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Control

CH-506

zahoor@neduet.edu.pk

Course Grades

Total Marks 100 (60 Final+40 sessional)

Assessment of Sessional Marks

Class performance 05

Homework assignments 05

Mid-term 20

Presentations/Viva 10

Course Outline

1. Introduction to Process Control.

2. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes.

3. Laplace Transforms.

4. The Transfer Function.

5. Dynamic Behavior of the Processes.

6. Feedback Controllers.

7. Closed-loop Control Systems.

– Dynamic Behavior.

– Stability.

8. Types of Controllers

9. Feedback Control, Feed Forward Control, Cascade Control

and multivariable Control systems.

10. Process Identification and Controller Design.

References

• References

– Seborg D. E., T. F. Edgar, and D. A. Mellichamp,

“Process Dynamics and Control,”John Wiley &

Sons, New York, 1989

– Stephanopoulos G., “Chemical Process Control-

An Introduction to Theory and

Practice,”Prentice -Hall, New Jersey, 1984.

– Luyben W. L., “Process Modeling, Simulation

and Control for Chemical Engineers,” McGraw-

Hill, New York, 2nd Ed., 1990

Introduction to Process Control

The continuous change of measurements in a

chemical process leads to the conclusion that

processes are dynamic.

Process dynamics refer to an unsteady-state or

transient behavior.

Steady-state vs. unsteady-state behavior

Steady state: variables do not change with time.

Only with an understanding of transient behavior of

physical systems can an engineer design good

processes.

Introduction to Process Control

This is exactly what process control does: it provides the

expertise needed to design plants that function well in a

dynamic environment.

Examples:

Continuous processes with examples of transient

behavior:

i. Start up & shutdown

ii. Major disturbance: e.g., refinery during stormy or

hurricane conditions

i. Equipment or instrument failure (e.g., pump failure)

ii. Batch Processes- Batch reactor

i. Composition changes with time

Control

• The following definition of control will be used

in this course:

physical system by adjusting selected

variables in the system.

What does a control system do?

As an example, consider the heating system of a

house.

We need to maintain the house temperature at a certain

point.

This is done by circulating hot water through a heat

exchanger.

The temperature is determined by a thermostat that

compares the value of the room temperature to a desired

range.

If the temperature is in the desired range, the pump halts

water circulation.

The temperature can exceed the limits, because the furnace

and heat exchanger cannot respond immediately.

Common features in process control cases

There is always a specific value (or range) as a desired value

(referred to as set point) for the controlled variable.

The conditions of the system are measured; that is, all control

systems use sensors to measure the physical variables that are to be

maintained near the desired values.

desired values to determine the correction to the process operation.

item of equipment in the system, which is termed the final control

element.

Some more definitions

Input

In Process Control, input denotes the effect of the

surroundings on the chemical or biochemical

process.

Output:

It denotes the effect of the process on the

surroundings.

Example

• In the heated room example, what are:

– The Input variable

– The Output variable

Important terms

• Controlled variable: it is the variable that needs to

be maintained or controlled at some desired value

or range. Sometimes also referred to as process

variable.

• Set Point: it is the desired value of the controlled

variable. Thus the job of a control system is to

maintain the controlled variable at its set point.

• Manipulated variable: is the variable used to

maintain the controlled variable at its set point.

• Disturbance: any variable that causes the

controlled variable to deviate from its set point.

Also referred to as upset.

Example

• In the room heating example, what

are the:

–Controlled variable

–Manipulated variable

–Possible Disturbance variable(s)

Introduction to Process Control

• ‘Process Control’ makes processes satisfy

following requirements.

– Safety

– Production specifications

– Environmental regulations

– Operational constraints

– Economics

known(Process Modeling & Identification).

Example

EX 1. Continuous stirred-tank heater

Question ; Assume that inlet temperature Ti changes with

time. How can we ensure that T remains at or near the set

point Ts?

• Possible Strategies

1. Measure T and adjust Q .

2. Measure Ti and adjust Q.

3. Measure T and adjust w.

4. Measure Ti and adjust w.

5. Measure T and Ti and adjust Q.

6. Measure T and Ti and adjust w.

7. Place a heat exchanger on the inlet stream.

8. Use a large tank.

• Classification

1 & 3; Feedback control

2 & 4; Feedfoward control

5 & 6; Feedfoward-Feedback control

7 & 8; Design change

There are three classes of needs that

a control system is called on to satisfy

Suppressing the influence of

external disturbances

Ensuring the stability of a chemical

process

Optimizing the performance of a

chemical process.

Problem

Ts = Set Point/desired temperature.

T= Actual Temperature

Ɛ= Deviation

Ɛ= Ts-T

Feedback control system for the tank

heater system

Feed forward control system for the tank

heater system

Task-2

Liquid Level Control System

Liquid Level Control System

Ensure the stability of a Chemical Process

Process variable

Response of unstable systems

Controlling the operation of unstable reactor

CSTR with Cooling Jacket

Sometimes we would like to operate the CSTR at

the middle unstable steady state for the following

reasons:

The low temperature steady state point P1 causes

very low yields because the temperature T1 is

very low.

The high temperature steady state P3 may be very

high, causing unsafe conditions, destroying the

catalyst for a catalytic reactor, degrading the

product B.

Three steady states of a CSTR

Optimizing the performance of a

chemical process

Principal operational objectives

for a chemical plant

achieved

Satisfaction of a

product specification

more profitable

Optimizing the performance of a

chemical process

Optimizing the performance of a

chemical process

Batch reactor with two consecutive

reactions

Optimal profile of the steam flow rate for

the batch reactor

Classification of the variables in a

chemical process

The process variables can

be divided into two groups

Input Denote the effect of

Variables surrounding on process

Variables on surrounding

Input & Output Variables

Output variables: cA, Tco, F, Fc, T

The input variables can be

divided into two groups

Manipulated If their values can be

Variables adjusted freely by operator

result of adjustment by the

operator

The output variables can also

be divided into two groups

Measured If their values are known

output Variables directly by measuring them

output Variables measured directly

Measured & Unmeasured output variables

Comes from upstream unit

over which we have no

control

Disturbance

Measured output

variables ???

controlled by control valve is controlled by control valve

then Fc is manipulated then F is manipulated

variable variable

Input and Output variables around a

chemical process

Distillate composition control system

Feed back system for the distillate composition

control of a simple distillation column

Feed forward system for the distillate composition

control of a simple distillation column

Inferential control system for the distillate

composition control of a simple distillation column

Select the control configuration

For example:

To control the liquid level in the tank

Feedback control configuration can be used OR

Feed forward control configuration can also be

used.

Liquid level control systems

Manipulated variable: F

Liquid level control systems

different manipulated variables

Manipulated variable: Fi

SISO AND MIMO systems

Control Configurations

control configuration:

Feedback control configuration.

Feed Forward control

configuration.

Inferential control configuration.

Feedback control configuration

It uses direct measurements of the

controlled variables to adjust the

values of the manipulated variables.

The objective is to keep the

controlled variables at desired levels

(set points).

General structure of Feedback

control configuration

Feed forward control configuration

It uses direct measurements of the

disturbances to adjust the values of

the manipulated variables. The

objective is to keep the controlled

variables at desired levels (set

points).

General structure of Feed

forward control configuration

Inferential control configuration

It uses secondary measurements

(because the controlled variables

cannot be measured)to adjust the

values of the manipulated variables.

The objective is to keep the

(unmeasured) controlled variables

at desired levels (set points).

General structure of Inferential

control configuration

Example:

Example:

HARDWARE FOR PROCESS CONTROL

SYSTEM

Measuring instruments.

Transducers.

Transmission lines.

Self study

Controllers.

Final control element.

Recording elements.

HARDWARE ELEMENTS FOR THE FEEDBACK

CONTROL SYSTEM OF STIRRED TANK HEATER

TYPICAL DDR CONFIGURATION

STRUCTURE OF SUPERVISORY

CONTROL SYSTEM

Few more examples

A Blending Process

A simple blending process is used to introduce some

important issues in control system design. Blending

operations are commonly used in many industries to ensure

that final products meet customer specifications.

A continuous, stirred-tank blending system is shown in Fig.

The control objective is to blend the two inlet streams to

produce an outlet stream that has the desired composition.

Stream 1 is a mixture of two chemical species, A and B. We

assume that its mass flow rate w1 is constant, but the mass

fraction of A, X1, varies with time. Stream 2 consists of pure A

and thus X2 = 1. The mass flow rate of Stream 2, w2, can be

manipulated using a control valve.

The mass fraction of A in the exit stream is denoted by x and

the desired value (set point) by Xsp. Thus for this control

problem, the controlled variable is x, the manipulated

variable is w2, and the disturbance variable is X1.

Control Question. Suppose that inlet concentration

X1 varies with time. How can we ensure that the outlet

composition x remains at or near its desired value,

Xsp?

Design Question. If the nominal value of x1 is :,

what nominal flow rate is required to produce the

desired outlet concentration, Xsp?

Stirred Tank Blending System

Blending System and Control Method 1

Blending System and Control Method 2

Feedforward control has three significant disadvantages:

(i) the disturbance variable must be measured (or accurately

estimated),

(ii) no corrective action is taken for unmeasured disturbances, and

(iii) a process model is required. For example, the feedforward control

strategy for the blending system (Method 2) does not take any

corrective action for unmeasured w1 disturbances.

In principle, we could deal with this situation by measuring both X1

and w1 and then adjusting w2 accordingly. However, in industrial

applications it is generally uneconomical to attempt to measure all

potential disturbances. A more practical approach is to use a

combined feedforward-feedback control system, in which feedback

control provides corrective action for unmeasured disturbances, while

feedforward control reacts to eliminate measured disturbances before

the controlled variable is upset. Consequently, in industrial

applications feedforward control is normally used in combination

with feedback control.

Example : A typical control scheme for an entire simple

chemical plant. Figure gives a simple schematic sketch of the

process configuration and its control system. Two liquid

feeds are pumped into a reactor in which they react to form

products. The reaction is exothermic, and therefore heat

must be removed from the reactor. This is accomplished by

adding cooling water to a jacket surrounding the reactor.

Reactor effluent is pumped through a preheater into a

distillation column that splits it into two product streams

Fluid mechanics. Pump heads, rates, and power; piping sizes;

column tray layout and sizing; heat-exchanger tube and shell

side baffling and sizing

Heat transfer. Reactor heat removal; preheater, reboiler, and

condenser heat transfer areas; temperature levels of steam

and cooling water

Chemical kinetics. Reactor size and operating conditions

(temperature, pressure, catalyst, etc.)

Thermodynamics and mass transfer. Operating pressure,

number of plates and reflux ratio in the distillation column;

temperature profile in the column; equilibrium conditions in

the reactor

DEVELOPMENT OF

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

To investigate how the behavior of a

chemical process (outputs) changes with

time under the influence of changes in

the external disturbances and

manipulated variables and consequently

design an appropriate controller, we can

use two approaches:

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

THEORITAL APPROACH

WHY DO WE NEED MATHEMATICAL

MODELING FOR PROCESS CONTROL

We cannot experiment to determine how

the process reacts to various inputs and

therefore we cannot design the

appropriate control system.

If the process equipment is available for

experiment, the procedure is very costly.

Therefore we need a simple description of

how the process reacts to various inputs ,

and this is what the mathematical models

can provide to the control designer.

DESIGN OF A FEED FORWARD

CONTROL CONFIGURATION

DESIGN OF A FEED FORWARD

CONTROL CONFIGURATION

A Systematic Approach for Developing

Dynamic Models

1. State the modeling objectives and the end use of the model. Then

determine the required levels of model detail and model accuracy.

2. Draw a schematic diagram of the process and label all process

variables.

3. List all of the assumptions involved in developing the model. The

model should be no more complicated than necessary to meet the

modeling objectives.

4. Determine whether variations of process variables are important. If

so, a partial differential equation model will be required.

5. Write appropriate conservation equations (mass, component,

energy, and so forth).

6. Introduce equilibrium relations and other algebraic equations (from

thermodynamics, transport phenomena, chemical kinetics, equipment

geometry, etc.).

A Systematic Approach for Developing

Dynamic Models

7. Perform a degrees of freedom analysis to ensure that the model

equations can be solved.

8. Simplify the model. It is often possible to arrange the equations so

that the output variables appear on the left side and the input

variables appear on the right side. This model form is convenient for

computer simulation and subsequent analysis.

9. Classify inputs as disturbance variables or as manipulated

variables.

STATE VARIABLES AND STATE

EQUATIONS

In chemical engineering there are three

fundamental quantities

MASS

ENERGY

MOMENTUM

Some time it is difficult to measure these

quantities directly, in this case we select other

variables that can be measured easily. When

these variables are grouped together

appropriately, it give the values of

fundamental variables.

STATE VARIABLES AND STATE

EQUATIONS

Dead Time

Process with Dead Time

Example: Resource allocation in computing

Example:

Example: Mathematical model of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

Input- Output Model:

Example: Input-Output Model for a Stirred

Tank Heater

Degrees of Freedom

Digital simulation is a powerful tool for solving the equations

describing chemical engineering systems.

The principal difficulties are two:

(1) solution of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations (usually

done by some iterative method), and

(2) numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (using

discrete finite difference equations to approximate continuous

differential equations)

ITERATIVE CONVERGENCE METHODS

One of the most common problems in digital simulation is the solution

of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations. If these equations

contain transcendental functions, analytical solutions are impossible.

Therefore, an iterative trial-and error procedure of some sort must be

devised. If there is only one unknown, a value for the solution is

guessed. It is plugged into the equation or equations to see if it satisfies

them. If not, a new guess is made and the whole process is repeated

until the iteration converges (we hope) to the right value.

The key problem is to find a method for making the new guess that

converges rapidly to the correct answer. There are lots of techniques.

Unfortunately there is no best method for all equations. Some methods

that converge very rapidly for some equations will diverge for other

equations; i.e., the series of new guesses will oscillate around the

correct solution with ever-increasing deviations.

Linearization of system with one variable

Deviation Variables

Example:

Linearization of system with many variables

Example:

Linearization of Nonlinear isothermal reactor

Example:

The end view of the tank

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

Laplace transforms

The Laplace transform is used to solve

linear or linearized differential

equations which results from the

mathematical modeling of chemical

processes

Definition of the Laplace transform

OR

of laplace transform

Laplace transformation is a

transformation of a function

from the time domain (where

time is independent variable)

to the s-domain. S is a variable

defined in the complex plane

(i.e., s= a + jb)

Laplace transforms of some simple functions

Ramp Function

STEP FUNCTION

Trigonometric functions

Euler’s Identity

Prove that

Translated functions

Example:

Flow an incompressible fluid through a pipe

Rectangular pulse function

The rectangular function

Final value theorem

Initial Value Theorem

Laplace Transform of various functions

Laplace Transform of Derivatives

Laplace Transform of Integrals

Example:

Example

Example:

Distinct real roots of polynomial P(s)

Solution of a set of linear differential equations

Transfer function of a stirred tank heater

Transfer function matrix of a process with

multiple outputs

Two Heated Tanks:

The two heated tank modeled was described by the two linear ODEs

Laplace transform gives

The two terms in the brackets represents the transfer functions of this

process.

The transfer function relating the controlled variable T2 to the

manipulated variable Q1 is defined as GM. The transfer function relating

the controlled variable T2 to the load disturbance To is defined as GL .

Both of these transfer functions are second order lags with time constants

of 1 minute and 5 minutes.

Transfer function matrix of a CSTR

Consider again the CSTR which is already discussed in previous

examples

In terms of deviation variable the equations can be written as

Poles and zeros of CSTR:

Poles and zeros of CSTR:

Qualitative analysis of response of a system:

Dynamic behavior of first order systems

Proportional Gain

Gain is a proportional value that shows the relationship between the

magnitude of the input to the magnitude of the output signal at steady

state. Many systems contain a method by which the gain can be altered,

providing more or less "power" to the system. However, increasing gain

or decreasing gain beyond a particular safety zone can cause the system

to become unstable.

Process modeled as first order systems

Pure Capacitive System

Dynamic response of a pure capacitive process

Dynamic response of a first order lag system

Effect of parameters on the response of

first order systems

Consider the tank, it possesses two parameters

Effect of Time Constant Effect of static gain on the response

of first order system

Tank system with variable time constant and gain

Dynamic response of second order system

Dimensionless response of second order system to step input change

Characteristics of an underdamped systems

Multicapacity process as second order systems

Non interacting capacities

Two Non-interacting material capacities in series

Interacting capacities

Dynamics of two interacting tanks

Dynamic behavior of higher order systems

N- Capacities in series

Dynamic systems with dead time

Dynamic behavior of inverse response

boiler system

Inverse response from two opposing First Order systems

Concept of Feedback control system

Feedback control systems

Types of feedback controllers

Proportional controller or (P controller)

Proportional Integral controller (PI controller)

Proportional-integral derivative controller or (PID controller)

Measuring devices

Flow sensors

Pressure actuated sensors

Temperature sensors

Composition analyzers

Transmission lines

Final Control elements

Dynamic behavior of feedback controlled processes

Block diagram and closed loop response

Closed loop response of a liquid level in the tank

Closed loop temperature response of a tank heater

Effect of proportional control on the response of a

controlled process

Effect of integral control action

Effect of Derivative control action

Effect of composite control action

Stability Analysis of a Feedback systems

Routh Hurwitz Criterion for stability

Control systems with multiple loops

Cascade Control

Schematic representation of Cascade Control

Cascade Control for various processes

Selective Control systems

Override Control

Examples of override control

Examples of Auctioneering control systems

Split-Range Control

Split Range Control of a Chemical Reactor

Feedforward control systems

Feedforward control of various processing unit

Ratio control

Adaptive Control system

Process control problems inevitably require on-line tuning

of the controller settings to achieve a satisfactory degree

of control.

If the process operating conditions or the environment

changes significantly, the controller may then have to be

retuned.

If these changes occur frequently, then adaptive control

techniques should be considered.

An adaptive control system is one in which the controller

parameters are adjusted automatically to compensate for

changing process conditions.

Many adaptive control techniques have been proposed for

situations where the process changes are largely unknown

or unpredictable

Examples of changing process conditions that may require

controller retuning or adaptive control are

1. Changes in equipment characteristics (e.g., heat

exchanger fouling, catalyst deactivation).

2. Unusual operational status, such as failures, startup,

and shutdown, or batch operations

3. Large, frequent disturbances (feed composition,

fuel quality, etc.)

4. Ambient variations (rain storms, daily cycles, etc.)

5. Changes in product specifications (grade changes)

or product flow rates

6. Inherent nonlinear behavior (e.g., the dependence

of chemical reaction rates on temperature

Adaptive control

In situations where the process changes can be anticipated

or measured directly and the process is reasonably

well understood, then the gain-scheduling approach or

programmed adaptation can be employed

Gain scheduling adaptive control

Programmed adaptive control of a combustion system

Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC)

Self Tuning Control

In self-tuning control, the parameters in the process model

are updated as new data are acquired (using on-line

estimation methods), and the control calculations are

based on the updated model.

For example, the controller settings could be expressed as

a function of the model parameters and the estimates of

these parameters updated on-line as process input/output

data are received.

Three sets of computations are employed:

estimation of the model parameters, calculation of the

controller settings, and implementation of the controller

output in a feedback loop.

Most realtime parameter estimation techniques require

that an external forcing signal occasionally be introduced

to allow accurate estimation of model parameters.

During each disturbance or set-point change, the process

response is compared to the predicted model response,

and then the model can be updated based on the

prediction error.

On-line parameter estimation can be problematic when

there is a high level of signal noise or unmeasured

disturbances (that are not included in the model).

The plant-model mismatch also present difficulties.

Limits can be placed on control parameter changes to

make the controller more robust.

One approach that deals with models changing with

varying operating conditions is multiple model adaptive

control where a set of models and corresponding

controllers is employed.

If disturbances are measured explicitly, it is possible to

update a disturbance model and implement adaptive

feedforward control.

Self-Tuning Regulator

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