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Advanced Process


Dr. Zahoor Ul Hussain
Course Grades
Total Marks 100 (60 Final+40 sessional)
Assessment of Sessional Marks
Class performance 05
Homework assignments 05
Mid-term 20
Presentations/Viva 10
Course Outline
1. Introduction to Process Control.
2. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes.
3. Laplace Transforms.
4. The Transfer Function.
5. Dynamic Behavior of the Processes.
6. Feedback Controllers.
7. Closed-loop Control Systems.
– Dynamic Behavior.
– Stability.
8. Types of Controllers
9. Feedback Control, Feed Forward Control, Cascade Control
and multivariable Control systems.
10. Process Identification and Controller Design.
• References
– Seborg D. E., T. F. Edgar, and D. A. Mellichamp,
“Process Dynamics and Control,”John Wiley &
Sons, New York, 1989
– Stephanopoulos G., “Chemical Process Control-
An Introduction to Theory and
Practice,”Prentice -Hall, New Jersey, 1984.
– Luyben W. L., “Process Modeling, Simulation
and Control for Chemical Engineers,” McGraw-
Hill, New York, 2nd Ed., 1990
Introduction to Process Control
The continuous change of measurements in a
chemical process leads to the conclusion that
processes are dynamic.
Process dynamics refer to an unsteady-state or
transient behavior.
Steady-state vs. unsteady-state behavior
Steady state: variables do not change with time.
Only with an understanding of transient behavior of
physical systems can an engineer design good
Introduction to Process Control
This is exactly what process control does: it provides the
expertise needed to design plants that function well in a
dynamic environment.
Continuous processes with examples of transient
i. Start up & shutdown
ii. Major disturbance: e.g., refinery during stormy or
hurricane conditions
i. Equipment or instrument failure (e.g., pump failure)
ii. Batch Processes- Batch reactor
i. Composition changes with time
• The following definition of control will be used
in this course:

–To maintain desired conditions in a

physical system by adjusting selected
variables in the system.
What does a control system do?
As an example, consider the heating system of a
 We need to maintain the house temperature at a certain
 This is done by circulating hot water through a heat
 The temperature is determined by a thermostat that
compares the value of the room temperature to a desired
 If the temperature is in the desired range, the pump halts
water circulation.
 The temperature can exceed the limits, because the furnace
and heat exchanger cannot respond immediately.
Common features in process control cases
 There is always a specific value (or range) as a desired value
(referred to as set point) for the controlled variable.

 The conditions of the system are measured; that is, all control
systems use sensors to measure the physical variables that are to be
maintained near the desired values.

 There is always a control calculation, which uses the measured and

desired values to determine the correction to the process operation.

 The results of this calculation are implemented by adjusting some

item of equipment in the system, which is termed the final control
Some more definitions
In Process Control, input denotes the effect of the
surroundings on the chemical or biochemical
It denotes the effect of the process on the

• Input variables cause the output variables

• In the heated room example, what are:
– The Input variable
– The Output variable
Important terms
• Controlled variable: it is the variable that needs to
be maintained or controlled at some desired value
or range. Sometimes also referred to as process
• Set Point: it is the desired value of the controlled
variable. Thus the job of a control system is to
maintain the controlled variable at its set point.
• Manipulated variable: is the variable used to
maintain the controlled variable at its set point.
• Disturbance: any variable that causes the
controlled variable to deviate from its set point.
Also referred to as upset.
• In the room heating example, what
are the:
–Controlled variable
–Manipulated variable
–Possible Disturbance variable(s)
Introduction to Process Control
• ‘Process Control’ makes processes satisfy
following requirements.
– Safety
– Production specifications
– Environmental regulations
– Operational constraints
– Economics

 Mathematical model of the process should be

known(Process Modeling & Identification).
EX 1. Continuous stirred-tank heater
Question ; Assume that inlet temperature Ti changes with
time. How can we ensure that T remains at or near the set
point Ts?

Figure 1.1. Continuous stirred-tank heater.

• Possible Strategies
1. Measure T and adjust Q .
2. Measure Ti and adjust Q.
3. Measure T and adjust w.
4. Measure Ti and adjust w.
5. Measure T and Ti and adjust Q.
6. Measure T and Ti and adjust w.
7. Place a heat exchanger on the inlet stream.
8. Use a large tank.
• Classification
1 & 3; Feedback control
2 & 4; Feedfoward control
5 & 6; Feedfoward-Feedback control
7 & 8; Design change
There are three classes of needs that
a control system is called on to satisfy
Suppressing the influence of
external disturbances
Ensuring the stability of a chemical
Optimizing the performance of a
chemical process.
Ts = Set Point/desired temperature.
T= Actual Temperature
Ɛ= Deviation
Ɛ= Ts-T
Feedback control system for the tank
heater system
Feed forward control system for the tank
heater system
Liquid Level Control System
Liquid Level Control System
Ensure the stability of a Chemical Process
Process variable

Some disturbance enters into the system at t= to

Response of a stable system

Response of unstable systems
Controlling the operation of unstable reactor
CSTR with Cooling Jacket
Sometimes we would like to operate the CSTR at
the middle unstable steady state for the following
 The low temperature steady state point P1 causes
very low yields because the temperature T1 is
very low.
 The high temperature steady state P3 may be very
high, causing unsafe conditions, destroying the
catalyst for a catalytic reactor, degrading the
product B.
Three steady states of a CSTR
Optimizing the performance of a
chemical process
Principal operational objectives
for a chemical plant

Safety Once these are

Satisfaction of a
product specification

Make the plant

more profitable
Optimizing the performance of a
chemical process
Optimizing the performance of a
chemical process
Batch reactor with two consecutive
Optimal profile of the steam flow rate for
the batch reactor
Classification of the variables in a
chemical process
The process variables can
be divided into two groups
Input Denote the effect of
Variables surrounding on process

output Denote the effect of process

Variables on surrounding
Input & Output Variables

Input variables: cAi, Ti, Fi, Fc, Tci

Output variables: cA, Tco, F, Fc, T
The input variables can be
divided into two groups
Manipulated If their values can be
Variables adjusted freely by operator

Disturbances If their values are not the

result of adjustment by the
The output variables can also
be divided into two groups
Measured If their values are known
output Variables directly by measuring them

Unmeasured If they are not/cannot be

output Variables measured directly
Measured & Unmeasured output variables
Comes from upstream unit
over which we have no

Measured output
variables ???

If coolant flow rate is If flow rate of effluent stream

controlled by control valve is controlled by control valve
then Fc is manipulated then F is manipulated
variable variable
Input and Output variables around a
chemical process
Distillate composition control system
Feed back system for the distillate composition
control of a simple distillation column
Feed forward system for the distillate composition
control of a simple distillation column
Inferential control system for the distillate
composition control of a simple distillation column
Select the control configuration

A system can have different control configuration

For example:
To control the liquid level in the tank
 Feedback control configuration can be used OR
 Feed forward control configuration can also be
Liquid level control systems

Manipulated variable: F
Liquid level control systems

Same information flows to two

different manipulated variables

Manipulated variable: Fi
Control Configurations

Generally there are three types of

control configuration:
 Feedback control configuration.
 Feed Forward control
 Inferential control configuration.
Feedback control configuration
It uses direct measurements of the
controlled variables to adjust the
values of the manipulated variables.
The objective is to keep the
controlled variables at desired levels
(set points).
General structure of Feedback
control configuration
Feed forward control configuration
It uses direct measurements of the
disturbances to adjust the values of
the manipulated variables. The
objective is to keep the controlled
variables at desired levels (set
General structure of Feed
forward control configuration
Inferential control configuration
It uses secondary measurements
(because the controlled variables
cannot be measured)to adjust the
values of the manipulated variables.
The objective is to keep the
(unmeasured) controlled variables
at desired levels (set points).
General structure of Inferential
control configuration
 Measuring instruments.
 Transducers.
 Transmission lines.
Self study
 Controllers.
 Final control element.
 Recording elements.
Few more examples
A Blending Process
A simple blending process is used to introduce some
important issues in control system design. Blending
operations are commonly used in many industries to ensure
that final products meet customer specifications.
A continuous, stirred-tank blending system is shown in Fig.
The control objective is to blend the two inlet streams to
produce an outlet stream that has the desired composition.
Stream 1 is a mixture of two chemical species, A and B. We
assume that its mass flow rate w1 is constant, but the mass
fraction of A, X1, varies with time. Stream 2 consists of pure A
and thus X2 = 1. The mass flow rate of Stream 2, w2, can be
manipulated using a control valve.
The mass fraction of A in the exit stream is denoted by x and
the desired value (set point) by Xsp. Thus for this control
problem, the controlled variable is x, the manipulated
variable is w2, and the disturbance variable is X1.
Control Question. Suppose that inlet concentration
X1 varies with time. How can we ensure that the outlet
composition x remains at or near its desired value,
Design Question. If the nominal value of x1 is :,
what nominal flow rate is required to produce the
desired outlet concentration, Xsp?
Stirred Tank Blending System
Blending System and Control Method 1
Blending System and Control Method 2
Feedforward control has three significant disadvantages:
(i) the disturbance variable must be measured (or accurately
(ii) no corrective action is taken for unmeasured disturbances, and
(iii) a process model is required. For example, the feedforward control
strategy for the blending system (Method 2) does not take any
corrective action for unmeasured w1 disturbances.
In principle, we could deal with this situation by measuring both X1
and w1 and then adjusting w2 accordingly. However, in industrial
applications it is generally uneconomical to attempt to measure all
potential disturbances. A more practical approach is to use a
combined feedforward-feedback control system, in which feedback
control provides corrective action for unmeasured disturbances, while
feedforward control reacts to eliminate measured disturbances before
the controlled variable is upset. Consequently, in industrial
applications feedforward control is normally used in combination
with feedback control.
Example : A typical control scheme for an entire simple
chemical plant. Figure gives a simple schematic sketch of the
process configuration and its control system. Two liquid
feeds are pumped into a reactor in which they react to form
products. The reaction is exothermic, and therefore heat
must be removed from the reactor. This is accomplished by
adding cooling water to a jacket surrounding the reactor.
Reactor effluent is pumped through a preheater into a
distillation column that splits it into two product streams
Fluid mechanics. Pump heads, rates, and power; piping sizes;
column tray layout and sizing; heat-exchanger tube and shell
side baffling and sizing
Heat transfer. Reactor heat removal; preheater, reboiler, and
condenser heat transfer areas; temperature levels of steam
and cooling water
Chemical kinetics. Reactor size and operating conditions
(temperature, pressure, catalyst, etc.)
Thermodynamics and mass transfer. Operating pressure,
number of plates and reflux ratio in the distillation column;
temperature profile in the column; equilibrium conditions in
the reactor
To investigate how the behavior of a
chemical process (outputs) changes with
time under the influence of changes in
the external disturbances and
manipulated variables and consequently
design an appropriate controller, we can
use two approaches:
 We cannot experiment to determine how
the process reacts to various inputs and
therefore we cannot design the
appropriate control system.
 If the process equipment is available for
experiment, the procedure is very costly.
 Therefore we need a simple description of
how the process reacts to various inputs ,
and this is what the mathematical models
can provide to the control designer.
A Systematic Approach for Developing
Dynamic Models
1. State the modeling objectives and the end use of the model. Then
determine the required levels of model detail and model accuracy.
2. Draw a schematic diagram of the process and label all process
3. List all of the assumptions involved in developing the model. The
model should be no more complicated than necessary to meet the
modeling objectives.
4. Determine whether variations of process variables are important. If
so, a partial differential equation model will be required.
5. Write appropriate conservation equations (mass, component,
energy, and so forth).
6. Introduce equilibrium relations and other algebraic equations (from
thermodynamics, transport phenomena, chemical kinetics, equipment
geometry, etc.).
A Systematic Approach for Developing
Dynamic Models
7. Perform a degrees of freedom analysis to ensure that the model
equations can be solved.
8. Simplify the model. It is often possible to arrange the equations so
that the output variables appear on the left side and the input
variables appear on the right side. This model form is convenient for
computer simulation and subsequent analysis.
9. Classify inputs as disturbance variables or as manipulated
In chemical engineering there are three
fundamental quantities
Some time it is difficult to measure these
quantities directly, in this case we select other
variables that can be measured easily. When
these variables are grouped together
appropriately, it give the values of
fundamental variables.
Dead Time
Process with Dead Time
Example: Resource allocation in computing
Example: Mathematical model of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor
Input- Output Model:
Example: Input-Output Model for a Stirred
Tank Heater
Degrees of Freedom
Digital simulation is a powerful tool for solving the equations
describing chemical engineering systems.
The principal difficulties are two:
(1) solution of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations (usually
done by some iterative method), and
(2) numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (using
discrete finite difference equations to approximate continuous
differential equations)
One of the most common problems in digital simulation is the solution
of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations. If these equations
contain transcendental functions, analytical solutions are impossible.
Therefore, an iterative trial-and error procedure of some sort must be
devised. If there is only one unknown, a value for the solution is
guessed. It is plugged into the equation or equations to see if it satisfies
them. If not, a new guess is made and the whole process is repeated
until the iteration converges (we hope) to the right value.
The key problem is to find a method for making the new guess that
converges rapidly to the correct answer. There are lots of techniques.
Unfortunately there is no best method for all equations. Some methods
that converge very rapidly for some equations will diverge for other
equations; i.e., the series of new guesses will oscillate around the
correct solution with ever-increasing deviations.
Linearization of system with one variable
Deviation Variables
Linearization of system with many variables
Linearization of Nonlinear isothermal reactor
The end view of the tank
Laplace transforms
The Laplace transform is used to solve
linear or linearized differential
equations which results from the
mathematical modeling of chemical
Definition of the Laplace transform


Where F(s) OR are the symbols

of laplace transform
Laplace transformation is a
transformation of a function
from the time domain (where
time is independent variable)
to the s-domain. S is a variable
defined in the complex plane
(i.e., s= a + jb)
Laplace transforms of some simple functions
Ramp Function
Trigonometric functions
Euler’s Identity

Prove that
Translated functions
Flow an incompressible fluid through a pipe
Rectangular pulse function
The rectangular function
Final value theorem
Initial Value Theorem
Laplace Transform of various functions
Laplace Transform of Derivatives
Laplace Transform of Integrals
Distinct real roots of polynomial P(s)
Solution of a set of linear differential equations
Transfer function of a stirred tank heater
Transfer function matrix of a process with
multiple outputs
Two Heated Tanks:
The two heated tank modeled was described by the two linear ODEs
Laplace transform gives
The two terms in the brackets represents the transfer functions of this
The transfer function relating the controlled variable T2 to the
manipulated variable Q1 is defined as GM. The transfer function relating
the controlled variable T2 to the load disturbance To is defined as GL .

Both of these transfer functions are second order lags with time constants
of 1 minute and 5 minutes.
Transfer function matrix of a CSTR
Consider again the CSTR which is already discussed in previous

Then the dynamic model of CSTR is reduced to

In terms of deviation variable the equations can be written as

After rearranging these equations

Poles and zeros of CSTR:
Poles and zeros of CSTR:
Qualitative analysis of response of a system:
Dynamic behavior of first order systems
Proportional Gain
Gain is a proportional value that shows the relationship between the
magnitude of the input to the magnitude of the output signal at steady
state. Many systems contain a method by which the gain can be altered,
providing more or less "power" to the system. However, increasing gain
or decreasing gain beyond a particular safety zone can cause the system
to become unstable.
Process modeled as first order systems
Pure Capacitive System
Dynamic response of a pure capacitive process
Dynamic response of a first order lag system
Effect of parameters on the response of
first order systems
Consider the tank, it possesses two parameters
Effect of Time Constant Effect of static gain on the response
of first order system
Tank system with variable time constant and gain
Dynamic response of second order system
Dimensionless response of second order system to step input change
Characteristics of an underdamped systems
Multicapacity process as second order systems
Non interacting capacities
Two Non-interacting material capacities in series
Interacting capacities
Dynamics of two interacting tanks
Dynamic behavior of higher order systems
N- Capacities in series
Dynamic systems with dead time
Dynamic behavior of inverse response

Inverse response of the liquid level in the

boiler system
Inverse response from two opposing First Order systems
Concept of Feedback control system
Feedback control systems
Types of feedback controllers
Proportional controller or (P controller)
Proportional Integral controller (PI controller)
Proportional-integral derivative controller or (PID controller)
Measuring devices
Flow sensors
Pressure actuated sensors
Temperature sensors
Composition analyzers
Transmission lines
Final Control elements
Dynamic behavior of feedback controlled processes
Block diagram and closed loop response
Closed loop response of a liquid level in the tank
Closed loop temperature response of a tank heater
Effect of proportional control on the response of a
controlled process
Effect of integral control action
Effect of Derivative control action
Effect of composite control action
Stability Analysis of a Feedback systems
Routh Hurwitz Criterion for stability
Control systems with multiple loops
Cascade Control

Example: Cascade Control for a jacketed CSTR

Schematic representation of Cascade Control
Cascade Control for various processes
Selective Control systems
Override Control
Examples of override control
Examples of Auctioneering control systems
Split-Range Control
Split Range Control of a Chemical Reactor
Feedforward control systems
Feedforward control of various processing unit
Ratio control
Adaptive Control system
 Process control problems inevitably require on-line tuning
of the controller settings to achieve a satisfactory degree
of control.
 If the process operating conditions or the environment
changes significantly, the controller may then have to be
 If these changes occur frequently, then adaptive control
techniques should be considered.
 An adaptive control system is one in which the controller
parameters are adjusted automatically to compensate for
changing process conditions.
 Many adaptive control techniques have been proposed for
situations where the process changes are largely unknown
or unpredictable
Examples of changing process conditions that may require
controller retuning or adaptive control are
1. Changes in equipment characteristics (e.g., heat
exchanger fouling, catalyst deactivation).
2. Unusual operational status, such as failures, startup,
and shutdown, or batch operations
3. Large, frequent disturbances (feed composition,
fuel quality, etc.)
4. Ambient variations (rain storms, daily cycles, etc.)
5. Changes in product specifications (grade changes)
or product flow rates
6. Inherent nonlinear behavior (e.g., the dependence
of chemical reaction rates on temperature
Adaptive control
In situations where the process changes can be anticipated
or measured directly and the process is reasonably
well understood, then the gain-scheduling approach or
programmed adaptation can be employed
Gain scheduling adaptive control
Programmed adaptive control of a combustion system
Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC)
Self Tuning Control
 In self-tuning control, the parameters in the process model
are updated as new data are acquired (using on-line
estimation methods), and the control calculations are
based on the updated model.
 For example, the controller settings could be expressed as
a function of the model parameters and the estimates of
these parameters updated on-line as process input/output
data are received.
Three sets of computations are employed:
 estimation of the model parameters, calculation of the
controller settings, and implementation of the controller
output in a feedback loop.
 Most realtime parameter estimation techniques require
that an external forcing signal occasionally be introduced
to allow accurate estimation of model parameters.
 During each disturbance or set-point change, the process
response is compared to the predicted model response,
and then the model can be updated based on the
prediction error.
 On-line parameter estimation can be problematic when
there is a high level of signal noise or unmeasured
disturbances (that are not included in the model).
 The plant-model mismatch also present difficulties.
 Limits can be placed on control parameter changes to
make the controller more robust.
 One approach that deals with models changing with
varying operating conditions is multiple model adaptive
control where a set of models and corresponding
controllers is employed.
 If disturbances are measured explicitly, it is possible to
update a disturbance model and implement adaptive
feedforward control.
Self-Tuning Regulator