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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction

The genesis of learning dates back to many centuries. Informal


learning process is as old as the origin of mankind. The learning processes
through mere observations and practice have transitioned through
various stages. The teaching processes, learning methods and gainful
application of the knowledge imbibed have evolved over many
generations. The learning process in the education system has attained
more significance over the recent years. The awareness of the
psychological aspects of the learning process helps in more thorough
analysis of an education system.

Due to emphasis in identification of influencing variables in the


learning process, scientific analysis of the effect of each of such variables
on the learning process and application of the results inferred through
such studies have contributed in further refinement of the education
system, in general and learning processes, (Veena N and Shailaja Shastri,
2013 et. al)

According to Heffler (2001) “It is advantageous to know your


learning style when approaching a new learning situation to optimize the
outcome”, and added that awareness of learning styles of the students
support the teachers' efforts to organize the course content for better
learning to occur. (Cited in Pallapu 2008).

This current research study aims to investigate more about the


learning style preferences of the Bachelor of Secondary Education

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Science Majors of Basilan State College and relate it to the different
learning facilities and academic performances.

Theoretical Framework

This study will be anchored on the theoretical model of Flemming’s


“VARK Learning Style Theory (1987) and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory
(1974).

FLEMMING VARK LEARNING STYLE THEORY (1987)

Fleming’s “VARK Learning Style” is pertinent for understand learners


and investigating learning styles and determining how individuals learning
through modality preferences. Fleming came up with the idea for the
VARK Learning style while working as an inspector for the New Zealand
education system; he noticed that some great teachers were not
reaching some students while other poor teachers were. When he moved
to Lincoln University he decided to investigate why this was. He created
the VARK test based on prior experience and by working with students
and teachers at Lincoln University. Prior to Fleming’s work, VAK was in
common usage. Fleming split the visual dimension (the V in VAK) into two
parts- symbolic as Visual (V) and text as Read/write (R). This created a
fourth mode, Read/ write and brought about the word VARK for a new
concept, a learning-preferences approach, a questionnaire and support
material.

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Fleming’s also proposed the multimodality learners, who do not
show a defined preference or statistical score which is high above the
others. These learners possess the capability to access two or more
methods of learning. They may use on mode of learning in one situation
and another mode in a different situation. VARK above all is designed to
be a starting place for a conversation among teachers and learners
about learning. It can also be a catalyst for staff development thinking
about strategies for teaching different groups of learners can lead to
more, and appropriate, variety of learning and teaching.

KOLB'S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING THEORY (1974)

Kolb's experiential learning theory (1974) sets out four distinct


learning styles, which are based on a four-stage learning cycle. Kolb
explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different
learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style. For
example, social environment, educational experiences, or the basic
cognitive structure of the individual. Kolb determines the ability of an
individual that perceives knowledge based on experiences.

Thus, according to Fleming, learners are classified into four which


are visual, auditory, read/write learners, kinaesthetic and multimodality,
hence consecutively linked to Kolb’s experiential learning prior in
perceiving knowledge in order to engage in learning or to meet other life
demands.

This approach was appropriate to study on the learning style


preferences of Bachelor of Secondary Education Science Majors, to

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standardize their study habit in order to boost their academic
performance.

Conceptual Framework

In this study the demographic profile of the Bachelor of Secondary


Education Science Major students will serve as the independent variables
when data classified according to Gender, Age, and Year Level.

The dependent variable of this study, will be the learning style


preferences perceived by the Bachelor of Secondary Education Science
Majors students in terms of; Attitude towards learning and academic
performances.

The implication of this study is to standardize the study habit of the


science major student in promoting quality education through academic
performance.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE IMPLICATION


Bachelor of Secondary Learning Style To standardized the
Science Majors’ Profile Preferences study habit of the
science major student in
 Gender  Attitude of students in
 Age the availability of promoting quality
 Year Level instructional facilities education through
 Academic academic
Performances performance.

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Statement of the Problem

This study will be conducted to standardize the learning style


preferences of the bachelor of secondary education science major
students of Basilan State College. It leads to answer the following specific
questions:

1. What are the learning style preferences of secondary education


science major students when data classified according to;

a. Gender;

b. Age;

c. Year-level

2. What are the learning style preferences of secondary education


science major students in terms of;

a. Attitude of students in the availability of instructional facilities;

b. Academic Performance

3. Are there significant differences between the attitude of students in the


availability of instructional facilities and the academic performance if
classified according to age?

4. Are there significant differences between the attitude of students in the


availability of instructional facilities and academic performance if
classified according to gender?

5. Are there significant differences between the attitude of students in the


availability of instructional facilities and academic performance if
classified according to year level?

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Statement of Hypothesis

This study will be guided with a hypothesis that there are no


significant differences between the attitude of the Bachelor of Secondary
Education, Science Major students in the availability of instructional
facilities and the academic performance if classified according to age,
gender and year level.

Significance of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the learning style


preferences of the Bachelor of Secondary Education Science Major
students in Basilan State College. The findings of this study will benefit the
following stakeholders;

The School Administrator

The result of this study will provide insights, feedback and baseline
data to school administrators on the importance of the learning style
preferences and to know the needs of the students for quality education.

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The Teachers

This study will help the teaching-learning process of the teachers to


become more productive in providing an effective teaching strategies to
boost the learning style preferences of the science major students.

The Students

The result of this study will help the Bachelor of Secondary Education
Science major student in assessing their learning style preferences in their
academic course.

Scope and Delimitation

This study will regulate the learning preferences of the Bachelor of


Secondary Education Science Major students in Basilan State College.

A purposive sampling procedure will be employed in the selection


of the respondents of the study.

The subject of the study will be thirty six (36) science major students
across the year level of the College of Education in Basilan State College
except the second year level due to the decreasing number enrolees.

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Definition of Terms

Academic Performance- The student’s academic gain and learning


performance as a contingent to academic success.

Attitudes of Students- Student attitudes on learning determine their ability


and willingness to learn, as attitude can alter an individual’s education,
Guyana (2018).

Learner– Someone (especially a child) who learns (as from teacher) or


takes up knowledge or belief (Collins English Dictionary, 2014). In this study,
it refers to the Science Majors of the College of Education in Basilan State
College.

Learning Preference- refers to a person's characteristic patterns of


strengths, weaknesses and preferences in taking in, processing, and
retrieving information.

Learning Style– Is defined as the way in which each person begins to


concentrate on, process, internalize, and remember new and difficult
academic content. (Dunn et al. (2001).

Multimodal Learner- A learner that perceives knowledge in multiple ways


and different learning styles. Fleming and Mills (1992)

Science– It is a systematic and logical approach to discovering how


things in the universe work. It is also defined as the body of knowledge
accumulated through the discoveries about all things in the
universe.(Bradford, 2017).

Science Major- The student that took Science as his/her specialization for
career choice. In this study, it refers to the students on College of
Education in Basilan State College taking Science as their specialization.

Study Habit- The ability of an individual to perceive learning as a lifestyle.


(Olofu and Ebele, 2017)

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the review of related literature which guide


the construction of the conceptual framework, in directing the
hypotheses of the study and which will be useful in some of its findings.

Related Literature

Learning Style

Learning is a very complex process. One’s general ability, cognitive


process, emotions, motivation, developmental characteristics, readiness,
previous experiences, social environment, and the culture of his/her
community are variables that affect the process of learning. Affected by
so many factors, individuals have different learning processes.

Wyman (2006) defined learning styles as an individual’s different


way of receiving and processing information. If an individual knows his/her
learning style, one can upgrade the learning level to the maximum, which
can result in lifelong learning success. Wyman (2006) divided learning
styles into three categories: audio, visual, and kinaesthetic. According to
Wyman, if a student’s learning is identified and arrangements are made,
the student’s success can be enhanced. The most important thing while
making necessary adjustments is preparing the learning environment to
be suitable for each learning style.

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In a learning environment there are many stimuli created by the
teacher. A student collects the information and chooses from among
these stimuli. Additionally, every student might have different senses that
preferred to use. When one student tries to learn by listening to the
teacher, another might be interested in the behaviours of the teacher or
the script and pictures of the book open in front of him/her. Every student
has a different strategy of coding information to their long-term memory.
Some try to learn by giving meaning to them at once, whereas some try
to learn by repeating. Some students can remember what they learned
easily and quickly. Conversely, some have difficulty remembering and
organizing what they know. Some students like learning in groups, and
some might find it disturbing (Erden & Altun, 2006).

Learning differences have affected learning and teaching


processes, individualizing learning processes and taking these learning
differences into the centre of learning. Students have their own methods
of obtaining information and processing it: while some focus on data and
operations, others are better at theories and mathematical models. For
some, written and verbal explanations are more Eurasian Journal of
Educational Research 63 effective for others it can be visual elements like
drawings, shapes, and graphics. Some learners prefer interactive
environments, while others might prefer working individually. All of these
differences in learning preferences are signs of their different learning
styles (Felder, 1996).

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Dwyer (1996) emphasized that no matter the learning environment,
students’ learning styles should be taken into consideration while
designing the learning process.

The learning style of an individual not only shows how the learns but
also gives information about how to design a learning environment.
Although all the students in a class are at the same age, at the same
developmental phase, and offered mutual chances by the teacher,
different behaviours, learning styles, and achievements in a class can be
observed.

A learning style is not in itself an ability but rather a preferred way of


using one’s abilities (Sternberg 1994). Individuals have different learning
styles, that is, they differ in their ‘natural, habitual, and preferred way(s) of
absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills’ (Reid
1995: viii). Learning styles are typically bipolar entities (for example
reflective versus impulsive, random versus sequential), representing two
extremes of a wide continuum; however, where a learner falls on the
continuum is value neutral because each extreme has its own potential
advantages and disadvantages (Dörnyei 2005). Moreover, although
individuals may have some strong style preferences and tendencies,
learning styles are not fixed modes of behaviour, and, based on different
situations and tasks, styles can be extended and modified (Reid
1987; Oxford 2011). However, the extent to which individuals can extend
or shift their styles to suit a particular situation varies (Ehrman 1996).

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In general psychology, interest in learning styles goes back to at
least the 1920s when Carl Jung proposed the theory of psychological
types (Sternberg and Grigorenko 1997). In the field of education, the
learning style concept has been recognized since at least the mid-1970s
(Griffiths 2012).

Analysis of the various definitions concludes that every individual


has a unique learning style. Even though they are learning in the same
environment, for the same duration, and they are internalizing the same
facts and events, their approaches can be different. Although learning
styles are not permanent or fixed components, it takes time. Because of
this, it is easier and more effective to arrange the classroom environment,
learning materials, and learning styles related to the learning styles, rather
than expecting students to adapt to the existing system. Learning styles
play a vital role in an individual having an effective learning life. As a
result, it is a 64 necessity to design learning environments suitable for the
individuals (Hood, 1995).

The VARK MODEL

The acronym VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read/write, and


Kinesthetic sensory modalities that are used for learning information.
Fleming and Mills (1992) suggested four modalities that seemed to reflect
the experiences of the students and teachers.

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Visual Learning preference includes the depiction of information in
maps, spider diagrams, charts, graphs, flow charts, labelled diagrams,
and all the symbolic arrows, circles, hierarchies and other devices,that
people use to represent what could have been presented in words. This
mode could have been called Graphic (G) as that better explains what it
covers. It does NOT include still pictures or photographs of reality, movies,
videos or PowerPoint. It does include designs, whitespace, patterns,
shapes and the different formats that are used to highlight and convey
information. When a whiteboard is used to draw a diagram with
meaningful symbols for the relationship between different things that will
be helpful for those with a Visual preference. It must be more than mere
words in boxes that would be helpful to those who have a Read/write
preference.

Auditory perceptual mode describes a preference for information


that is “heard or spoken.” Learners who have this as their main preference
report that they learn best from lectures, group discussion, radio, email,
using mobile phones, speaking, web-chat and talking things through.
Email is included here because; although it is text and could be included
in the Read/write category (below), it is often written in chat-style with
abbreviations, colloquial terms, slang and non-formal language. The Aural
preference includes talking out loud as well as talking to oneself. Often
people with this preference want to sort things out by speaking first, rather
than sorting out their ideas and then speaking. They may say again what
has already been said, or ask an obvious and previously answered
question. They have needed to say it themselves and they learn through
saying it – their way.

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A Reading/Writing preference learning is in line for information
displayed as words. Not surprisingly, many teachers and students have a
strong preference for this mode. Being able to write well and read widely
are attributes sought by employers of graduates. This preference
emphasizes text-based input and output – reading and writing in all its
forms but especially manuals, reports, essays and assignments. People
who prefer this modality are often addicted to PowerPoint, the Internet,
lists, diaries, dictionaries, thesauri, quotations and words, words, words…
Note that most PowerPoint presentations and the Internet, GOOGLE and
Wikipedia are essentially suited to those with this preference as there is
seldom an auditory channel or a presentation that uses Visual symbols.

Kinaesthetic Learning refers to the “perceptual preference related


to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real).” Although such
an experience may invoke other modalities, the key is that people who
prefer this mode are connected to reality, “either through concrete
personal experiences, examples, practice or simulation” [See Fleming &
Mills, 1992, pp. 140-141]. It includes demonstrations, simulations, videos and
movies of “real” things, as well as case studies, practice and applications.
The key is the reality or concrete nature of the example. If it can be
grasped, held, tasted, or felt it will probably be included. People with this
as a strong preference learn from the experience of doing something and
they value their own background of experiences and less so, the
experiences of others. It is possible to write or speak kinaesthetically if the
topic is strongly based in reality. An assignment that requires the details of
who will do what and when is suited to those with this preference, as is a
case study or a working example of what is intended or proposed.

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MULTIMODAL

During the 1970s and 1980s, multimodality was further developed


through cognitive research about learning. Emphasize on the different
learning style that a specific learner is predetermined by the ways of
learning new knowledge. A study revealed that learners may exhibit three
or more learning style based on the VARK MODEL by Neil Fleming, as
resulted in the examination given to the Lincoln University.

KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING MODEL

According to David Kolb (1984) “Learning is the process whereby


knowledge is created through the transformation of experience”, Kolb's
experiential learning theory works on two levels: a four-stage cycle of
learning and four separate learning styles.

Much of Kolb’s theory is concerned with the learner’s internal


cognitive processes. Kolb states that learning involves the acquisition of
abstract concepts that can be applied flexibly in a range of situations. In
Kolb’s theory, the inputs for the development of new concepts are
provided by new experiences. Kolb explains that different people
naturally prefer a certain single different learning style. Various factors
influence a person's preferred style.

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STUDENTS ACADEMIC PEFORMANCE

Student’s academic gain and learning performance is affected by


numerous factor including gender, age, teaching faculty, students
schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area of
students, medium of instructions in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour
and accommodation as hostelries or day scholar. Many researchers
conducted detailed studies about the factors contributing student
performance at different study levels. Graetz (1995) suggested “A student
educational success contingent heavily on social status of student’s
parents/ guardians in the society. Considine and Zappala (2002) noticed
the same that parent’s income or social status positively affects the
student test score in examination. According to Minnesota (2007) “the
higher education performance is depending upon the academic
performance of graduate students. Durden and Ellis quoted Staffolani and
Bratti, (2002) observed that “the measurement of students previous
educational outcomes are the most important indicators of students
future achievement, this refers that as the higher previous appearance,
better the student’s academic performance in future endeavours.

A Lot of studies have been conducted in the area of students


achievement and these studies identify and analyse the number of
factors that affect the academic performance of the student at school,
college and even at university level. Their finding identify students’ effort,
previous schooling, parent’s educational background, family income, self-
motivation of students, age of student, learning preferences and entry
qualification of students as important factors that have effect on student’s

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academic performance in different setting. The utility of these studies lies
in the need to undertake corrective measures that improve the
academic performance of graduate students.

It is generally assumed that the students who showed better or


higher performance in the starting classes of their studies also performed
better in future academic years at degree level. Everyone can be
surprised with this assumption if it could be proved scientifically.

From the last two decades it has been noticed significantly that
there is great addition in research literature and review material relating
to indicators of academic achievement with much emphasis on this
dialogue, whether traditional achievement measures of academic
performance are best determinants of future academic gain at university
or higher level or innovative measures.

However, it is also observed that many of the researchers are not


agree with this view point or statement. Reddy and Talcott (2006) looks
disagree with these assumptions that future academic gains are resolute
by preceding performance.

STUDENTS ATTITUDE IN LEARNING

According to Guyana (2018) a student attitude on learning,


whether good or bad, affects their outlook toward learning throughout

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life. Their attitude towards learning affects not only the amount of
education they received but also their desire for education. A good
attitude in learning will ensure a positive outcome towards a systematize
knowledge, however changing the negative attitude towards learning is
a process that involves determining factors, driving the attitude and using
this information to bring about concrete change.

RELATED STUDIES

ON THE INTERGRATED AND COMPREHENSIVENESS OF LEARNING STYLE

Vermunt (1998) indicated four styles or forms of learning: learning


untargeted, directed towards reproduction, directed towards meaningful
and directed towards the application of knowledge. Rigorous studies
conducted by Vermunt et al. (1999-2004) over several years and on a
considerable number and variety of students indicated that learning styles
and strategies are sensitive to contextual and educational influences and
can be understood in the context of the development hypothesis
(Vermunt and Vermetten, 2004). Research on learning styles is prolific with
studies conducted by Dutch psychologist Vermunt. The author has
conducted the first studies in this area in the mid-80s. Vermunt (1998)
proposed a model of learning styles, based on modern views; the
constructivist model explicitly sought to provide a more comprehensive
and integrated learning. In his view, the characteristics of the learning
environment and learning experiences influence the development of
student learning styles. They interact with environmental conditions which
determine the selection of different approaches to learning by the
individual. These styles interact with stable environmental conditions

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leading to selection of specific approaches to individual learning
(Entwistle, 2000). As a result, approaches to learning can be considered a
bridge between learning environment and learning styles.

ON THE LEARNING STYLE IN THE VIEWS OF SOME PSYCHOLOGIST

In the past twenty years, the study on learning styles, both applied
and theoretical form, simultaneously sparked a strong interest, but also a
whole controversy of opinion among both academic experts and among
those who learn independently. Much of the research and practice went
forward "in the face of significant difficulties in the confusion of definitions
surrounding the conceptualization disturbing cognitive styles and learning
styles (Coffield et.al, 2004). The concept of "style" is introduced in
psychology by Adler (apud Kramar, 2001) in the phrase "life style", but the
question of style becomes a concern, especially in current scientific
psychology in the second half of the twentieth century. Currently, the
literature abounds with theoretical models and experimental studies
designed to lead to a better understanding of how strategies can be
deciphered and learning styles. The large number of models and theories
is justified, since the theoretical premises that generate their authors are
different. Moreover, a growing number of psychologists have embraced
the idea that learning styles have a substantial cognitive component, a
personal side, and a contextual one. The premise from which they started
is that the explanation of the student’s choice of a particular learning
strategy is at the intersection of two areas: the context and individual
peculiarities.

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A very important contribution to progress in knowledge of learning
styles have been brought by classified studies in cognitive and
constructivist paradigms. They have allowed the development of a highly
prolific line of research that led to a better understanding of this concept,
which led to the development and implementation of effective tools and
techniques of intellectual work. The two theoretical approaches Trying
to explain the cognitive learning process and to propose methods of
knowledge and skills training / skills. The cognitive paradigm researchers
are trying to extract regularities of functioning of various components of
cognitive-behavioral processes, generally valid for all individuals,
regardless of context. On the other hand, constructivists agree that the
subjective interpretation of the requirements of the task, quality content
and personal significance of context are factors that influence the quality
of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies involved in learning.

ON THE ISSUES AND SATISFACTORY ON LEARNING STYLE

As Coffield, Moseley, Hall and Ecclestone (2004) showed none of


the models considered is perfect or complete, each of them managed to
capture and shape the issues and less satisfactorily some others. Each
theory has its explanatory value, strengths and weaknesses, the images
offered as complementary. In order to provide explanations for learning
styles, which are known to be the result of several factors, should rather
specify how the constellation of relevant factors rather than to calculate
the percentage due to each factor individually, that however pales
before the assigned interaction of these factors. Among experts there is a
broad consensus concerning the association of self-regulation learning,

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with the power of individuals to learn independently and efficiently with
the maturity and efficiency attributes of cognitive, motivational, affective
and volitional, strategies and learning style. Although there are substantial
differences between the claims, methods and results of different studies,
all have in common a dichotomy between deep and superficial
approach to learning. The distinction between the two approaches is
obvious if we consider that each approach has a specific type of
motivation and a type of processing strategy. An important step in this
area is to introduce guidelines and learning concepts in the definition of
learning style. Thus, learning style is to organize and control strategies for
learning and knowledge acquisition, which are influenced by
conceptions of student learning. As a result, learning styles are flexible
structures and not immutable. Many theories of learning styles manage
each of them only partially explain this process, but no theory has
provided a system invulnerable to criticism. Building a learning theory
seems totally satisfactory but that is still an issue for the future. Coffield,
Moseley, Hall and Ecclestone (2004) consider that the issue of learning
styles, a simple task at first glance, is actually a complex and varied. At
the same time, the authors stress the importance of continuing research
on learning styles and support the theory formulated by Vermunt (1998).
This model enjoys a solid empirical support, is an integrative theory of
learning responsible for the current prospects and reserves can be
exploited without the student-centered education.

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SYNTHESIS

In terms of demographic factors that affect students’ learning styles


preference and their academic performance as well, the previous studies
somehow correlate one another. Such as of Graetz (1995) and, Considine
and Zappala (2002) that independently have their studies and suggest
that students’ academic success chief determine by the social and
economic status of the parents/guardian.

Some studies also suggest that students’ academic performance


couldn’t only be affected demographically but with other factors. For
instance Minnesota (2007) the state that the students’ education success
is related to the students’ educational background. In addition the idea is
agreed by Durden and Bratti (2002) and further examine and identify that
the higher previous academic appearance the better the student’s
academic performance in the future endeavour would be. Nevertheless,
the idea is disagreed by Reddy and Talcott (2006).

Meanwhile, Guyana (2018) considers also the attitude factor of


students and that it could affect the students” outlook towards learning
either in a positive or negative way through their life.

Finally, aside from the demographic and non-demographic factors


that are identified by the previous studies which affect the students’
academic performance, basically the current research will look into the
attitude of students towards the available instructional materials in terms
of their gender and age on the tertiary level of students.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research methodology which includes


the research design, the subject and respondents, validity and reliability,
research instrumental, gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of
data.

The research Design

This study aims to identify the learning style preferences, as perceive


by the Bachelor of Secondary Education Science Major student in Basilan
State College. This study will use the descriptive research design.

The Subject and Respondents of the Study

The subjects of study will be thirty six (36) students of Bachelor of


Secondary Education Science Major in all year level for the school year
2018-2019 except second year level due to decreasing number of
enrolees.

A purposive sampling will be employed in this study. Shown in Table


1 is the distribution of the respondents of the study according to the year
level.

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Table 1

The distribution of the Student-Respondents

Population

Year Level Gender Age Respondents

Male Female 17-20 21-24 25-28

First Year 5 12  17

Third Year 3 2 5


Fourth Year 6 8   14

The Research Instrumentation

A survey questionnaire will be conducted to identify the learning


style preferences of Bachelor of Secondary Education science major
students in Basilan State College

A two-part survey questionnaire will be used. One part will gather


information on the demographic profile of the students. This part two of
the questionnaire will determine the learning style preferences of the
Bachelor of Secondary Education Science Major students in terms of their
attitudes in the availability of instructional facilities and academic
performance.

The students will be asked to respond the enumerated items on a


five point Likert scale to assess the extent of the learning style preferences
of the Bachelor of Secondary Education science major students; the

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following rating scale will be used. Each item has five (5) alternative
responses, consisting of:

1= Strongly Disagree (SD)

2= Disagree (D)

3= Uncertain (U)

4= Agree (A)

5= Strongly Agree (SA)

In order to interpret the results, the following scale will be used:

1.00-1.80= Strongly Disagree (SD)

1.81-2.60= Disagree (D)

2.61-3.40= Uncertain (U)

3.41-4.20= Agree (A)

4.21-5.00= Strongly Agree (SA)

A weighed mean rating of equal to 1.00-1.80 means that the


learning style preference of the students is Strongly Disagreeable. A mean
rating 1.81-2.60 signify that the learning style preference of the students is
disagreeable. A mean rating of 2.61-3.40 implies that the learning style
preference of the students is Uncertain. A rating of 3.41-4.20 discloses that
the learning style preference of the students is Agreeable. A mean rating
of 4.21-5.00 implies that the learning style preference of the students is
Strongly Disagreeable.

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The Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

Gall et. al. (1996) defined validity as appropriateness,


meaningfulness and usefulness of specific inferences made from
instrument or procedure result. They added content validity as one of
procedures that exist for demonstrating the validity.

The validity of a survey instrument can be established by examining


the individual test items using the Cronbach’s Alpha (Gall et. al. 1996).
Cronbach’s Alpha is a model of internal consistency reliability which is
based on the average inter-item correlations.

In this study, learning style preferences of the students will be


considered in the assessment of their attitudes and academic
performance when classified according to their age, gender and year
level.

The instrument being used in this study will be adapted to evaluate


the preferred learning preferences is the Perceptual-Building Excellence
(PBE) Learning Style instrument questionnaire developed by Dunn and
Rundle et. al. (1996). Being so, its validity and reliability have been
established.

Data Gathering Procedure

Permission from the Dean of the College of Education will be


requested by the researcher to conduct this study. Granted the request,
the questionnaire will be administered to the respondents of the study.

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Statistical Treatment of Data

To determine the profile of the Bachelor of Secondary Education


Science Majors, the arithmetic Mean, Frequency, and percent will be
used.

To determine the degrees of the learning style preference of


Bachelor of Secondary Education Science Major Students, the weighed
Mean and ranking will be used.

To determine the significant differences in the degrees of the


learning style preferences of Bachelor of Secondary Education Science
Majors, classified according to Year Level, Gender, Age, the Mann
Whitney U Test will be used.

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