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1.Spur gear & Helical gears: Cutaway model

Spur gear:
Spur gears are a type of cylindrical gear, with shafts that are parallel and
coplanar, and teeth that are straight and oriented parallel to the shafts. They’re
arguably the simplest and most common type of gear easy to manufacture and
suitable for a wide range of applications.The teeth of a spur gear have an
involute profile and mesh one tooth at a time. The involute form means that
spur gears only produce radial forces (no axial forces), but the method of tooth
meshing causes high stress on the gear teeth and high noise production.
Because of this, spur gears are typically used for lower speed applications,
although they can be used at almost any speed.

Figure 1: Spur Gear

 Straightforward design.
 They offer constant velocity ratio.
 Spur gears highly reliable
 Transmission efficiency is high than other gear system.
 They are compact and easy to install

 Limited center distance
 Gear teeth experience a large amount of stress
 Spur gears take significant stress
 They are extremely loud and concentrate stresses
 They cannot be used for long distance power transmission
 Spur gear drives are costly when compared to belt drives.

 Used in vehicle engines
 Material handling equipments
 Used in railway trains
 Mechanical clocks and watches
 Gear motors and gear pumps
 Metal cutting machines

Helical gears
Helical gears and spur gears are two of the most common gear types and can be
used in many of the same applications. Spur gears are simple and inexpensive
to manufacture, but helical gears offer some important advantages over spur
The teeth of a helical gear are set at an angle (relative to axis of the gear) and
take the shape of a helix. This allows the teeth to mesh gradually, starting as
point contact and developing into line contact as engagement progresses. One
of the most noticeable benefits of helical gears over spur gears is less noise,
especially at medium- to high-speeds. Also, with helical gears, multiple teeth
are always in mesh, which means less load on each individual tooth. This
results in a smoother transition of forces from one tooth to the next, so that
vibrations, shock loads, and wear are reduced

Figure 2 : Helical Gear

 Preferred for heavy load applications.
 Less noise
 Non parallel shaft can handle.
 Strength is higher than the spur gear.
 The main disadvantage of helical gear is that there is difficulty in
production due to its intricate teeth and maintaining constant helix angle
and pressure angle
 The helical gear efficiency is lower than the other gear systems.
 Higher manufacturing cost than the spur gear.
 Used in fertilizer industries and printing industries.
 Used in steel rolling mills.
 Used in textile industries,plastic industries.

Worm gear model

A worm gear is a gear consisting of a shaft with a spiral thread that engages
with and drives a toothed wheel. Worm gears are an old style of gear, and a
version of one of the six simple machines. Basically, a worm gear is a screw
butted up against what looks like a standard spur gear with slightly angled and
curved teeth. It changes the rotational movement by 90 degrees, and the plane
of movement also changes due to the position of the worm on the worm wheel.
They are typically comprised of a steel worm and a brass wheel.

Figure 3: Worm gear

 They can be used for reducing speed and increasing torque
 It has self locking it will restrict the reverse movement.
 Worm gear drives operate silently and smoothly
 Manufacturing cost Is high
 Worm and worm gear set will have heavy power losses.
 Cost of raw material to manufacture the worm gear is high.
 It has heavy power losses.
 If speed reduction ratio is large, worm teeth sliding action will
create lots of heat.
 Hoisting and lifting applications
 Gates and Conveyor Belts
 Tuning Instruments
How can make worm gear is reversible
To get reversible rotating motion it is necessary to connect ac motor to the
worm of the worm and worm gear system.

Planetary gear model

Planetary gear is a gear with the input shaft and the output shaft aligned. A
planetary gear is used to transfer the largest torque in the most compact form.
The planetary gear system consists of mainly three components:
 The sun gear
 The planet gear and the planet gear’s carrier
 The ring gear
Each of these three components can be the input, the output or can be held
stationery. Choosing which piece plays which role determines the gear ratio for
the greatest.
Figure 4: Planetary gear
 Power transmission efficiency will be quiet good.
 It has higher torque transmission capability and will have a lower inertia.
 Driven and driver equipment can arrange in same gear system.
 Longer gear life at similar loads
 Compact size and low weight – as much as 50% reduction with same
torque output.
 High power density – several planets share the load rather than one gear,
the more planets the more sharing.

 Cost of planetary gear system is higher than the normal gear system.
 Designing and manufacturing is very complex
 Gearing should be accurate.
 Noisier Operation – some planetary gearheads are noisy.
 Gearing must be accurate to assure load sharing
 High bearing loads can lead to early wear in dead stud or sleeve
bearing construction

 Automation assembly and automation system
 Used in clocks and toys
Continues variable transmission(CVT) model

Figure 5: Continues variable transmission

A continuous variable transmission, or CVT, is a type of automatic
transmission that provides more useable power, better fuel economy and a
smoother driving experience than a traditional automatic transmission.
 Compact design.
 Quick and better acceleration.
 Fuel efficiency.
 Smooth shifting
 Cost and maintains is hard
 Different driving experience.
 Not long lasting
 A high power/density belt
 A set of Cone pulleys.
 Hydraulic Actuator.
 Mechanical torque sensor.
 Microprocessor.
 Torque Converter or Multi-layered clutch (replacing conventional
1.Rattan, S. (2014). Theory of machines. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill Education
(India) Private.
[online] Available at:
[Accessed 26 Mar. 2019].