. use collaborat ive digit al t ools t o explore common curriculum cont ent wit h learners from ot her cult ures
6-8.CC.3. ident ify effect ive uses of t echnology t o support communicat ion wit h peers, family, or school personnel
6- 8. CC. Communi cat i on and Col l abor at i on—By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
6-8.RI.1. use a variet y of digit al resources t o locat e informat ion
6-8.RI.2. evaluat e informat ion from online informat ion resources for accuracy and bias
6-8.RI.3. underst and t hat using informat ion from a single I nt ernet source might result in t he report ing of erroneous
fact s and t hat mult iple sources should always be researched
6-8.RI.4. ident ify t ypes of web sit es based on t heir domain names ( e. g. , edu, com, org, gov, net )
6-8.RI.5. employ dat a- collect ion t echnologies ( e. g. , probes, handheld devices, GPS units, geographic mapping systems) to
gather, view, and analyze the results for a content-related problem
6- 8.RI . Resear ch and I nf or mat i on Li t er acy —By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
6-8.CT.1. use dat abases or spreadsheet s t o make predict ions, develop st rat egies, and evaluat e decisions t o assist wit h
solving a problem
6-8.CT.2. evaluat e available digit al resources and select t he most appropriat e applicat ion t o accomplish a specific t ask
( e, g. , word processor, t able, out line, spreadsheet , present at ion program)
6-8.CT.3. gat her dat a, examine pat t erns, and apply informat ion for decision making using available digit al resources
6-8.CT.4. describe st rat egies for solving rout ine hardware and soft ware problems
6- 8.CT. Cr i t i cal Thi nk i ng, Pr obl em Sol vi ng, and Deci si on Mak i ng —By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
6-8.DC.1. provide accurat e cit at ions when referencing informat ion sources
6-8.DC.2. discuss issues relat ed t o accept able and responsible use of t echnology ( e. g. , privacy, securit y, copyright ,
plagiarism, viruses, file- sharing)
6-8.DC.3. discuss t he consequences relat ed t o unet hical use of informat ion and communicat ion t echnologies
6-8.DC.4. discuss possible societ al impact of t echnology in t he fut ure and reflect on t he import ance of t echnology in
t he past
6-8.DC.5. creat e media- rich present at ions on t he appropriat e and et hical use of digit al t ools and resources
6-8.DC.6. discuss t he long t erm ramificat ions ( digit al foot print ) of part icipat ing in quest ionable online act ivit ies ( e. g. ,
post ing phot os of risqué poses or underage drinking, making t hreat s t o ot hers)
6-8.DC.7. describe t he pot ent ial risks and danger s associat ed wit h online communicat ions
6- 8. DC. Di gi t al Ci t i zenshi p—By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
2009 Mi chi gan Educat i onal Technol ogy St andar ds—Gr ades 6- 8
6-8.CI.1. apply common soft ware feat ures ( e. g. , spellchecker, t hesaurus, formulas, chart s, graphics, sounds) t o en-
hance communicat ion wit h an audience and t o support creat ivit y
6-8.CI.2. creat e an original proj ect ( e. g. , present at ion, web page, newslet t er, informat ion brochure) using a variet y of
media ( e. g. , animat ions, graphs, chart s, audio, graphics, video) t o present cont ent informat ion t o an audience
6-8.CI.3. illust rat e a cont ent - relat ed concept using a model, simulat ion, or concept - mapping soft ware
6- 8.CI . Cr eat i vi t y and I nnovat i on—By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
6-8.TC.1. ident ify file format s for a variet y of applicat ions ( e. g. , doc, xls, pdf, t xt , j pg, mp3)
6-8.TC.2. use a variet y of t echnology t ools ( e. g. , dict ionary, t hesaurus, grammar- checker, calculat or) t o maximize t he
accuracy of t echnology- produced mat erials
6-8.TC.3. perform queries on exist ing dat abases
6-8.TC.4. know how t o creat e and use various funct ions available in a dat abase ( e. g. , filt ering, sort ing, chart s)
6-8.TC.5. ident ify a variet y of informat ion st orage devices ( e. g. , CDs, DVDs, flash drives, SD cards) and provide rat ion-
ales for using a cert ain device for a specific purpose
6-8.TC.6. use accurat e t echnology t erminology
6-8.TC.7. use t echnology t o ident ify and explore various occupat ions or careers, especially t hose relat ed t o science,
t echnology, engineering, and mat hemat ics
6-8.TC.8. discuss possible uses of t echnology t o support personal pursuit s and lifelong learning
6-8.TC.9. underst and and discuss how assist ive t echnologies can benefit all individuals
6-8.TC.10. discuss securit y issues relat ed t o e- commerce

6- 8.TC. Technol ogy Oper at i ons and Concept s—By t he end of grade 8 each st udent will:
Approved by the Michigan State Board of Education—October 2009 Page 3 of 3
2009 Mi chi gan Educat i onal Technol ogy St andar ds—Gr ades 6- 8
For additional information and resources relating to the 2009 METS-S, please visit: http://www.techplan.org/METS

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