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AIM

Be able to compare static and dynamic imbalance.


To gain insight into the causes of undesirable vibration of rotors and to understand static
and dynamic unbalance conditions of rotors.

Apparatus

Figure 01. Schematic of dynamic balancing apparatus

A : Safety acrylic cover


B : Weight piece
C : Circular rod
D : Belt pulley with belt
E : Spring damper
G : On/Off switch
H : Motor On/Off switch
I : Digital speed display meter
Theory

Many machines have large rotating parts. These rotating parts can create a problem. If they
are not well balanced centrifugal forces will create vibrations as the part rotates. Balancing
can be categorizing into two parts.
1. Static unbalance
2. Dynamic unbalance
When the Centre of gravity S is outside of the axis of rotation. The principle axis of inertia is
parallel to the axis of rotation. In this case only unbalanced forces are produced, but no
moments
If the Centre of gravity S is on the axis of rotation and the rotor does not exert any unbalance
forces. Also the masses are subjected to centrifugal forces when the shaft is rotating. Two
conditions must be satisfied if the shaft is not to vibrate as it rotates.
1. There must be no out of balance centrifugal force trying to deflect the
shaft
2. There must be no out of balance moment or couple trying to twist the
shaft
If these conditions are not fulfilled, the shaft is not dynamically balanced
An important assumption made by this technique is that the system follows linear
relationships i.e., the vibration amplitude is proportional to the force producing the vibration.
This assumption is reasonably valid. Most simple rotors/systems can be balanced by applying
this technique iteratively.
To determine the unbalanced, the rotor is first allowed to naturally come to rest. The
unbalance masses become positioned at the bottom. Then an external moment is applied to the
rope pulley and weight basket. Then the rotor turns through a certain angle ∝ into a new
equilibrium position.

Static unbalance can be calculated by way of equilibrium of moment.


∑𝑀 = 0 = 𝑚𝑘𝑔 𝑔𝑟 − 𝑚𝑈 𝑔𝑒 sin 𝛼

Where,
𝑚𝑘 = mass of the ball weight
𝑚𝑈 = mass of unbalance
r = radius of unbalance
e = eccentricity
α= angle of the deflection
U= unbalance
The mass of the unbalance and the eccentricity are combined to give the unbalance (U)
U=𝑚𝑈 𝑒
Therefore,
𝑚 𝑟
𝑈 = sin𝑘𝛼
Procedure

Experiment 1

Determination of unbalances (with adding masses)

 First, two large unbalanced masses were moved to the same angular position.
 Then, the small unbalanced masses were moved into opposing position to equalized
the effect.
 After that, driver belt was removed.
 Then, rope was attached with empty weight baskets.
 After that, we were waited until rotor came to the rest , at this moment angle scale
should be at 00 .
 Finally, weight balls were added to the basket until angle is min 300 − 400.

Experiment 2

The effect of static unbalance is to be illustrated

 Two small unbalance masses U1 were clamped to the ends of the shaft facing in the
same direction.
 After that, two unbalance masses U2 were pushed together in the center of the shaft
and clamp them facing in opposite direction.
 Then, position of the unbalance was read by using the angle scale without driver belt.
 After that, driver belt was fitted.
 Finally, motor was switched on and speed was roughly increased until 1000 min -1
Observation

Angle α 300

Mass of ball weights 𝑚𝑘 39g

Radius of pulley weights r 34.835mm

Table 01
CALCULATIONS

𝑚𝑘 𝑟
𝑈=
sin 𝛼
U= 39×10-3×34.835×10-3 kgm
Sin 30
U= 2.29911×10-3 kgm
Discussion

In rotating machinery is an intricate part in many mechanical systems. Many different


industries utilize rotating machinery. For example, oil refining, the aerospace industry, the
automotive industry, the cell phone industry, and the chemical production industry all use
rotating machinery in the form of engines, turbines, compressors, and pumps. The aerospace
industry in particular uses large turbines to create thrust for jet engines to propel aircraft.
Since the turbine rotates with such high RPM’s, the design of the turbine blade must be
statically and dynamically balanced to prevent unwanted vibrations. In pivoting apparatus,
vibrations are not invited. Vibrations can be dangerous and can cause a siphon or blower to
perform wastefully. In certain ventures, vibrations are needed.

A vibration is known as a mechanical phenomenon in which movement or oscillation occurs


around a certain equilibrium point. Vibrations are usually periodic oscillations of motion. The
reason vibrations occur is because weight is not symmetrically distributed around a rotating
part. This term also can be stated as unbalance. It causes centrifugal forces, vibrations and
noises during rotation, which become stronger and more uncomfortably noticeable at higher
speeds.

When repeating this practical, the unbalanced force which got form the calculations is
different. This can be happened due to the practical issues which affected during the
experiment. Factors which influence the experiment are accuracy, the way in which the
readings were taken, the balancing of the shafts and as well as the accuracy of the angles
measured. Also when taking the radius of the cable pulley the procedure was repeated for
several times for get mean value of the radius.so according to unbalance force equation, angle
and radius can cause a change in values. the better way is to get all the measurement by one
observer. Also during the second experiment which focusing on dynamic balancing, the mases
can be balanced at proper angle like 00 and 900.
In the second experiment, two unbalance masses were clamped to the ends of the shaft facing
in same direction. Secondly two unbalance masses were push together in the center of the
shaft and clamped them facing in opposite direction. We can clamped the completely
perpendicular to the base using triangular scalar. And we can them clamp perfectly places the
right angle in angular scale. We can observe the vibrations by clamping the rotating masses
step by step. After few steps the shaft will give the top speed with starting vibration.
Furthermore working on machinery with unbalance shaft will also cause an increase
maintenance cost since the machine will require repairs and will also result in the decrease in
machine life.
References

[1]Kapel.in, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://kapel.in/static-and-dynamic-balancing-apparatus.html. [Accessed:


23- Jun- 2019].

[2]S. Rattan, Theory of machines. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Education (India) Private, 2014.